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1

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar...

1985-01-01

2

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1988-01-01

3

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1995-01-01

4

INNOVATIVE THERMAL DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten innovative technologies for thermally destroying hazardous wastes were selected and described in this paper. hese technologies were either supported by EPA's RCRA or SARA programs or developed by industry since 1980. wo of the important criteria used in selecting these techno...

5

Centaur Propellant Thermal Conditioning Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wicking investigation revealed that passive thermal conditioning was feasible and provided considerable weight advantage over active systems using throttled vent fluid in a Centaur D-1s launch vehicle. Experimental wicking correlations were obtained usi...

M. H. Blatt R. C. Erickson R. L. Pleasant

1976-01-01

6

Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment, ER-200314, by Jennifer Kingston, Paul Dahlen, and Paul Johnson (p5); Measuring and Modeling Thermal Treatment at Naval Air Warfare Ce...

2011-01-01

7

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar thermal systems providing medium- and high-temperature heat have a wide range of applications such as agricultural and industrial process heat, electric power generation, cogeneration, repowering of existing power plants, and production of fuels and...

1986-01-01

8

Solar thermal desalination technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solar energy in thermal desalination processes is one of the most promising applications of the renewable energies. Solar desalination can either be direct; use solar energy to produce distillate directly in the solar collector, or indirect; combining conventional desalination techniques, such as multistage flash desalination (MSF), vapor compression (VC), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis,

Hazim Mohameed Qiblawey; Fawzi Banat

2008-01-01

9

Technology of thermal hypervelocity launchers  

SciTech Connect

A new type of hypervelocity launcher is described, the Thermal Hypervelocity Launcher (THL). The THL uses stored thermal energy in a compact, lightweight particle bed heater to rapidly (milliseconds) heat a high pressure low molecular weight propellant (hydrogen or helium). The hot propellant then expands in a conventional barrel accelerating the projectile. The THL can achieve velocities up to -- 12 kn/sec. The technology of the THL is described, including experiments on thermal-hydraulics of particle bed heaters. An experiment to demonstrate THL operation with 100 gram projectiles at 3 km/sec is being attempted.

Powell, J.R.; Horn, F.L.; Benenati, R.; Lowrey, A.

1986-11-01

10

Thermal neutron analysis technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the application of thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to a variety of non-intrusive detection problems. TNA is based on the analysis of neutron capture gamma rays from particular elements which are indicative of the material of interest. TNA was developed for detection of concealed explosives in airline luggage during the late 1980s and is now being investigated and tested for new applications. These applications include detection of drugs in passenger luggage, detection of explosives and drugs in small packages, detection of liquid explosives in bottles, and detection of buried land mines and unexploded ordnance. For explosive, land mine and UXO detection, the TNA is based on the 10.8 MeV capture gamma ray from nitrogen, whose high density is uniquely characteristic of modern high explosives. For detection of drugs, the use of capture gamma ray signals from both hydrogen and chlorine (from hydrochloride drug salt) have been investigated, and a specific set of features based on these gamma ray signals selected for the detection algorithm. The research and test results of this wider application of TNA, carried out over the last year are described.

Brown, Douglas R.; Gozani, Tsahi

1997-02-01

11

European uncooled thermal imaging technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread requirement for low cost lightweight thermal imaging sensors for both military and civilian applications. In Europe, these requirements are now being met by systems using large uncooled ferroelectric detector arrays offering performance levels which, until recently, could only be achieved by expensive cryogenically cooled systems. The uncooled technology is the result of collaboration between the UK Defence

Robert K. McEwen

1997-01-01

12

Overview of Thermal Desorption Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a summary and extension of the presentation on thermal desorption that formed a part of the 'Remediation Innovative Technology Seminar' presented by NFESC earlier this year. The presentation was intended primarily to benefit U.S. Naval fiel...

R. J. Feeney P. J. Nicotri D. S. Janke

1998-01-01

13

Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

A. Suer

1996-01-01

14

Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

Suer, A.

1996-02-28

15

Advances in solar thermal electricity technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various advanced solar thermal electricity technologies are reviewed with an emphasis on new technology and new market approaches.In single-axis tracking technology, the conventional parabolic trough collector is the mainstream established technology and is under continued development but is soon to face competition from two linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) technologies, the CLFR and Solarmundo. A Solarmundo prototype has been built in

D. Mills

2004-01-01

16

Evaluation and visualisation of perceived thermal conditions.  

PubMed

Investigations have been made on ways to evaluate and visualise the perceived thermal climate. Thermal interaction with windows, heating, ventilation and seating influence the occupant's thermal situation. When this information on the physical thermal climate is linked together with human thermal sensation in "comfort-zone diagrams", valuable knowledge about the thermal situation can be visualised. Thermal manikin measurements of local climate disturbances with two different thermal manikins are found to be well correlated with the thermal sensation experienced by panels of subjects exposed to the same conditions. Differences both in manikin shape and construction, as well as testing conditions and panel members, make limit lines differ at some points. Comfort diagrams can be defined by equivalent temperature (t(eq)) limit lines; however, a consequence of individual and experimental variations is that it is not an optimal solution to have diagrams with absolute limit lines, rather a range of t(eq) values, forming new "comfort-zone diagrams". This improvement provides a more appropriate base for assessment of a complex local thermal climate, and opens up the possibility of a general profile that can be used with different manikins, possibly also different methods, in a variety of environments. However, more data from validation experiments with subjects and different methods will contribute to the development of a more general evaluation concept. PMID:15098131

Nilsson, Håkan O

2004-09-01

17

Thermal comfort and sensation under transient conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis consists of a study of thermal comfort under transient conditions. A thermo-regulatory model originally developed by the author has been developed further. The model can predict whether a subject is in a state of thermal comfort under a given ...

X. Wang

1994-01-01

18

Review on sustainable thermal energy storage technologies, Part II: cool thermal storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the inherent pros and cons of the two common (i.e. chilled water and ice storage) commercially available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies for off-peak air conditioning applications. Case studies on cool thermal storage have demonstrated not only savings in energy and other operation and maintenance costs but also significant savings in initial capital costs. This paper also

S. M. Hasnain

1998-01-01

19

UPDATE OF INNOVATIVE THERMAL DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Five innovative technologies for thermally destroying hazardous wastes were selected and described in the paper. They are Oxygen-Enriched Incineration, Westinghouse/O'Connor Combustor, Circulating Bed Combustion, Infrared System, and Plasma Arc. Two important criteria used in sel...

20

Thermal imaging technology: the Indian scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradual development of improved types of sensor, image processing techniques, image fusion capability, innovative optical designs and AR coatings have enabled thermal imaging technology to undergo revolutionary advancements leading to the realization of all time and all weather vision. It has now been possible to have alight weight hand held thermal imaging system using uncooled detectors as well as very

Om P. Nijhawan

1999-01-01

21

Review of Modern Spacecraft Thermal Control Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originally created and developed for space applications, several commercial terrestrial technologies still permeate our society today. Examples include solar cells, Global Positioning Systems, and less expensive methods of carbon nanotube manufacture. Given a long and successful history of spinoffs, there might exist opportunities for the transfer of modern spacecraft thermal control technologies to terrestrial HVAC&R applications. First, this paper presents

Derek W. Hengeveld; Margaret M. Mathison; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll; Andrew D. Williams

2010-01-01

22

Proceedings of the Solar Thermal Technology Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on August 26 to 28, 1987, at the Marriott Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Solar Thermal Development Project, perspectives on central and distributed receiver technology including energy collection and conversion technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts and principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Tyner, C. E.

1987-08-01

23

Proceedings of the Solar Thermal Technology Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on June 17 to 19, 1986 at the Marriott Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Solar Thermal Development Project, perspectives on central and distributed receiver technology including energy collection and conversion technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts plus principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Diver, R. B.

1986-06-01

24

Proceedings of the solar thermal technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on August 26-28, 1987, at the Marriott Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Solar Thermal Development Project, perspectives on central and distributed receiver technology including energy collection and conversion technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts and principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Tyner, C.E. (ed.)

1987-08-01

25

Proceedings of the solar thermal technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on June 17 to 19, 1986 at the Marriott Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Solar Thermal Development Project, perspectives on central and distributed receiver technology including energy collection and conversion technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts plus principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Diver, R.B. (ed.)

1986-06-01

26

Comparison of solar thermal technologies for applications in seawater desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a global analysis of the use of solar energy in seawater distillation under Spanish climatic conditions. Static solar technologies as well as one-axis sun tracking were compared. Different temperature ranges of the thermal energy supply required for a desalination process were considered. At each temperature range, suitable solar collectors were compared in some aspects as: (1)

Lourdes García-Rodríguez; Ana I. Palmero-Marrero; Carlos Gómez-Camacho

2002-01-01

27

Marketing solar thermal technologies: strategies in Europe, experience in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal technologies (STTs) are mature in many EU Member States. However, in some EU regions solar applications, and especially the innovative ones (such as solar heating\\/cooling, solar drying, solar-powered desalination), remain at an early stage. The degree of development of each market does not depend on climate conditions (e.g., insolation) or on different technological developments. The major strengths, weaknesses,

Theocharis D Tsoutsos

2002-01-01

28

Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

Gattone, Felix

29

Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

Gattone, Felix

30

Thermal battery infrared monitoring system design based on virtual instrument technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper designs a thermal battery infrared monitoring system using FLUKE Ti45 Thermal Imagers and IMAQ Vision software of LabVIEW. The thermal battery infrared monitoring system uses infrared imaging technology to monitor the electrical property testing process. It can investigate and analyze the working performance of thermal batteries on different kinds of maximum conditions, and monitor the temperature variation tendency.

Qin, Qin; Liu, Zheng-Guo; Jiang, Li

2011-06-01

31

Technologies for thermal infrared imaging from GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared imaging from geostationary satellite can provide all time, real time and video observation, and it can achieve fast pointing and information acquisition of any object on the earth disk. It is more suitable for timely information acquisition of emergent event such as natural disaster. The paper introduces the development and related applications of GEO thermal infrared imaging technologies during the past several decades. It then introduces a concept of all time, real time and video observation from GEO using two thermal infrared staring imagers with different spatial resolution and field of view (FOV). The low spatial resolution and wide FOV thermal infrared staring imager is used to monitor objects within a large area concerned, while the high spatial resolution and narrow FOV thermal infrared staring imager is used to acquire detailed information of the interesting objects within a small area. The main characteristics and technical solutions about the proposed concept are described in the paper.

Ma, Wenpo

2013-09-01

32

Thermal conditions of Warsaw botanical gardens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to present the air temperature differences in Warsaw over the period 1951-1998 between different city structures: botanical gardens in the city centre and of suburban location, compact development in the city center and the suburbs. The trend of growing yearly mean air temperature in Warsaw was confirmed. The air temperature in the botanical garden in the city centre is of 0.4°C higher than outside the city. However, the thermal regime of the botanical garden in Powsin (which is of peripheral location) does not differ from rural conditions.

Baranowski, Jaros?aw; Adamczyk, Anna

2011-01-01

33

Thermal imaging technology: the Indian scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradual development of improved types of sensor, image processing techniques, image fusion capability, innovative optical designs and AR coatings have enabled thermal imaging technology to undergo revolutionary advancements leading to the realization of all time and all weather vision. It has now been possible to have alight weight hand held thermal imaging system using uncooled detectors as well as very long range system for surveillance, target acquisition, tracking and guidance using FPAs. Not only has India made significant progress in the field of thermal imaging but innovative work has been carried out in order to enhance the performance of these systems. This has resulted in the development of a thermal imager giving ranges of 4 Km plus used in 'Fire and Forget' type missile in addition to thermal imagers for AFVs. A state-of-the-art second generation thermal image for airborne application co-developed with M/s TCO, France is under evaluation and testing. Innovative optics design has led to the enhancement of the range capabilities by 1.7 times of a hand held thermal imager of French origin. The paper focuses on intricacies of system as also technological capabilities in India including design capability of most sophisticated IR optical system, Single Point Diamond Turning for generation of aspheric and metal optics, Laser Interferometer for characteristics of lenses, multilayer AR coating and DLC coating, IR Image Evaluation System etc. Work carried out on Binary optics for Thermal Imaging System at IRDE as well as on indigenous development of thermal sensors, ASICs, Rigi-flex PCBs etc. for micro- miniaturization of electronics being progressed at various work centers are also discussed.

Nijhawan, Om P.

1999-11-01

34

Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature  

SciTech Connect

The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range {minus}100 to 100{degree}C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs.

Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

1989-01-01

35

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), a consortium of fluorocarbon manufacturers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating on a project to evaluate the energy use and global warming impacts of CFC alternatives. The goal of this project is to identify technologies that could replace the use of CFC's in refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning equipment; to evaluate

P. J. Lewis; D. M. Counce

1993-01-01

36

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

2010-04-01

37

Thermal degradation of synthetic lubricants under oxidative pyrolytic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gaseous phase thermal degradation, under oxidative pyrolysis conditions, of three commercial industrial lubricants (two of different triaryl phosphate composition and one based on fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters) was investigated between 400 and 1000°C. The main objective of the study was to investigate their behavior in simulated “hot spot” conditions, i.e. compare the thermal stability and identify the

G. Mascolo; R. Rausa; G. Bagnuolo; G. Mininni; L. Tinucci

2006-01-01

38

Thermal Plasma Waste Remediation Technology: Historical Perspective and Current Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The idea of utilizing thermal plasma technology for waste processing goes back to the mid-1970's during the energy crisis. Since then, more interest has been shown by universities, industry, and government in developing thermal plasma waste processing tec...

D. A. Counts B. D. Sartwell S. H. Peterson R. Kirkland N. P. Kolak

1999-01-01

39

Status and progress in solar thermal research and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial progress has been made in various solar thermal technologies. Components and systems have reached different states of maturity for various types of solar thermal systems. Data are now being obtained from operating systems in the United States and other countries. These data have identified the future research needed to realize the full potential of the solar resource. This paper describes the status of solar thermal technologies and progress in solar thermal research to achieve long-term performance and cost goals.

Gupta, B. P.

1985-07-01

40

Thermal striping downstream of a horizontal elbow under thermally stratified transient flow conditions  

SciTech Connect

A thermally stratified flow produced by a thermal transient passing through a horizontal elbow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility. This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the structured thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls.

Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

1984-06-01

41

Status of solar-thermal electric technology  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an evaluation performed of solar thermal electric technology. The objective was to assess the technology as a future source of power for United States utilities. An experimental data base was used to the greatest extent possible. A representative configuration was selected for each of the main solar collector concepts: the central receiver, the parabolic dish and the parabolic trough. The ultimate energy costs that could be expected from these three concepts as mature, commercial systems were estimated. The estimates were in the form of upper and lower bounds to the expected energy costs, where the upper bound could be supported by the existing experimental data base and the lower bound represented the potential possible for the system if present uncertainties in costs and performance are resolved favorably. The development status for each of the three concepts was reviewed, and estimates were made of the costs and time that would be required to complete the development of a commercial version of the systems. The central receiver and the dish collector systems have potential energy costs as low as 5 cents per kilowatt hour, but the uncertainty of achieving this potential is high. The trough has higher potential energy costs but lower uncertainty. 132 refs., 72 figs., 47 tabs.

Holl, R.J. (HGH Enterprises, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA (USA))

1989-12-01

42

Thermal arcjet technology for space propulsion  

SciTech Connect

Advanced space propulsion systems are required to meet projected Air Force needs through the year 2000. Most of these missions require a large, on-orbit impulse capability. High specific impulse (I sub sp) electric engines can provide this impulse while consuming relatively little propellant. An arcjet engine system, which operates in the range of 800 to 2000 s I sub sp, is a promising candidate to meet these projected Air Force mission needs. This electric propulsion system is ideally suited to missions currently under consideration, such as the space-based radar and other space platforms, because sufficient power is already installed for other functions on the spacecraft. Also, arcjet systems are attractive for NASA near-term, low-cost Mariner Mark II missions to Saturn and Uranus. This paper describes thermal arcjet technology as it was developed over two decades ago and points to the direction this technology development should proceed in the future. In particular, operation with storable propellants such as ammonia and hydrazine are considered. The performance, applicability and advantages of these systems in terms of increased payload and/or decreased trip times are discussed.

Pivirotto, T.J.; King, D.Q.

1985-01-01

43

The software TRASSA for the analysis of spacecraft thermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software package TRASSA for the computer simulation and calculation of the thermal mode of a spacecraft in orbital flight conditions is described. The purpose of the simulating programs is considered. The techniques for the construction of the spacecraft geometrical model, calculation of its orientation in the orbit and modelling of radiating heat exchange in it are covered. The thermal

R. V. Gavrilov; A. M. Kislov; V. G. Romanenko; V. N. Fenchenko

2004-01-01

44

Thermal Analysis of a Power Conditioning Unit for a Howitzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a thermal analysis for a power conditioning unit for the M119 A1 howitzer. The analysis includes conduction, convection, and radiation as described by the Army's rigorous environmental standards. The analysis was completed using comp...

C. Kessler J. A. Cordes

2009-01-01

45

Congruently Melting Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Air Conditioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the difficulties in using sodium sulfate decahydrate mixtures as phase change materials suitable for thermal energy storage for air conditioning, an effort was made to find suitable materials which melt congruently. Two classes of materials wer...

K. Kauffman Y. C. Pan

1973-01-01

46

Concepts of learning and experience in developing solar thermal technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a picture of development of solar thermal technology, using the learning and experience curve concepts. The cost estimates for solar thermal energy technologies are made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy system. The concept

F Krawiec

1983-01-01

47

Comparison research on infrared thermal wave image sequence processing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrared thermal wave image processing technology is one of the new key technologies of nondestructive testing. The paper summarizes the typical infrared thermal wave sequences image processing algorithms, introduces the basic principle of each algorithm, and presents the experiments and three-dimensional visual display. The image processing results are quantitatively evaluated and compared by the rules such as Entropy, Spatial

Jianxiang Huang; Jinyu Zhang; Wei Zhang

2011-01-01

48

Application of reuseable interface technology for thermal parameter estimation  

SciTech Connect

A Reuseable Interface Technology is presented for application to thermal parameter estimation problems. It is applied to the estimation of thermal conductivity of compacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder without binder. As temperature increases, the thermal conductivity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder without binder decreases.

Blackwell, B.F.; Eldred, M.S.

1997-05-01

49

Stability conditions for steady shearing. Stability conditions for simple shear under mixed thermal boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shearing of a slab of thermoviscoplastic material by the application of traction in the presence of heat conduction is examined. When the thermoviscoplastic constitutive law is given in general functional form, an integral expression for the analytic steady solutions of an inhomogeneous simple shear problem is obtained. A perturbation method, which gives rise to a set of linear partial differential equations (with spatially dependent coefficients), is then used to examine the stability of the steady-state solution of the governing equations. After separation of variables, the existence of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the resulting fourth-order system is demonstrated. An integral method is then used to obtain a sufficient condition for stability. The governing equations are set up for the quasi-static simple shear of a general thermoviscoplastic material with mixed thermal boundary conditions, where both temperature and temperature gradient can be specified at the boundary. The stability of this system is examined by means of a perturbation.

Chen, Howard Tz.

50

Commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage technology  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. The purpose of the study was to develop and screen a list of potential entry market applications for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Several initial screening criteria were used to identify promising ATES applications. These include the existence of an energy availability/usage mismatch, the existence of many similar applications or commercial sites, the ability to utilize proven technology, the type of location, market characteristics, the size of and access to capital investment, and the number of decision makers involved. The in-depth analysis identified several additional screening criteria to consider in the selection of an entry market application. This analysis revealed that the best initial applications for ATES are those where reliability is acceptable, and relatively high temperatures are allowable. Although chill storage was the primary focus of this study, applications that are good candidates for heat ATES were also of special interest. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

1989-09-01

51

Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF[sub 4]) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF[sub 4] fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure ([similar to]100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y. (Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)); McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L. (Rocketdyne Division/Rockwell International Corporation, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

1993-01-20

52

Thermal recovery: mature technology for EOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a technical viewpoint, thermal recovery processes are excellent EOR processes. Practically speaking, there are a number of operational difficulties associated with thermal recovery. Temperatures encountered in thermal recovery operations adversely affect monitoring, injecting, and producing equipment. Sand production is frequently severe, as many heavy oil reservoirs occur in either unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sands. In these reservoirs, heavy oil often

F. E. Suffridge; H. B. Carroll

1982-01-01

53

Long-term goals for solar thermal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies are discussed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of 0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

Williams, T. A.; Dirks, J. A.; Brown, D. R.

1985-05-01

54

Long-term goals for solar thermal technology  

SciTech Connect

This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

1985-05-01

55

Lattice thermal conductivity of minerals in the deep mantle condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal transport property of materials under pressure and temperature is of importance for understanding the dynamics of the solid Earth and the thermal history. Both experimental and theoretical determinations of the thermal conductivity, however, still remain technically challenging particularly at the deep mantle condition. Recent progress in ab initio computational method based on the density-functional theory is now makes it possible to examine the transport phenomena including the lattice thermal conduction. The intrinsic bulk thermal conduction of insulator is caused by lattice anharmonicity owing to phonon-phonon interaction. The key parameter to predict lattice thermal conductivity is thus the anharmonic coupling constant. Earlier theoretical works calculated the lattice thermal conductivity of MgO with ab initio molecular dynamics simulation or finite difference lattice dynamics simulation (Nico de Koker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 125902, 2009; X. Tang and J. Dong, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 4539, 2010). However, in these approaches, the simulation cell size could often be insufficient for accurate description of the long wavelength phonon scattering. This leads to a lack of the decay channels for the phonons. As an alternative approach, the anharmonic coupling strength between phonon modes can be evaluated within the density-functional perturbation theory. In this approach, the higher-order force tensors are calculated through a number of phonon decay channels obtained within the perturbative scheme taking care only of the primitive cell. We have been developing a technique for calculation of the phonon linewidth necessary to obtain the phonon lifetime. Then the lattice thermal conductivity is evaluated combining with additional harmonic-level of propeties. In this presentation, we show the behavior of lattice thermal conductivity in lower mantle minerals, and discuss the effects of pressure and temperature on their conductivities up to the deep mantle condition. Research supported by Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University.

Dekura, H.; Tsuchiya, T.; Tsuchiya, J.

2011-12-01

56

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

57

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal collectors on a medium to large scale. However the cost and energy requirement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) have fallen significantly in recent years, so that solar thermal powered RO deserves consideration. We compare commercial desalination processes on the basis of

G. Burgess; K. Lovegrove

58

Successful Deployment of Thermal Simulation Technology to Field Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors successfully deployed thermal simulation technology to a field office to enable the staff responsible for operating steamfloods to conduct on-site studies of their projects. The success was attributed to a number of factors, including (1) placement of a simulation expert in the field office, (2) formation of a thermal modeling focus group, (3) introduction of simulation software on

K. C. Hong; G. W. Cook

1996-01-01

59

Solar Thermal Energy: An Overview of One-Sun Solar Thermal Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides an introduction to solar thermal energy. The presentation includes descriptions of solar basics, technology and future solar technology systems. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Burch, Jay

2013-01-03

60

Quantitative Evaluation of Heat Crack Initiation Condition Under Thermal Shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have proposed an evaluation method for the initiation conditions of heat crack under thermal shock using the tensile test of a notched specimen. In some materials, such as hot rolling rolls and dies for aluminum die-casting, there is a problem of heat crack initiation, and the evaluation of heat crack resistance using test pieces was difficult until now. The thermal stress and stress gradient that occurred in such material were analyzed by the finite element method (FEM). The maximum stress when tensile stress was applied to the material with a notch was compared to the stress gradient of the thermal stress. As a result, the quantitative evaluation during the initiation conditions of a heat crack for materials became possible.

Sonoda, Akio; Kashiwagi, Suguru; Hamada, Shigeru; Noguchi, Hiroshi

61

Influence of anomalous thermal losses of ignition conditions  

SciTech Connect

In the process of achieving ignition conditions, it is likely that microinstabilities, which lead to anomalous thermal transport of the fusing nuclei, will be present. When such phenomena are taken into account, an appropriate formulation of ignition criteria becomes necessary. In particular, a new type of plasma density limit is identified.

Coppi, B.; Tang, W.M.

1986-05-01

62

Estimating Thermal Inertia with a Maximum Entropy Boundary Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal inertia, P [Jm-2s-1/2K-1], is a physical property the land surface which determines resistance to temperature change under seasonal or diurnal heating. It is a function of volumetric heat capacity, c [Jm-3K-1], and thermal conductivity, k [Wm-1K-1] of the soil near the surface: P=?ck. Thermal inertia of soil varies with moisture content due the difference between thermal properties of water and air, and a number of studies have demonstrated that it is feasible to estimate soil moisture given thermal inertia (e.g. Lu et al, 2009, Murray and Verhoef, 2007). We take the common approach to estimating thermal inertia using measurements of surface temperature by modeling the Earth's surface as a 1-dimensional homogeneous diffusive half-space. In this case, surface temperature is a function of the ground heat flux (G) boundary condition and thermal inertia and a daily value of P was estimated by matching measured and modeled diurnal surface temperature fluctuations. The difficulty is in measuring G; we demonstrate that the new maximum entropy production (MEP) method for partitioning net radiation into surface energy fluxes (Wang and Bras, 2011) provides a suitable boundary condition for estimating P. Adding the diffusion representation of heat transfer in the soil reduces the number of free parameters in the MEP model from two to one, and we provided a sensitivity analysis which suggests that, for the purpose of estimating P, it is preferable to parameterize the coupled MEP-diffusion model by the ratio of thermal inertia of the soil to the effective thermal inertia of convective heat transfer to the atmosphere. We used this technique to estimate thermal inertia at two semiarid, non-vegetated locations in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeast AZ, USA and compared these estimates to estimates of P made using the Xue and Cracknell (1995) solution for a linearized ground heat flux boundary condition, and we found that the MEP-diffusion model produced superior thermal inertia estimates. The MEP-diffusion estimates also agreed well with P estimates made using a boundary condition measured with buried flux plates. We further demonstrated the new method using diurnal surface temperature fluctuations estimated from day/night MODIS image pairs and, excluding instances where the soil was extremely dry, found a strong relationship between estimated thermal inertia and measured 5 cm soil moisture. Lu, S., Ju, Z.Q., Ren, T.S. & Horton, R. (2009). A general approach to estimate soil water content from thermal inertia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 1693-1698. Murray, T. & Verhoef, A. (2007). Moving towards a more mechanistic approach in the determination of soil heat flux from remote measurements - I. A universal approach to calculate thermal inertia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 147, 80-87. Wang, J.F. & Bras, R.L. (2011). A model of evapotranspiration based on the theory of maximum entropy production. Water Resources Research, 47. Xue, Y. & Cracknell, A.P. (1995). Advanced thermal inertia modeling. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16, 431-446.

Nearing, G.; Moran, M. S.; Scott, R.; Ponce-Campos, G.

2012-04-01

63

Thermal Performance Testing of Glass Microspheres under Cryogenic Vacuum Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key element of space launch vehicles and systems is thermal insulation for cryogenic tanks and piping. Glass microspheres, or glass bubbles, represent an alternative insulation material for a number of applications. Composite materials and engineered thermal insulation systems are also being developed based on the use of glass bubbles as the main constituent material. Commonly used materials, such as spray-on foam insulation, or SOFI, for vehicle tanks and perlite powder for ground storage tanks, are targeted for replacement with the new-technology systems that use glass bubbles. Complete thermal characterization of the glass bubbles is the first step toward producing the engineering solutions required for the energy-efficient, low-maintenance cryogenic systems of the future. Thermal performance testing of the glass microsphere material was successfully completed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test measurements were made at the full temperature difference (typical boundary temperatures of 78 kelvin [K] and 293 K) and included the full cold-vacuum pressure range. The results are reported in apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and mean heat flux.

Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

2004-06-01

64

Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The

Isaac Maya; Nils J. Diaz; Edward T. Dugan; Yoichi Watanabe; James A. McClanahan; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Robert L. Carman

1993-01-01

65

Thermal transfer simulation for concentrator photovoltaic receiver under concentration condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under concentration conditions, it is important to manage the operating temperature of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module, because a high-density solar energy enters into the solar cell. We measured the temperature of the CPV module. In the outdoor operation, the module back surface temperature of the CPV module was 3.3 K lower than the aluminum stage temperature. Moreover, we developed a thermal transfer model for the CPV module and calculated the temperature in it using a thermal transfer simulator. The temperatures in CPV module were calculated as a function of the thermal resistance between aluminum stage and back chassis. The temperature coefficient of Voc using calculated solar cell temperature and measured Voc was approximately -0.22%, which was in good agreement with previous report. The simulation results showed that the thicker back chassis and higher heat emissivity were effective for the reduction of operating temperature of CPV module.

Ota, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Hirokazu; Araki, Kenji; Nishioka, Kensuke

2013-09-01

66

Thermal momentum distribution from path integrals with shifted boundary conditions.  

PubMed

For a thermal field theory formulated in the grand canonical ensemble, the distribution of the total momentum is an observable characterizing the thermal state. We show that its cumulants are related to thermodynamic potentials. In a relativistic system, for instance, the thermal variance of the total momentum is a direct measure of the enthalpy. We relate the generating function of the cumulants to the ratio of (a) a partition function expressed as a Matsubara path integral with shifted boundary conditions in the compact direction and (b) the ordinary partition function. In this form the generating function is well suited for Monte Carlo evaluation, and the cumulants can be extracted straightforwardly. We test the method in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory and obtain the entropy density at three different temperatures. PMID:21517372

Giusti, Leonardo; Meyer, Harvey B

2011-03-29

67

Influence of thermal buoyancy on vertical tube bundle thermal density head predictions under transient conditions. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The thermal-hydraulic behavior of an LMFBR system under various types of plant transients is usually studied using one-dimensional (1-D) flow and energy transport models of the system components. Many of the transient events involve the change from a high to a low flow with an accompanying change in temperature of the fluid passing through the components which can be conductive to significant thermal bouyancy forces. Thermal bouyancy can exert its influence on system dynamic energy transport predictions through alterations of flow and thermal distributions which in turn can influence decay heat removal, system-response time constants, heat transport between primary and secondary systems, and thermal energy rejection at the reactor heat sink, i.e., the steam generator. In this paper the results from a comparison of a 1-D model prediction and experimental data for vertical tube bundle overall thermal density head and outlet temperature under transient conditions causing varying degrees of thermal bouyancy are presented. These comparisons are being used to generate insight into how, when, and to what degree thermal buoyancy can cause departures from 1-D model predictions.

Lin, H.C.; Kasza, K.E.

1984-01-01

68

Sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in hybrid quantum structures.  

PubMed

We analytically identify sufficient conditions for manifesting thermal rectification in two-terminal junctions, including a subsystem connected to two reservoirs, within the quantum master equation formalism. We recognize two classes of rectifiers. In type A rectifiers, the reservoirs' energy structure is dissimilar. In type B rectifiers, the baths are identical but include particles whose statistics differ from that of the subsystem, to which they asymmetrically couple. Our study applies to various hybrid junctions including metals, dielectrics, and spins. PMID:19392532

Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira

2009-03-06

69

Thermal gradient fractionation of glyceride mixtures under supercritical fluid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 was used to fractionate a mixture of monoacylglycerols (MAGs), diacylgylcerols (DAGs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) using an eight-foot packed column which was kept under thermal gradient conditions and operated semi-continuously. Fractionation of the glyceride mixtures was affected by both their solubility in CO2 and respective vapor pressure enhancement. The feed material used, approximating a feed stream used in the

Jerry W. King; Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie; Feral Temelli; Jeffrey A. Teel

1997-01-01

70

Validating an infrared thermal switch as a novel access technology  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion. Methods In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information. Results User performance (p = 0.16) and response time (p = 0.25) with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture. Conclusions Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

2010-01-01

71

Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions  

SciTech Connect

Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

Guidotti, R.A.

