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1

Solar-thermal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal technology converts sunlight into thermal energy. It stands alongside other solar technologies including solar-electric and photovoltaic technologies, both of which convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic technology converts by direct conversion, and solar-electric converts by using sunlight`s thermal energy in thermodynamic power cycles. The numerous up-and-running solar energy systems prove solar-thermal technology works. But when is it cost-effective, and how

1995-01-01

2

Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

Saaski, E. W.

1973-01-01

3

INNOVATIVE THERMAL DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten innovative technologies for thermally destroying hazardous wastes were selected and described in this paper. hese technologies were either supported by EPA's RCRA or SARA programs or developed by industry since 1980. wo of the important criteria used in selecting these techno...

4

Solar thermal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accomplishments and progress of the US Department of energy solar thermal technology (STT) program during FY 1983 are documented. The focus of the STT program is research and development leading to the commercial readiness of three primary solar thermal concepts: the central receiver, parabolic dish, and parabolic trough. The hemispherical bowl and salt-gradient solar pond are also being studied. This development effort is complemented by numerous research and planning activities. A brief description of each technology and highlights of the fiscal year's technical activities is given. FY 1983 accomplishments are enumerated and a bibliography, list of contacts, acronyms, and definitions of terms relevant to solar thermal technology and the STT program are included.

1984-08-01

5

Solar Thermal Power Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in July 2002 by the Energy Research Foundation of the Netherlands, this 50-page report describes current and future Solar Thermal Power technologies. It offers a unique perspective by looking ahead to the "global energy supply and demand until 2100." Five main technologies are described, and two are examined in depth. The first is a solar tower design that uses a large array of mirrors to reflect all sunlight to a receiver at the top of a tower, and then generates electricity from a steam-powered turbine. SNAP technology is the second focus; this kind of power plant directs artificially created wind down a large tube, turning turbines as the wind escapes. A short history of each of these methods is included, as well as an analysis of world solar power potential.

Groenendaal, B.J.

2002-01-01

6

Centaur Propellant Thermal Conditioning Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wicking investigation revealed that passive thermal conditioning was feasible and provided considerable weight advantage over active systems using throttled vent fluid in a Centaur D-1s launch vehicle. Experimental wicking correlations were obtained using empirical revisions to the analytical flow model. Thermal subcoolers were evaluated parametrically as a function of tank pressure and NPSP. Results showed that the RL10 category I engine was the best candidate for boost pump replacement and the option showing the lowest weight penalty employed passively cooled acquisition devices, thermal subcoolers, dry ducts between burns and pumping of subcooler coolant back into the tank. A mixing correlation was identified for sizing the thermodynamic vent system mixer. Worst case mixing requirements were determined by surveying Centaur D-1T, D-1S, IUS, and space tug vehicles. Vent system sizing was based upon worst case requirements. Thermodynamic vent system/mixer weights were determined for each vehicle.

Blatt, M. H.; Pleasant, R. L.; Erickson, R. C.

1976-01-01

7

Nuclear thermal propulsion technology overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on nuclear thermal propulsion technology overview are presented. Topics covered include non-nuclear material; instrumentation, controls, and health monitoring; turbopumps; nozzle and extension; and exhaust plume characteristics.

Stone, James R.

1993-01-01

8

Thermal Skin fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

Milam, T. B.

1972-01-01

9

High temperature solar thermal technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some advanced technology concepts under development for high-temperature solar thermal energy systems to achieve significant energy cost reductions and performance gains and thus promote the application of solar thermal power technology are presented. Consideration is given to the objectives, current efforts and recent test and analysis results in the development of high-temperature (950-1650 C) ceramic receivers, thermal storage module checker stoves, and the use of reversible chemical reactions to transport collected solar energy. It is pointed out that the analysis and testing of such components will accelerate the commercial deployment of solar energy.

Leibowitz, L. P.; Hanseth, E. J.; Peelgren, M. L.

1980-01-01

10

Solar thermal desalination technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solar energy in thermal desalination processes is one of the most promising applications of the renewable energies. Solar desalination can either be direct; use solar energy to produce distillate directly in the solar collector, or indirect; combining conventional desalination techniques, such as multistage flash desalination (MSF), vapor compression (VC), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis,

Hazim Mohameed Qiblawey; Fawzi Banat

2008-01-01

11

Solar thermal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This annual evaluation report provides the accomplishments and progress of government-funded activities initiated, renewed, or completed during Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1, 1984 through September 30, 1985). It highlights the program tasks conducted by participating national laboratories and by contracting industrial academic, or other research institutions. The focus of the STT Program is research and development leading to the commercial readiness of four primary solar thermal concepts: (1) central receiver; (2) parabolic dish; (3) parabolic trough; and (4) hemispherical bowl.