1995-07-01

72

Thermal Comfort Conditions in Train Stations for Transit and Short-Term Occupancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal field surveys were conducted to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in train stations in Tokyo from July 2004 to January 2005. The survey consisted of 4 methods: 1) occupancy condition survey, 2) attitude survey on train stations, 3) thermal environment measurement and 4) thermal comfort questionnaire. The survey aimed to investigate the thermal comfort conditions for 2 different purposes,

Junta Nakano; Kiyoshi Sakamoto; Tadashi Iino; Shin-ichi Tanabe

73

Ceramic technology for solar thermal receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature capability, resistance to corrosive environments and non-strategic nature of ceramics have prompted applications in the solar thermal field whose advantages over metallic devices of comparable performance may begin to be assessed. It is shown by a survey of point-focusing receiver designs employing a variety of ceramic compositions and fabrication methods that the state-of-the-art in structural ceramics is not sufficiently advanced to fully realize the promised benefits of higher temperature capabilities at lower cost than metallic alternatives. The ceramics considered include alumina, berylia, magnesia, stabilized zirconia, fused silica, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, mullite and cordierite, processed by such methods as isostatic pressing, dry pressing, slip casting, extrusion, calendaring and injection molding.

Kudirka, A. A.; Smoak, R. H.

1981-11-01

74

Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

75

Thermal and biochemical options for advanced RDF technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report details the current commercial status of the use of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) technologies and the future thermal and biochemical options. RDF is prepared by processing municipal solid waste to modify its size and to separate components which are not desirable. In the simplest form, RDF is sold as a solid fuel which displaces coal. However, coal is an inexpensive and plentiful energy source. Further, since RDF has a lower energy density than coal, substitute in existing boilers normally requires system derating. The options are to use combustion systems designed for RDF or emerging technologies which produce liquid or gaseous fuels. These conversion technologies may be either thermal or biochemical. Each system has a unique set of specifications that are imposed on the feedstock. In this paper the status of these advanced technologies and their preparation needs are discussed.

Walter, D.K. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US)); (Goodman, B. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (US)))

1988-01-01

76

Errors involved in using thermal flux transducers under various conditions.  

PubMed

Commercially available sensors are being used by several investigators to measure thermal flux through the skin and skin temperature at a given site. Since these transducers place an additional thermal resistance into the system, they perturb the quantities that are being measured. This problem has been analyzed theoretically to obtain the following relatively simple equations: (Q0 - Q)/Q0 = EQ = QRt/(Ta - Te) and (Ts - Ts,0)/(Ta - Te) = [EQ/(1 - EQ)] [1 - EQ2 - (Ts - Te)/(Ta - Te)] in which Q = measured thermal flux; Rt = thermal resistance of the transducer; Ta, Ts, and Te = deep tissue, skin, and environmental temperatures, respectively; and the subscript 0 denotes unperturbed values. These equations can be rearranged easily to obtain improved estimates for the unperturbed values, Q0 and Ts,0, using the measured values, Q and Ts. Use of these relationships to estimate errors for various conditions previously reported in the literature reveals that the EQ can be as large as 10% to 20% for nude subjects in hyperbaric heliox or water, and the error in skin temperature can exceed 1 degree C. When used under a 1-clo garment, the transducer will perturb Q by 4% and Ts by 0.3 degrees C. PMID:7135633

Wissler, E H; Ketch, R B

1982-09-01

77

High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this document, which was created by the U.S. Department of Energy, on solar thermal and photovoltaic systems. In addition to providing a general overview of these energy technologies, the document also includes a number of useful case studies highlighting construction projects which use energy efficient methods and equipment. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-07-10

78

Thermal and electrical conductivity of iron at Earth's core conditions.  

PubMed

The Earth acts as a gigantic heat engine driven by the decay of radiogenic isotopes and slow cooling, which gives rise to plate tectonics, volcanoes and mountain building. Another key product is the geomagnetic field, generated in the liquid iron core by a dynamo running on heat released by cooling and freezing (as the solid inner core grows), and on chemical convection (due to light elements expelled from the liquid on freezing). The power supplied to the geodynamo, measured by the heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (CMB), places constraints on Earth's evolution. Estimates of CMB heat flux depend on properties of iron mixtures under the extreme pressure and temperature conditions in the core, most critically on the thermal and electrical conductivities. These quantities remain poorly known because of inherent experimental and theoretical difficulties. Here we use density functional theory to compute these conductivities in liquid iron mixtures at core conditions from first principles--unlike previous estimates, which relied on extrapolations. The mixtures of iron, oxygen, sulphur and silicon are taken from earlier work and fit the seismologically determined core density and inner-core boundary density jump. We find both conductivities to be two to three times higher than estimates in current use. The changes are so large that core thermal histories and power requirements need to be reassessed. New estimates indicate that the adiabatic heat flux is 15 to 16 terawatts at the CMB, higher than present estimates of CMB heat flux based on mantle convection; the top of the core must be thermally stratified and any convection in the upper core must be driven by chemical convection against the adverse thermal buoyancy or lateral variations in CMB heat flow. Power for the geodynamo is greatly restricted, and future models of mantle evolution will need to incorporate a high CMB heat flux and explain the recent formation of the inner core. PMID:22495307

Pozzo, Monica; Davies, Chris; Gubbins, David; Alfè, Dario

2012-04-11

79

A review on photovoltaic\\/thermal hybrid solar technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic\\/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models has been introduced and their appropriateness validated by experimental data. Important design parameters are identified. Collaborations have been underway

T. T. Chow

2010-01-01

80

Application of Nanofiber Technology to Nonwoven Thermal Insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofiber technology (fiber diameter less than 1 micrometer) is under development for future Army lightweight protective clothing systems. Nanofiber applications for ballistic and chemical\\/biological protection are being actively investigated, but the thermal properties of nanofibers and their potential protection against cold environments are relatively unknown. Previous studies have shown that radiative heat transfer in fibrous battings is minimized at fiber

Phillip W. Gibson; Calvin Lee; Frank Ko; Darrell Reneker

81

Solar thermal technology near term impact on imported petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that solar thermal technology (STT) penetration into the utility market significantly displaces petroleum imports is proved incorrect. After examining scenarios involving residual oil and distillates, it is concluded that utilities' use of STT would mainly displace residual oil; but because the supply and demand of residual oil is highly regionalized, oil displaced in the West would be more

Guth

1984-01-01

82

Alternative technologies for refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Final report, October 1991-December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and commercial refrigeration. A fundamental criterion for the selection of the alternative refrigeration technologies to be assessed was that they be environmentally safe. The study was conducted in three phases: a survey of U.S. patents, system modeling, and a technology assessment. Each refrigeration application was defined by a set of thermal source and sink temperatures. The U.S. patent survey was conducted from 1918 to the present. A method was developed for classifying refrigeration technologies found during the survey.

Gauger, D.C.; Shapiro, H.N.; Pate, M.B.

1995-05-01

83

Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

Jalalzadeh, A. A.

2005-11-01

84

Thermal Denitration. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The major object of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated an approach that consisted of distillation followed by low-temperature denitration with a reductant addition. This process option minimizes volatilization of radionuclides and hazardous constituents, and converts most of the nitrate in the water to at least 50% nitrogen gas instead of NOx during LAW calcination, while still producing a groutable product. INEEL investigated high-temperature calcination for the LAW, a process already selected by INEEL for calcining high-level waste. Why is it necessary to remove the nitrate (denitrification)? The low-activity waste derived from the separation work performed on the sodium-bearing waste will be very acidic as will the high-activity waste from the redissolution of calcine. In addition, these waste streams will contain very high levels of nitrates; these nitrates are detrimental to grout waste forms. Thus, the nitrate must be removed from these waste streams before they are encapsulated in grout.

None

2001-09-01

85

Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmiss...

A. Liu B. Rajani L. Wang W. Condit Y. Kleiner

2012-01-01

86

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

87

Noncontacting measurement technologies for space propulsion condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes four noncontacting measurement technologies that can be used in a turbopump condition monitoring system. The isotope wear analyzer, fiberoptic deflectometer, brushless torque-meter, and fiberoptic pyrometer can be used to monitor component wear, bearing degradation, instantaneous shaft torque, and turbine blade cracking, respectively. A complete turbopump condition monitoring system including these four technologies could predict remaining component life, thus reducing engine operating costs and increasing reliability.

Randall, M. R.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Collins, J. J.; Schwartzbart, A.

1987-12-01

88

Researches and developments on typical thermal technologies for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frame of inhouse or ESA programs, as well other research and development in the field of two phase thermal technologies for space applications, are presented. An overview of classical heat transport systems used in space thermal control is given and recent results of heat pipes and two phase loops are presented: the development of a so called High Capacity Grooved heat Pipe (HGP), based on the thermal requirements of the new generation of telecommunication satellites, is addressed. The experimental maximum heat transport capability was found near 1500 Wm (horizontally at 20C) for a required 600 Wm while the maximum tilt capability was measured between 15 and 20 mm (at 20C). The test results of an aluminum/ammonia two phase Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) are shown. This reliable development loop presents a heat transport capability between 250 W and 7.5 kW over a distance of 10 m. A comparative study for CPL evaporator designs is presented and discussed, emphasizing the thermal and hydraulic aspects. Looking for future potential space applications, some guidelines for research and development in two phase thermal technology are described, especially the ESA capillary pumped two phase experiment, which will allow a downscaled version of the CPL to be tested in a microgravity environment.

Dubois, M.; Vanoost, S.

1992-06-01

89

Chronic Heat Stress and Cognitive Development: An Example of Thermal Conditions Influencing Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although thermal conditions influence the development of living organisms in a wide variety of ways, this topic has been recently ignored in humans. This paper reintroduces thermal conditions as a topic of importance for developmentalists by presenting an example of how thermal conditions are hypothesized to influence a particular developmental…

Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

2006-01-01

90

Conditions for Successful Use of Technology in Social Studies Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the authors in this review is to examine how teacher-related, context-related, and project-related conditions interact in successful cases of technology integration projects in social studies classrooms. A close examination of different dimensions of these conditions in the implementation of 33 successful cases of…

Debele, Meskerem; Plevyak, Linda

2012-01-01

91

SolMaT - The Solar Thermal Manufacturing Technology Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Cost effective design and manufacturing of concentrating solar components are critical to the successful deployment of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. SolMaT, the Solar Thermal Manufacturing Technology initiative, aims to reduce the cost of CSP technologies in an environment of uncertain future sales and modest initial production volumes. SolMaT assists concentrating solar manufacturers in the development of cost effective products before market demand will support high volume production. SolMaT, in collaboration with private industries, (1) develops the manufacturing technology and processes that permit cost effective deployment of solar power systems in early commercial applications at low volume levels of production, (2) reduces uncertainty in the cost and long term reliability of key solar components, (3) improves manufacturers` ability to finance and warrant early systems, and (4) establishes the manufacturing basis for achieving the substantial cost reductions that are possible through higher volume production in the future.

NONE

1998-04-01

92

Proceedings of the DOE solar thermal technology program planning workshop  

SciTech Connect

The workshop reviewed several strategies for solar thermal technology program planning. After the strategy options were presented to the workshop participants, each committee (user/supplier, system test and evaluation, technology development, and research) was asked to address the following issues: which strategy shows the best potential for meeting the objectives of the solar thermal program; is there an obvious imbalance in the program in terms of emphasis in various areas; are there any activities which should be added or deleted; and, if a funding cut occurs, how should the cut be made. The strategy options are briefly discussed. Summary reports from each committee follow, and a compilation of the committee findings highlights major similarities and differences. (LEW)

Radosevich, L.G. (ed.)

1982-03-01

93

INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES AND THERMALLY-ACTIVATED TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new CHP Integration Test Facility has been commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the testing of distributed energy resources (DER) combined with thermally-activated technologies for combined cooling, heating, and power (CHP). Presently, it has been set up to test a 30-kW microturbine with both direct and indirect-fired desiccant dehumidification systems and a 10-ton indirect-fired single-effect absorption

D. Tom Rizy; Abdi Zaltash; Solomon Labinov; Andrei Petrov; Phil Fairchild

94

Analysis of thermal conditions of high-power semiconductor lasers and their arrays  

SciTech Connect

The results of thermophysical investigations of semiconductor lasers are reported, which underlie the formulation of the optimal requirements on the materials, design parameters, and technological assembling conditions for high-power semiconductor lasers and their one- and two-dimensional arrays with the goal of most efficient heat removal. The methods are outlined for calculating the residual post-assembling mechanical stress and determining the assemblage conditions under which the attendant stress is insignificant and its effect on the laser quality is minimal. Also the methods are given for calculating the thermal resistance for different heat sinks, including heat sinks with forced cooling, and of determining the design requirements on the heat sink arising from specific service conditions. (lasers)

Mikaelyan, G T [Federal State Unitary Enterprise, Inzhekt Research-and-Production Association (Russian Federation)

2006-03-31

95

Thermal regeneration of granular activated carbons using inert atmospheric conditions.  

PubMed

Thermal regeneration is increasingly being used for the recovery of field-spent granular activated carbons (GAC) generated by the water treatment industry. Despite its commercial success, conventional methods using oxidising conditions (usually steam) are known to damage the porosity of the regenerated carbons, thus reducing their adsorption capacity and economic value. This paper presents a comparative investigation into the benefits of using inert conditions for the regeneration of field-spent GAC. For the purpose of this work, a sample of spent carbon was regenerated in nitrogen and in steam to different degrees of burn off. The resulting samples were analysed for their porosity and surface area characteristics using nitrogen gas adsorption, and for their aqueous adsorption capacities using phenol and methylene blue. Experimental results showed that steam was sightly more effective than nitrogen at regenerating the total micropore volume and BET surface area of the carbons. However, these benefits were largely counteracted by greater losses in the carbon yield and damage to the narrow microporosity. Carbons regenerated in nitrogen exhibited greater adsorption capacities for the adsorption of small molecular size compounds (phenol) from solution, while carbons regenerated in steam adsorbed larger molecular size compounds (methylene blue) more effectively. However, when product yields were taken into consideration, inert regeneration was found to produce significantly better results than steam regeneration. An optimum process temperature was determined to be 950 degrees C. PMID:12523505

San Miguel, G; Lambert, S D; Graham, N J D

2002-12-01

96

An experimental investigation on interior thermal conditions and human body temperatures during cooling period in automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the thermal conditions in an automobile and their effects on the driver is an important issue from both thermal\\u000a comfort and driving safety points of view. Especially in hot summer season, the interior thermal conditions in automobile\\u000a change rapidly when the air conditioning unit runs. In this study, standard air conditioning system is switched in an automobile\\u000a parked in

M. Kilic; O. Kaynakli

2011-01-01

97

Effects of Heating Conditions on the Thermal Denaturation of White Mushroom Suitable for Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

White mushrooms suitable for drying are thermolabile materials. At present, the determination of thermal denaturation of dehydrated white mushroom mainly depends on the drying technology. To choose the appropriate dehydration technology for thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for determining the denaturing temperature range. White mushrooms at five different moisture content levels were chosen for the DSC tests.

Zhang Min; Li Chunli; Ding Xiaolin

2005-01-01

98

Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.

Heard, F.J.

1996-10-10

99

Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results from selected thermal energy storage (TES) research activities in Germany and Sweden are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 International Energy Agency (IEA) Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

Tomlinson, John J.

1990-12-01

100

Evaluation of airborne thermal, magnetic, and electromagnetic characterization technologies  

SciTech Connect

The identification of Buried Structures (IBS) or Aerial Surveillance Project was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development to demonstrate airborne methods for locating and identifying buried waste and ordnance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two technologies were demonstrated: (a) a thermal infrared imaging system built by Martin Marietta Missile Systems and (b) a magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveying system operated by EBASCO Environmental. The thermal system detects small differences in ground temperature caused by uneven heating and cooling of the ground by the sun. Waste materials on the ground can be detected when the temperature of the waste is different than the background temperature. The geophysical system uses conventional magnetic and EM sensors. These sensors detect disturbances caused by magnetic or conductive waste and naturally occurring magnetic or conductive features of subsurface soils and rock. Both systems are deployed by helicopter. Data were collected at four INEL sites. Tests at the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area (NODA) were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting ordnance on the ground surface. Tests at the Cold Simulated Waste Demonstration Pit were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting buried waste at a controlled site, where the location and depth of buried materials are known. Tests at the Subsurface Disposal Area and Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 burial area were made to evaluate capabilities for characterizing hazardous waste at sites that are typical of DOE buried waste sites nationwide.

Josten, N.E.

1992-03-01

101

Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment  

SciTech Connect

EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

102

Numerical modelling of lithospheric extension: doming vs. thermal condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural aspects of extensional doming have been modelled numerically using simplified 2D visco-plastic models (e.g. Huismans et al. 2005, Buiter et al. 2008) concentrating mainly on symmetric/asymmetric doming, fault tectonics and deformation of domes and surrounding rocks. Recent works focus their attention to the influence of geotherms on the rheology (Tirel et al. 2008), even taking into account melting (Rey et al., 2009). However, thermal aspects remain difficult to compute because of the coupled interaction between mechanical forces and temperature. This coupling is fundamental, because it provides a link between modelling and thermochronometry. Indeed, cooling ages of extensional dome flanks can constrain time, size, and patterns of metamorphic overprints simulated in thermo-mechanical models. We treat mechanical and thermal aspects together (including modelling of metamorphic P-T-time paths of crustal rocks), using a visco-elasto-plastic rheology in a four layer setup (upper crust, lower crust, lithospheric mantle and asthenospheric mantle). The asthenospheric mantle is considered in order to predict the bending effect of the lithosphere. We employed I2ELVIS, a numerical 2D computer code designed for conservative finite differences method. The model domain is 300 km wide and 160 km deep. We observed two modes of dome development and geometry, depending on first order parameters such as temperature at the Moho and thickness of the crust: (i) Lower crustal doming: with a hot Moho (TMOHO > 700 °C) and/or a thick crust, strain is localized in the upper crust and distributed in the mantle. At these conditions partial melting in the lower crust forms the core of the dome and maintains a flat Moho. (ii) Asthenospheric-triggered doming: with a cold Moho (TMOHO < 700 °C), strain is distributed in the crust and localized in the lithospheric mantle, which allows upwelling of the asthenosphere. The migmatite "core complexes" develop after the upwelling of the asthenosphere. Low geotherms have the tendency to produce asymmetric domes. Changes in second order parameters such as extension rate and elastic rebound influence the size and the timing of doming. Furthermore, using strain softening, we are able to produce an asymmetric doming without prescribing any kind of weak zone. In fact, the elastic rebound of the lithosphere is crucial in enhancing the dome asymmetry. Our new thermomechanical model can in particular explain existence of crustal extension regions characterised by flat Moho topography. REFERENCES Buiter S. J. H., Huismans R. S. & Beaumont C. 2008: Dissipation analysis as a guide to mode selection during crustal extension and implications for the styles of sedimentary basins, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, B06406. Huismans R. S., Buiter S. J. H. & Beaumont C. 2005: Effect of plastic-viscous layering and strain softening on mode selection during lithospheric extension. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, B02406. Rey P. F., Teyssier C. & Whitney D. L. 2009: Extension rates, crustal melting, and core complex dynamics. Geology, 37, 391-394. Tirel C., Brun J.-P. & Burov E. 2009: Dynamics and structural development of metamorphic core complexes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, B04403.

Schenker, Filippo Luca; Gerya, Taras; Kaus, Boris; Burg, Jean-Pierre

2010-05-01

103

Hydraulic fracturing theory for conditions of thermal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stresses associated with a temperature change of only 10°C are on the order of 10 to 100 bars. This illustrates the important influence thermal stresses can impose on the results of rock stress measurements by the hydraulic fracturing method. In order to examine the problem, expressions are derived to describe the stress field produced by non-steady state heat conduction

G. Stephens; B. Voight

1982-01-01

104

Study on thermal simulation technology for SMA in lead-free reflow soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal mathematical model under intensive convection in lead-free reflow soldering process is constructed for surface mounted assemblies, and the heat conduction governing equation, initial condition and boundary condition are made. A thermal mathematical model of SMA is transformed into solid model which can be analyzed by the thermal analysis software FLOTHERM. Then by defining the reasonable boundary condition and

Wu Zhaohua; Zhou Dejian

2008-01-01

105

Thermal-shock resistant refractories and ceramics under thermal-shock conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions We propose an approach to evaluating the thermal-shock resistance of solid bodies in a thermal-shock schedule based on the development of elastic waves of compression (expansion) and the final value of the velocity of the thermal waves.

V. V. Kolomeitsev; K. N. Dergunov

1988-01-01

106

Induction motors thermal behaviour and life expectancy under non-ideal supply conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with thermal behaviour analysis of three-phase induction motors under nonideal supply conditions. The motors are of squirrel cage type and the nonideal conditions are associated to harmonics, unbalances, voltage sag and swell, etc. The studies are carried out using a comprehensive methodology which handles electrical, mechanical and thermal models in a simultaneous way. The approach is then

Olivio C. N. Souto; Jose C. de Oliveira; L. M. Neto

2000-01-01

107

HEATING CONDITION EFFECTS ON THERMAL RESISTANCE OF FIFTH-INSTAR NAVEL ORANGEWORM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful development of a thermal treatment protocol can be facilitated with reliable information on fundamental thermal death kinetics of targeted insects under different heating conditions. The effects of heating rates (1, 10 and 15 degrees C/minute), pretreatment conditioning (30 degrees C + 6 ...

108

Advanced Technology Solar Telescope lower enclosure thermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exterior of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure requires cooling to eliminate so-called external dome seeing caused by solar loading during the observing day. This is achieved by way of coolant circulation through external plate coil panels, thereby maintaining the exterior surfaces of the enclosure at or just below ambient air temperature. As the distance from the optical path increases (e.g., on the surface of the lower enclosure), the stringency of the temperature requirement is diminished, thereby allowing a greater difference between the surface temperature and the ambient air temperature. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled performance of an active thermal control strategy on the lower enclosure to a passive strategy that employs concrete panels. A life-cycle cost analysis of each option is also presented.

Phelps, L.; Warner, M.

2008-07-01

109

ABIOTIC DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE UNDER THERMAL REMEDIATION CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The degradation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride (Cl-) has been reported to occur during thermal remediation of subsurface environments. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate abiotic degradation of TCE at el...

110

Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites  

SciTech Connect

More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented.

McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A. [RMT, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Lawless, M. [Draper Aden Associates, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

111

Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. ...

R. K. Nanstad R. L. Swain R. G. Berggren

1989-01-01

112

High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems  

SciTech Connect

R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

Ruckes, John

2006-04-15

113

Study of thermoelectric technology for automobile air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study was conducted to determine the feasibility of employing thermoelectric (TE) cooling technology in automobile air conditioners. The study addressed two key issues -- power requirements and availability of thermoelectric materials. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of TE air conditioners and to analyze power consumption. Results show that the power required to deliver a cooling capacity of 4 kW (13,80 Btu/h) in a 38{degree}C (100{degree}F) environment will be 9.5 kW electric. Current TE modules suitable for air conditioning are made of bismuth telluride. The element tellurium is expected to be in short supply if TE cooling is widely implemented for auto air conditioning; some options available in this regard were studied and presented in this paper.

Mathiprakasam, B.; Heenan, P. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-01-01

114

Thermal inactivation of alkali phosphatases under various conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal inactivation of alkali phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli (ECAP), bovine intestines (bovine IAP), and chicken intestines (chicken IAP) was studied in different buffer solutions and in the solid state. The conclusion was made that these enzymes had maximum stability in the solid state, and, in a carbonate buffer solution, their activity decreased most rapidly. It was found that the bacterial enzyme was more stable than animal phosphatases. It was noted that, for ECAP, four intermediate stages preceded the loss of enzyme activity, and, for bovine and chicken IAPs, three intermediate stages were observed. The activation energy of thermal inactivation of ECAP over the range 25-70°C was determined to be 80 kJ/mol; it corresponded to the dissociation of active dimers into inactive monomers. Higher activation energies (˜200 kJ/mol) observed at the initial stage of thermal inactivation of animal phosphatases resulted from the simultaneous loss of enzyme activity caused by dimer dissociation and denaturation. It was shown that the activation energy of denaturation of monomeric animal alkali phosphatases ranged from 330 to 380 kJ/mol depending on buffer media. It was concluded that the inactivation of solid samples of alkali phosphatases at 95°C was accompanied by an about twofold decrease in the content of ? structures in protein molecules.

Atyaksheva, L. F.; Tarasevich, B. N.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

2009-02-01

115

Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these systems have been most commonly installed in open-plan office buildings in which they provide supply air and (in some cases) radiant heating directly into workstations. TAC systems can be classified into the following two major categories: (1) furniture-based, and (2) floor-based, underfloor air distribution (UFAD). A large majority of these systems include a raised floor system with which underfloor plenums are used to deliver conditioned air to the space through floor grills, or in conjunction with the workstation furniture and partitions.

Webster, Tom

2004-06-01

116

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

117

The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program Concentrator Technology Project  

SciTech Connect

The project comprises the development of concentrating solar collectors, heliostats and dishes, and the development of optical materials. Because the solar concentrator represents from 40 to 60% of the cost of a solar thermal electric system, the continued development of high-performance concentrators is very important to the commercial viability of these systems. The project is currently testing two large area heliostats, the SPECO 200 m{sup 2} heliostat and the ATS 150 m{sup 2} heliostat and also trying to reduce the cost of the heliostats through the development of stretched-membrane heliostats. Stretched-membrane heliostats are made by attaching thin metal membranes to the two sides of a circular, metal ring. A slight vacuum in the plenum between the two membranes is used to focus the heliostat. The optical surface is provided by a silver-acrylic film, ECP 305. A prototype 100 m{sup 2} commercial unit has been built and is currently being tested. Parabolic dish concentrators are under development for use on dish-Stirling electric systems. The state-of-the-art dish is the McDAC/SCE faceted glass concentrator. Because of the success of stretched-membrane technology for heliostats, the project applied the technology to parabolic dish development and is currently designing a near-term, faceted, stretched-membrane dish. The current thrust of the program in optical materials development is the development of a low-cost, high-performance, silver-acrylic film. 3M's ECP 305 has demonstrated substantial improvement over previous films in its resistance to corrosion, longer life. An experimental film, developed at SERI, has promise for further improving the lifetime of the ECP 305. The project is currently investigating solutions to the problem of separation between the silver and acrylic layers of the film in the presence of water.

Mancini, T.R.

1991-01-01

118

Transient thermal modeling of permafrost conditions in Southern Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal modeling is a powerful tool to infer the temperature regime of the ground in permafrost areas. We present a transient permafrost model, CryoGrid 2, that calculates ground temperatures according to conductive heat transfer in the soil and in the snow pack. CryoGrid 2 is forced by operational air temperature and snow depth products for potential permafrost areas in Southern Norway for the period 1958 to 2009 at 1 km spatial resolution. In total, an area of about 80 000 km2 is covered. The model results are validated against borehole temperatures, permafrost probability maps from "Bottom Temperature of Snow" measurements and inventories of landforms indicative of permafrost occurrence. The validation demonstrates that CryoGrid 2 can reproduce the observed lower permafrost limit to within 100 m at all validation sites, while the agreement between simulated and measured borehole temperatures is within 1 K for most sites. The number of grid cells with simulated permafrost does not change significantly between the 1960s the 1990s. In the 2000s, a significant reduction of about 40% of the area with average 2 m ground temperatures below 0 °C is found which mostly corresponds to degrading permafrost with still negative temperatures in deeper ground layers. The thermal conductivity of the snow is the largest source of uncertainty in CryoGrid 2 strongly affecting the simulated permafrost area. Finally, the prospects of employing CryoGrid 2 for an operational soil temperature product for Norway are discussed.

Westermann, S.; Schuler, T. V.; Gisnås, K.; Etzelmüller, B.

2012-12-01

119

Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

1980-07-01

120

NON-THERMAL PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER CONTROL: A CRITICAL REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-thermal plasma is an emerging technique in environmental pollution control technology, produced by the high-voltage discharge processes and therefore a large amount of high energy electrons and active species are generated. The degradation of difficult-degraded organic pollutions will be greatly enhanced by the active species generated from non-thermal plasma process. However, research on non-thermal plasma technology on organic wastewater cleaning

Hsu-Hui Cheng; Shiao-Shing Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Din-Lit Ho

121

An experimental investigation on interior thermal conditions and human body temperatures during cooling period in automobile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the thermal conditions in an automobile and their effects on the driver is an important issue from both thermal comfort and driving safety points of view. Especially in hot summer season, the interior thermal conditions in automobile change rapidly when the air conditioning unit runs. In this study, standard air conditioning system is switched in an automobile parked in the sun and then the interior thermal conditions of the automobile are determined in detail during the 1-h cooling period. During the period, relative humidity, air velocity, air and surface temperature measurements are taken at numerous locations in the automobile. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effects of transient interior thermal conditions on the occupant, the skin temperatures of human body are measured at nine points. In addition to this, the thermal sensation of the human subject is also questioned during the cooling period. Subjective thermal comfort data is recorded using a questionnaire. The series of tests are conducted on two different automobiles, and the experimental results for both automobiles are presented and scrutinized.

Kilic, M.; Kaynakli, O.

2011-04-01

122

An experimental investigation on interior thermal conditions and human body temperatures during cooling period in automobile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the thermal conditions in an automobile and their effects on the driver is an important issue from both thermal comfort and driving safety points of view. Especially in hot summer season, the interior thermal conditions in automobile change rapidly when the air conditioning unit runs. In this study, standard air conditioning system is switched in an automobile parked in the sun and then the interior thermal conditions of the automobile are determined in detail during the 1-h cooling period. During the period, relative humidity, air velocity, air and surface temperature measurements are taken at numerous locations in the automobile. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effects of transient interior thermal conditions on the occupant, the skin temperatures of human body are measured at nine points. In addition to this, the thermal sensation of the human subject is also questioned during the cooling period. Subjective thermal comfort data is recorded using a questionnaire. The series of tests are conducted on two different automobiles, and the experimental results for both automobiles are presented and scrutinized.

Kilic, M.; Kaynakli, O.

2010-12-01

123

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Colonomos, P. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

124

Advances in infrared technology - quantum well versus thermal detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of uncooled thermal and deeply cooled QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) detectors are briefly presented. Different types of QWIP detectors have been mentioned. The limits of detectivity both for thermal and photon detectors are discussed.

B. Wiecek

2002-01-01

125

Olfactory classical conditioning in neonatal mouse pups using thermal stimuli.  

PubMed

Mouse models are increasingly used to investigate genetic contributions to developmental disorders in children, especially newborns. In particular, early cognitive assessment in newborn mice is critical to evaluate pediatric drug efficacy and toxicity. Unfortunately, methods for behavioral tests in newborn mice are scarce. Therefore, developing such tests for newborn mice is a priority challenge for neurogenetics and pharmacological research. The aim of the present study was to develop a conditioning method well suited to high-throughput cognitive screening in newborn mice. To this end, we developed an odor-preference conditioning test using ambient temperature as an unconditioned stimulus (US) and artificial odors as conditioned stimuli (CS). First, we showed that mouse pups move toward the thermoneutral temperature when offered a choice between a thermoneutral and cold environment, thus showing thermotaxis. Second, we conducted a classical conditioning paradigm in pups aged six to ten days. In terms of central nervous system development, this period corresponds to extreme prematurity to early post-term period in humans. During acquisition, the pups were alternatively exposed to odor CS paired with either cold or warm temperatures. Immediately after acquisition, the pups underwent a two-odor choice test, which showed preference for the odor previously paired with the warm temperature, thus showing conditioning. The proposed paradigm is easy to conduct, and requires modest experimenter interference. The method is well suited for high-throughput screening of early associative disorders in newborn mice. PMID:22257564

Bollen, Bieke; Matrot, Boris; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Van den Bergh, Omer; D'Hooge, Rudi; Gallego, Jorge

2012-01-12

126

Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In harsh climatic regions, buildings require air-conditioning in order to provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort. In many situations buildings are over cooled or the HVAC system is kept running for a much longer time than needed. In some other situations thermal comfort is not achieved due to improper operation practices coupled with poor maintenance and even lack it,

Mohammad S. Al-Homoud; Adel A. Abdou; Ismail M. Budaiwi

2009-01-01

127

A SINDA thermal model using CAD\\/CAE technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach to thermal analysis described by this paper is a technique that incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a thermal model that has the advantages of Finite Element Methods (FEM) without abandoning the unique advantages of Finite Difference Methods (FDM) in the analysis of thermal systems. The incorporation of existing CAD geometry, the

Jose A. Rodriguez; Steve Spencer

1992-01-01

128

Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of rectangular sandwich panels under different edge conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide overall comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. In addition, thermal buckling curves of these sandwich panels are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory.

Ko, William L.

1994-04-01

129

A method of measuring the thermal conductivity of poor heat conductors under monotonic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measuring the thermal conductivity of poor heat conductors under monotonic conditions is described which enables one to make measurements on large specimens at different rates of heating and over a wide temperature range.

E. A. Tombasov; V. Ya. Cherepanov; P. S. Glazyrin; G. P. Polukeev; V. E. Chelmodeev

1978-01-01

130

Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two T...

S. J. Hensel M. N. Alstine R. J. Gromada

1995-01-01

131

Combined marine refrigerating and air conditioning system using thermal storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refrigerating and air conditioning system is described for a marine vessel which comprises: (a) a single compressor means to create a pressure differential in the refrigerant gas, and (b) a water cooled condenser to cause the pressurized refrigerant gas to liquify, and (c) a receiver to store liquidized refrigerant gas, and (d) a heat transfer means to transfer heat

Alston

1993-01-01

132

Solar Thermal Parabolic Dish Systems: Technology and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation surveys the status and some probable future courses of development of parabolic dish solar collector technology and some of the near-term and long-range applications of the technology. Included are fundamentals of the technology, descrip...

J. A. Leonard

1984-01-01

133

Clothing and thermal environments. Field studies on industrial work in cool conditions.  

PubMed

Thermal environmental factors, heart rate, skin temperatures and thermal sensation votes were recorded in 19 workers in different types of cool environment industries. 45 workers from the same workplaces completed questionnaires. Transient thermal conditions were prevalent. After exercise chill, progressive cooling of the body during the working day, and cooling of hands and feet were general problems. Local cooling of certain body areas was found to be a trade-specific problem. Commonly used work clothing was insufficient for thermal comfort. Proposals for a more suitable choice of work clothing are given. PMID:15676570

Nielsen, R

1986-03-01

134

Thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine: isoperibolic calorimetric measurements at different conditions.  

PubMed

Thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine, NH2OH, was responsible for two serious accidents. However, its reactive behavior and the synergy of factors affecting its decomposition are not being understood. In this work, the global enthalpy of hydroxylamine decomposition has been measured in the temperature range of 130-150 °C employing isoperibolic calorimetry. Measurements were performed in a metal reactor, employing 30-80 ml solutions containing 1.4-20 g of pure hydroxylamine (2.8-40 g of the supplied reagent). The measurements showed that increased concentration or temperature, results in higher global enthalpies of reaction per unit mass of reactant. At 150 °C, specific enthalpies as high as 8 kJ per gram of hydroxylamine were measured, although in general they were in the range of 3-5 kJ g(-1). The accurate measurement of the generated heat was proven to be a cumbersome task as (a) it is difficult to identify the end of decomposition, which after a fast initial stage, proceeds very slowly, especially at lower temperatures and (b) the environment of gases affects the reaction rate. PMID:23644689

Adamopoulou, Theodora; Papadaki, Maria I; Kounalakis, Manolis; Vazquez-Carreto, Victor; Pineda-Solano, Alba; Wang, Qingsheng; Mannan, M Sam

2013-03-22

135

Combined marine refrigerating and air conditioning system using thermal storage  

SciTech Connect

A refrigerating and air conditioning system is described for a marine vessel which comprises: (a) a single compressor means to create a pressure differential in the refrigerant gas, and (b) a water cooled condenser to cause the pressurized refrigerant gas to liquify, and (c) a receiver to store liquidized refrigerant gas, and (d) a heat transfer means to transfer heat from the liquified refrigerant at a higher pressure to the gaseous refrigerant at a lower pressure, and (e) a means to remove moisture and particulate matter from the circulating refrigerant, and (f) a liquid refrigerant distribution means to cause liquid refrigerant to flow in a controlled manner through any one of a plurality of circuits into expansion valves supplying a metered flow of refrigerant to refrigerating and air conditioning evaporator coils with such, (g) refrigerating evaporator coils enclosed in a sealed container and surrounded by a liquid storing medium from which heat can be extracted causing the liquid to solidify and to which heat can be added causing the solidified medium to liquify with little rise in temperature and, such (h) air conditioning evaporator coils positioned so that air pressurized by a blower shall flow over them enabling heat to be removed from the passing air into the evaporating refrigerant, and (i) a means to remove liquid refrigerant from gaseous refrigerant flowing from the evaporators to the compressor.

Alston, G.A.

1993-08-24

136

Wireless technologies in condition monitoring and remote diagnostics of electric drives; requirements and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concentrates on utilization of wireless technologies on the data transfer needs of condition monitoring, maintenance and remote diagnostics of electric drives. A short introduction to typical short-range radio technologies is given. Requirements for wireless technologies in condition monitoring are discussed. The main focus is the introduction of different applications that the use of short-range wireless technologies makes possible

Ville Sarkimaki; Risto Tiainen; Jero Ahola; T. Lindh

2005-01-01

137

Space-based hyperspectral technologies for the thermal infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various approaches now exist for obtaining spectral imagery over a broad range of infrared wavelengths. One approach involves the use of a single grating element in two grating orders with dualband focal plane array (FPA) technology. This approach offers greater efficiency over the mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared and eliminates the need for separate FPAs, dispersing elements, and optical beamsplitters. Another approach achieves similar results by exploiting an FPA which has a broad wavelength response with an innovative grating which has useable efficiency that extends beyond the single octave limits of traditional gratings. Significant advantages result, in either case, for space-based hyperspectral imagers, for which a reduction in cryo-cooled mass translates into prodigious savings in overall payload mass, cryo-cooling requirements, and waste heat removal. By contrast, longer term approaches might realize infrared "hyperspectral pixels" in two-dimensional imaging FPAs. In this case, each pixel would detect different wavelengths of radiation, at different depths, and the resulting "spectral photocurrents" would be transported to read-out circuitry through a vertical grid of electrical contacts. Although not yet realized in practice, the conceptual basis for accomplishing this, with the widely available HgCdTe detector material, has been described. With regard to employment, space-based thermal hyperspectral imaging is characterized by coarser ground resolution as a result of aperture diameter limitations and diffraction considerations at the longer infrared wavelengths. The resulting subpixel detections, based on spectral signature, are often complementary with higher resolution, shorter wavelength, panchromatic imagery.

LeVan, Paul D.

2013-06-01

138

Influence of Thermal Buoyancy on Vertical Tube Bundle Thermal Density Head Predictions under Transient Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal-hydraulic behavior of an LMFBR system under various types of plant transients is usually studied using one-dimensional (1-D) flow and energy transport models of the system components. Many of the transient events involve the change from a high...

H. C. Lin K. E. Kasza

1984-01-01

139

Indoor thermal conditions and thermal comfort in air-conditioned domestic buildings in the dry-desert climate of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer season in the state of Kuwait is long with a mean daily maximum temperature of 45°C. Domestic air conditioning is generally deployed from the beginning of April to the end of October. This accounts for around 75% of Kuwaiti electrical power consumption. In terms of energy conservation, increasing the thermostat temperature by 1°C could save about 10% of

Farraj F. Al-ajmi; D. L. Loveday

2010-01-01

140

Influence of thermal buoyancy on vertical tube bundle thermal density head predictions under transient conditions. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal-hydraulic behavior of an LMFBR system under various types of plant transients is usually studied using one-dimensional (1-D) flow and energy transport models of the system components. Many of the transient events involve the change from a high to a low flow with an accompanying change in temperature of the fluid passing through the components which can be conductive

H. C. Lin; K. E. Kasza

1984-01-01

141

Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe\\/Arm applications.

Patrick B. Davis; Clinton S. Winchester

1991-01-01

142

Thermal Spray Maps: Material Genomics of Processing Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently no method whereby material properties of thermal spray coatings may be predicted from fundamental processing inputs such as temperature-velocity correlations. The first step in such an important understanding would involve establishing a foundation that consolidates the thermal spray literature so that known relationships could be documented and any trends identified. This paper presents a method to classify and reorder thermal spray data so that relationships and correlations between competing processes and materials can be identified. Extensive data mining of published experimental work was performed to create thermal spray property-performance maps, known as "TS maps" in this work. Six TS maps will be presented. The maps are based on coating characteristics of major importance; i.e., porosity, microhardness, adhesion strength, and the elastic modulus of thermal spray coatings.

Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Sanpo, Noppakun; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Kim, Sun Yung; Berndt, Christopher C.

2013-08-01

143

Thermal Spray Maps: Material Genomics of Processing Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently no method whereby material properties of thermal spray coatings may be predicted from fundamental processing inputs such as temperature-velocity correlations. The first step in such an important understanding would involve establishing a foundation that consolidates the thermal spray literature so that known relationships could be documented and any trends identified. This paper presents a method to classify and reorder thermal spray data so that relationships and correlations between competing processes and materials can be identified. Extensive data mining of published experimental work was performed to create thermal spray property-performance maps, known as "TS maps" in this work. Six TS maps will be presented. The maps are based on coating characteristics of major importance; i.e., porosity, microhardness, adhesion strength, and the elastic modulus of thermal spray coatings.

Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Sanpo, Noppakun; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Kim, Sun Yung; Berndt, Christopher C.

2013-10-01

144

Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions  

SciTech Connect

This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

NONE

1995-07-01

145

INFLUENCE OF THERMAL CHALLENGE ON CONDITIONED FEEDING FORAYS OF JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) conditioned to traverse a 2.4-m-long channel to receive a food reward where subjected to in-transit thermal challenges. Conditioning was to a criterion that required 80% of the fish to leave the 'home' area and reach the 'reward' area with...

146

The Influence of Thermal Conditions on Teachers' Work and Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research into climatic conditions that affect human physical, emotional, and cognitive performance. Argues that Australian educational research and policy have ignored potential adverse influence of thermal conditions on school outcomes. Educational research and policy should account for climatic factors, especially the interactions among…

Smith, Richard; Bradley, Graham

1994-01-01

147

Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over ?30 ppm K?1. Such giant NTE is opening a new

Koshi Takenaka

2012-01-01

148

Acquiring advanced engineering technologies under conditions of performance improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

To remain competitive, firms need to develop long-term strategies for acquiring and using advanced engineering and manufacturing technologies. In addition, technology managers are under increasing pressure to produce better results, with less time and risks, and with fewer resources. A resulting trend is a greater use of external relationships and resources to achieve the needed technological accomplishments with greater efficiency.

Roger J. Gagnon; Chwen Sheu

2003-01-01

149

Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program`s infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn.

Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-02-01

150

Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program's infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn.

Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-02-01

151

LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

152

OVERVIEW OF CONVENTIONAL AND INNOVATIVE LAND-BASED THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTE DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

For more than the past two decades, the USEPA has been aggressive in its research, development, performance testing, and in encouragement of the regulated use of proven thermal destruction (or incineration) technologies for the environmentally acceptable treatment and disposal of...

153

Solar Thermal Technologies Benefits Assessment: Objectives, Methodologies and Results for 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and thr...

W. R. Gates

1982-01-01

154

Thermal plasma waste remediation technology: Historical perspective and current trends. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The idea of utilizing thermal plasma technology for waste processing goes back to the mid-1970`s during the energy crisis. Since then, more interest has been shown by universities, industry, and government in developing thermal plasma waste processing technology for hazardous and non-hazardous waste treatment. Much of the development has occurred outside of the United States, most significantly in Japan and France, while the market growth for thermal plasma waste treatment technology has remained slow in the United States. Despite the slow expansion of the market in the United States, since the early 1990`s there has been an increase in interest in utilizing thermal plasma technology for environmental remediation and treatment in lieu of the more historical methods of incineration and landfilling. Currently within the Department of Defense there are several demonstration projects underway, and details of some of these projects are provided. Prior to these efforts by the U.S. Government, the State of New York had investigated the use of thermal plasma technology for treating PCB contaminated solvent wastes from the Love Canal cleanup. As interest continues to expand in the application of thermal plasma technology for waste treatment and remediation, more and more personnel are becoming involved with treatment, regulation, monitoring, and commercial operations and many have little understanding of this emerging technology. To address these needs, this report will describe: (1) characteristics of plasmas; (2) methods for generating sustained thermal plasmas; (3) types of thermal plasma sources for waste processing; (4) the development of thermal plasma waste treatment systems; and (5) Department of Defense plasma arc waste treatment demonstration projects.

Counts, D.A.; Sartwell, B.D.; Peterson, S.H.; Kirkland, R.; Kolak, N.P.

1999-01-29

155

Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

Spoerri, Andy, E-mail: andy.spoerri@env.ethz.c [Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Lang, Daniel J. [Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Staeubli, Beat [AWEL, Amt fuer Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Walchetor, CH-8090 Zurich (Switzerland); Scholz, Roland W. [Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

2010-07-15

156

Power from the sun: Principles of high temperature solar thermal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the development of solar thermal technoloGy by looking at the fundamental principles of solar thermal components and systems, discussing the technical issues that enhance or limit their behavior, and describing their evolution to its current state. It is written for those who want to understand the solar thermal conversion process. The reader should realize that many concepts here are highly simplified so that only the major points are emphasized. Detailed engineering, mathematics, and physics underlies this simplicity.

Stine, W. B.

1987-05-01

157

Technologies for thermal protection systems applied on re-usable launcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of any future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) shall aim at a significant reduction of the payload transportation costs. One of the most expensive systems for any RLV is the thermal protection system (TPS), which protects the vehicle from the high thermal loads during re-entry. EADS ST is developing and qualifying TPS components and technologies for a wide range

Burkhard Behrens; Mark Müller

2004-01-01

158

Indium solder as a thermal interface material using fluxless bonding technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability and diversity of high performance microprocessors is increasing with each process technology generation in order to meet increasing application demand. The cooling designs for these electronic chips have to deal with larger temperature gradients across the die than previously. The key to thermal management is to dissipate the thermal energy from a heat-generating device to a heat sink

Tanawan Chaowasakoo; Teng Hoon Ng; Jinda Songninluck; Margaret B. Stern; Sai Ankireddi

2009-01-01

159

Behavior of surface flaws in reactor pressure vessels under thermal-shock loading conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressurized-water, nuclear-reactor pressure vessel can be subjected to a severe thermal shock in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). If at the time of the LOCA there is a crack-like defect on the inner surface of the vessel, the crack may propagate as a result of the thermal shock. This paper discusses the conditions necessary for crack propagation

R. D. Cheverton; S. E. Bolt; P. P. Holz; S. K. Iskander

1981-01-01

160

Soviet Technology on Thermal-Mechanical Treatment of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most promising methods for strengthening metallic materials that has evolved in the past 15 years is the process of thermal mechanical treatment (TMT). This process, which involves plastic deformation at elevated temperatures and retention of t...

J. G. Dunleavy J. W. Spretnak

1969-01-01

161

Likely near-term solar-thermal water splitting technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic and materials considerations were made for some two- and three-step thermochemical cycles to split water using solar-thermal processing. The direct thermolysis of water to produce H2 using solar-thermal processing is unlikely in the near term due to ultra-high-temperature requirements exceeding 3000K and the need to separate H2 from O2 at these temperatures. However, several lower temperature (<2500K) thermochemical cycles

Christopher Perkins; Alan W. Weimer

2004-01-01

162

Radio-frequency superconductivity technology: Its sensitivity to surface conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of rf-superconductivity technology in particle accelerator projects has become increasingly evident in recent years. Several accelerator laboratories around the world are presently involved in large scale projects. The reasons for this multitude of activities are a matured technology based on a better understanding of the phenomena encountered in superconducting cavities and the influence of improved material properties, contamination

P. Kneisel

1993-01-01

163

Thermal stress condition of experimental long blocks during construction period of the bratsk hydroelectric station dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The actual on-site investigations confirmed the correctness of the temperature condition as determined for the long experimental\\u000a blocks. Maintenance of this condition assures a favorable development of thermal stresses, but deviation from it (large temperature\\u000a drops, deep freezing, intensive cooling) results in surface cracks at the edges of blocks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The formation of a field of thermal stresses

S. Ya. Éidel'man; G. M. Makedonskii

1968-01-01

164

The effect of process parameters on the thermal conditions during moving mold ESR  

SciTech Connect

Several experimental melts were conducted using a moving mold electroslag remelting furnace. The conditions of electrode immersion depth, slag cap thickness, and melt current were varied. Mold wall temperatures and slag pool temperatures were measured and the heat flux through the mold wall was calculated. The relationships between varying ESR melt parameters and the resultant thermal conditions were examined. The thermal profile of the mold, the heat transfer to the mold coolant total and fractional, and the formation of a slag skin were studied.

Heilman, J.E. [Carpenter Technology Corp., Reading, PA (United States); Damkroger, B.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-09-01

165

Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation

A. Chambers; M. Knecht; N. Soelberg; D. Eaton; D. Roberts; T. Broderick

1997-01-01

166

Real-time condition monitoring of thermal power plants feed-pumps by rolling bearings supports vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report addresses the real-time condition monitoring of technical state and automatic diagnosis of auxiliary equipment for bearings supports vibration, for example, control of the feed-pump operating modes of thermal power stations. The causes that lead to premature birth and development of defects in rolling bearings are identified and the development of activities ensuring safe and continuous operation of the auxiliary equipment of thermal power stations is carried out. Collection and analysis of vibration parameters of pumping units during their operation at the operating modes of the technological process are realized by means of real-time technical condition monitoring. Spectral analysis of vibration parameters of one of the pumps showed the presence of frequency components, which mark violations in the operating practices of the pump, the imbalance development and, as a consequence, the development of defects in the bearings by long-term operation of the unit. Timely warning of the personnel on the operation of the unit with the "INTOLERABLE" technical state and automatic warning issuance of the need to change the technological process allowed to recover the estimated pump operation mode in due time and prevent further development of defects in equipment.

Kostyukov, V. N.; Tarasov, E. V.

2012-05-01

167

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India  

SciTech Connect

Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

2007-01-01

168

Solar thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver \\/PFDR\\/ technology - A project description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Project is to support the industrial development of PFDR technology that will provide favorable life-cycle costs per unit of electrical or thermal energy produced. The technology will be made available in the early 1980s for applications project experiments. PFDR systems utilize concentrator dishes to furnish energy to their own individual receivers and power conversion subsystems. Initial

J. W. Lucas; E. J. Roschke

1978-01-01

169

Advanced thermal spray technology and coating for lightweight engine blocks for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

New advanced thermal spray technology allows providing wear-resistant coatings on the cylinder surface of aluminum or magnesium engines. The obtained special surface topography after the finishing allows to decrease significantly the coefficient of friction and to decrease the fuel consumption from 2% to 4%.Engine tests on diesel and gasoline engines have confirmed the value of this technology regarding the aspect

Gérard Barbezat

2005-01-01

170

Thermal sensors utilizing thin layer technology applied to the analysis of aeronautical thermal exchanges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film surface thermometers and thermal gradient fluxmeters developed by ONERA to monitor thermal exchanges in aircraft engines to predict the remaining service life of the components are described. The sensors, less than 80 microns thick, with flexible Kapton dielectric layers and metal substrates, are integrated into the shape of the surface being monitored. Features of Cu-n, Ni-, Au-, and

J. C. Godefroy; C. Gageant; D. Francois

1986-01-01

171

Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

172

High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

2007-06-01

173

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Ocean Engineering Technology Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is the principal ocean energy source under development in the U.S. because of its potential, state of development, and availability and access of the resource to the U.S. The major features of OTEC are that the source is renewable with minimum impact on the environment and the constant availability of the resource enhances OTEC acceptability

J. Giannotti; J. Vadus

1981-01-01

174

Coated Columbium Thermal Protection Systems: An Assessment of Technological Readiness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties a...

S. R. Levine S. J. Grisaffe

1973-01-01

175

Coated columbium thermal protection systems: an assessment of technological readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated niobium ; alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal ; protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention ; of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry ; simulation. Production of- the alloy, the coating, and fullsized TPS panels

S. R. Levine; S. J. Grisaffe

1973-01-01

176

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or...

1995-01-01

177

Thermal analysis of a chip scale package technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the thermal performance of chip scale packages. Their small size limits the amount of heat removal from the package top directly to the air, thus the large majority of the heat must be conducted into the circuit board on which they are mounted. Simulations reveal ?ja, is a strong function of package size, with I\\/O count and

Ben Chambers; Tien-Yu Tom Lee; William Blood

1998-01-01

178

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Three major areas were identified for which solar thermal energy usage has potential applicability in Publicly Owned Treatment Works. These areas include space and domestic water heating, anaerobic digester heating, and sludge drying. The report contains a detailed analysis of so...

179

Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by

Milton Klein

2004-01-01

180

Impact of technological processing conditions on optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured materials are intensively investigated due to their wide range of physical and chemical properties which result in a large variety of applications. From an industrial point of view, emphasis has not only to be on materials performance and on control of their properties, but also on cost reduction either for the materials, the processes, or for both. Materials are searched for which enable different processing technologies, feature sizes and shapes as well as an integration up to a centimeter scale. The combination of low-cost materials with tunable material parameters such as low optical absorption, tunable refractive index, good processability as well as high chemical, thermal and mechanical stability, is very attractive for integrated optical applications. A particular class of low-cost nanoscale materials which fulfills these requirements is the class of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER(R)s1) which are synthesized by catalytically controlled hydrolysis/ polycondensation reactions, resulting in storage-stable, photo-sensitive resins. The material properties, for example refractive index or optical absorption, can be widely varied by choice of alkoxysilane precursors or synthesis conditions such as catalysts or solvents. In addition, the material properties can also be significantly influenced by the technological processing conditions. For example, the degree of organic cross-linking can be adjusted by variation of UV initiator kind and concentration, or by various exposure doses. This, consequently, is directly correlated to the refractive index. The impact of processing conditions on the refractive index was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and refractive index measurements. The refractive indices are correlated to the material's degree of organic cross-linking, and application examples will be given.

Bock, Anne; Pieper, Torsten; Houbertz, Ruth; Sextl, Gerhard

2009-02-01

181

Solar Electric Propulsion System Thermal Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the analysis of thermal control concepts for solar electric propulsion are reported. Thermal control technology is analyzed along with the boundary conditions. The evaluation and selection of thermal control concepts are discussed.

L. E. Ruttner

1975-01-01

182

Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of rectangular sandwich panels under different edge conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction

William L. Ko

1994-01-01

183

A Thermal Model for the Evaluation of Subway Ventilation and Air Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal model of an existing subway station and 1\\/2 mi of adjacent tunnels are described. The model, developed to evaluate a number of car-cooling and air-conditioning concepts for improved passenger comfort, was programmed for a digital computer to account for transient effects due to train and passenger flow, out-door temperature, humidity conditions, and heat storage in tunnel walls and

William Lassow; E. L. Lustenader; Karl F. Schoch

1972-01-01

184

Effects of the sidewall thermal conditions on the gas flows in a rapidly rotating cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical studies are presented of the flows of a gas in a rapidly rotating cylindrical container. The reference Ekman number is small, and the peripheral Mach number is O(1). Fluid motions are induced by small differences in the boundary temperatures. In order to assess the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the sidewall on the flow structure and temperature field,

Jae Min Hyun; Jin Koo Park

1991-01-01

185

Thermal-Shock Testing and Fracturing of MLCCs Under Manual-Soldering Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracturing and failures of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) after manual soldering onto printed wiring boards are often associated with a soldering-induced thermal shock that results in substantial mechanical stresses in the parts. Recommendations and guidelines for safe soldering conditions are well developed and documented; however, there is a lack of adequate testing for the selection of MLCCs that are

Alexander Teverovsky

2012-01-01

186

Predicting Worker Exposure—The Effect of Ventilation Velocity, Free-Stream Turbulence and Thermal Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to predict the flow field and resulting worker exposures when toxic airborne contaminants were released into the wake region of a mannequin that had its back to the airflow while holding the source of airborne contaminants. The effects of ventilation velocity, free-stream turbulence, and various thermal conditions on fluid flow and exposure

Jun Li; Ibrahim Yavuz; Ismail Celik; Steve Guffey

2007-01-01

187

Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: Effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker suspensions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. Results showed

M. F. Rosa; E. S. Medeiros; J. A. Malmonge; K. S. Gregorski; D. F. Wood; L. H. C. Mattoso; G. Glenn; W. J. Orts; S. H. Imam

2010-01-01

188

Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air.

A. P. Simard; M. Lacroix

2003-01-01

189

Natural convection in a square cavity due to thermally active plates for different boundary conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the study of natural convection cooling of thermally active plates placed inside an air filled cavity at the center, with two different boundary conditions imposed on the cavity walls. By an active plate we mean one that is hotter due to isothermal heating or inherent heat generation. The walls of the cavity are subjected to either

A. K. Abdul Hakeem; S. Saravanan; P. Kandaswamy

2011-01-01

190

Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from

Sven-Ake Ljungberg

1995-01-01

191

Structural health monitoring technology for bolted carbon-carbon thermal protection panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research in this dissertation is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technologies for the detection of bolt loosening in Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels on Space Operation Vehicles (SOV) using minimal human intervention. A concept demonstrator of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system was developed to autonomously detect the degradation of the mechanical integrity of the standoff C-C TPS panels. This system assesses the torque levels of the loosened bolts in the C-C TPS panel, as well as identifies the location of those bolts accordingly. During the course of building the proposed SHM prototype, efforts have been focused primarily on developing a trustworthy diagnostic scheme and a responsive sensor suite. Based on the microcontact conditions and damping phenomena of ultrasonic waves across the bolted joints, an Attenuation-based Diagnostic Method was proposed to assess the fastener integrity by observing the attenuation patterns of the resultant sensor signals. Parametric model studies and prototype testing validated the theoretical explanation of the attenuation-based method. Once the diagnostic scheme was determined, the implementation of a sensor suite was the next step. A new PZT-embedded sensor washer was developed to enhance remote sensing capability and achieve sufficient sensitivity by guiding diagnostic waves primarily through the inspection areas. The sensor-embedded washers replace the existing washers to constitute the sensor network, as well as to avoid jeopardizing the integrity of the original fastener components. After sensor design evolution and appropriate algorithm development, verification tests were conducted using a shaker and a full-scale oven, which simulated the acoustic and thermal environments during the re-entry process, respectively. The test results revealed that the proposed system successfully identifies the loss of the preload for the bolted joints that were loosened. The sensors were also found to be durable under the cyclic mechanical and thermal loads without major failures.

Yang, Jinkyu

2005-12-01

192

Desalination of Seawater by Thermal Distillation and Electrodialysis Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Freshwater is one of the scarce resources in the world. In many countries, due to freshwater shortages, searching for freshwater\\u000a resources has become extremely important and desalination is known to be an essential available solution for this. In this\\u000a chapter, the thermal distillation of multistage flash distillation, multieffect distillation and vapor compression and electrodialysis\\u000a processes for seawater desalination are presented.

Jiaping Paul Chen; Lawrence K. Wang; Lei Yang; Yu-Ming Zheng

193

Technology for thermal-shock-resistant cast stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal-shock resistance of the material with a low concentration of FeO and Fe203, for example, the low-iron cast (LK-3) from the batch based on sedimentary rocks, is doubled. The studies carried out at the State Scientific-Research Institute of Glass showed that as the relative quantity of magnetite is lowered, as estimated from the values of the magnetic susceptibility, the

L. K. Timofeeva; M. V. Nedoseeva; N. F. Vasil'eva

1982-01-01

194

Report on Condition Assessment Technology of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The wastewater collection system infrastructure in the United States is recognized as being in poor condition and in urgent need of condition assessment and rehabilitation. As part of an effort to address aging infrastructure needs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEP...

195

Effect of soil water content on soil thermal conductivity under field conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the thermal properties of soils is required in many areas of engineering, meteorology, agronomy, and ecosystem and soil science. Soil thermal conductivity varies in time and space, since it is influenced by soil properties as well as soil temperature and moisture conditions. We use the one dimensional heat conduction equation in conjunction with two-year data measured in a grass-covered field in North Carolina Piedmont to estimate soil thermal conductivity and to investigate how it is impacted by water content. In agreement with laboratory experiments reported in the literature, our results suggest that under dry conditions soil thermal conductivity increases across a relatively narrow range of soil water contents, above which a further increase in water content does not significantly change thermal conductivity. However, when soil approaches saturation, heat transfer is further improved, a fact not previously noted. This nonlinear behavior is consistent with the formation at high water contents of a continuous film of liquid water in soil aggregates of mineral and organic matter.

Vico, G.; Daly, E.; Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.

2008-12-01

196

The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) mooring technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing technology for mooring components which may be suitable for OTEC use is summarized. Due to the platform size, depth of water, and length of design life required for an operational OTEC plant, only large and high capacity mooring components were investigated. Engineering, test, and manufacturer's data on wire rope, synthetic rope (nylon, polyester and Kevlar), anchors, deck fittings and machinery, and design concepts for tension leg platform mooring systems are included. A significant portion of the effort was directed to the assessment of synthetic rope technology and its application to moorings.

Shields, D. R.; Wendt, R. L.; Johnson, B. A.

1982-12-01

197

Effects of the sidewall thermal conditions on the gas flows in a rapidly rotating cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical studies are presented of the flows of a gas in a rapidly rotating cylindrical container. The reference Ekman number is small, and the peripheral Mach number is O(1). Fluid motions are induced by small differences in the boundary temperatures. In order to assess the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the sidewall on the flow structure and temperature field, three types of conditions at the sidewall are adopted, i.e. a linearly varying, an insulated, and an isothermal temperature condition. Analyses are made of comprehensive and systematically organized numerical results, which have been acquired by solving the complete, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Contour maps of the temperature and stream function are constructed. In the short-bowl regime, the closed circulation near the sidewall is strongly affected by the thermal conditions; the importance of the work done by compression produced in the radial motions is emphasized. However, the axial flow in the inner inviscid region is found to be mainly controlled by the Ekman suction. In the long-bowl regime, the global flow structure is considerably influenced by the sidewall thermal condition. This is due principally to the significant diffusion of momentum in the radial direction.

Hyun, Jae Min; Park, Jin Koo

1991-06-01

198

Thermal response of polycrystalline diamond compact cutters under simulated downhole conditions  

SciTech Connect

A numerical-analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady-state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under conditions used in previous experiments to measure cutter wear. A correlation between wearflat temperatures and cutter wear rates is demonstrated, and it is shown that, for the particular rock type tested, cutter wear rates increase significantly above 350/sup 0/C. The concept of critical weight-on-bit, above which wearflat temperatures exceed this value, is introduced. The effects of several parameters on the critical weight-on-bit are examined, including cutter thermal conductivity, diamond layer thickness, rock properties, convective cooling, bit balling, and transient events such as bit bounce. Preliminary results of thermal stress modeling show that yielding of the cutter structure can occur under certain downhole conditions.

Glowka, D.A.; Stone, C.M.

1983-01-01

199

The thermal response of polycrystalline diamond compact cutters under simulated downhole conditions  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under conditions used in previous experiments to measure cutter wear. A correlation between wearflat temperatures and cutter wear rates is demonstrated, and it is shown that, for the particular rock type tested, cutter wear rates increase significantly above 350/sup 0/C. The concept of a critical weight-on-bit, above which wearflat temperatures exceed this value, is introduced. The effects of several parameters on the critical weight-on-bit are examined. These include cutter thermal conductivity, diamond layer thickness, rock properties, convective cooling, bit balling, and transient events such as bit bounce. Preliminary results of thermal stress modeling show that yielding of the cutter structure can occur under certain downhole conditions.

Glowka, D.; Stone, C.M.

1983-10-01

200

Thermal response of polycrystalline diamond compact cutters under simulated downhole conditions  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady-state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under conditions used in previous experiments to measure cutter wear. A correlation between wearflat temperatures and cutter wear rates is demonstrated, and it is shown that, for the particular rock type tested, cutter wear rates increase significantly above 350/sup 0/C (662/sup 0/F). The concept of a critical weight on bit, above which wearflat temperatures exceed this value, is introduced. The effects of several parameters on the critical WOB are examined. These include cutter thermal conductivity, diamond layer thickness, rock properties, convective cooling, bit balling, and transient events such as bit bounce. Preliminary results of thermal stress modeling show that plastic yielding of the cutter structure can occur under certain downhole conditions.

Glowka, D.A.

1985-04-01

201

Influence of Inertia, Gravity and Thermal Conditions on the Draw Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instability known as the "draw resonance" is studied for a Newtonian viscous flow. Both eigenvalue analysis and transient solutions are used to study the instability. The effects of inertia, gravity and the thermal conditions on stability are explored. The thermal conditions are studied as a combination of global and local heating/cooling conditions. While monotonous global cooling along the draw always gives critical draw ratios less than that of the isothermal case (i.e. Dr* = 20.218 for isothermal), critical draw ratios larger than 20.218 can be obtained by local heating effects superposed onto the global cooling. The global heating is stabilizing and very large critical draw ratios are obtained when the intensity of this global heating is large.

Zheng, Zheming; Boratav, Olus

2010-11-01

202

Volume thermal expansivity for lower mantle region of earth under adiabatic condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reciprocal equation for the volume dependence of Anderson-Grüneisen parameter has been proposed. This equation has been found to fit the seismic data for the lower mantle region of the Earth. We have developed a new expression for predicting the values of density (volume) dependence of volume thermal expansivity under adiabatic conditions based on the reciprocal equation for the volume dependence of Anderson-Grüneisen parameter. It is found that our relationship fits well the seismic data on volume thermal expansivity for lower mantle corresponding to a wide range of pressures (0-135.75 GPa). These equations thus proposed are found to be consistent with the thermodynamic constraints.

Sharma, S. K.

2013-06-01

203

Mechanism and kinetics of thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate under the nonisothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition of UO2(NO3)2·6H2O to U3O8 was studied by thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential thermal (DTA) analyses in combination\\u000a with gaschromatographic and chemical methods. The process is described by kinetic data recorded under the non-isothermal conditions.\\u000a UO2(NO3)2·6H2O transforms into UO3 in eight main stages in the 40–300°C range, and UO3 into U3O8, in three stages with the peaks

R. D. Kozlova; V. A. Matyukha; N. V. Dedov

2007-01-01

204

An outdoor exposure testing program for optical materials used in solar thermal electric technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing low cost, durable advanced optical materials is important for making solar thermal energy technologies viable for electricity production. The objectives of a new outdoor testing program recently initiated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are to determine the expected lifetimes of candidate reflector materials and demonstrate their optical durability in real-world service conditions. NREL is working with both utilities and industry in a collaborative effort to achieve these objectives. To date, simulated/accelerated exposure testing of these materials has not been correlated with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering results. This outdoor testing program will allow outdoor exposure data to be obtained for realistic environments and will establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data. In this program, candidate reflector materials are subjected to various outdoor exposure conditions in a network of sites across the southwestern United States. Important meteorological data are continuously recorded at these sites; these data will be analyzed for possible correlations with material optical performance. Weathered samples are characterized on a regular basis using a series of optical tests. These tests provide the basis for tracking material performance and durability with exposure time in the various outdoor environments. This paper describes the outdoor testing program in more detail including meteorological monitoring capabilities and the optical tests that are performed on these materials.

Wendelin, T.; Jorgensen, G.

1994-01-01

205

Condition Monitoring Technology for Civil Works Lock Operating Machinery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pilot project successfully demonstrated condition monitoring and predictive maintenance at Port Allen Lock by installation of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and field sensors for lock operating machinery and structural components at one of the...

A. Schimpf L. D. Stephenson A. Kumar

2003-01-01

206

Technology adoption in response to changes in market conditions: Evidence from the US petroleum refining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the determinants of the levels and rates of technology adoption for petroleum refineries that survived the period 1980–1989, during which the conditions of product demand and crude oil supply changed significantly. Regression models are specified to investigate the growth of technology-related capacity, the growth of technology complexity, and the rates of adoption estimated from a diffuse model

Ming-yuan Chen

2005-01-01

207

Thermal analysis of 8-T SRAM for nano-scaled technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different sections of a cache memory may experience different temperature profiles depending on their proximity to other active logic units such as the execution unit. In this paper, we perform thermal analysis of cache memories under the influence of hot-spots. In particular, 8-T SRAM bitcell is chosen because of its robust functionality at nano-scaled technologies. Thermal map of entire 8-T

Mesut Meterelliyoz; Jaydeep P. Kulkarni; Kaushik Roy

2008-01-01

208

Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, electro-scan (FELL-41), and a multi-sens...

209

Thermal sensors utilizing thin layer technology applied to the analysis of aeronautical thermal exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film surface thermometers and thermal gradient fluxmeters developed by ONERA to monitor thermal exchanges in aircraft engines to predict the remaining service life of the components are described. The sensors, less than 80 microns thick, with flexible Kapton dielectric layers and metal substrates, are integrated into the shape of the surface being monitored. Features of Cu-n, Ni-, Au-, and Cr-based films, including mounting and circuitry methods that permit calibration and accurate signal analysis, are summarized. Results are discussed from sample applications of the devices on a symmetric NACA 65(1)-012 airfoil and on a turbine blade.

Godefroy, J. C.; Gageant, C.; Francois, D.

210

Evaluation of critical nuclear power plant electrical cable response to severe thermal fire conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal fire conditions are a safety concern for operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has promoted the use of risk-informed and performance-based methods for fire protection which resulted in a need to develop realistic methods to quantify the risk of fire to NPP safety. Recent electrical cable testing has been conducted to provide empirical data on the failure modes and likelihood of fire-induced damage. This thesis evaluated numerous aspects of the data. Circuit characteristics affecting fire-induced electrical cable failure modes have been evaluated. In addition, thermal failure temperatures corresponding to cable functional failures have been evaluated to develop realistic single point thermal failure thresholds and probability distributions for specific cable insulation types. Finally, the data was used to evaluate the prediction capabilities of a one-dimension conductive heat transfer model used to predict cable failure.

Taylor, Gabriel James

211

Thermal Properties of Methane Hydrate by Experiment and Modeling and Impacts on Technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of pure methane hydrate, under conditions similar to naturally occurring hydrate-bearing sediments being considered for potential production, have been determined both by a new experimental technique and by advanced molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). A novel single-sided, Transient Plane Source (TPS) technique has been developed and used to measure thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity values of low-porosity methane hydrate formed in the laboratory. The experimental thermal conductivity data are closely matched by results from an equilibrium MDS method using in-plane polarization of the water molecules. MDS was also performed using a non-equilibrium model with a fully polarizable force field for water. The calculated thermal conductivity values from this latter approach were similar to the experimental data. The impact of thermal conductivity on gas production from a hydrate-bearing reservoir was also evaluated using the Tough+/Hydrate reservoir simulator.

Warzinski, R.P.; Gamwo, I.K.; Rosenbaum, E.M.; Jiang, Hao; Jordan, K.D.; English, N.J. (Univ. College Dublin, IRELAND); Shaw, D.W. (Geneva College, Beaver Falls, PA)

2008-07-01

212

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

213

The Jet Principle: Technologies Provide Border Conditions for Global Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first define the "jet principle" of (e-)learning as providing dynamically suitable framework conditions for enhanced learning procedures that combine views from multiple cultures of science. Second it applies this principle to the case of the "Global Studies" curriculum, a unique interdisciplinary…

Ahamer, Gilbert

2012-01-01

214

Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the irrigation system to enrich the percolating water. The vadose zone monitoring system that was installed at the site allowed accurate monitoring of the wetting cycles, including: (1) wetting front propagation velocities, (2) temporal variation of the sediment water content, (2) chemical composition of the percolating water, (3) isotopic composition of BTEX compounds, (4) variations in nutrient concentration, and (5) variations in the vadose zone redox potential. Preliminary results showed that the wetting front crossed the entire vadose zone in four days reaching maximum water content values of 12 to 18 %. Temporal variation in the sediment BTEX concentrations indicated significant reduction in highly soluble and mobile compounds such as MTBE. Yet the chemical composition of the water samples through the first sampling campaign indicated that the limiting factor for biodegradation at the first wetting cycle was insufficient nitrogen. Results from each wetting cycles were used to improve the following wetting cycles in order to optimize the vadose zone conditions for microbial activity while minimizing leaching of contaminants to the groundwater.

Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

2010-12-01

215

(Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications)  

SciTech Connect

Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

Tomlinson, J.J.

1990-12-19

216

Experience on integration of solar thermal technologies with green buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green buildings of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science include an office building for the demonstration of public building and two residential buildings, which are for the demonstration of flat and villa, respectively. Here, a solar-powered integrated energy system including heating, air-conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supply was designed and constructed for the office building. However, only solar

X. Q. Zhai; R. Z. Wang; Y. J. Dai; J. Y. Wu; Q. Ma

2008-01-01

217

Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In-situ thermal soil and aquifer remediation technologies (e.g., electrical resistance heating, conductive heating, steam-based heating, etc.) have undergone rapid development and application in recent years. These technologies offer the promise of more r...

E. Foote J. T. Kingston P. C. Johnson P. R. Dahlen S. Williams

2010-01-01

218

Thermal Stability Properties of ${\\\\rm YBa}_{2}{\\\\rm Cu}_{3}{\\\\rm O}_{7}$ Coated Conductor Tape Under the Cryocooling Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the viewpoint of a cryogen-free high-field superconducting magnet, the thermal stability properties of (Y123) coated conductor tapes before thermal runaway are examined under the conduction-cooling condition by a GM-cryocooler. Under such cryocooling condition, Ag-sheathed (Bi2212) wires with re- veal stable behaviors of 3 times larger current properties before thermal runaway than critical currents, although conventional wires with quench almost

K. Watanabe; V. R. Romanovskii; R. Ishihara; G. Nishijima; S. Awaji; I. Inoue; H. Sakamoto; M. Mimura; S. Nagaya

2011-01-01

219

Space power thermal management materials and fabrication technologies for commerical use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three materials technologies, developed for space nuclear power thermal management, with exciting and varied applications in other fields. Six dual-use applications are presented. The three basic technologies are described: (1) Refractory-metal\\/ceramic layered composites can be made into thin, rigid, vacuum tight shells. These shells can be tailored for excellent impact resistance and\\/or excellent corrision\\/erosion properties. Dual use

John H. Rosenfeld; William G. Anderson; Kevin Horner-Richardson; John R. Hartenstine; Robert F. Keller; James T. Beals

1995-01-01

220

Effects of Starch Properties and Thermal-processing Conditions on Surimi–Starch Gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of starch and thermal-processing conditions on texture, microstructure, and color of surimi–starch gels were investigated by measuring shear stress, shear strain and color values, as well as microstructure. The influences of starch on texture of surimi–starch gels depended on the concentration and modification of starch as well as the ratio of amylose and amylopectin. Starch increased the gel strength

Hong Yang; Jae W. Park

1998-01-01

221

Influence of thermal conditions on the combustion synthesis of Si 2N 2O phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is a contribution to the study of Si2N2O synthesis via Self-Propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS).The elaboration of Si2N2O was carried out using two kinds of experimental equipments and differences both in reaction temperatures and in products compositions were evidenced.In order to determine the reaction mechanisms, several compositions and thermal conditions of the reactant mixture were studied.Considering our results, two

N. Pradeilles; M. C. Record; R. M. Marin-Ayral; A. V. Linde; I. A. Studenikin; V. V. Grachev

2008-01-01

222

MECHANICAL AND THERMAL BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH PANELS UNDER DIFFERENT EDGE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

D,# By using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total DQz, DQ_ potential energy of a structural system, combined load (me- chanical or thermal load) buckling equations are established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. Two-dimensional buckling in- teraction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces are constructed for high-temperature honeycomb- core sandwich panels supported under

William L. Ko

223

Comparison of Turbulent Thermal Convection between Conditions of Constant Temperature and Constant Flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection for Rayleigh numbers up to Ra=1010 in order to study the influence of temperature boundary conditions on turbulent heat transport. Specifically, we considered the extreme cases of fixed heat flux (where the top and bottom boundaries are poor thermal conductors) and fixed temperature (perfectly conducting boundaries). Both

Hans Johnston; Charles R. Doering

2009-01-01

224

A Comparison of Turbulent Thermal Convection Between Conditions of Constant Temperature and Constant Flux: Simulation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of high resolution direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-B'enard convection for Rayleigh numbers up to Ra=10^10 in order to study the influence of temperature boundary conditions on turbulent heat transport. Specifically, we consider the extreme cases of fixed heat flux (where the top and bottom boundaries are poor thermal conductors) and fixed temperature (perfectly conducting boundaries).

Hans Johnston; Charlie Doering

2009-01-01

225

A Comparison of Turbulent Thermal Convection Between Conditions of Constant Temperature and Constant Flux: Simulation Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of high resolution direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-B'enard convection for Rayleigh numbers up to Ra=10^10 in order to study the influence of temperature boundary conditions on turbulent heat transport. Specifically, we considered the extremes of fixed heat flux (where the top and bottom boundaries are poor thermal conductors) and fixed temperature (perfectly conducting boundaries). Both

Charles R. Doering; Hans Johnston

2009-01-01

226

Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside conditions, on the building characteristics, and on the inhabitants' behaviour. The thermal building simulation model estimates the indoor heat load based of the predicted meteorological outside conditions by calculating the operative indoor temperature. The building types prevailing in Germany are quite heterogeneous. It was therefore decided to use for the thermal simulation a so-called "realistic worst-case” building type. In addition, a differentiation is made between two types of user behaviour: the active user opens the windows during the cold hours of the day and uses shading devices whereas the passive user does nothing to keep the heat outside. Since 2007, the DWD has been using the simulation of the indoor thermal conditions as an additional source of information for heat warnings. The information on the indoor conditions has proved very valuable for the decision whether to issue a heat warning or not.

Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

2009-09-01

227

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

1997-12-01

228

Transient thermal behaviour of a compressor rotor with ventilation: Test results under simulated engine conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of advanced compressors for modern aero-engines requires detailed knowledge of the transient thermal behavior of the rotor disks to enable accurate prediction of rotor life and, additionally, of the thermal growth of the rotor for the evaluation of tip clearances. In the quest for longer life and higher reliability of the parts as well as reduced clearances even at transient conditions, the designer has to be able to influence the thermal behavior of the rotor. A very effective way is to vent small amounts of air through the rotor cavities. The design of such a vented rotor is presented. The main emphasis is placed on a detailed description of a test rig specially built for this purpose. The testing was carried out under simulated engine conditions for a wide range of parameters. The results are compared with those obtained with a theoretical model derived from fundamental tests at the University of Sussex, where heat transfer in rotating cavities is investigated. Good agreement is observed. Some final tests were done in an engine. The results also exhibit good agreement with the rig results under simulated conditions, when the proper dimensionless parameters are considered, providing the validity of the simulation.

Reile, E.; Radons, U.; Hennecke, D. K.

1985-09-01

229

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs which contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range and are susceptible to recovery by in situ combustion and steam drive. The reservoirs for steam recovery are less than 2500 feet deep to comply with state-of-the-art technology. In cases where one reservoir would be a target for in situ combustion or steam drive, that reservoir is reported in both sections. Data were collectd from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

230

Residential photovoltaic power conditioning technology for grid connected applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major advances in photovoltaic (PV) Power Conditioning (PC) with respect to performance and low-cost potential have been made. Solutions have been obtained to interface and control problems related to adapting available inverter designs to the grid-connected, residential photovoltaic experiments. A description is presented to contributing research and development activities. Attention is given to aspects of residential systems experience, conceptual design studies, questions of optimum topology development, and promising advanced designs for residential PV provided by development efforts of the private sector.

Key, T. S.; Klein, J. W.

231

Diurnal cool thermal energy storage: Research programs, technological developments, and commercial status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents an overview of the major federal and private research and development efforts in diurnal cool thermal energy storage for electric load management in buildings. Included are brief technical descriptions and research histories of the technologies and applications of cool thermal storage. The goals, accomplishments, and funding levels of major thermal storage research programs also are summarized. The report concludes with the results of recent field performance evaluations of cool thermal storage installations and a discussion of the current commercial status of thermal storage equipment, including utility participation programs. This report was sponsored by the Technology and Consumer Products (TCP) Division within the Office of Conservation of the U.S. Department of Energy. This report is part of TCP's ongoing effort to examine and evaluate technology developments and research efforts in the areas of lighting, space heating and cooling, water heating, refrigeration, and other building energy conversion equipment. Information obtained through this effort is used as an input in developing the U.S. research agenda in these areas.

Wise, M. A.

1992-01-01

232

Diurnal cool thermal energy storage: Research programs, technological developments, and commercial status  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of the major federal and private research and development efforts in diurnal cool thermal energy storage for electric load management in buildings. Included are brief technical descriptions and research histories of the technologies and applications of cool thermal storage. The goals, accomplishments, and funding levels of major thermal storage research programs also are summarized. The report concludes with the results of recent field performance evaluations of cool thermal storage installations and a discussion of the current commercial status of thermal storage equipment, including utility participation programs. This report was sponsored by the Technology and Consumer Products (TCP) Division within the Office of Conservation of the US Department of Energy. This report is part of TCP's ongoing effort to examine and evaluate technology developments and research efforts in the areas of lighting, space heating and cooling, water heating, refrigeration, and other building energy conversion equipment. Information obtained through this effort is used as an input in developing the US research agenda in these areas.

Wise, M A

1992-01-01

233

Thermal Analysis of the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring Experiment Technology for X-Vehicles (NITEX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to perform a thermal analysis for the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) Technology Experiment for X-vehicles (NITEX). This electronics package monitors vehicle sensor information in flight and downlinks vehicle health summary information via telemetry. The experiment will be tested on the X-34 in an unpressurized compartment, in the vicinity of one of the

Hisham E. Hegab

2002-01-01

234

LOW THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3) TECHNOLOGY, ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and five other case ...

235

Review on sustainable thermal energy storage technologies, Part I: heat storage materials and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and their individual pros and cons for space and water heating applications. Traditionally, available heat has been stored in the form of sensible heat (typically by raising the temperature of water, rocks, etc.) for later use. In most of the low temperature applications, water is being used as

S. M. Hasnain

1998-01-01

236

Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment\\/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and

Philip J. Valent; Michael Riggins

1989-01-01

237

Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses an advanced hybrid two-phase loop technology for spacecraft thermal management. The hybrid loop integrates active mechanical pumping with passive capillary pumping promising a reliable yet high performance cooling system. The advanced evaporator design using porous wick structures was developed for the hybrid loop to enhance boiling heat transfer by passive phase separation. The prototype testing using various

Chanwoo Park; Aparna Vallury; Jon Zuo; Jeffrey Perez; Paul Rogers

2007-01-01

238

Solar-thermal technology near-term impact on imported petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that solar thermal technology (STT) penetration into the utility market significantly displaces petroleum imports is proved incorrect. After examining scenarios involving residual oil and distillates, it is concluded that utilities' use of STT would mainly displace residual oil; but because the supply and demand of residual oil is highly regionalized, oil displaced in the West would be more

Guth

1984-01-01

239

Non-thermal plasma technologies: new tools for bio-decontamination.  

PubMed

Bacterial control and decontamination are crucial to industrial safety assessments. However, most recently developed materials are not compatible with standard heat sterilization treatments. Advanced oxidation processes, and particularly non-thermal plasmas, are emerging and promising technologies for sanitation because they are both efficient and cheap. The applications of non-thermal plasma to bacterial control remain poorly known for several reasons: this technique was not developed for biological applications and most of the literature is in the fields of physics and chemistry. Moreover, the diversity of the devices and complexity of the plasmas made any general evaluation of the potential of the technique difficult. Finally, no experimental equipment for non-thermal plasma sterilization is commercially available and reference articles for microbiologists are rare. The present review aims to give an overview of the principles of action and applications of plasma technologies in biodecontamination. PMID:18775485

Moreau, M; Orange, N; Feuilloley, M G J

2008-08-16

240

Thermal Analysis of the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring Experiment Technology for X-Vehicles (NITEX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project was to perform a thermal analysis for the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) Technology Experiment for X-vehicles (NITEX). This electronics package monitors vehicle sensor information in flight and downlinks vehicle health summary information via telemetry. The experiment will be tested on the X-34 in an unpressurized compartment, in the vicinity of one of the vehicle's liquid oxygen tanks. The transient temperature profile for the electronics package has been determined using finite element analysis for possible mission profiles that will most likely expose the package to the most extreme hot and cold environmental conditions. From the analyses, it was determined that temperature limits for the electronics would be exceeded for the worst case cold environment mission profile. The finite element model used for the analyses was modified to examine the use of insulation to address this problem. Recommendations for insulating the experiment for the cold environment are presented, and were analyzed to determine their effect on a nominal mission profile.

Hegab, Hisham E.

2002-06-01

241

Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.  

PubMed

The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C). PMID:23590117

Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

2013-05-08

242

Heart Rate Variability in Sleeping Preterm Neonates Exposed to Cool and Warm Thermal Conditions  

PubMed Central

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies.

Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Leke, Andre; Delanaud, Stephane; Bach, Veronique; Telliez, Frederic

2013-01-01

243

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

244

Technology review - Utilizing rotating thermosyphon technology in aircraft thermal management and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is made of the development status and performance benefits of rotating thermosyphon aircraft thermal management control applications. Rotating two-phase thermosyphons furnish reliable, low maintenance cooling for such rotating systems as electric motors, compressors, and generators. Thermosyphons are uniquely suited for aircraft applications in their insensitivity to operating environments involving high G-loads, vibration, and multiple orientations.

Yerkes, Kirk L.

1990-10-01

245

Investigation of coal stockpiles of Tuncbilek thermal power plant with respect to time under atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Thermal power plants have delayed the coal that they will use at stockpiles mandatorily. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stockyards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started itself. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research a coal stockpile at Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant which was formed in 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m height with a weight of 120 tons to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Later, internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over two layers in the stockpile. The parameters, such as air temperature, humidity, atmosphere pressure, wind speed and direction, which are effective on the stockpiles, were measured and used to obtain the graphs of stockpiles' internal temperature.

Ozdeniz, A.H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

246

Proceedings of the 1993 Non-Fluorocarbon Insulation, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

247

Technology for Detecting and Monitoring Conditions That Could Cause Electrical Wiring Systems Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report was to conduct an in-depth study of technologies to detect and monitor precursory conditions that could lead to or directly cause fires in residential wiring systems in general, and how these technologies could be applied to old...

1995-01-01

248

Numerical and experimental analysis of inhomogeneities in SMA wires induced by thermal boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data on NiTi wire tensile tests display a surprising variety of results even though the same material has been studied. Hysteresis shapes can be observed that range from box- to cigar-like. In some cases, the variation may be the result of different post-fabrication treatment, such as annealing or cold working procedures. However, oftentimes local data are generated from average stress/strain concepts on the basis of global force and end displacement measurements. It is well known among experimentalists that this has a smoothening effect on data, but there is an additional, less well-known mechanism at work as well. This effect is due to thermomechanical coupling and the thermal boundary condition at the ends of the wires, and it manifests itself in a strong data dependence on the length of the employed specimen. This paper illustrates the effects of a thermal boundary layer in a 1D wire by means of an experimental study combined with a simulation based on the fully coupled momentum and energy balance equations. The system is modeled using COMSOL FEA software to simulate the distribution of strain, temperature, resistivity, and phase fractions. The local behavior is then integrated over the length of the wire to predict the expected behavior of the bulk wire as observed at its endpoints. Then, simulations are compared with results from a tensile test of a 100 mum diameter Dynalloy Flexinol wire between two large, steel clamps. Each step of the tensile test experiment is carefully controlled and then simulated via the boundary and initial conditions of the model. The simulated and experimental results show how the thermal boundary layer affects different length SMA wires and how the inhomogeneity prevents transition to austenite at the wire endpoints. Accordingly, shorter wires tend to be softer (more martensitic) than longer wires and exhibit a large reduction in recoverable strain because a larger percentage of their total length is impacted by the thermal boundary.

Furst, Stephen J.; Crews, John H.; Seelecke, Stefan

2012-11-01

249

The Field Condition: A New Constraint on Spatial Resolution in Simulations of the Nonlinear Development of Thermal Instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the dynamics of a thermally bistable medium using one-dimensional numerical calculations, including cooling, heating, thermal conduction, and physical viscosity. We set up a two-phase medium from a thermally unstable one-phase medium and follow its long-term evolution. To clarify the role of thermal conduction, we compare the results of the two models, with and without thermal conduction. The calculations show that the thermal conduction helps to generate the kinetic energy of translational motions of the clouds. Next, we focus on spatial resolution because we have to resolve the Field length ?F, which is the characteristic length scale of the thermal conduction. The results show convergence only when thermal conduction is included and a large enough cell number is used. We find it necessary to maintain a cell size of less than ?F/3 to achieve a converged motion in the two-phase medium. We refer to the constraint that ?F/3 be resolved as the ``Field condition.'' The inclusion of thermal conduction to satisfy the Field condition is crucial to numerical studies of thermal instability (TI) and may be important for studies of the turbulent interstellar two-phase medium: the calculations of TI without thermal conduction may be susceptible to contamination by artificial phenomena that do not converge with increasing resolutions.

Koyama, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

2004-02-01

250

Thermal and laser conditioning of production- and rapid-growth KDP and KD*P crystals  

SciTech Connect

Large solid state lasers such as Beamlet and the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) require optical materials with extremely high damage thresholds. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and its deuterated analog (KD*P) both require some form of conditioning to reach the design fluence of these lasers. Both the bulk material and the crystal surfaces must have damage thresholds in excess of 16J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm and 11J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm for 3-ns pulselengths. The use of ultrafiltration techniques has been demonstrated to produce bulk material with damage thresholds exceeding these requirements with the use of R:1 laser conditioning. More recent results at LLNL using large-area laser conditioning and thermal annealing are described for a variety of state-of-the-art KDP and KD*P crystals. Results on thermally annealed KD*P with a deuteration range of 60% to 80% are also presented, and compared to those of ordinary KDP.

Atherton, L.J.; Rainer, F.; De Yoreo, J.J.; Thomas, I.M.; Zaitseva, N.; De Marco, F.

1994-01-13

251

Line-focus solar thermal energy technology development. FY 79 annual report for Department 4720  

SciTech Connect

The primary role of the Solar Energy Projects Department II (4720) is the development, evaluation, and testing of line-focus solar thermal technology. This report of FY 79 progress and accomplishments is divided into two parts: (1) Component and Subsystem Development including the design and analysis of collector modules, their components, and associated materials and processes, and (2) Systems and Applications Development, involving larger configurations of solar thermal line-focus systems. The emphasis is on parabolic troughs, but significant efforts on hemispherical bowls, compound parabolic collectors, and dishes for the Solar Total Energy Project are also described.

Bergeron, K D; Champion, R L; Hunke, R W [eds.

1980-04-01

252

Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package  

SciTech Connect

A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two Type B drum package fire test results. The model 9973 package was fire tested after a 30 ft. top down drop and puncture, and an undamaged model 9975 package containing a heater (21W) was fire tested to determine content heat source effects. Analysis results using a refined version of a previously developed HAC fiberboard model compared well against the test data from both the 9973 and 9975 packages.

Hensel, S.J.; Alstine, M.N. Van; Gromada, R.J.

1995-07-01

253

The optimum levels of the thermal protection of residential buildings under climatic conditions of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the results of determining the optimum values of the resistance of building envelopes to heat transfer for both existing and newly constructed buildings for regions of Russia with different climatic conditions. An analysis for the sensitivity of obtained optimum solutions to changes in external factors has been made. The potential of energy saving in both the existing housing stock and in newly constructed buildings due to the improvement of thermal protection performance of buildings to the optimum level has been determined.

Filippov, S. P.; Dil'man, M. D.; Ionov, M. S.

2013-11-01

254

Computer Modeling of Flow, Thermal Condition and Ash Deposition in a Hot-Gas Filtration Device  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to develop a computational model for simulating the gas flow, thermal condition and ash transport and deposition pattern in the hot-gas filtration systems. The computational model is to provide a virtual tool for design and operation modifications. Particular attention is given to the Particle Control Device (PCD) at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama. For evaluation of gas velocity and temperature field in the vessel, the FLUENT commercial CFD computer code is used. Ash particle transport and deposition pattern was analyzed with the Lagrangian particle tracking approach.

Ahmadi, G.; Mazaheri, A.; Liu, C.; Gamwo, I.K.

2002-09-19

255

A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment I: oxidation technologies at ambient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, due to the increasing presence of molecules, refractory to the microorganisms in the wastewater streams, the conventional biological methods cannot be used for complete treatment of the effluent and hence, introduction of newer technologies to degrade these refractory molecules into smaller molecules, which can be further oxidized by biological methods, has become imperative. The present work aims at highlighting

Parag R Gogate; Aniruddha B Pandit

2004-01-01

256

Effect of ventilation on thermal comfort measured by DTS-Application to a typical home in Algerian conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Algeria, use of ventilation by ceiling fans is widespread in mosques and other public buildings during the hot season, but is seldom used in private houses. In the first part of this study, the impact of this mode of cooling on indoor thermal comfort is investigated. A thermal comfort model for transient conditions is developed in order to

N. Ait Messaoudene; K. Imessad; M. Belhamel

2010-01-01

257

Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this study is to be incorporated in planning of short- and long term maintenance programs of the Swedish Defence. In general the military buildings are expected to have better status than civilian buildings, due to the more rigorous control during the building process, performed by military building authorities.

Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

1995-03-01

258

Thermal conditions during juvenile development affect adult dispersal in a spider  

PubMed Central

Understanding the causes and consequences of dispersal is a prerequisite for the effective management of natural populations. Rather than treating dispersal as a fixed trait, it should be considered a plastic process that responds to both genetic and environmental conditions. Here, we consider how the ambient temperature experienced by juvenile Erigone atra, a spider inhabiting crop habitat, influences adult dispersal. This species exhibits 2 distinct forms of dispersal, ballooning (long distance) and rappelling (short distance). Using a half-sib design we raised individuals under 4 different temperature regimes and quantified the spiders' propensity to balloon and to rappel. Additionally, as an indicator of investment in settlement, we determined the size of the webs build by the spiders following dispersal. The optimal temperature regimes for reproduction and overall dispersal investment were 20 °C and 25 °C. Propensity to perform short-distance movements was lowest at 15 °C, whereas for long-distance dispersal it was lowest at 30 °C. Plasticity in dispersal was in the direction predicted on the basis of the risks associated with seasonal changes in habitat availability; long-distance ballooning occurred more frequently under cooler, spring-like conditions and short-distance rappelling under warmer, summer-like conditions. Based on these findings, we conclude that thermal conditions during development provide juvenile spiders with information about the environmental conditions they are likely to encounter as adults and that this information influences the spider's dispersal strategy. Climate change may result in suboptimal adult dispersal behavior, with potentially deleterious population level consequences.

Bonte, Dries; Travis, Justin M. J.; De Clercq, Nele; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Lens, Luc

2008-01-01

259

A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01

260

Continental Scientific Drilling (CSD): Technology Barriers to Deep Drilling Studies in Thermal Regimes  

SciTech Connect

This report is the proceedings of a workshop. The primary thrust of these discussion was to identify the major key technology barriers to the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Thermal Regimes CSD projects and to set priorities for research and development. The major technological challenge is the high temperature to be encountered at depth. Specific problems derived from this issue were widely recognized among the participants and are reflected in this summary. A major concern for the projected Thermal Regimes CSD boreholes was the technology required for continuous coring, in contrast to that required for drilling without core or spot coring. Current commercial technology bases for these two techniques are quite different. The DOE has successfully fielded projects that used both technologies, i.e, shallow continuous coring (Inyo Domes and Valles Caldera) and deeper drilling with spot cores (Imperial Valley-SSSDP). It was concluded that future scientific objectives may still require both approaches, but continuous coring is the most likely requirement in the near term. (DJE-2005)

Kolstad, George A.; Rowley, John C.

1987-01-16

261

Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study  

SciTech Connect

In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Howe, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Borowski, S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Motloch, C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Helms, I. (Nuclear Utility Services, Damascus, MD (United States)); Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)); Latham, T. (United

1991-01-01

262

Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

1989-03-01

263

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01

264

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application,

W. L. Foutz; J. E. Rogers; J. D. Mather

2008-01-01

265

Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-07-01

266

Microstructural characteristics and technological properties of YSZ-type powders designed for thermal spraying of TBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results relating to the microstructural characteristics and selected technological properties of yttria and partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-type powders designed for spraying thermal barrier coating (TBC) layers with the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. Three types of powders with the following chemical compositions - ZrO2 × 8Y2O3, ZrO2 × 20Y2O3, and \\

G. Moskal

2010-01-01

267

Hard coatings of metals and ceramics with a new electro-thermal-chemical gun technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new spray technology for producing hard-coatings, using an electro-thermal chemical (ETC) gun is presented. The powder particles of the coating material are accelerated by conventional solid or liquid propellant combustion products. A pulsed-plasma jet, provided by a confined capillary discharge, ignites the propellant and controls the combustion process. The powder particles are accelerated to velocities calculated to be over

S Wald; G Appelbaum; R Alimi; L Rabani; S Cuperman; C Bruma; D Zoler; V Zhitomirsky; M Factor; I Roman

1999-01-01

268

Spaceborne autoranging infrared viewing system for thermal mapping of fluids in a microgravity condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Research and Technology Center has developed a small, space qualified and TV compatible IR viewing system able to visualize thermal flows in fluids in microgravity. This instrument is a part of the diagnostics of a Spacelab facility, namely the Autonomous Fluid Physics Module (AFPM) flown on the last Spacelab D2 mission (April to May 1993). One of the main objectives of the research is to enable monitoring changes in the surface temperature of a fluid following the application of different stimuli. The only way to achieve this without disturbing the fluid under test is to use nonintrusive IR measurement techniques. The overall accuracy of the system allows one to follow the evolution of the complex phenomena related to the heat convection and mass transport effects at the surface of fluids in a weightlessness environment. The general design of the thermal mapping diagnostic system is described and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the scientific goals of the investigation carried out with the AFPM are presented.

Verga, Antonio

1994-01-01

269

The role of nano-particles in the field of thermal spray coating technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-particles play not only a key role in recent research fields, but also in the public discussions about health and safety in nanotechnology. Nevertheless, the worldwide activities in nano-particles research increased dramatically during the last 5 to 10 years. There are different potential routes for the future production of nano-particles at large scale. The main directions envisaged are mechanical milling, wet chemical reactions or gas phase processes. Each of the processes has its specific advantages and limitations. Mechanical milling and wet chemical reactions are typically time intensive and batch processes, whereas gas phase productions by flames or plasma can be carried out continuously. Materials of interest are mainly oxide ceramics, carbides, nitrides, and pure metals. Nano-ceramics are interesting candidates for coating technologies due to expected higher coating toughness, better thermal shock and wear resistance. Especially embedded nano-carbides and-nitrides offer homogenously distributed hard phases, which enhance coatings hardness. Thermal spraying, a nearly 100 years old and world wide established coating technology, gets new possibilities thanks to optimized, nano-sized and/or nano-structured powders. Latest coating system developments like high velocity flame spraying (HVOF), cold gas deposition or liquid suspension spraying in combination with new powder qualities may open new applications and markets. This article gives an overview on the latest activities in nano-particle research and production in special relation to thermal spray coating technology.

Siegmann, Stephan; Leparoux, Marc; Rohr, Lukas

2005-06-01

270

Thermal performance of a scramjet combustor operating at Mach 5.6 flight conditions. Final report, May 1996--May 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental data and the procedures used in acquiring and reducing the thermal loads data during tests of a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor at United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). This research effort is part of the UTRC effort to develop dual-mode scramjet combustor technology to support the development of Mach S missile technology. The objective of the thermal loads testing was to map the thermal and mechanical loads, including heat transfer, dynamic and static pressures, and skin friction in a scramjet combustor during direct-connect scramjet tests. The tests were conducted at the UTRC Ramject/Scramjet direct-connect combustor test facility in East Hartford, CT.

Stouffer, S.D.; Neumann, R.D.; Emmer, D.S.

1997-10-01

271

Effect of thermal shock on the decomposition of rocks under controlled laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major factor determining the rate of weathering of a given rock are the climatic conditions of the surrounding environment, most notably type and amount of precipitation and temperature. For the latter, average annual temperature and where applicable, the frequency of freezing and thawing are often considered to be relevant for weathering. The rate of temperature change is mostly ignored. However, a rapid change in temperature, referred to as thermal shock could have more severe consequences of rock deterioration then gradual heating and cooling of rocks is gradual. Thermal shock induces a stress of such a magnitude that the material is unable to adjust fast enough and so it breaks down. The aim of this study is to examine the importance of mechanical decomposition of rocks when treated with thermal shock by freezing. The rate of decomposition of rocks of various sizes was measured based on their weight loss. In addition, they were immersed in water after freezing and the electrical conductivity and pH of the water were measured as an index for thermal-shock induced micro-fracturing. Samples of three rock types were chosen for the experiment: limestone, tuffaceous rock and basalt. Samples were examined in two separate cycles: (i) 24h immersion in ultra-clean water followed by 24h drying at 30o and (ii) 24h immersion, 24h temperature shock by freezing at -20?C and 6h thawing. Each cycle was repeated approximately 20 times. In each cycle three different sizes of rock were examined: <16mm, 16-8mm and 8-5mm. Limestone mass decreased for both cycles, although more distinctly after repeated thermal shocks. Furthermore, the rate of decay decreased with increasing rock size. Tuffaceous rock exposed to cycle (i) also showed a significant weight loss. Somewhat surprisingly, the mass of the tuffaceous rock exposed to thermal shock increased by about 13% in all sample size groups. It is possible that pore volume increased during experiment and that the rocks became capable of absorbing more water, but the rock was elastic enough not to break under stress. On the basalt, as expected, the rate of weight loss was the smallest. Cylce (ii) samples also showed more intensive mass reduction. Electrical conductivity and pH of the immersion water were constant throughout the experiment and did not change with the number of cycles. This implies that no significant chemical disintegration occurred. The results show that thermal shock can have a rock type-specific effect on physical weathering. The lacking effect on chemical weathering is expected due to the design of the experiment. Under natural conditions, with non-pH neutral water, the declining rock stability, indicated by the loss of mass, especially of the limestone, will mostly likely also enhance leaching and thus chemical weathering.

Kasanin-Grubin, Milica; Vezmar, Tijuana; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2013-04-01

272

Solar thermal power technology: Present status and ideas for the future  

SciTech Connect

Rapid industrial developments and the resulting need for additional electrical power in major population centers of the world such as India, China, and Brazil have created a need and an opportunity for power from clean and renewable sources of energy. The need to develop and use resources such as solar energy, wind, and biomass has assumed even greater importance in view of the concern for environmental damage that could occur if all of the anticipated power demand in the expanding economies were met by fossil fuels. Recent advances in wind energy technology have made it economically competitive with fossil-fuel-generated electricity, wherever sufficient wind resource is available. Solar thermal power can be economically competitive with coal-generated electricity if environmental costs are accounted for. However, without considering such environmental costs (a realistic scenario for developing countries like India and China), solar resources are not cost competitive at present because of the high capital costs. The potential exists for reducing the costs by improving the performance of thermal power systems. The system performance can be improved by employing new and innovative ideas in thermal power cycles. This article reviews some recent developments in thermodynamic cycles as well as new and innovative thermal power cycles applicable to solar thermal power.

Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-02-01

273

Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Wet-Shift Clutch Transmission Based on Multi-technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Based on the construction feature and operating principle of the wet-shift clutch transmission, the condition monitoring and\\u000a fault diagnosis for the transmission of the tracklayer with wet-shift clutch were implemented with using the oil analysis\\u000a technology, function parameter test method and vibration analysis technology. The new fault diagnosis methods were proposed,\\u000a which are to build the gray modeling with the

Man Chen; Liyong Wang; Biao Ma

2011-01-01

274

Enhanced violation of a Leggett-Garg inequality under nonequilibrium thermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate both analytically and numerically violations of a Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) for a composite quantum system in contact with two separate reservoirs at different temperatures. Remarkably we find that LGI violations can be enhanced when a heat current is established at low temperatures in a steady-state regime. Based on a Kraus operator decomposition of the nonunitary evolution for a system formed by two interacting spins or quantum bits, we provide analytical support for power-law relations between dissipation strength and mean temperature in the borderlines separating parameter regions where nonequilibrium conditions affect differently the maximal LGI violation. Furthermore, a correspondence between spatial and temporal correlation inequalities is shown to persist even in such nonequilibrium thermal settings.

Castillo, Juan C.; Rodríguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis

2013-08-01

275

Optical solitary waves in thermal media with non-symmetric boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spatial solitary waves are considered in a nonlocal thermal focusing medium with non-symmetric boundary conditions. The governing equations consist of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the light beam and a Poisson equation for the temperature of the medium. Three numerical methods are investigated for calculating the ground and excited solitary wave solutions of the coupled system. It is found that the Newton conjugate gradient method is the most computationally efficient and versatile numerical technique. The solutions show that by varying the ambient temperature, the solitary wave is deflected towards the warmer boundary. Solitary wave stability is also examined both theoretically and numerically, via power versus propagation constant curves and numerical simulations of the governing partial differential equations. Both the ground and excited state solitary waves are found to be stable. The Newton conjugate gradient method should also prove extremely useful for calculating solitary waves of other related optical systems, which support nonlocal spatial solitary waves, such as nematic liquid crystals.

Louis, S. A.; Marchant, T. R.; Smyth, N. F.

2013-02-01

276

Laser-induced thermal detachment of hot, large molecular ions under multiphoton-absorption conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the delayed electron detachment induced by multiphoton absorption of hot, zinc phthalocyanine negative ions (C32H16N8Zn-) stored in an electrostatic ion storage ring. To examine the critical parameters and conditions that characterize the delayed processes, we performed a theoretical model simulation employing inferred values for molecular properties and experimentally controlled values of excitation laser energy and fluence. The thermal detachment rate was estimated by applying the detailed balance theory, and the internal energy distribution of the ions after multiphoton absorption was calculated as a function of the ion temperature immediately before laser irradiation. Our model simulation well reproduces the experimental results, and demonstrates that the experimental configuration determines the range of the observed detachment rate, namely the detectable energy window of the stored ions. The parameter dependence of the estimated ion temperature on the molecular properties was also obtained.

Goto, M.; Matsumoto, J.; Shiromaru, H.; Achiba, Y.; Majima, T.; Tanuma, H.; Azuma, T.

2013-03-01

277

Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

278

A comparative analysis of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces in the summer season in Singapore and Changsha, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the comparative analysis between the findings from two field surveys of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces during the summer season. The first survey was carried out from August 2010 to May 2011 in Singapore and the second survey was carried out from June 2010 to August 2010 in Changsha, China. The physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was utilized as the thermal index to assess the thermal conditions. Differences were found between the two city respondents in terms of thermal sensation, humidity sensation, and wind speed sensation. No big difference was found between the two city respondents regarding the sun sensation. The two city respondents had similar neutral PET of 28.1 °C for Singapore and 27.9 °C for Changsha, respectively. However, Singapore respondents were more sensitive to PET change than Changsha respondents and the acceptable PET range for Changsha respondents was wider than that for Singapore respondents. Besides, the two city respondents had different thermal expectations with the preferred PET of 25.2 °C and 22.1 °C for Singapore and Changsha, respectively. The results also reveal that Changsha respondents were more tolerant than Singapore respondents under hot conditions. Finally, two regression models were proposed for Singapore and Changsha to predict the human thermal sensation in a given outdoor thermal environment.

Yang, Wei; Wong, Nyuk Hien; Zhang, Guoqiang

2012-12-01

279

A comparative analysis of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces in the summer season in Singapore and Changsha, China.  

PubMed

This paper presents the comparative analysis between the findings from two field surveys of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces during the summer season. The first survey was carried out from August 2010 to May 2011 in Singapore and the second survey was carried out from June 2010 to August 2010 in Changsha, China. The physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was utilized as the thermal index to assess the thermal conditions. Differences were found between the two city respondents in terms of thermal sensation, humidity sensation, and wind speed sensation. No big difference was found between the two city respondents regarding the sun sensation. The two city respondents had similar neutral PET of 28.1 °C for Singapore and 27.9 °C for Changsha, respectively. However, Singapore respondents were more sensitive to PET change than Changsha respondents and the acceptable PET range for Changsha respondents was wider than that for Singapore respondents. Besides, the two city respondents had different thermal expectations with the preferred PET of 25.2 °C and 22.1 °C for Singapore and Changsha, respectively. The results also reveal that Changsha respondents were more tolerant than Singapore respondents under hot conditions. Finally, two regression models were proposed for Singapore and Changsha to predict the human thermal sensation in a given outdoor thermal environment. PMID:23250734

Yang, Wei; Wong, Nyuk Hien; Zhang, Guoqiang

2012-12-20

280

Probing Thermal Gas Conditions in Extragalactic Star-forming Regions Using Radio Recombination Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How stars form out of dense gas and dust is one of the great remaining mysteries in astronomy. While there are viable theories of Galactic star formation, theories of star formation in environments different from those in the Milky Way, which must encompass everything from dwarf galaxies to luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, are relatively unconstrained. There is a great need for quantitative information about the physical conditions of the interstellar medium in extragalactic star-forming regions and how star formation might vary with the wide range of environments (metallicity, stellar density, turbulence, magnetic fields, etc.). Studies of young, embedded star-forming regions are particularly important because they give us crucial information on the condition of the interstellar medium in star-forming regions before the massive stars have moved off the main sequence, and thus tell us about the properties of the initial stellar population. However, because these regions are obscured by their natal dust and gas, they are poorly understood. Radio recombination lines provide an important extinction-free probe of obscured star-forming regions, yielding crucial constraints on the density, filling factor, and mass of the thermal gas in star-forming regions and number of ionizing photons present in these regions. Unfortunately, until recently these observations were tremendously difficult due to the limited bandwidth and sensitivity of previous radio interferometers. The Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) has opened new frontiers of discovery for these powerful, but faint, diagnostic lines. We present the first observations of radio recombination lines in nearby star-forming galaxies with the recently updated Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). These observations provide important constraints on the the physical properties of the thermal gas in these regions, and thus constraint extragalactic star formation theories.

Kepley, Amanda A.; Chomiuk, L.; Balser, D.; Johnson, K.; Goss, M.; Pisano, D.

2011-01-01

281

Electrothermal simulation of multichip-modules with novel transient thermal model and time-dependent boundary conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of monitoring the chip temperatures of power semiconductor modules at all times under various realistic working conditions is the basis for investigating the limits of the maximum permissible load. A novel transient thermal model for the fast calculation of temperature fields and hot spot temperature evolution presented recently is extended to include time-dependent boundary conditions for variations of

York C. Gerstenmaier; Alberto Castellazzi; Gerhard K. M. Wachutka

2006-01-01

282

Low-cycle Fatigue of Ag-Based Solders Dependent on Alloying Composition and Thermal Cycle Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many solder creep and fatigue models have been developed to predict the fatigue life of solder joints under low-cycle fatigue conditions. However, because of the diversity of leadfree solders, additional work has been performed to find out effects of alloying content, surface finish, thermal cycle conditions and microstructure. Based on creep properties, the solder joint creep strain and creep dissipation

Rainer Dudek; Wolfgang Faust; Steffen Wiese; Mike Röllig; Bernd Michel

2007-01-01

283

Formation of texture of Ni 48Mn 31Ga 21 polycrystalline alloy by thermal simulation pack rolling technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot deformation behavior of Ni48Mn31Ga21 alloy was studied by thermal simulation rolling technology. Microstructure evolution of the alloys under different rolling processes was studied by optical microscopy(OM) and X-ray diffractometry(XRD). The results show that, by thermal simulation pack rolling technology, textures appear in polycrystalline Ni48Mn31Ga21 alloy, and big cracks can be avoided under large deformation ratio. The rolling process

Bin LU; Hua-bin WANG; Yan LIU; Ji-xuan LIU; Hong-lei WANG

2006-01-01

284

Operating modes of high-Tc composite superconductors and thermal runaway conditions under current charging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating thermal and electric modes of a high-Tc superconducting composite in partially and fully penetrated states induced by the charging current are investigated. They were studied under conditions in which the current charging rate, the volume fraction of the superconductor in a composite or the temperature of the cooling bath were changed. The transient behaviour of the voltage-current dependence, which is characteristic during stable and unstable increases in electric field inside the composite under a continuous current charging, is discussed. Simulations were done using zero- and one-dimensional steady and unsteady thermoelectric models with a power equation describing the virgin voltage-current characteristic of a superconductor. It is found that some thermoelectric trends underlie the shape of the voltage-current characteristic of the high-Tc superconducting composite. These have to be considered during experiments in which the critical or quench currents are defined. First, in the initial stage of the fully penetrated regime (in the low voltage range), the electric field distribution does not have a uniform character. These states depend on the volume fraction of the superconductor and the current charging rate: the higher these quantities, the higher the heterogeneity of the electric field. Second, during the stable over-critical regime (in the high voltage range) occurring in complete penetration modes, the evolution of the electric field may depend on the relevant temperature increase of a composite according to the corresponding increase in its temperature-dependent heat capacity. Consequently, the shape of the voltage-current characteristic of a composite high-Tc superconductor during continuous current charging, both before and after thermal runaway, has only a positive slope. Moreover, it is proved that the growth of the fully penetrated part of the voltage-current characteristic becomes less intensive when the current charging rate or the coolant temperature increase. That is why the voltage-current characteristic of a high-Tc superconductor cannot determine the boundary of onset of thermal runaway. It is also confirmed that there is a thermal degradation mechanism of the current-carrying capacity of the composite. In particular, according to this mechanism, the quench currents do not increase proportionally to an increase in the amount of superconductor in a composite.

Romanovskii, V. R.; Watanabe, K.

2006-06-01

285

An assessment of off-gas treatment technologies for application to thermal treatment of Department of Energy wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe available air pollution control technologies for pollutants generated by thermal treatment of DOE wastes. A basic process for selecting air pollution control devices is summarized. Types of air pollutants generated by thermal treatment units are described, as well as the factors that influence the types and quantities of pollutants generated. This report

J. D. Dalton; R. L. Gillins; T. L. Harris; A. L. Wollerman

1992-01-01

286

Boundary condition effects on polymeric membrane formation: Developing the thermally assisted evaporative phase-separation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporative-cast phase-inversion process, also known as the dry-cast process, is one of the standard membrane-formation techniques. This process, typically performed at room temperature, is characterized by a solvent and a nonsolvent evaporating from a ternary polymer solution. The evaporative process is considerably more controllable than other membrane-formation techniques such as the wet-casting process, where the polymer-solvent solution is immersed in a bath of nonsolvent. However, the only way the evaporative-cast process can be completed in a reasonable period of time is for the solvent to have a high vapor pressure at room temperature. To date, this requirement has limited the process to polymers soluble in low-boiling-point solvents. Although the effects of changing the boundary conditions is poorly understood, there are hints in the literature that a systematic study of the effects of the boundary conditions could lead to a method to dry-cast polymers that are soluble only in high-boiling-point solvents. Therefore, the overall goal of this thesis is to investigate the effects of boundary conditions on the evaporative process. This goal was addressed via both experimental and modeling studies. First, the boundary conditions were altered experimentally by elevating the processing temperatures to above room temperature. This led to a novel evaporative process to form membranes from polymers that are soluble only in high-boiling-point solvents, the thermally assisted evaporative phase-separation (TAEPS) process. An extensive experimental study was conducted, investigating the effects of combinations of the different variables including the boundary conditions (air and support temperatures) and the initial conditions (initial solution temperature and composition). The experimental study was performed on a model polymer system (1-octanol/dimethyl formamide (DW)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)) to understand the effects of the variables on the final membrane morphology. Results indicate that the novel process can produce morphologies unobtainable by any other standard method, simply by altering the boundary conditions. For example, PVDF typically forms macrovoids (large tear-shaped pores) during membrane formation, that are usually only avoidable by including additives. Using this new process, macrovoids could be eliminated without changing the system, merely by adjusting the air and support temperatures. Second, the Shojaie-Krantz-Greenberg (SKG) dry-cast model was expanded to incorporate the appropriate boundary conditions for the TAEPS process as well as several other configurations. The mathematical model provides information about the process that is otherwise unobtainable, for example, the component concentration as a function of time and position. The model predictions show that the bottom boundary condition as well as the mass-transfer coefficient strongly affect the morphology of the membrane. For example, a single initial composition can produce a symmetric membrane (insulated bottom, buoyancy-induced convection), an asymmetric membrane (insulated bottom, forced convection), or a dense film (constant-temperature bottom, forced convection), depending on the boundary conditions. To validate the model, the model predictions were compared with gravimetric real-time measurements. The model predictions were generally well behaved for most boundary conditions, with excellent agreement between the experimental mass-loss and model-predicted massloss curves. This model can now be used to study other polymeric and physical systems to help identify appropriate boundary conditions and compositions to produce a desired microstructure.

Hellman, Diana Joyce

287

Remediation case studies: Ex situ soil treatment technologies (bioremediation, solvent extraction, thermal desorption). Volume 7  

SciTech Connect

The case studies in this volume describe ten applications of ex situ soil treatment technologies, including three applications of land treatment (bioremediation), one application of solvent extraction, and six applications of thermal desorption. Two of the land treatment applications were full-scale remediations of sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons, and one was a field demonstration at a site contaminated with pesticides. The solvent extraction application was a full-scale application to treat soil contaminated with PCBs. All six thermal desorption applications were full-scale, and involved treatment of soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, and pesticides. All case studies in this volume are for completed applications.

NONE

1998-09-01

288

New technologies for modeling fire and disturbed conditions in forest and rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, considerable resources have been invested in methods to predict erosion on agricultural lands. Technologies developed for agricultural conditions tended to focus on long term average annual erosion rates from sites that are tilled annually, or regularly as part of some rotation. Techno...

289

Study of the optimum technology and its related conditions in the treatment of NGD after exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nongelatin dichromated film (designated as NGD) is a kind of new holographic recording material. To get the eternal hologram with efficient diffraction, low noise, and damp resistance is to seek the optimum technology and conditions at their best of the NGD after exposure. This essay, through a great number of experiments and research, has found a proper optimum technology and conditions after exposure: the pre-processing of the cross-linking accelerant solution, infrared light hardening, swelling colorfast of the basic solution, development of acid solution, water washing, isopropanol dehydrate, and drying with a hot blast. The processing time and PH value of the liquid must be strictly controlled. The NGD hologram through the processing of the optimum technology, has possessed the result of relief and volume hologram. The diffraction (eta) is > 30%, it will not degenerate at the relative humidity of 90%, and can be kept forever at indoor temperatures.

Dai, Chaoming; Cheng, Qirei; Wang, Kuoping; Guo, Lu-Rong

1993-03-01

290

Thermal comfort standards for air conditioned buildings in hot and humid Thailand considering additional factors of acclimatization and education level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the result of a large thermal comfort survey conducted using 1520 Thai volunteers from different climatic regions of Thailand. The survey was conducted using different types of air-conditioned buildings from the private and public sectors.Apart from common thermal comfort factors such as air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and air velocity, two non-quantifiable factors were considered. These

N. Yamtraipat; J. Khedari; J. Hirunlabh

2005-01-01

291

Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey\\u000a was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants\\u000a from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment\\u000a reveals that the

Wei Yang; Guoqiang Zhang

2008-01-01

292

Assessing the impact of thermal acclimation on physiological condition in the zebrafish model.  

PubMed

The zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model organism in a wide range of scientific disciplines, but current information concerning the physiological temperature response of adult zebrafish is rather scarce. In this study, zebrafish were experimentally acclimated for 28 days to 18, 26 or 34 °C and a suite of non-invasive and invasive methods was applied to determine the thermal dependence of zebrafish physiological condition. With decreasing temperature, the metabolic rate of zebrafish decreased, as shown by the decreasing oxygen uptake and ammonia excretion rates, limiting the critical swimming speed, probably due to a decreased muscle fibre power output. In response to exercise, fuel stores were mobilized to the liver as shown by the increased hepatosomatic index, liver total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration but due to the low metabolic rate they could not be adequately addressed to power swimming activity at 18 °C. Conversely, the increased metabolic performance at high temperature came with an increased metabolic cost resulting in decreased energy status reflected particularly well by the non-invasive condition factor and invasive measures of carcass protein concentration, carcass total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration. We showed that the combined measurement of the relative condition factor and critical swimming speed is a powerful non-invasive tool for long-term follow-up studies. Invasive methods were redundant for measuring general energy status but they provided detailed information concerning metabolic reorganization. With this study we proved that the usefulness of the zebrafish as a model organism can easily be expanded to include physiological studies and we provided a reference dataset for the selection of measures of physiological responses for future studies using the zebrafish. PMID:22872185

Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Hagenaars, An; De Boeck, Gudrun; Blust, Ronny

2012-08-08

293

A study of the thermal shock resistance of coke-oven dinas under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the results of investigations on the thermal shock resistance of the dinas specimens having different values of porosity, density, and refractory clay content. The authors employed the direct method of evaluating the thermal shock resistance as well as the indirect method. It was concluded that the effect of the porosity of dinas on its thermal shock resistance

E. K. Akselrod; A. I. Portrova

1986-01-01

294

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15

295

Space power thermal management materials and fabrication technologies for commerical use  

SciTech Connect

This technology is being developed in several new directions. Porous metal heat exchangers feature extraordinarily high specific surface ratios and have absorbed heat fluxes in excess of 100 MW/m{sup 2}. Porous metal structures are highly compliant, so the technology has been expanded to produce a compliant interface for the attachment of materials with widely different coefficients of thermal expansion such as low expansion carbon-carbon to high expansion metals. (3.) The paper also describes a process, developed for space nuclear power (thermionics), which achieves 100% dense tungsten by plasma spraying. This could have major application in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel or other pyrochemical processes, where it would replace gun-drilled tungsten-molybdenum tubes with pure tungsten tubes of smaller diameter, longer, and thiner walled. The process could produce pure tungsten components in complex shapes for arcjet thrusters and other electric propulsion devices. {copyright}American Institute of Physics 1995

Rosenfeld, J.H.; Anderson, W.G.; Horner-Richardson, K.; Hartenstine, J.R.; Keller, R.F. [Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Road, Lancaster, PA 17601 (United States); Beals, J.T. [United Technologies Research Center, Silver Lane, MS 13, East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States)

1995-01-20

296

CARBON-RICH GIANT PLANETS: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, THERMAL INVERSIONS, SPECTRA, AND FORMATION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The recent inference of a carbon-rich atmosphere, with C/O {>=} 1, in the hot Jupiter WASP-12b motivates the exotic new class of carbon-rich planets (CRPs). We report a detailed study of the atmospheric chemistry and spectroscopic signatures of carbon-rich giant (CRG) planets, the possibility of thermal inversions in their atmospheres, the compositions of icy planetesimals required for their formation via core accretion, and the apportionment of ices, rock, and volatiles in their envelopes. Our results show that CRG atmospheres probe a unique region in composition space, especially at high temperature (T). For atmospheres with C/O {>=} 1, and T {approx}> 1400 K in the observable atmosphere, most of the oxygen is bound up in CO, while H{sub 2}O is depleted and CH{sub 4} is enhanced by up to two or three orders of magnitude each, compared to equilibrium compositions with solar abundances (C/O = 0.54). These differences in the spectroscopically dominant species for the different C/O ratios cause equally distinct observable signatures in the spectra. As such, highly irradiated transiting giant exoplanets form ideal candidates to estimate atmospheric C/O ratios and to search for CRPs. We also find that the C/O ratio strongly affects the abundances of TiO and VO, which have been suggested to cause thermal inversions in highly irradiated hot Jupiter atmospheres. A C/O = 1 yields TiO and VO abundances of {approx}100 times lower than those obtained with equilibrium chemistry assuming solar abundances, at P {approx} 1 bar. Such a depletion is adequate to rule out thermal inversions due to TiO/VO even in the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters, such as WASP-12b. We estimate the compositions of the protoplanetary disk, the planetesimals, and the envelope of WASP-12b, and the mass of ices dissolved in the envelope, based on the observed atmospheric abundances. Adopting stellar abundances (C/O = 0.44) for the primordial disk composition and low-temperature formation conditions (T {approx}< 30 K) for WASP-12b lead to a C/O ratio of 0.27 in accreted planetesimals, and, consequently, in the planet's envelope. In contrast, a C/O ratio of 1 in the envelope of WASP-12b requires a substantial depletion of oxygen in the disk, i.e., by a factor of {approx}0.41 for the same formation conditions. This scenario also satisfies the constraints on the C/H and O/H ratios reported for WASP-12b. If, alternatively, hotter conditions prevailed in a stellar composition disk such that only H{sub 2}O is condensed, the remaining gas can potentially have a C/O {approx} 1. However, a high C/O in WASP-12b caused predominantly by gas accretion would preclude superstellar C/H ratios which also fit the data.

Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mousis, Olivier [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besancon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Johnson, Torrence V. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: nmadhu@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2011-12-20

297

Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on unfermented apple cider aroma volatiles.  

PubMed

Aroma composition and microbial quality of identical lots of apple cider treated by pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or thermal pasteurization stored at 4 degrees C were compared at 0 and 4 weeks. Conditions were optimized to achieve identical 5 log reductions in Escherichia coli K12 for each treatment. PEF and thermal pasteurization maintained acceptable microbial quality for 4 weeks, but UV samples fermented after 2 weeks. Twenty-eight volatiles were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and odor activity values (OAV) determined. OAVs of 69:hexyl acetate, 41:hexanal, 25:2-methylbutyl acetate, 23:2-methyl ethyl butyrate, and 14:2-(E)-hexenal were observed for the control cider. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of these odorants were observed between treated apple ciders only after 4 weeks of storage. Thermal samples lost 30% of the major ester and aldehyde volatiles during storage with significant decreases (p < 0.05) in butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, hexanal, and 2-(E)-hexenal. In UV cider, hexanal and 2-(E)-hexenal were completely lost after 4 weeks of storage. Microbial spoilage in UV cider after 4 weeks of storage was chemically confirmed by the detection of the microbial metabolite 1,3-pentadiene. PEF cider lost <2% of its total ester and aldehydes after 4 weeks of storage and was preferred by 91% of the sensory panel over thermally treated cider. PMID:19154152

Azhu Valappil, Zareena; Fan, Xuetong; Zhang, Howard Q; Rouseff, Russell L

2009-02-11

298

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

299

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

300

Investigation of mobile homes for air conditioning and heating performance: evaluation of Zone 1 mobile home thermal envelopes. Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of Zone 1 full - size mobile home winter - spring thermal envelopes. The task involved an experimental analysis of day and night thermal performance evaluation of these homes for compliance with HUD Mobile Home Standards Subparts F and H '3'. Existing instrumentation installed in the two HUD - provided mobile homes was modified in order to conduct winter - spring testing on the mobile homes' furnace air delivery, fuel supply, and thermal envelope. The experimental parameters manifested during this phase included climate conditions; interior temperatures; interior humidity; heat flow through walls, ceiling, and floor; condensation in the internal structure; infiltration rates; and energy consumption of the heating equipment. These data were subsequently used to analyze the thermal performance of the mobile home envelope and the energy consumption associated with conditioning the interior space. Also presented are the results of an evaluation of the effects of improved insulation and vapor barrier strategies on thermal performance and condensation, the impact of transportation on thermal performance, and evaluations of four selected shading devices. Study data, figures, and four references are provided.

Ingley, H.A.; Dixon, R.

1981-07-01

301

Scar prevention by laser-assisted scar healing (LASH) using thermal post-conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 810-nm diode laser system was developed to accelerate and improve the healing process in surgical scars. Using thermal post-conditioning, the laser system provides a localised moderate heating whose maximum temperature is controlled to prevent tissue damage and stimulate the heat shock proteins (HSP) synthesis. The 810-nm wavelength allows a deep penetration of the light into the dermis, without damaging the epidermis. The time along which surgical incision is treated (continuous wave) must therefore be selected carefully with respect to the temperature precision achieved within the heated volume. A top-hat profile is preferred to a Gaussian profile in order to ensure the skin surface temperature is homogenised, as is the temperature of the heated volume. The spot shape will depend on the medical indication. The treatment should be made safe and controlled by means of a safety strip containing an RFID chip which will transmit the various operating settings to the laser device. A clinical trial aims at evaluating the 810 nm-diode laser in surgical incisions, with only one laser treatment immediately after skin closure, of patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Surgical incisions were divided into two fields, with only portions randomly selected receiving laser treatment. At the final scar analysis (12 months) of the pilot study, the treated portion scored significantly better for both surgeon (P = 0.046) and patients (P = 0.025). Further studies may be warranted to better understand the cellular mechanisms leading to Laser-Assisted Skin Healing (LASH).

Gossé, Alban; Iarmarcovai, Gwen; Capon, Alexandre; Cornil, Alain; Mordon, Serge

2009-02-01

302

Thermal stabilities of drops of burning thermoplastics under the UL 94 vertical test conditions.  

PubMed

The properties of polymer melts will strongly affect the fire hazard of the pool induced by polymer melt flow. In this study the thermal stabilities of eight thermoplastic polymers as well as their melting drops generated under the UL 94 vertical burning test conditions were investigated by thermogravimetric experiments. It was found that the kinetic compensation effect existed for the decomposition reactions of the polymers and their drops. For polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the onset decomposition temperature and the two decomposition kinetic parameters (the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy) of the drop were less than those of the polymer. However, the onset decomposition temperature and the two kinetic parameters of PC's drop were greater than those of polycarbonate (PC). Interestingly, for polyethylenevinylacetate (EVA18) the drop hardly contained the vinyl acetate chain segments. Similarly, for the PMMA/LDPE blends and the PMMA/PP blends, when the volume fraction of PMMA was less than 50% the drop hardly contained PMMA, implying that the blend would not drip until PMMA burned away and its surface temperature approached the decomposition temperature of the continuous phase composed of LDPE or PP. PMID:23298738

Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jun

2012-12-20

303

Conservative bounds on Rayleigh-Bénard convection with mixed thermal boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the background field variational method developed by Doering and Constantin, we obtain upper bounds on heat transport in Rayleigh-Bénard convection assuming mixed (Robin) thermal conditions of arbitrary Biot number ? at the fluid boundaries, ranging from the fixed temperature (perfectly conducting, ? = 0) to the fixed flux (perfectly insulating, ? = ?) extremes. Solving the associated Euler-Lagrange equations, we numerically find optimal bounds on the averaged convective heat transport, measured by the Nusselt number Nu, over a restricted one-parameter class of piecewise linear background temperature profiles, and compare these to conservative analytical bounds derived using elementary functional estimates. We find that analytical estimates fully capture the scaling behaviour of the semi-optimal numerical bounds, including a clear transition from fixed temperature to fixed flux behaviour observed for any small nonzero ? as the usual Rayleigh number Ra increases, suggesting that in the strong driving limit, all imperfectly conducting boundaries effectively act as insulators. The overall bounds, optimized over piecewise linear backgrounds, are Nu ? 0.045 Ra1/2 in the fixed temperature case ? = 0, and Nu ? 0.078 Ra1/2 in the large-Ra limit in all other cases, 0 < ? ? ?.

Wittenberg, R. W.; Gao, J.

2010-08-01

304

Predicting worker exposure--the effect of ventilation velocity, free-stream turbulence and thermal condition.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to predict the flow field and resulting worker exposures when toxic airborne contaminants were released into the wake region of a mannequin that had its back to the airflow while holding the source of airborne contaminants. The effects of ventilation velocity, free-stream turbulence, and various thermal conditions on fluid flow and exposure levels were evaluated. The results showed good agreement between predicted and experimental concentrations at the mouth at a broad range of airflow velocities when the mannequin was both heated and unheated. When the mannequin was unheated, the exposure level decreased as the ventilation velocity increased. The expectation that buoyancy provided by the heat from the mannequin would be most important at very low velocities and decreasingly important at high velocities was proved true for both the predicted and observed exposures. The result was that when the mannequin was heated to normal human body temperatures, exposure levels had an inverted V relationship with velocity. These findings are important, since they call into question the common practice of modeling human exposures with mannequins at ambient temperatures. In addition, free-stream turbulence could be used to reduce worker exposure to airborne pollutants as suggested by the simulations. CFD enabled a detailed investigation of the effect of particular factors for exposure predictions in a cost-effective way. PMID:17917950

Li, Jun; Yavuz, Ibrahim; Celik, Ismail; Guffey, Steve

2007-11-01

305

Thermal Relaxation of Gelatin and Date Flesh Measured by Isothermal Condition in Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and its Relation to the Structural and Mechanical Glass Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new innovative method was developed to measure the thermal-relaxation by maintaining isothermal condition in a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The DSC thermal-relaxation characteristics of gelatin and date flesh were found to be related with the structural- and mechanical-glass transition measured by conventional DSC linear-heating and thermal-mechanical analysis (i.e, Differential Thermal Mechanical Analysis, DMTA). Initial slope of the thermal relaxation

Mohammad Shafiur Rahman; Ghalib Said Al-Saidi

2010-01-01

306

Magnetohydrodynamic effects on stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet in presence of thermal radiation with convective boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the mathematical modeling for magnetohydrodynamic effects on stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet in presence of thermal radiation and convective boundary conditions is considered. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the local heat transfer coefficient, the surface temperature as well as the temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number, stretching parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal radiation parameter and conjugate parameter are analyzed and discussed. In conclusion, the thermal boundary layer thickness depends strongly on these five parameters. It is found that, as Prandtl number, stretching parameter and thermal radiation parameter increase, the temperature profiles decrease. While, as magnetic parameter and conjugate parameter increase, the temperature profiles also increase.

Mohamed, M. K. A.; Anwar, M. I.; Shafie, S.; Salleh, M. Z.; Ishak, A.

2013-04-01

307

Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

2013-09-01

308

Surface wetting and its effect on body and surface temperatures of domestic laying hens at different thermal conditions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficacy of surface wetting at different thermal conditions on core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures in laying hens. Hens were sprinkled on the head and dorsal surface by releasing a sprinkling dosage of 10 mL.bird(-1). The first measurement was taken presprinkling, and the second was taken immediately postsprinkling and then repeated every 5 min for 20 min. The cooling water needs for intermittent partial surface wetting to relieve acute heat stress in the laying hens were quantified for 48 domestic laying hens under 4 experimental thermal conditions. The hens were kept at 4 thermal conditions at average dry-bulb temperatures of 31.30 +/- 0.03, 33.20 +/- 0.08, 36.01 +/- 0.12, and 40.24 +/- 0.08 degrees C; RH of 67.68 +/- 0.37, 51.78 +/- 1.98, 24.59 +/- 0.90, and 16.12 +/- 1.55%; and air velocities of 0.09 +/- 0.00, 0.07 +/- 0.00, 0.08 +/- 0.00, and 0.09 +/- 0.00 m.s(-1), respectively. The differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal groups were 0.15, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.22 degrees C for core body temperature; 1.63, 1.44, 2.51, and 0.97 degrees C for core head temperature; and 1.23, 1.37, 1.41, and 0.64 degrees C for core dorsal temperature at thermal conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There were significant differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal condition groups. It was concluded that the spraying interval was directly proportional to the product of the vapor pressure deficit and the thermal resistance of convective mass transfer of the wetted hens, because there were no significant differences in the air velocity among the 4 thermal condition groups and the air velocity was very low. PMID:19038798

Mutaf, S; Kahraman, N Seber; Firat, M Z

2008-12-01

309

Acoustic Microscopy Analyses to Determine Good vs. Failed Tissue Engineered Oral Mucosa Under Normal or Thermally Stressed Culture Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) ultrasonic profilometry to determine acceptable vs. failed tissue engineered\\u000a oral mucosa. Specifically, ex vivo-produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOMEs) under normal or thermally stressed culture conditions were scanned with the SAM\\u000a operator blinded to the culture conditions. As seeded cells proliferate, they fill in and smooth out the surface irregularities;\\u000a they then stratify and

Frank Winterroth; Junho Lee; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Stephen E. Feinberg; Scott J. Hollister; Kyle W. Hollman

2011-01-01

310

A Review of Large-Scale Fracture Experiments Relevant to Pressure Vessel Integrity Under Pressurized Thermal Shock Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous large-scale fracture experiments have been performed over the past thirty years to advance fracture mechanics methodologies applicable to thick-wall pressure vessels. This report first identifies major factors important to nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) conditions. It then covers 20 key experiments that have contributed to identifying fracture behavior of RPVs and to validating

C. E. Pugh; B. R. Bass

2001-01-01

311

Action of benzimidazole fungicides on resorcinolic lipid metabolism in rye seedlings depends on thermal and light growth conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and homologue composition of alkylresorcinols were investigated in rye seedlings (Secale cereale L.) treated with benzimidazole fungicides and grown for 5 days under various thermal and light conditions. The fresh and dry biomasses of green and etiolated plants were greatly increased by benomyl and carbendazim at 29°C. At 22 and 15°C benomyl had an inhibitory action on growth

Elzbieta G. Magnucka; Yoshikatsu Suzuki; Stanislaw J. Pietr; Arkadiusz Kozubek; Robert Zarnowski

2007-01-01

312

Evaporation from soils under thermal boundary conditions: Experimental and modeling investigation to compare equilibrium- and nonequilibrium-based approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the shallow subsurface immediately below the land-atmosphere interface, it is widely recognized that the movement of water vapor is closely coupled to thermal processes. However, their mutual interactions are rarely considered in most soil water modeling efforts or in practical applications where it becomes necessary to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture. The validation of numerical models that are designed to capture these processes is difficult due to the scarcity of field or laboratory data with accurately known hydraulic and thermal parameters of soils, limiting the testing and refinement of heat and water transfer theories. The goal of this paper is to perform controlled experiments under transient conditions of soil moisture and temperature and use this data to test existing theories and develop appropriate numerical models. Water vapor flow under varying temperature gradients was implemented on the basis of a concept that allows nonequilibrium liquid/gas phase change with gas phase vapor diffusion. To validate this new approach, we developed a long column apparatus equipped with a network of sensors and generated data under well-controlled thermal boundary conditions at the soil surface. The nonequilibrium approach yielded good agreement with the experimental results, validating the hypothesis that transport in the gas phase is better suited to be modeled with nonequilibrium liquid/gas phase change for highly transient field conditions where the thermal conditions at the land-atmosphere interface are constantly changing.

Smits, Kathleen M.; Cihan, Abdullah; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

2011-05-01

313

Analysis of the thermal and stressed condition of ceramic refractory parts by the finite-element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the finite-element method is widely used for investigation of the thermal and stressed condition of ceramic parts and crucibles. With the use of the finite-element method on the basis of a single approach it was possible to construct an effective algorithm for solution of the problem of numerical simulation of the service processes of ceramic crucibles and die

M. L. Melnikova; E. N. Chasovskoi; A. A. Postnikov

1986-01-01

314

Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

1998-02-01

315

Nonadaptive strategies explain variation in rate of development under different thermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test for an effect of isomorphy on development rate under different experimental thermal environments. Methods: In three different thermal environments, we studied the following characters as response variables during development: metabolic rate, body mass, and body length. We used as our study model the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare during the first 14 weeks of development. Conclusions: Our results

Guillermo Folguera; Tamara P. Catalán; Francisco Bozinovic

2009-01-01

316

Thermal comfort conditions and patterns of behaviour in outdoor urban spaces in Tokyo, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective thermal comfort and physical and climatic preferences in two outdoor public spaces - one park and one square in a satellite city northeast of Tokyo - have been investigated by structured interviews and comprehensive micrometeorological measurements. Additionally, the use and outdoor activity were investigated by unobtrusive observations. The thermal environment has been analysed using the air temperature (Ta), the

Sofia Thorsson; Tsuyoshi Honjo; Fredrik Lindberg; Ingegärd Eliasson; Eun-Mi Lim

317

Transient thermal behaviour of a compressor rotor with ventilation: Test results under simulated engine conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of advanced compressors for modern aero-engines requires detailed knowledge of the transient thermal behavior of the rotor disks to enable accurate prediction of rotor life and, additionally, of the thermal growth of the rotor for the evaluation of tip clearances. In the quest for longer life and higher reliability of the parts as well as reduced clearances even

E. Reile; U. Radons; D. K. Hennecke

1985-01-01

318

Ground thermal conditions and active layer processes within two glacier forefields with heterogeneous permafrost occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patchy occurrence of frozen ground in the alpine discontinuous permafrost zone is well known and often restricted to block fields and areas with coarse surface substrate. External factors that account for this heterogeneous distribution on a local scale are snow depth, snow cover evolution, local topography, nature of substrate and glacial history. We present temperature and geoelectrical monitoring data from two glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps, both deglaciated since the Little Ice Age. Two boreholes were drilled in 2006 at Val Murgal (8 m) and another two in 2008 within glacier forefield Vadret dal Murtèl (10 m) each equipped with temperature sensors in variable depths. Additionally, temperature data loggers were placed at both sites. Boreholes and miniloggers were installed at locations with different substrate to cover the range in grain sizes from sand to boulders that dominate in this kind of alpine environment. Geoelectrical measurements were conducted across the boreholes to correlate thermal conditions with physical properties of the near surface layer. Whereas in Val Muragl measurements were repeated several times a year since 2005, an automatic monitoring was installed in March 2011 in glacier forefield Murtèl. With the monitoring system changes in subsurface electrical resistivity can be resolved on a diurnal scale. Together with borehole temperatures these data enhance the understanding of processes during snow melt in spring and freeze-back in autumn within the active layer. Temperature data show a constant depth of the active layer for the 6-year record of Val Muragl. While the blocky debris thaws down to 2 m during summer, the active layer is 5 m at the site with finer till. A contrary trend is visible at the lowermost sensor in 8 m depth that indicates a slight warming at the coarse site. Within the fine debris temperatures dropped from -0.3 °C to -0.7 °C since 2009 and at the same time the annual signal diminished. The 3-year record from Murtèl site shows a constant temperature slightly below the freezing point at the 10 m sensor without any trend at the blocky site. The second borehole in morainic till has seasonal frost conditions. Data from miniloggers document a strong heterogeneity in the thermal regime at the ground surface on a local scale. Mean annual ground surface temperatures differ by more than 3 °C within short distances and show a correlation with grain size. However, outliers with cold MAGST indicate that permafrost may exist even at sites with finer debris. Results from geoelectrical measurements indicate a fast reduction in ground resistivity within the active layer that occurs immediately when the snow cover gets isothermal and snow melt sets in. Resistivity values decreased by more than 60 per cent during a 6 day period in May 2011.

Rödder, T.; Kneisel, C.

2012-04-01

319

Under Which Conditions Do Technology Intermediaries Enhance Firms' Innovation Speed? The Case of Belgium's Collective Research Centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knockaert M. and Spithoven A. Under which conditions do technology intermediaries enhance firms' innovation speed? The case of Belgium's collective research centres, Regional Studies. So far little research has analysed the role of technology intermediaries in enhancing firms' innovation speed. This research aims to fill this gap by studying a specific type of technology intermediary, namely the collective research centres

Mirjam Knockaert; André Spithoven

2012-01-01

320

Introducing bio- and micro-technology into undergraduate thermal-fluids courses: investigating pipe pressure loss via atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

To introduce bio- and micro-technologies into general undergraduate thermal-fluids classes, a hands-on interdisciplinary in-class demonstration is described that juxtaposes classical pressure loss pipe flow experiments against a modern micro-characterization technique, AFM profilometry. Both approaches measure surface roughness and can segue into classroom discussions related to material selection and design of bio-medical devices to handle biological fluids such as blood. Appealing to the range of engineering students populating a general thermal-fluids course, a variety of pipe/hose/tube materials representing a spectrum of disciplines can be tested using both techniques. This in-class demonstration relies on technical content already available in standard thermal-fluids textbooks, provides experimental juxtaposition between classical and micro-technology-enabled approaches to the same experiment, and can be taught by personnel with no specialized micro- or bio-technology expertise. PMID:23367066

Müller, Marcus; Traum, Matthew J

2012-01-01

321

Review of R&D progress and practical application of the solar photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the global market potential of solar thermal, photovoltaic (PV) and combined photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) technologies in current time and near future was discussed. The concept of the PV\\/T and the theory behind the PV\\/T operation were briefly introduced, and standards for evaluating technical, economic and environmental performance of the PV\\/T systems were addressed. A comprehensive literature review into

Xingxing Zhang; Xudong Zhao; Stefan Smith; Jihuan Xu; Xiaotong Yu

322

Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots.

Kelly, F. A.; Stacey, W. M.; Rapp, J.

2001-11-01

323

Thermal fatigue testing of a diffusion-bonded beryllium divertor mock-up under ITER relevant conditions  

SciTech Connect

Thermal response and thermal fatigue tests of four 5 mm thick beryllium tiles on a Russian divertor mock-up were completed on the Electron Beam Test System at Sandia National Laboratories. The beryllium tiles were diffusion bonded onto an OFHC copper saddleblock and a DSCu (MAGT) tube containing a porous coating. Thermal response tests were performed on the tiles to an absorbed heat flux of 5 MW/m{sup 2} and surface temperatures near 300{degrees}C using 1.4 MPa water at 5.0 m/s flow velocity and an inlet temperature of 8-15{degrees}C. One tile was exposed to incrementally increasing heat fluxes up to 9.5 MW/m{sup 2} and surface temperatures up to 690{degrees}C before debonding at 10 MW/m{sup 2}. A third tile debonded after 9200 thermal fatigue cycles at 5 MW/m{sup 2}, while another debonded after 6800 cycles. In all cases, fatigue failure occurred in the intermetallic layers between the beryllium and copper. No fatigue cracking of the bulk beryllium was observed. During thermal cycling, a gradual loss of porous coating produced increasing sample temperatures. These experiments indicate that diffusion-bonded beryllium tiles can survive several thousand thermal cycles under ITER relevant conditions without failure. However, the reliability of the diffusion bonded Joint remains a serious issue.

Youchison, D.L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Guiniiatouline, R. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

324

Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

2007-06-04

325

Spacecraft Thermal Management Using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses an advanced hybrid two-phase loop technology for spacecraft thermal management. The hybrid loop integrates active mechanical pumping with passive capillary pumping promising a reliable yet high performance cooling system. The advanced evaporator design using porous wick structures was developed for the hybrid loop to enhance boiling heat transfer by passive phase separation. The prototype testing using various hybrid loops and components demonstrated that the hybrid loop was capable of removing high heat fluxes from multiple heat sources with large surface areas up to 135 cm2. Because of the passive capillary phase separation, the hybrid loop operation doesn't require any active flow control of excess liquid in the evaporator, even at highly transient and asymmetrical heat inputs. These performance results represent significant improvements over state-of-the-art heat pipes, loop heat pipes and evaporative spray cooling devices in terms of performance, robustness and simplicity.

Park, Chanwoo; Vallury, Aparna; Zuo, Jon; Perez, Jeffrey; Rogers, Paul

2007-01-01

326

Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

Gates, W. R.

1983-02-01

327

Potential impact of ZT = 4 thermoelectric materials on solar thermal energy conversion technologies.  

PubMed

State-of-the-art methodologies for the conversion of solar thermal power to electricity are based on conventional electromagnetic induction techniques. If appropriate ZT = 4 thermoelectric materials were available, it is likely that conversion efficiencies of 30-40% could be achieved. The availability of all solid state electricity generation would be a long awaited development in part because of the elimination of moving parts. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the potential performance of ZT = 4 power generators in comparison with Stirling engines taking into account specific mass, volume and cost as well as system reliability. High-performance thermoelectrics appear to have distinct advantages over magnetic induction technologies. PMID:20196558

Xie, Ming; Gruen, Dieter M

2010-03-02

328

Application of In-Flight Melting Technology by RF Induction Thermal Plasmas to Glass Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative in-flight glass melting technology with induced thermal plasmas was developed for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Two-dimensional modeling was used to simulate the thermofluid fields in the plasma torch. The in-flight melting behavior of glass raw material was investigated by various analysis methods. Results showed that the plasma temperature was up to 10000 K with a maximum velocity over 30 m/s, which made it possible to melt the granulated glass raw material within milliseconds. The carbonates in the raw material decomposed completely and the compounds in the raw material attainted 100% vitrification during the in-flight time from the nozzle exit to substrate. The particle melting process is similar to the unreacted-core shrinking model.

Yao, Yaochun; M. Hossain, M.; Watanabe, T.; Funabiki, F.; Yano, T.

2008-06-01

329

Characterization of thermal inkjet technology TNT deposits by fiber optic-grazing angle probe FTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Optic Coupled/Grazing Angle Probe Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has made possible to develop new methods for detection of traces of chemical compounds on surfaces. Thermal Inkjet Technology is able to deposit very small amounts of chemical compounds, including energetic materials, in a specific location on a surface. Aliquots of TNT solutions were deposited on stainless steel film. A thin coating of TNT can be produced by controlling the concentration of TNT, the number of drops dispensed and the distribution of drops over the surface. A Vector 22, a Bruker Optics FTIR fiber coupled to a Remspec Corp. grazing angle head was used for the experiments. The spectra were recorded at 4 cm-1 resolution and 50 scans. The results of the experiments gave intense absorption bands in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectra that were used for quantification. Chemometrics routines were applied in the enhancement of the quantitative analysis.

Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Pacheco-Londono, Leonardo; Ruiz, Orlando; Ramirez, Michael; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M.; De La Torre-Quintana, Luis F.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

2005-05-01

330

A new 3He-free thermal neutrons detector concept based on the GEM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal neutron detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier technology is presented. It is configured to let a neutron beam interact with a series of borated glass layers placed in sequence along the neutron path inside the device. The detector has been tested on beam both at the ISIS (UK) spallation neutron source and at the TRIGA reactor of ENEA, at the Casaccia Research Center, near Rome in Italy. For a complete characterization and description of the physical mechanism underlying the detector operation, several Monte Carlo simulations were performed using both Fluka and Geant4 code. These simulations are intended to help in seeking the optimal geometrical set-up and material thickness (converter layer, gas gap, sheet substrate) to improve the final detector design in terms of achieving the best detector efficiency possible.

Pietropaolo, A.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Quintieri, L.; Raspino, D.; Celentano, G.; Vannozzi, A.; Frasciello, O.

2013-11-01

331

Current Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion technologies at the Center for Space Nuclear Research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power and propulsion has been considered for space applications since the 1950s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors / rocket engines in the Rover/NERVA programs1. The Aerojet Corporation was the prime contractor for the NERVA program. Modern changes in environmental laws present challenges for the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel composition that is significantly different from those of the NERVA project can be engineered; this may be needed to ensure public support and compliance with safety requirements. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing a number of technologies, modeling and testing processes to further the development of safe, practical and affordable nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

Robert C. O'Brien; Steven K. Cook; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe; Ronald Samborsky; Daniel Brasuell

2012-09-01

332

The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates of subsurface temperatures derived from heat flow measurements.

Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

1996-01-24

333

Bounds on Rayleigh-Benard convection with general thermal boundary conditions. Part 1. Fixed Biot number boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the influence of the thermal properties of the boundaries in\\u000aturbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection on analytical bounds on convective heat\\u000atransport. Using the Doering-Constantin background flow method, we\\u000asystematically formulate a bounding principle on the Nusselt-Rayleigh number\\u000arelationship for general mixed thermal boundary conditions of constant Biot\\u000anumber \\\\eta which continuously interpolates between the previously studied\\u000afixed temperature ($\\\\eta

Ralf W. Wittenberg

2008-01-01

334

Urbanization of the Tokyo metropolitan area and its thermal condition using LANDSAT MSS and NOAA-6/AVHRR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental changes of the following items are discussed by analysing LANDSAT MSS and NOAA-6/AVHRR data: (1) On the development of golf courses (2) On the reclamation along the shoreline of Tokyo Bay (3) On the thermal distribution around Tokyo Bay, Among the above items, two the most distinctive during last decade are the reclamation of Tokyo Bay and the development of residential area in the suburbs. Though many golf courses are recognized in this area, these golf courses mostly were developed about ten years ago. Finally, it is noted that the thermal distribution of this area corresponds well with the city ground surface condition.

Sakai, T.; Seya, K.; Nishikawa, H.; Tsubomatsu, M.; Tanaka, S.; Sugimura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

335

The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming;\\u000aminerals vary with both temperature and;\\u000aconfining pressure, leading to substantial changes in;\\u000athe thermal properties of some rocks at the high;\\u000atemperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In;\\u000aareas with large geothermal gradients, the successful;\\u000ause of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict;\\u000atemperatures at depth depends upon accurate;\\u000acorrections for varying thermal

Colin F. Williams; John H. Sass

1996-01-01

336

Condition monitoring through advanced sensor and computational technology : final report (January 2002 to May 2005).  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this joint research project was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensors and computational technology for continuous monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This project included investigating and adapting several advanced sensor technologies from Korean and US national laboratory research communities, some of which were developed and applied in non-nuclear industries. The project team investigated and developed sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms. The researchers installed sensors and conducted condition monitoring tests on two test loops, a check valve (an active component) and a piping elbow (a passive component), to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced sensors and computational technology to achieve the project goal. Acoustic emission (AE) devices, optical fiber sensors, accelerometers, and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) were used to detect mechanical vibratory response of check valve and piping elbow in normal and degraded configurations. Chemical sensors were also installed to monitor the water chemistry in the piping elbow test loop. Analysis results of processed sensor data indicate that it is feasible to differentiate between the normal and degraded (with selected degradation mechanisms) configurations of these two components from the acquired sensor signals, but it is questionable that these methods can reliably identify the level and type of degradation. Additional research and development efforts are needed to refine the differentiation techniques and to reduce the level of uncertainties.

Kim, Jung-Taek (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon, Korea); Luk, Vincent K.

2005-05-01

337

Technology and instrumentation for detection and conditioning of the surface electromyographic signal: state of the art.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of the technology of detection and conditioning systems for surface electromyography (sEMG). The first part of the manuscript focuses on the sEMG electrode system technology: the electrode classification, impedance, noise, transfer function, the spatial filtering effect of surface electrode configurations, the effects of electrode geometry, and location on the recorded sEMG signal. Examples of experimental sEMG signals are provided to show the potential value of high-density sEMG electrode grids and multichannel amplifiers that allow to add spatial information to the temporal information content of the sEMG signal. Furthermore, the results of a simple simulation are reported, in order to emphasize the effects of the subcutaneous tissue layers and of the detection volume on the recorded sEMG signal. The second part of the manuscript focuses on the sEMG amplifier technology: the front end amplifier characteristics for signal conditioning, the methods for stimulation artifact reduction, filtering methods, safety requirements, and the methods for analog-to-digital conversion of the sEMG signal. PMID:19042063

Merletti, Roberto; Botter, Alberto; Troiano, Amedeo; Merlo, Enrico; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

2008-11-29

338

Arrhenius average temperature: the effective temperature for non-fatigue wearout and long term reliability in variable thermal conditions and climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of assessing the effective temperature essential for predicting the temperature acceleration of the wearout mechanisms (other than thermal fatigue) of electronic equipment. This is particularly important for equipment experiencing variable thermal conditions. The approach, based on weighting of thermal acceleration factors, leads to the Arrhenius average temperature Teff given by (4). Teff is related to

Michal Tencer; John Seaborn Moss; Trevor Zapach

2004-01-01

339

Integrated Microstructural Study of Dry Snow Metamorphism Under Generalized Thermal Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Snow microstructure significantly influences the mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic properties of snow. The microstructure is constantly evolving from the time it is deposited on the surface until it sublimates or melts. The resulting time variant m...

D. A. Miller

2002-01-01

340

Predictions and observations of the thermal–hydrological conditions in the Single Heater Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Single Heater Test (SHT) is one of two in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Coupled thermal–hydrological–mechanical–chemical processes in the fractured rock mass around the heater were monitored by numerous sensors emplaced among 30 boreholes. Periodic active testing of cross-hole radar tomography, neutron logging, electrical resistivity tomography,

Y. W. Tsang; J. T. Birkholzer

1999-01-01

341

Thermal behaviors of elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) according to their physical properties and environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) have a distinctive thermal property, transition temperature (Tt), which leads to phase transition. This thermal property depends on the molecular weight (MW) of ELP, ELP concentration,\\u000a composition of the amino acids constituting ELPs, and ionic strength of the aqueous solution. In order to investigate the\\u000a effects of ELP length, ionic strength and existence of fusion protein, ELP

Ji-Eun Park; Jong-In Won

2009-01-01

342

Stability Behaviour of the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Under Different Climate Conditions: The Thermal Component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Last Glacial Maximum the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation (THC) was characterized by a southward shift of the North Atlantic deep water (NADW) formation sites and a relatively shallow NADW- overturning cell, compared to the present mode of operation. Furthermore, abrupt climate events during the last glacial are associated with rapid changes in the THC and accompanying changes of the inter-hemispheric northward oceanic heat transport. Using an interhemispheric box model of the Atlantic THC, coupled to a moist energy balance model of the atmosphere we present a new approach, which is based on the assumption that a completely sea ice covered North Atlantic would inhibit the generation of deep water. Therefore we introduce a dependence of the overturning strength from the sea ice extent in the North Atlantic. This approach can be viewed as a loss of efficiency of the inter-hemispheric density gradient in driving the overturning with cooler climate conditions. The transition from the present day climate to a colder climate forces the Atlantic THC to collapse in an intermediate climate state. This change in the stability behaviour is a consequence of the model response to gradual changes in the outgoing infra-red radiation at the top of the atmosphere. At cooler climate states the increasing atmosphere-ocean temperature contrast and associated ocean heat loss dominates the insulating effect of sea ice on North Atlantic temperature and promotes a sea ice growth. This effect is amplified by a weaker overturning circulation and decreased northward oceanic heat transport, which leads to a positive feedback loop and the existence of multiple equilibria in an intermediate climate state. Based on the reduction of the system to key variables governing the stability, we will also discuss the internal and structural stability of the system with the aid of numerical and analytical solutions to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics. A comparison with proxy records and more complex circulation models shows that the presented concept is in agreement with elements of rapid climate change in time and space. This suggests that the influence of a changing background climate on the thermal component of the Atlantic THC is a key component of abrupt climate changes, which complements the traditional freshwater forcing approach to a unified concept.

Knorr, G.; Eichinger, R.; Lohmann, G.; Prange, M.; Barker, S.

2010-05-01

343

Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions  

SciTech Connect

In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230{degrees}C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

1997-07-01

344

Rock thermal conductivity at the cap rock and initial conditions in two-phase volcanic hydrothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

Numerical experiments are performed to investigate the rock thermal conductivity influence in the formation of the thermodynamic initial conditions of two-phase systems located in volcanic rocks. These systems exhibit pressure and temperature profiles characterized by a sudden change or discontinuity in their vertical gradients. Vapor dominated, two-phase fluids are found at the upper reservoir's levels. Liquid is the dominated phase within the layers below some critical point. Numerical results presented in this paper, suggest that the vertical location of this point of discontinuity be controlled by the thermal conductivity existing between the limit of the reservoir and the caprock. Too high values could originate liquid dominated reservoirs. Small values would be at the origin of vapor dominated reservoirs. A characteristic middle value could be responsible for the formation of a counter flow mechanism originating the initial conditions observed at some locations of the Los Azufres, Mexico, geothermal field.

Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga

1993-01-28

345

Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment\\/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools

P. J. Valent; M. Riggins

1989-01-01

346

Study of trigger instabilities in smart power technology ESD protection devices using a laser interferometric thermal mapping technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trigger dynamics during a single ESD event and pulse-to-pulse variations in the trigger location are studied in ESD protection devices of a smart power technology. NPN bipolar transistors with and without a lateral shift in the collector buried layer are investigated. The homogeneity of the current flow along the device width is studied by means of a laser interferometric thermal

D. Pogany; C. Furbock; M. Litzenberger; G. Groos; K. Esmark; P. Kamvar; H. Gossner; M. Stecher; E. Gornik

2001-01-01

347

Systems descriptions and engineering costs for solar-related technologies. Volume VII. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) study projects the capital cost of this technology through the end of the century. This projection is based on a generic design resulting from the analysis and collation of features of designs proposed by the TRW Systems Group, Inc., and Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Inc. (LSMC). The generic design is based on a

R. Eldridge; R. Roberts

1977-01-01

348

Characterization of Al2O3 Supported Nickel Catalysts Derived from RFNon-thermal Plasma Technology  

SciTech Connect

Catalysts derived from non-thermal plasma techniques have previously shown unusual and highly advantageous catalytic properties including room temperature reduction, unusual metal particle structure and metal-support interactions, and enhanced selectivity and stability. This study focuses on the characterization of Al2O3 supported Ni catalysts derived from the RF non-thermal plasma technique with in-situ XRD, TPR-MS and STEM and on relating the results to the enhanced activity and stability of benzene hydrogenation. The results suggest that catalysts with plasma treatments before impregnation are relatively easier to be reduced and result in better activities under mild reduction conditions. These plasma treatments stabilize the nickel particle sizes of air(B) and H2(B) catalysts at 600 C by slowing down the sintering process. Plasma treatments after the impregnation of precursors, on the other hand, tend to delay the growth of nickel particles below 600 C, forming smaller Ni particles, but with a sudden increase in particle size near 600 C. It suggests that the structure of Ni nitrate and the metal-support interaction have been altered by the plasma treatments. The reduction patterns of plasma 1 treated catalysts are, therefore, changed. The catalyst with a combination plasma treatment demonstrates that the effect of a combination plasma treatment is larger than either the plasma treatment before or after the impregnation alone. Both plasma treatments before and after the impregnation of metal precursor play important roles in modifying supported metal catalysts.

Jang, Ben W [ORNL; Helleson, Michael J [ORNL; Shi, Chunkai [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2008-01-01

349

Features of the structure, microstructure, and magnetic properties of manganese-aluminum spinels obtained in various thermal treatment conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural, microstructural, and magnetic properties of aluminum-manganese oxide in the ratio Mn: Al = 1: 1 in the well-crystallized and nanoheterogeneous states have been investigated. This oxide is obtained under various thermal treatment conditions and at different partial pressures of oxygen. The composition and cation distribution of the manganese and aluminum ions in spinel sites are determined. It is shown that the studied compound is a ferrimagnet with the Curie point T C ? 26 K.

Balaev, D. A.; Bulavchenko, O. A.; Dubrovskii, A. A.; Tsybulya, S. V.; Cherepanova, S. V.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Shaikhutdinov, K. A.

2013-07-01

350

AC/DC Power Conditioning and Control Equipment for Advanced Conversion and Storage Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to establish the best power conversion technology (technologies) applicable to a number of advanced energy storage conversion technologies, including a study of common conversion technology, modular approach to constructio...

P. Wood

1975-01-01

351

Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

2004-05-04

352

Quantitative evaluation of closed-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology in central station applications  

SciTech Connect

The results of an independent quantitative evaluation by Rand of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) for central station applications are summarized. The methodology developed and implemented for the quantitative analysis of cost sensitivities and engineering uncertainties provides the Office of Energy Research (OER) with the capability for evaluating the effects of alternative OTEC R and D strategies. The analysis also provides a general quantitative approach to assess advanced energy technologies. This study focuses on closed-cycle OTEC for delivery of electric power to the United States. Performance and costs of complete commercial OTEC systems are analyzed at the system level using inputs from component analyses and thermal-resource data for sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Such sites could feed the Gulf Coast from the west coast of Florida to the New Orleans areas. In this evaluation, the energy conversion analysis, i.e., the study of the power system, is based on a thermodynamic analysis of the complete system, which includes allowances for losses in all circuits. A cost-minimization scheme is used to ensure that the cycle component choices are near optimal. To make these cost-minimization calculations, cost algorithms are developed for the principal components. Off-design operations are of great importance in the Gulf of Mexico because of significant seasonal surface temperature variations and the quite large resulting variations of output power. These effects are accounted for in this study by calculating the off-design performance of the power systems and by selecting the cycle that maximizes the average power over the year. Capital cost estimates are made for the complete system. (WHK)

Gritton, E.C.; Pei, R.Y.; Aroesty, J.; Balaban, M.M.; Gazley, C.; Hess, R.W.; Krase, W.H.

1980-05-01

353

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

SciTech Connect

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17

354

Studies on Lunar Base construction: architectural environment, thermal balance, economic technologies, local materials, on site assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the strategies, technologies, designs of the Lunar Base architectural construction from the viewpoint of physical constraints (i.e. energy balance, strength and insulating properties of the lunar materials), engineering constraints (i.e. building technology, transports, insulating layers) and geological environment (allocation of the buildings). Our results contain proposals on the general strategy, on the local production technology, on arrangement and insulation solutions and the emplacement of the lunar base. We propose a complex architectural design for the lunar environment. It is economic to place the first long term used buildings below the surface. This way large mass of lunar soil can be used as insulator. Lunar soil can be moved by a lunar rover buldoser to cover the deposited container with regolith. We propose a double insulating layer system both using lunar soil as thermal insulator. We also propose a geological setting of the implementation of the architectural units in a groove or small valley mouth where not only the deposition of soil is economic but the enlargement of the station is possible in valley direction. Using the insulating and strength data of the lunar soil the following main technology phases of construction of the lunar base architecture are proposed. After transport of the primary container ISS type unit blocks from Earth to the lunar surface: 1) grading and basis forming in the bedrock for the frame, 2) assembly of the architectural constructions of the frame, (from frame units a spatial skeletal structure is built on the site which holds the stresses and load of the weight of both the cylindrical modules and the other insulating layers), 3) parallel filling the insulating quilted-coat like units with lunar fine soil, 4) fixing the quilted-coat like second insulating units to the surface of ISS type unit blocks, 5) final emplacement of the container blocks on the frame, 6) burial of the living bubble units by the lunar regolith from the plains surrounding the valley of lunar base locality. The best geological site for such lunar base construction is at the mouth of smaller valleis with at least 10 meters width. We propose the locality of the Aristarchus crater, 1 where several larger and smaller rilles can be found. 2

Boldoghy, B.; Kummert, J.; Szilagyi, I.; Varga, T.; Berczi, Sz.

355

The Influence of Thermal Instabilities on the Initial Conditions of the Backdraft Phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study aims to better the knowledge of the flow-mixing phenomena involved in the first period of a backdraft, before the potential reignition of fuel gases in the enclosure (step not studied in the study). The authors describe the aerodynamics mechanisms of the evolution of thermal instabilities leading to the formation and propagation of a gravity wave appearing when

Georges Guigay; Jean-Michel Most; François Penot; Alain Claverie; Jónas Elíasson; Björn Karlsson

2010-01-01

356

[Effect of thermal power stations on the sanitary and biological conditions of water reservoirs].  

PubMed

Discharge of thermal waters from power stations can result in the development of thermophilic microorganisms in the water reservoirs and increased water pollution. Increased water temperature changes relationships between lysozyme-active and antilysozyme-active bacteria. The quality of water gets worse. PMID:11013739

Solovykh, G N; Fabarisova, L G; Nefedova, E M; Karnaukhova, I V; Raimova, E K

357

Flue gas conditioning for reducing suspended particulate matter from thermal power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased population and industrial development demands sustainable electricity, the majority of which is produced by thermal power stations, which utilize coal as a fuel all over the world. Coal burning results in generation of large quantities of coal residues, which contains very fine particles that tend to become air-borne and which contribute to the formation of suspended particulate matter (SPM).

S. Shanthakumar; D. N. Singh; R. C. Phadke

2008-01-01

358

Seasonal Dynamics of Pelagic Larvae and Settling of the Fouling Organisms in Conditions of Thermal Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Year-round comprehensive study of fouling of the cooling system of the Vladivostok Heat Power Plant (VTETs-2) was carried out. The seasonal dynamics of pelagic larvae, their settling, and succession of fouling communities on test plates were analyzed in the intake scoop (Ussuriiskii Bay) and in Zolotoi Rog Bay (Amurskii Bay), which are subjected to thermal pollution by dump waters of

A. Yu. Zvyagintsev; O. M. Korn; V. A. Kulikova

2004-01-01

359

Model for Thermal Behavior of Shaded Photovoltaic Cells under Hot-Spot Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of modeling the thermal behavior of photovoltaic (PV) cells that, due to their being exposed to shading, may experience a dramatic temperature increase (a phenomenon referred to as hot-spot) with consequent reduction of the provided power. Our proposed model has been validated against experimental data, and constitutes a first preliminary step towards the development of shading-tolerant

Daniele Giaffreda; Martin Omaña; Daniele Rossi; Cecilia Metra

2011-01-01

360

Thermal Analysis of a Passenger-Loaded Vehicle in Severe Winter Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a thermophysical model of the dynamic interactions between an automobile driver and a heated seat is presented. The contacting body is considered to be made of three layers—core, skin, and clothing—while the seat consists of several layers of fabric materials. Experimentally measured load distributions are used to identify the distribution of local thermal resistance across the contact

G. Karimi; Syed R. Iqbal; J. Richard Culham

2008-01-01

361

A study of the thermal shock resistance of coke-oven dinas under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Under the selected test regimes, no relationship is found between the thermal shock resistance of dinas brick and its density in the ranges of variation ?=2.34–2.40 g\\/cm3, P=15–21%, and acl=0–10%.

E. K. Aksel'rod; A. I. Portnova

1985-01-01

362

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01

363

Microstructural characteristics and technological properties of YSZ-type powders designed for thermal spraying of TBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the experimental results relating to the microstructural characteristics and selected technological properties of yttria and partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-type powders designed for spraying thermal barrier coating (TBC) layers with the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. Three types of powders with the following chemical compositions - ZrO2 × 8Y2O3, ZrO2 × 20Y2O3, and "nano" ZrO2 × 8Y2O3 - were subjected to analysis. Assessment of the surface morphology and inner structure of the powder particles was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the powders was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (EDS and ICP-OES, respectively), with special attention focussed on the degree of uniformity in the arrangement of the alloy elements and the contents of carbon, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. The phase compositions were also analysed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The technological properties describing density and friability of the analysed powders were assessed. The study showed that the analyzed conventional powders were predominantly characterized by spherical-shaped particles and single deformed particles. The surface of the conventional powder (8YSZ) was smooth with no porosity. The inner structure had a solid and clear grain structure with single voids. The 20YSZ-type powder showed a structure that typically arose from the agglomeration process. The surface was rough with noticeable voids, and the powder inner structure had a similar appearance. The nanostructured powder particles had a polyhedral shape that was typical of the grinding process. From the chemical composition analysis the powder materials had high metallurgical purity, and the alloy elements were uniformly arranged. The XRD phase composition analysis and the EBSD microanalysis confirmed the predominant presence of the ZrO2 tetragonal phase in the YSZ powders and the cubic phase in the 20YSZ powder.

Moskal, G.

2010-02-01

364

Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

A USEPA-sponsored field demonstration program was conducted to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on the electro-scan (FELL -41) pipeline condition assessment technology. Electro-scan technology can be used to estimate the magnitude and location of pote...

365

Thermal stability of beta''-alumina solid electrolyte under AMTEC operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical component of alkali metal thermal-to electric converter (AMTEC) devices for long duration space missions is the sodium beta''-alumina solid electrolyte ceramic (BASE), for which there exists no substitute. The major phase in this ceramic, sodium beta''-alumina shows no evidence of thermal decomposition in AMTEC environments including clean liquid sodium and low pressure sodium gas, at temperatures below 1173K, or in vacuum below 1273K. This paper presents additional results of ionic conductivity and exchange current studies in sodium exposure test cells (SETCs) to characterize the changes occurring in BASE below 1273K in low pressure sodium vapor. Also presented are additional annealing studies to characterize the kinetics of processes occurring in the BASE ceramic in the AMTEC operating regime. .

Williams, Roger M.; Homer, Margie L.; Kulleck, James; Lara, Liana; Kisor, Adam K.; Cortez, Roger H.; Shields, Virgil B.; Ryan, Margaret A.

2000-01-01

366

Thermal monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography coupled with inline local atmospheric conditions survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An infrared system architecture (software and hardware) has been studied and developed to allow long term monitoring of transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. It is based on the implementation of low cost infrared thermal cameras (equipped with uncooled microbolometer focal plane array) available on the market coupled with other measurement systems. All data collected feed simplified radiative models running on GPU available on small PC to produce corrected thermal map of the surveyed structure at selected time step. Furthermore, added Web-enabled capabilities of this new infrared measurement system are also presented and discussed. A prototype of this system was tested and evaluated on real infrastructure opened to traffic. Results obtained by image and signal processing are presented. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for new implementation and new functionalities are presented and discussed.

Dumoulin, J.

2013-09-01

367

Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

1989-04-01

368

Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

Gates, W. R.

1982-07-01

369

Transient thermal analysis of a tri-axial HTS cable on fault current condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) tri-axial cable, which consists of three concentric phases, was developed as a potential commercial solution for next generation distribution power network. In our previous research, we simulate the transient thermal behavior of the cable by solving the heat equation using one-dimension difference method. The result shows that it takes time to recover the cable temperature to the steady-state operation level due to a low thermal conductivity of the insulation layer after a fault. However for a long cable system, when middle phase in concentric structure is rated under an over current, accumulated heat from middle phase might continually warm up the liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow by heat transfer even the over current has been stopped. In this research, we improve the numerically calculation which includes the consideration of flowing liquid nitrogen and the heat transfer in both radius and longitudinal directions. A long tri-axial cable system thermal stability is discussed based on the calculation results.

Hu, N.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Song, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

2013-11-01

370

Evaporation from Soils Under Thermal Boundary Conditions: Experimental and Modeling Investigation to Compare Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Based Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the shallow subsurface immediately below the land-atmosphere interface, it is widely recognized that the movement of water vapor is closely coupled to thermal processes. However, their mutual interactions are rarely considered in most soil water modeling efforts or in practical applications where it becomes necessary to understand and predict the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture. The validation of numerical models that are designed to capture these processes is difficult due to the inherent complexities of the problem in field systems and the scarcity of field or laboratory data with accurately known hydraulic and thermal parameters of soils, thus limiting the testing and refinement of heat and water transfer theories. In addition, it is often assumed in traditional soil physics applications that water vapor concentration in the air adjacent to the water phase in soil pores is always in equilibrium with liquid water, i.e., vaporization occurs instantaneously, which can result in over prediction of evaporation from soil. The goal of this work is to perform controlled experiments under transient conditions of soil moisture and temperature using soil with accurately known hydraulic/thermal properties and use this data to test existing theories and develop appropriate numerical models. In this work, water vapor flow under varying temperature gradients was implemented based on a concept that allows non-equilibrium liquid/gas phase change with gas phase vapor diffusion. In order to validate this new approach, we developed a long column apparatus equipped with a network of sensors and generated data under well-controlled thermal boundary conditions at the soil surface. Water saturation, capillary pressure, temperature, relative humidity and column weight to record total mass of water in the column were continuously monitored. Results from numerical simulations based on the conventional equilibrium and non-equilibrium approaches were compared with experimental data. The non-equilibrium approach yielded good agreement with the experimental results, validating the hypothesis that transport in the gas phase is better suited to be modeled with non-equilibrium liquid/gas phase change for highly transient field conditions where the thermal conditions at the land-atmosphere interface are constantly changing. This knowledge is applicable to many current environmental problems to include the simulation of contaminant transport and volatilization in the shallow subsurface and water content fluctuation in the vadose zone interacting with the atmosphere.

Smits, K. M.; Cihan, A.; Sakaki, T.; Illangasekare, T. H.

2010-12-01

371

Assessment of the thermal-hydraulic technology of the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident in a LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The technology of thermal hydraulic aspects of the transition phase accident sequence in liquid metal fast breeder reactors has been reviewed. Previous analyses of the transition phase accident sequence have been reviewed and the current understanding of major thermal hydraulic phenomenology has been assessed. As a result of the foregoing, together with a scoping analysis of the transition phase accident sequence, major transition phase issues have been defined and research needs have been identified. The major conclusion of transition phase scoping analysis is that fuel dispersal cannot be relied upon to rule out the possibility of recriticalities during this stage of the accident.

Greene, G.A.; Ginsberg, T.; Kazimi, M.S.

1982-11-01

372

The development of a preliminary correlation of data on oxide growth on 6061 aluminum under ANS thermal-hydraulic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 is being studied in a special test loop facility under the range of thermal-hydraulic conditions appropriate for fuel plate operation in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core. Experimental measurements describing the growth of the boehmite (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}H{sub 2}O) films on the exposed aluminum surfaces are now available for a range of coolant conditions and heat fluxes, and these results have been analyzed to demonstrate the influence of several important experimental variables. A subset of our data base particularly appropriate to the ANS conditions presently anticipated was used to develop a preliminary correlation based on an empirical oxidation model.

Pawel, R.E.; Yoder, G.L.; West, C.D.; Montgomery, B.H.

1990-06-01

373

Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

Ushimaru, Kenji.

1990-08-01

374

Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

Ushimaru, Kenji

1990-08-01

375

Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

Shimazaki, Yoichi

376

62 FR 16796 - Certification of the Radiological Condition of Building 029 at the Energy Technology Engineering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Building 029 at the Energy Technology Engineering Center near Chatsworth, California...029 located at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) near Chatsworth, California...of Certification: Energy Technology Engineering Center, Building 029 The U.S....

1997-04-08

377

A study of the thermal decomposition of adulterated cocaine samples under optimized aerobic pyrolytic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis behaviour of pure cocaine base as well as the influence of various additives was studied using conditions that are relevant to the smoking of illicit cocaine by humans. For this purpose an aerobic pyrolysis device was developed and the experimental conditions were optimized. In the first part of our study the optimization of some basic experimental parameters of

T. Gosti?; S. Klemenc; B. Štefane

2009-01-01

378

Thermal Response of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutters Under Simulated Downhole Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady-state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under conditions used in previous experiments to measure cutter wear. A correlation between wearflat temperatures and cutter wear rates is demonstrated, and it is shown that, for the

D. A. Glowka; C. M. Stone

1985-01-01

379

The thermal response of polycrystalline diamond compact cutters under simulated downhole conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under conditions used in previous experiments to measure cutter wear. A correlation between wearflat temperatures and cutter wear rates is demonstrated, and it is shown that, for

D. Glowka; C. M. Stone

1983-01-01

380

Thermal response of polycrystalline diamond compact cutters under simulated downhole conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical-analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady-state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under conditions used in previous experiments to measure cutter wear. A correlation between wearflat temperatures and cutter wear rates is demonstrated, and it is shown that, for the

D. A. Glowka; C. M. Stone

1983-01-01

381

Eradication of Polymyxa betae by thermal and anaerobic conditions and in the presence of compost leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic conditions required for eradication of Polymyxa betae, the vector of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beet, were investigated. Survival of resting spores of P. betae was determined under aerobic (30 min, 4 days and 21 days) and anaerobic (4 days) conditions under several temperature regimes in a water suspension and in leachate extracted from an aerobic

E. van Rijn; A. J. Termorshuizen

2007-01-01

382

Hollow corundum spheres for high temperature thermal insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions We developed a technological route for the production of hollow electrocorundum spheres intended for manufacturing highly refractory thermal insulation products, concrete bodies, and loose charges. The technology was tested under industrial conditions.

V. V. Karlin; N. P. Khizhnyak; V. G. Éngel'brekht; N. M. Permikina; Z. U. Evdokimova; G. A. Panov; A. G. Belogrudov; S. Yu. Gromov

1987-01-01

383

Kinetics of thermal de-chlorination of PVC under pyrolytic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several tests were performed in DTA/TGA for understanding the thermal behavior of pure PVC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We did a kinetic model for the de-chlorination of PVC molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C was defined as the optimum temperature for breaking the bond of chlorine in the PVC molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental validation of this temperature, led to a removal rate of 99.9% chlorine. - Abstract: Although PVC-containing wastes are an important potential source of energy they are frequently disposed in landfill. In thermal treatment processes such as pyrolysis and gasification, the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), a compound with 56.7% of chlorine, may cause problems concerned with environmental protection, as consequence of the formation of hydrochloric acid, chlorine gas and dioxins, as well as corrosion phenomena of the reactor/equipment materials. Thus, a possible solution may involve a previous removal of the chlorine from PVC containing waste through a pyrolysis process at low temperatures before the material being submitted to a subsequent thermal treatment, for energetic valorization. In this work, a kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of PVC has been developed, in view of its de-chlorination. DTA/TGA testing at different temperatures indicated a first order reaction and an activation energy of 133,800 J/mol. An almost completed de-chlorination reaction was obtained at 340 Degree-Sign C under an inert atmosphere. The resulted material is a C{sub n}H{sub n} type polymer with potential to be used in an energy recovery process. Validation test performed at laboratory scale indicate that the temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C enables the removal of {approx}99.9% of the chlorine present in PVC. The chloride can be fixed in the form of an aqueous solution of HCl or calcium chloride, driving to an alternative full process with environmental benefits and reduction of the costs associated to the PCV - containing materials/wastes management.

Castro, Alexandra, E-mail: acastro@cvresiduos.pt [CVR - Centro para a Valorizacao de Residuos (Center for Waste Valorization), Guimaraes (Portugal); CT2M - Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Department of Minho University, Guimaraes (Portugal); Soares, Delfim; Vilarinho, Candida; Castro, Fernando [CT2M - Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Department of Minho University, Guimaraes (Portugal)

2012-05-15

384

Variational boundary conditions for molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline solids at finite temperature: Treatment of the thermal bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a systematic approach for finding efficient boundary conditions for molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline solids. These boundary conditions effectively eliminate phonon reflection at the boundary and at the same time allow the thermal energy from the bath to be introduced to the system. Our starting point is the Mori-Zwanzig formalism [R. Zwanzig, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1173 (1960); in Systems Far from Equilibrium, edited by L. Garrido (Interscience, New York, 1980); H. Mori, Prog. Theor. Phys. 33, 423 (1965)] for eliminating the thermal bath, but we take the crucial next step that goes beyond this formalism in order to obtain memory kernels that decay faster. An equivalent variational formulation allows us to find the optimal approximate boundary conditions, after specifying the spatial-temporal domain of dependence for the positions of the boundary atoms. Application to a one-dimensional chain, a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones system, and a three-dimensional model of ? -iron with embedded atom potential is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Li, Xiantao; E, Weinan

2007-09-01

385

Survival of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost under simulated Martian thermal conditions.  

PubMed

Methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost complementary to the already well-studied methanogens from non-permafrost habitats were exposed to simulated Martian conditions. After 22 days of exposure to thermo-physical conditions at Martian low- and mid-latitudes up to 90% of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost survived in pure cultures as well as in environmental samples. In contrast, only 0.3%-5.8% of reference organisms from non-permafrost habitats survived at these conditions. This suggests that methanogens from terrestrial permafrost seem to be remarkably resistant to Martian conditions. Our data also suggest that in scenario of subsurface lithoautotrophic life on Mars, methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost could be used as appropriate candidates for the microbial life on Mars. PMID:17160628

Morozova, Daria; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Wagner, Dirk

2006-12-12

386

Thermal Response of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutters under Simulated Downhole Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A numerical-analytical method is developed to predict temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag cutters under steady-state and transient downhole conditions. The method is used to determine mean wearflat temperatures for cutters under con...

D. A. Glowka C. M. Stone

1983-01-01

387

Structure of chloroformylated bitumes made from thermocoal and thermobriquettes depending on the thermal preperation conditions  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the structure of chloroformylated bitumen separated from lignite. The lignite was heated at various temperatures and conditions and duration of isothermal holding. The structure was studied by infrared spectroscopy and x-ray structural analysis.

Khrenkova, T.M.; Kirda, V.S.; Enik, G.I.; Fomin, A.P. [Rossiiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

388

Rheological Behavior of Pusher 500 under a Variety of Chemical and Thermal Conditions: Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is designed to provide information to understand and model the rheological behavior of polymers under a variety of simulated reservoir conditions and to gain the knowledge of the fidelity with which external measurements characterize mobility...

H. W. Gao P. B. Lorenz S. Brock

1987-01-01

389

Evaluation of near-field thermal environmental conditions for a spent fuel repository in tuff  

SciTech Connect

A repository heat transfer analysis is being performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy`s Performance Assessment Scientific Support Program. The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate near-field host rock and waste package surface temperatures for a spent fuel repository system located in a tuff geologic medium. A spent fuel logistics model of the waste management system was used to evaluate the thermal characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in the repository. A three-dimensional heat conduction model of the underground repository facility was used to evaluate near-field host rock temperatures throughout the 10,000-year isolation period. The spent-fuel thermal characteristics and near-field host rock temperatures were then used to estimate waste package surface temperature histories and distributions for the repository system. The resulting temporal and spacial distributions provide key input to repository source term model evaluations of waste isolation performance. 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

1990-03-01

390

Influence of EB-PVD TBC Microstructure on Thermal Barrier Coating System Performance Under Cyclic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The lifetimes of electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) with three different microstructures of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO, YSZ) ceramic top layer were investigated in lh thermal cycles at 1100 and 1150°C in flowing oxygen. Single crystal alloys CMSX-4 and Rene N5 that had been coated with an EB-PVD NiCoCrAlY bond coat were chosen as substrate materials. At 1150°C all samples failed after 80-100, lh cycles, predominantly at the bond coat/alumina interface after cooling down from test temperature. The alumina scale remained adherent to the YSZ after spallation. Despite the different YSZ microstructures no clear tendency regarding differences in spallation behavior were observed at 1150°C. At 1100°C the minimum lifetime was 750 , lh cycles for CMSX-4, whereas the first Rene N5 specimen failed after 1750, lh cycles. The longest TBC lifetime on CMSX-4 substrates was 1250, lh cycles, whereas the respective Rene N5 specimens have not yet failed after 2300, lh cycles. The failure mode at 1100°C was identical to that at 115O?C, i.e. the TBC spalled off the surface exposing bare metal after cooling. Even though not all specimens have failed to date, the available results at 1100°C suggested that both, the substrate alloy chemistry and the YSZ microstructure significantly affect the spallation resistance of the TBC.

Leyens, C.; Pint, B.A.; Schulz, U.; Wright, I.G.

1999-04-12

391

Condition Monitoring of a Thermally Aged HTPB/IPDI Elastomer by NMR CP Recovery Times  

SciTech Connect

A hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) elastomer is commonly used as propellant binder material. The thermal degradation of the binder is believed to be an important parameter governing the performance of the propellant. The aging of these binders can be monitored by mechanical property measurements such as modulus or tensile elongation. These techniques, however, are not easily adapted to binder agents that are dispersed throughout a propellant. In this paper the authors investigated solid state NMR relaxation times as a means to predict the mechanical properties of the binder as a function of aging time. {sup 1}H spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times were found to be insensitive to the degree of thermal degradation of the elastomer. Apparently these relaxation times depend on localized motions that are only weakly correlated with mechanical properties. A strong correlation was found between the {sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP) NMR time constant, T{sub cp}, and the tensile elongation at break of the elastomer as a function of aging time. A ramped-amplitude CP experiment was shown to be less sensitive to imperfections in setting critical instrumental parameters for this mobile material.

ASSINK,ROGER A.; LANG,DAVID; CELINA,MATHIAS C.

2000-07-24

392

Thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas under thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions  

SciTech Connect

Calculated thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas in and out of thermal equilibrium are presented. The cut-off of the partition functions due to the lowering of the ionization potential has been taken into account, together with the contributions from different core excited electronic states. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are determined numerically using the Newton-Raphson iterative method, taking into account the corrections due to Coulomb interactions. The transport properties including diffusion coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity are calculated using the most recent collision interaction potentials by adopting Devoto's electron and heavy particle decoupling approach, expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the framework of Chapman-Enskog method. Results are presented in the pressure range of 0.1 atm-10 atm and in electron temperature range from 300 to 40 000 K, with the ratio of electron temperature to heavy-particle temperature varied from 1 to 20. Results are compared with those from previous works, and the influences of different definitions of the Debye length are discussed.

Wang Weizong [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Rong Mingzhe [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yan, J. D.; Spencer, Joseph W. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Murphy, A. B. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

2011-11-15

393

Maturation of Eugenia pyriformis seeds under different hydric and thermal conditions.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyze the maturation and dispersal of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seeds produced in different years, and the influence of variation in thermal and hydric environment on seed physical and physiological characteristics at dispersal. Fruits at different developmental stages were harvested in the city of São Paulo between 2003 and 2010, as well as in the cities of Campinas and Lavras, in 2009 and 2010 and analyzed for size and color. The seeds were extracted from the fruits and their dry mass, water content, germination and vigor were assessed. Results showed that seed maturation is unsynchronized to the maturation of the fruit, taking 45 days on average (430 growing degree-days), longer in rainy times or lower temperatures. Seeds with higher physiological quality were produced in rainy years and when the temperature range was larger. We concluded therefore that hydric and thermal environmental variations during development influence the maturation of Eugenia pyriformis seeds and are able to determine the formation cycle and the final seed quality. PMID:23460438

Lamarca, Edmir V; Prataviera, Juliana S; Borges, Igor F; Delgado, Liliana F; Teixeira, Carmen C; de Camargo, Marcelo B P; Faria, José M R; Barbedo, Claudio J

2013-03-01

394

Influence of calcium hydroxide on the fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate under thermal conditions.  

PubMed

To explore the potential fate and transport of perfluorochemicals in the thermal treatment of sludge, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a perfluorochemical species commonly dominant in wastewater sludge, was mixed with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) to quantitatively observe their interaction under different temperatures. The phase compositions of the mixtures after the reactions were qualitatively identified and quantitatively determined using X-ray diffraction technique. The results of the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that PFOS gasified directly during the thermal treatment process when the temperature was increased to around 425 °C. However, the formation of CaF(2) at 350 °C suggests that the presence of Ca(OH)(2) in the mixture can lead to the decomposition of PFOS at 350 °C, which is lower than the decomposition temperature of PFOS alone (425 °C). The increase of temperature promoted a solid state reaction between PFOS and Ca(OH)(2), and also enhanced the interaction between the gaseous products of PFOS and CaO (or Ca(OH)(2)). The preferred Ca/F molar ratio to achieve fluorine stabilization by Ca(OH)(2) was above 1:1 in the experiment involving 400 °C and 600 °C treatment. It also showed that equilibrium efficiency is achieved within 5 min at 400 °C and within 1 min above 600°C. PMID:21719193

Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Shih, Kaimin; Liu, Chengshuai

2011-06-12

395

Effect of Thermal Conditions on the Acceptability of Respiratory Protective Devices on Humans at Rest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and subjective responses of six sedentary subjects wearing half-facepicce respirators were observed over a wide range of room and respirator air conditions. Room air and dew-point (Ta:Tdp) temperatures were 25:11°, 30:13°, and 35.16°C in still air. Respirator air temperatures were maintained independently of room conditions at 27°, 30°, 33°, and 36°C with relative humidity levels of 47% and

A. R. GWOSDOW; R. NIELSEN; L. G. BERGLUND; A. B. DuBOIS; P. G. TREMML

1989-01-01

396

Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of the 3MW TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor Under Steady-State and Transient Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important thermal-hydraulic parameters of the 3-MW TRIGA MARK-II research reactor operating under both steady-state and transient conditions are reported. Neutronic analyses were performed by using the CITATION diffusion code and the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo code. The output of CITATION and MCNP4B2 were input to the PARET thermal-hydraulic code to study the steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactor. To

M. Q. Huda; S. I. Bhuiyan; T. K. Chakrobortty; M. M. Sarker; M. A. W Mondal

2001-01-01

397

Mechanical property condition monitoring of cables exposed to long-term thermal and radiation aging: EPR results  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant Class 1E cables. This paper provides some results of mechanical measurements that were performed on ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and cable materials aged at relatively mild, simultaneous thermal and radiation exposure conditions for periods of up to nine months. The mechanical measurements discussed include tensile strength, ultimate elongation, hardness, and compressive modulus. The modulus measurements were performed using an indenter developed at Franklin Research Center under Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsorship. 10 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Jacobus, M.J.

1991-01-01

398

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

399

Nano-mechanical electro-thermal probe array used for high-density storage based on NEMS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the study on silicon nano-mechanical electro-thermal probe array used for high-density storage has been performed. After the introduction of structure and working principle of the NEMS probe, the design of component followed by using both theoretical analysis and finite element analysis (FEA). By using advanced (micro-) nano-machining technology, the piezoresistive sensor and the resistive heater have been

Zunxian Yang; Ying Yu; Xinxin Li; Haifei Bao

2006-01-01

400

The Social and Ethical Implications of Changing Medical Technologies: The Views of People Living with Genetic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents empirical data on subjective levels of health and quality of life for individuals with early- or late-onset genetic conditions. Twelve adults with an early-onset condition (cystic fibrosis) and 12 adults with a late-onset condition in the family (Huntington’s disease) participated in semi-structured interviews. Questions investigated perceptions of the body, quality of life and views on medical technology

Elizabeth Chapman

2002-01-01

401

Vortex sink under conditions of a thermal choking with regard to the real properties of gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the formulation of the problem for a vortex source and a vortex sink upon taking into account the change in the heat capacity and the adiabatic exponent for a diatomic gas (for the example of air) in response to an increase in the temperature from 300 K to a few thousands of Kelvin are discussed. A thermal choking is studied for a vortex sink, and critical values of the energy parameter are calculated. It is shown that the minimal radius of the vortex sink decreases upon a heat release. Similarity parameters including the dimensionless circulation (or mass flow), the energy parameter, and the position and thickness of the heat-release region are varied. Errors of the gas model that assumes constant heat capacities and a constant adiabatic exponent are estimated.

Kucherov, A. N.

2012-11-01

402

Thermal decomposition of energetic materials 67. Hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) rates and pathways under combustionlike conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF), N{sub 2}H{sub 5}[c(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}], holds promise as a clean-burning,high-energy oxidizer for solid rocket propellants. By using T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy, the thermal decomposition process is outlined in the 130--400 C range, which includes surface melt/foam formation and self-ignition events. Reaction regimes containing evaporation, conversion to NH{sub 4}[C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}], and progressive decomposition into CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}O, NO, and H{sub 2}O are observed. Based on the products these reaction regimes become increasingly exothermic at higher temperature. Decomposition induction-time kinetics (E{sub a} = 25 kcal/mol, ln B(s) = 25.3) of the melt/foam layer were determined from time-to-exotherm data and give reasonable agreement with the measured combustion characteristics.

Williams, G.K.; Brill, T.B. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-08-01

403

Extreme variation in basal thermal conditions of the central Greenland Ice Sheet due to anomalous lithosphere structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Earth's surface, heat fluxes from the interior are generally insignificant when compared with fluxes from the sun and atmosphere; however, in areas permanently blanketed by ice these become very important. Modelling studies show that they are key to understanding the internal thermal structure of ice sheets and the distribution of melt water at their bases, information which is crucial for planning deep ice drilling campaigns and climate reconstructions. Unfortunately, the challenging conditions in ice-covered regions make measurement difficult in exactly the places where it is needed most. Until now, proxy methodologies have been considered best for determining geothermal heat flux (GHF) beneath ice sheets. Our method is to use a novel interdisciplinary approach, integrating a time-evolved climate-ice-lithosphere coupled model with a wide range of data such as direct ice-core measurements, past climate reconstructions and indirect estimates of the lithospheric thermal state. Here we show that the oldest (and thickest) part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is strongly thermally influenced by both GHF increasing from west to east and glaciation-induced perturbations of the thermal structure of the upper crust. A pronounced lateral gradient in GHF across the Summit region of the GIS is due to anomalously thin lithosphere, which has only about 25 to 66% of the thickness typical for Archaean to early Proterozoic areas. Our findings suggest that the thermal basal conditions of the present-day central GIS are characterized by surprising rapid lateral variations in ice temperatures of up to 12°C along relatively small distances of 100 to 150 km. We reveal two areas of rapid basal melt in central Greenland, only one of which was previously predicted by ice-penetrating radar measurements and age-depth relations from internal layering (Fahnestock et al. [2001]). The endothermic phase transition associated with rapid basal ice melt is found to increase subglacial heat flow in the uppermost layers of the crust by a factor of three to values well above 100 mW/m2. Fahnestock, M., Abdalati, W., Joughin, I., Brozena, J. & Gogineni, P. High geothermal heat flow, Basal melt, and the origin of rapid ice flow in central Greenland. Science 294, 2338-2342 (2001)

Rogozhina, Irina; Petrunin, Alexey; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Koulakov, Ivan; Thomas, Maik

2013-04-01

404

conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time scheduling is both based on a broad theoretical background and available through a multitude of tools and infrastructures. The central input parameters to this discipline are the demand for execution time and the real- time conditions given as deadlines or periods. The former has attracted a lot of research efforts, mainly in the scope of worst case execution time

Dieter Z

405

Establishing in situ conditions of Hanford waste tanks subjected to the aging effects of thermal degradation and creep of concrete  

SciTech Connect

Some of the underground reinforced-concrete waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been exposed to high temperatures (greater than 200{degrees}F) generated by radioactive liquid wastes. Establishment of the in situ conditions of these tanks is the first step toward their remediation. In this environment concrete damage can result in the form of mechanical property degradation, increased creep response, and cracking from thermal expansion and load redistribution. Regression analyses of data from tests on Hanford-concrete mix designs conducted in the mid-1970`s provided mechanical property correlations that are a function of time at temperature. Creep compliance functions were developed on the bases of literature reviews and limited Hanford Site test data. The property-degradation correlations are thermal-history dependent because of the irreversible nature of the degradation processes. In addition, tests were conducted to determine the thermal expansion coefficient of the Hanford concrete. This paper discusses the implementation of these correlations into a nonlinear concrete constitutive subroutine that is linked to a general-purpose finite- element computer code. The methodology used to treat variable temperature histories is illustrated. A case study of the Hanford Site`s buried, high-heat, single-shell, waste storage tank 241-C-106 illustrates the degradation history predicted over its service life. In addition, this paper provides a statistically based discussion of the effects of potential batch-to-batch variation of concrete strength. It addresses material property uncertainties, including the thermal-expansion coefficient.

Julyk, L.J.; Weis, M.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dyrness, A.D. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

406

The Effect of Thermal Oxidation of Silicon on Boron Diffusion in Extrinsic Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron diffusion during extrinsic conditions in silicon has been investigated under both oxidizing and inert atmospheres for different temperatures (950-1100°C) and times. Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) was found. This result is opposite to the oxidation-retarded diffusion of arsenic case.

Ishikawa, Yutaka; Nakamichi, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Satoru; Niimi, Tatsuya

1987-09-01

407

Thermal condition of the lining of channel induction furnaces by the method of electrical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of the temperature of the molten metal in the channel and of lining surrounding it is the basic problem of this work. This problem is solved by the method of electrothermal analogy, simulation on RR-networks [2]. The calculation of the temperature fields accomplished is with the specified form of channel and different operating conditions of the furnace and types

A. F. Kolesnichenko; O. N. Lun'kova; B. A. Fochenkov

1983-01-01

408

Thermal Inactivation of Listeria Monocytogenes in Ground Beef Under Isothermal and Dynamic Temperature Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to compare the suitability of three kinetic models for describing the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef under both isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions. Ground beef (93% lean), inoculated with a 4 strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, was s...

409

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXERCISE CONDITIONING ON THERMAL RESPONSES TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND TURPENTINE ABSCESS IN FEMALE RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exercise conditioning has been shown to alter basal thermoregulatory processes as well as the response to inflammatory agents. Two such agents, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and turpentine (TPT) are inducers of fever in rats. LPS, given intraperitoneally (i.p.), involves a sys...

410

Improving thermal comfort conditions by accounting for the mean radiant temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environment in many air conditioned spaces is often determined by the air dry bulb temperature alone. However, in certain circumstances, ignoring the consequences of the mean radiant temperature is not acceptable. A strategy is proposed, therefore, in which the operative temperature, which accounts for radiant effects, is employed as the parameter for control purposes. It is based primarily upon

E. E. Halawa; C. J. Marquand

1994-01-01

411

Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James. (Bookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY); Roth, Emanuel Peter

2004-03-01

412

Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)- contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with (U- 14 C) RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14 C-RDX to 14 CO2

Paul M. Bradley; Richard S. Dinicola

413

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

Unknown

2001-08-08

414

Hazardous Emissions from Combustion of Fossil Fuel from Thermal Power Plants Based on Turbine Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal power generation is associated with the emission of hazardous gaseous and particulate pollutants, which is one of the major contributors to deteriorated local ambient air quality. A comprehensive emissions assessment was carried on three thermal power plants and one oil refinery operating on fossil fuel, mainly heavy residual oil. The background ambient air quality was also monitored for criteria

Mahboob Ali; Makshoof Athar; Misbahul Ain Khan; Shahida Begum Niazi

2011-01-01

415

Thermal Select MRAM with a 2-bit Cell Capability for beyond 65 nm Technology Node  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a novel thermal select (TS) MRAM with multilevel programming capability. Exchange bias pinning of a magnetic free layer (FL) was used to achieve a thermally stable bit and to reduce writing currents. This report shows experimental data for a TS-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a size of 50 times90 nm2, the smallest size reported so far.

R. Leuschner; U. K. Klostermann; F. Dahmani; R. Dittrich; C. Grigis; K. Hernan; S. Mege; M. C. Clech; G. Y. Lee; S. Bournat; L. Altimime; G. Mueller

2006-01-01

416

Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA\\/DOE Task Team study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to findings from two NASA\\/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of

S. Howe; S. Borowski; C. Motloch; I. Helms; N. Diaz; S. Anghaie; T. Latham

1991-01-01

417

INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

Scott Hara

2001-06-27

418

Air pollutants formed in thermal decomposition of folpet fungicide under oxidative conditions.  

PubMed

This contribution studies the decomposition of folpet fungicide under oxidative conditions and compares the product species with those of captan fungicide, which is structurally related to folpet. Toxic products arising from folpet comprised carbon disulfide (highest emission factor of 4.9 mg g(-1) folpet), thiophosgene (14.4), phosgene (34.1), hydrogen cyanide (2.6), tetrachloroethylene (111), hexachloroethane (167), and benzonitrile (4.5). Owing to their related molecular structures, folpet emitted similar products to captan but at different yields, under the same experimental conditions. It appears that the availability of easily abstractable H atoms, in the structure of captan but not in that of folpet, defines the product distribution. In conjunction with the quantum chemical calculations, these experimental measurements afford an enhanced explanation of the formation pathways of hazardous decomposition products of these two structurally related fungicides. PMID:21121660

Chen, Kai; Mackie, John C; Kennedy, Eric M; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

2010-12-01

419

Integrated calculations of thermal behavior of both buildings and ventilation and air conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The paper presents the concept of integration of buildings simulations and behaviour of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. Principles of building simulation are based on simplified hourly method 6R1C developed on a base of 5R1C method described in EN ISO 13790:2007. The energy use associated with operation of Air Handling Units (AHU) is calculated using the method described in EN

Piotr Narowski; Maciej Mijakowski; Jerzy Sowa

420

Natural hazards as pre-conditions of technological disasters in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of Russian technological disasters (1992–2006) has been created for the first time. Using collected data the most important types of disasters for Russian federal regions were identified and classified; two types of natural hazards affecting them have been found. Factor analysis revealed two corresponding groups of technological disasters with similar temporal distribution. Twelve types of technological disasters resulting

E. Petrova

2008-01-01

421

Robust vehicle detection even in poor visibility conditions using infrared thermal images and its application to road traffic flow monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an algorithm for detecting vehicle positions and their movements by using thermal images obtained through an infrared thermography camera. The infrared thermography camera offers high contrast images even in poor visibility conditions like snow and thick fog. The proposed algorithm specifies the area of moving vehicles based on the standard deviations of pixel values along the time direction of spatio-temporal images. It also specifies vehicle positions by applying the pattern recognition algorithm which uses Haar-like features per frame of the images. Moreover, to increase the accuracy of vehicle detection, correction procedures for misrecognition of vehicles are employed. The results of our experiments at three different temperatures show that the information about both vehicle positions and their movements can be obtained by combining those two kinds of detection, and the vehicle detection accuracy is 96.2%. Moreover, the proposed algorithm detects the vehicles robustly in the 222 continuous frames taken in poor visibility conditions like snow and thick fog. As an application of the algorithm, we also propose a method for estimating traffic flow conditions based on the results obtained by the algorithm. By using the method for estimating traffic flow conditions, automatic traffic flow monitoring can be achieved.

Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Kawata, Shinya; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

2011-08-01

422

Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

2012-02-14

423

Studies on Lunar Base construction: architectural environment, thermal balance, economic technologies, local materials, on site assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the strategies, technologies, designs of the Lunar Base architectural construction from the viewpoint of physical constraints (i.e. energy balance, strength and insulating properties of the lunar materials), engineering constraints (i.e. building technology, transports, insulating layers) and geological environment (allocation of the buildings). Our results contain proposals on the general strategy, on the local production technology, on arrangement and

B. Boldoghy; J. Kummert; I. Szilagyi; T. Varga; Sz. Berczi

2006-01-01

424

Conceptual Model of Hydrologic and Thermal Conditions of the Eastbank Aquifer System near Rocky Reach Dam, Douglas County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lower and Combined Aquifers of the Eastbank Aquifer system, located in a river-terrace deposit along the Columbia River near Rocky Reach Dam, Washington, are primarily recharged by the Columbia River and provide water to the Eastbank Hatchery and the regional water system servicing the cities of Wenatchee, East Wenatchee, and parts of unincorporated Chelan and Douglas Counties. In 2006, mean annual pumpage from the aquifers by the hatchery and regional water system was about 43 and 16 cubic feet per second, respectively. Reportedly, temperatures of ground water pumped by the hatchery have been increasing, thereby making water potentially too warm for salmonid fish production. An evaluation of hourly ground-water and river temperatures from January 1991 through August 2007 indicates increasing interannual trends in temperatures in most of the Lower and Combined Aquifers from 1999 through 2006 that correspond to increasing trends in the annual mean and annual maximum river temperatures during the same period of 0.07 and 0.17?C per year, respectively. There were no trends in the annual minimum river temperatures from 1999 through 2006, and there were no trends in the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river temperatures from 1991 through 1998 and from 1991 through 2007. Increases in river temperatures from 1999 through 2006 are within the natural variability of the river temperatures. Most of the Lower and Combined Aquifers reached thermal equilibrium?defined by constant time lags between changes in river temperatures and subsequent changes in ground-water temperatures?during 1991?98. The only exceptions are the Combined Aquifer north of the well field of the regional water system, which had not reached thermal equilibrium by 2006, and the Lower Aquifer west of the well fields of the hatchery and the regional water system, which reached thermal equilibrium prior to 1991. Because most of the Lower and Combined Aquifers were in thermal equilibrium from 1999 through 2006 and seasonal pumpage patterns were relatively stable, reported trends of increasing temperatures of water pumped by the hatchery well field are most likely explained by increasing trends in river temperatures. Most of the water pumped by the hatchery well field recharges in an area west to southwest of the well field about 2 months prior to the time it is pumped from the aquifer. The northern extent of the hatchery well field may pump some colder water from a bedrock depression to the north and west of the well field. The conceptual model of hydrologic and thermal conditions is supported by analyses of historical water temperatures, water-level data collected on July 18, 2007, and dissolved-constituent and bacterial concentrations in samples collected on August 20?22, 2007.

van Heeswijk, Marijke; Cox, Stephen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Curran, Christopher A.

2008-01-01

425

Experimental measurements of sidebranching in thermal dendrites under terrestrial-gravity and microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

We perform sidebranch measurements on pure succinonitrile dendrites grown in both microgravity and terrestrial-gravity conditions for a set of supercoolings within the range 0.1-1.0 K. Two distinct types of sidebranch regions, uniform and coarsening, exist, and are characterized by the distance from the tip at which the region began, D(i), and the average spacing of sidebranches within that region, lambda(i). There does not appear to be any significant dependence on either gravity level or supercooling when D(i) or lambda(i) are normalized with respect to the radius of curvature of the tip, R. The apparently constant normalized proportionality factor between D(i), lambda(i), and R, regardless of the relative importance of diffusion and convective heat transport, demonstrates self-similarity between dendrites of different length scales propagating under various heat transfer conditions. However, when the form of the sidebranch envelope is defined by a power law relating the amplitude and relative positions of the sidebranches normalized to the radius of the tip, the form is seen to have significant variations with supercooling between the terrestrial gravity and microgravity growth dendrites. Furthermore, both the amplitude coefficient and exponent from the power-law regressions of the microgravity data are statistically different (95% confidence level) than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:11970665

Corrigan, D P; Koss, M B; LaCombe, J C; de Jager, K D; Tennenhouse, L A; Glicksman, M E

1999-12-01

426

Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks  

SciTech Connect

Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

2012-10-01

427

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01

428

Rapid thermal processing of ion implanted silicon as a viable solar cell technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the past quarter was to find the optimal pre-process heat treatment for enhancing minority carrier lifetime. The silicon substrates were both n- and p-type and had varied oxygen concentration and process induced defects. Pre-process heat treatments include traditional furnace thermal cycling and low thermal budget rapid thermal process (RTP). The rapid thermal process was performed in Ar, while furnace annealing had either N2 or O2 ambients. Chemical etch-pit delineation, x-ray topography and FTIR techniques were used to determine the bulk gettering and oxygen precipitation for the heat-treated Si substrates. Minority carrier generation lifetime and the change of oxygen content were measured before and after heat treatment.

Rozgonyi, G. A.

1986-01-01

429

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next 'evolutionary step' in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms...

D. R. McCurdy S. K. Borowski T. W. Packard

2012-01-01

430

Spent fuel dry storage technology development: Report of consolidated thermal data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A drywell/sealed cask technique for spent fuel storage is discussed. Experiments indicate that PWR fuel with decay heat levels in excess of 2 kW could be stored in isolated drywells in Nevada test site soil without exceeding the current fuel clad temperature limit (715 F). The ability to thermally analyze near surface drywells and above ground storage casks is assessed. It is concluded that the required analysis procedures, computer programs, etc., are already developed and available. Soil thermal conductivity requires additional study to better understand the soil drying mechanism and effects of moisture. Work is also required to develop an internal canister subchannel model. In addition, the ability of the overall drywell thermal model to accommodate thermal interaction effects between adjacent drywells should be confirmed.

Lundberg, W. L.

1980-09-01

431

Candidate Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Solar Industrial Process Heat Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

E. R. Furman

1979-01-01

432

Candidate Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Solar Industrial Process Heat Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful application of solar industrial process heat (SIPH) will depend, in part, on the use of thermal energy storage (TES) to provide continuous operation during periods of solar isolation. A number of candidate TES system elements have been iden...

E. R. Furman

1979-01-01

433

Miniature turbo-Brayton technologies for space-borne thermal-to-electric power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary design studies show that a low-power, turbomachine-based, Brayton-cycle power unit is an extremely attractive option for thermal-to-electric power conversion on long-duration, deep-space missions. A 100 We power unit promises to achieve a thermal efficiency of 38% and weigh only 2.4 kg while requiring a single general-purpose heat source. The design of this unit is based on miniature, high-performance components

Mark V. Zagarola; Walter L. Swift; John A. McCormick; Michael G. Izenson

2002-01-01

434

Measurement of the thermal conductivity of two coal liquids from ambient conditions to 220 C and 136 ATM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes thermal conductivity data obtained for two well characterized coal liquids using a new transient hot wire thermal conductivity instrument. The instrument clearly has the resolution to measure differences in liquid phase thermal conductivity due to the liquid's compressibility. The thermal conductivity measurements are absolute, and the instrument has been verified by a thorough study of toluene from

R. Perkins; M. S. Graboski; E. D. Sloan

1983-01-01

435

Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii  

SciTech Connect

Short pin-fin and pin-fin arrays are frequently used in turbine blade internal cooling systems to enhance cooling and stiffen the structure. The present work has shown that a knowledge of the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution is required to predict the cooling effect of such devices accurately. The heat flow process has been numerically modeled at typical engine conditions with the detailed heat transfer distribution measured by the transient heat transfer method being used as the thermal boundary conditions. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science

1995-04-01

436

A Modeling Study Evaluating the Thermal-Hydrological Conditions In and Near Waste Emplacement Tunnels At Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

In heated tunnels such as those designated for emplacement of radioactive waste at the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, temperature gradients cause natural convection processes that may significantly influence the moisture conditions in the tunnels and in the surrounding fractured rock. Large-scale convection cells in the heated tunnels would provide an effective mechanism for turbulent mixing and axial transport of vapor generated from evaporation of pore water in the nearby formation. As a result, vapor would be transported from the elevated-temperature sections of the tunnels into cool end sections (where no waste is emplaced), would condense there, and subsequently drain into underlying rock units. To study these processes, we have developed a new simulation method that couples existing tools for simulating thermal-hydrological (TH) conditions in the fractured formation with a module that approximates turbulent natural convection in heated emplacement drifts. The new method simultaneously handles (1) the flow and energy transport processes in the fractured rock, (2) the flow and energy transport processes in the cavity, and (3) the heat and mass exchange at the rock-cavity interface. An application is presented studying the future TH conditions within and near a representative waste emplacement tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Particular focus is on the potential for condensation along the emplacement section, a possible result of heat output differences between individual waste packages.

J.T. Birkholzer; N. Halecky; S.W> Webb; P.F. Peterson; G.S. Bodvarsson

2006-10-11

437

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon Leigh

2002-02-01

438

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon L.

2002-02-20

439

Measurement of plutonium and americium volatilities under thermal process conditions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

We have used the transpiration method to measure volatilities of Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}(s) and PuO{sub 2}/2% AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures of 1230--1430 K. We find the volatile species to be PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) at vapor pressures on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} atm and 10 {sup {minus}12} atm respectively under measurement conditions. For the Pu volatilization reaction, PuO{sub 2}(s) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain a free energy of reaction of {Delta}G{sup O}{sub T} = 231.3--0.0109 T in kj/mol, and for the Am volatilization reaction, AmO{sub 2}(s.s. in PuO{sub 2}) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain AG{sup O}{sub T} = 223.9--0.0109 T in kj/mol. We apply these results to the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator to assess the amount of volatile Pu and Am produced in the secondary combustor chamber. Taking operating conditions of 550C combustor temperature, 40 kmols/h of total gas flow at 1 atm pressure, 0.1 atm 0{sub 2}(9), 0.05 atm H{sub 2}0(g), PuO{sub 2} (s) containing 200 ppm AmO{sub 2} in the bed, and 6000 h of operating time per year, gives volatilization rates of 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}6}g Pu and 4 {times} 10 {sup {minus}9}g Am/y.

Krikorian, O.H.; Condit, R.H.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.; Magana, J.W.; Morris, W.F.; Adamson, M.G.

1993-04-28

440

An Evolutionary Path for Concentrating Thermal Solar Power Technologies: A New Approach for Modeling CSP Power Costs and Potential  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) technology is a potentially competitive power generation option, particularly in arid regions where direct sunlight is abundant. We examine the potential role of CSP power plants and their contribution to carbon emissions reduction. The answers to these questions depend on the cost of electricity generated by CSP plants. Although a few studies have projected future CSP costs based on assumptions for technology advancement and the effect of economies of scale and learning curves, few studies have considered the combined effects of intermittency, solar irradiance changes by season, and diurnal and seasonal system load changes. Because the generation of a solar plant varies over a day and by season, the interactions between CSP generators and other generators in the electric system can play an important role in determining costs. In effect, CSP electricity generation cost will depend on the CSP market penetration. This paper examines this relationship and explores possible evolutionary paths for CSP technologies with and without thermal storage.

Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

2008-05-08

441

Optimization of laser propagation for extensive atmospheric paths in conditions of thermal blooming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical results of a propagation of the CW laser radiation for extensive slightly elevated atmospheric paths are presented in the paper. The calculations are carried out in the limits of the small-angle equation for the coherence function of the second order describing the partially coherent beam self-action. To solve the equation a new ray-tracing technique creating an effective numerical algorithm was used. The gas absorption was taken into account in frameworks of the average seasonal summer model of an atmosphere. The average cyclic and the volcanic models of an atmosphere were used for aerosol attenuation. High-altitude vertical profiles of turbulent fluctuations of a refractive index were determined for the best, average and worst turbulent conditions. Calculations were obtained for the radiation sources located at altitudes from 10 Km up to 25 Km. Paths up to 500 Km were considered. Let's note, that it is necessary to take into account the influence of the Earth surface curvature for these paths. To studying the problem of a minimization of an atmosphere influence on an energy transfer as a numerical criterion was selected the effective power density: Ieff = P/Seff, where P is a power of radiation at the reception plane, Seff is an effective square of a beam at the reception plane. The initial power, the initial beam focusing and the wavelength of radiation were optimized.

Dudorov, Vadim V.; Kolosov, Valeriy V.

2004-01-01

442

Carbon-rich Planets: Atmospheric Spectra, Thermal Inversions, And Formation Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-rich planets (CRPs) are the exotic new members in the repertoire of extrasolar planets. The first CRP atmosphere was discovered recently, for the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-12b. In this work, we report several candidate carbon-rich planets amongst the known sample of transiting exoplanets, along with follow-up theoretical and observational efforts that aim at confirming these candidates. We also discuss the atmospheric chemistry and temperature structure of carbon-rich giant planets, their formation via core accretion, and the chemistry and apportionment of ices, rock, and volatiles in their envelopes. Our results show that CRP atmospheres probe a unique region in composition space, especially at high T. For C/O ? 1, most of the oxygen is occupied by CO for T > 1400 K and P < 1bar, causing a substantial depletion in water vapor, and an overabundance of methane compared to equilibrium chemistry with solar abundances. Adopting gas phase elemental abundances in the disk similar to those estimated in the star gives a C/O ratio in planetesimals and then in the envelope of WASP-12b similar to or below the solar C/O. Under these conditions, a C/O ratio of 1 in WASP-12b would require that the oxygen abundance in the disk is depleted by a factor of 0.41.

Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J.; Johnson, T.

2011-05-01

443

Comparison of the performance of LWIR and MWIR thermal imagers for varying ambient temperature and humidity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hodgkin (SPIE 6207(2006)) extended NVThermIP to be applicable to cold weather conditions. We also (IRPhys&Technol.51 (2008)520) later published an analysis of the effect of varying ambient temperature (Tamb) by modifying the inputs to NVTherm2002, and by using spectrally-weighted atmospheric transmission calculated from MODTRAN at different ambient temperatures and relative humidities (RH). We took into account the effects on the integration time and NETD, and we now account for the variation of ?T with varying Tamb, as Hodgkin has done. The overall trends are similar, but we have NVTherm, not NVThermIP. We vary the parameters associated with Johnson's criteria to obtain similar results. Note that diurnal, seasonal, climatic and microclimatic variations of relative humidity (RH) significantly impact the performance of thermal imagers, especially LWIR ones. We compare the performance of thermal imagers a horizontal mean-sea-level path in clear weather conditions for terrestrial imagers and ground targets/scenes in both LWIR and MWIR bands, as a function of the ambient temperature from -40°C to +40°C and also as a function of RH (30%, 50% and 70%). To understand the differences in the results reported by Hodgkin and our paper, we do a sensitivity analysis as a function of system and environmental parameters (f/#, RH, detection probability, spectral width etc). For one set of parameters, we observe that the range curves RLW and RMW intersect at more than one value of Tamb and suggest an analogy to a 're-entrant phase'. We also analyze how motion blur affects the two bands, at different Tamb.

Dhar, V.; Khan, Z.; Sharma, R. K.; Muralidharan, R.

2011-05-01

444

Effect of Surface Condition and Heat Treatment on Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in a Mercury Thermal Convection Loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thermal convection loops (TCLs) fabricated from 316L stainless steel and containing mercury and a variety of 316L coupons representing variable surface conditions and heat treatments have been operated continuously for 2000 h. Surface conditions included surface ground, polished, gold-coated, chemically etched, bombarded with Fe to simulate radiation damage, and oxidized. Heat treatments included solution treated, welded, and sensitized. In

S. J. Pawel; J. R. DiStefano; E. T. Manneschmidt

2000-01-01

445

Determination of the thermal conductivity of sands under varying moisture, drainage\\/wetting, and porosity conditions- applications in near-surface soil moisture distribution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of problems in hydrology and remote sensing requires improved understanding of how water and heat flux boundary conditions affect the soil moisture processes in the shallow subsurface near the land\\/atmospheric interface. In these systems, a clear understanding of how variations in water content, soil drainage\\/wetting and porosity conditions affect the soil's thermal behavior is needed for the accurate

Kathleen M. Smits; Toshihiro Sakaki; Anuchit Limsuwat; Tissa H. Illangasekare

446

Increasing Heavy Oil Reservers in the Wilmington Oil field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

Hara, Scott [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

1997-05-05