1986-08-01

12

Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

Zheng, Jianhong

13

The thermal conditions of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of Venus' thermal evolution are examined. The following subject areas are covered: (1) modified approximation of parameterized convection; (2) description of the model; (3) numerical results and asymptotic solution of the MAPC equations; (4) magnetism and the thermal regime of the cores of Earth and Venus; and (5) the thermal regime of the Venusian crust.

Zharkov, Vladimir N.; Solomatov, V. S.

1991-01-01

14

European uncooled thermal imaging technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is widespread requirement for low cost lightweight thermal imaging sensors for both military and civilian applications. In Europe, these requirements are now being met by systems using large uncooled ferroelectric detector arrays offering performance levels which, until recently, could only be achieved by expensive cryogenically cooled systems. The uncooled technology is the result of collaboration between the UK Defence Research Agency (DRA) and GEC-Marconi Electro Optics (GMEO) under a 'dual use technology program' (DUTP). This has resulted in the design of an uncooled module suite which constitute the core elements of the European uncooled thermal imaging sensors. This module suite has been adopted by UK MoD to meet the requirements of the UK Stairs A demonstrator program producing a lightweight thermal surveillance and weapon sight. A European consortium including Delft Instruments and Signaal Usfa (DISU) in Holland have also adopted the modules to meet the requirements of the lightweight infrared observation nightsight (LION). This product is being marketed in collaboration with Thomson CSF Optronics, of France. This paper discusses the current status of the underlying detector and processing technology including enhancements already in development. In addition, the designs and benefits offered by the Stairs A and LION products are addressed.

McEwen, Kennedy R.

1997-08-01

15

Thermally-Choked Combustor Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is underway to demonstrate the practical feasibility of thermally-choked combustor technology with particular emphasis on rocket propulsion applications. Rather than induce subsonic to supersonic flow transition in a geometric throat, the goal is to create a thermal throat by adding combustion heat in a diverging nozzle. Such a device would have certain advantages over conventional flow accelerators assuming that the pressure loss due to heat addition does not severely curtail propulsive efficiency. As an aid to evaluation, a generalized one-dimensional compressible flow analysis tool was constructed. Simplified calculations indicate that the process is fluid dynamically and thermodynamically feasible. Experimental work is also being carried out in an attempt to develop, assuming an array of practical issues are surmountable, a practical bench-scale demonstrator using high flame speed H2/O2 combustibles.

Knuth, William H.; Gloyer, P.; Goodman, J.; Litchford, R. J.

1993-01-01

16

Advances in solar thermal electricity technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various advanced solar thermal electricity technologies are reviewed with an emphasis on new technology and new market approaches.In single-axis tracking technology, the conventional parabolic trough collector is the mainstream established technology and is under continued development but is soon to face competition from two linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) technologies, the CLFR and Solarmundo. A Solarmundo prototype has been built in

D. Mills

2004-01-01

17

Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

1974-01-01

18

High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview  

E-print Network

An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

2008-01-07

19

NASA/Goddard Thermal Technology Overview 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New Technology program is underway at NASA NASA/GSFC's primary mission of science satellite development is healthy and vibrant, although new missions are scarce Future mission applications promise to be thermally challenging Direct technology funding is still very restricted

Butler, Dan; Swanson, Ted

2012-01-01

20

MSFC nuclear thermal propulsion technology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on non-nuclear materials assessment, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) turbomachinery technologies, and high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing technology are presented. The objective of the materials task is to identify and evaluate candidate materials for use in NTP turbomachinery and propellant feed system applications. The objective of the turbomachinery technology task is to develop and validate advanced turbomachinery technologies at the

Shane Swint

1993-01-01

21

Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

2012-05-01

22

Review on sustainable thermal energy storage technologies, Part II: cool thermal storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the inherent pros and cons of the two common (i.e. chilled water and ice storage) commercially available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies for off-peak air conditioning applications. Case studies on cool thermal storage have demonstrated not only savings in energy and other operation and maintenance costs but also significant savings in initial capital costs. This paper also

S. M. Hasnain

1998-01-01

23

NASA thermal control technologies for robotic spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a

Theodore D. Swanson; Gajanana C. Birur

2003-01-01

24

Thermal Control Technologies for Complex Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control is a generic need for all spacecraft. In response to ever more demanding science and exploration requirements, spacecraft are becoming ever more complex, and hence their thermal control systems must evolve. This paper briefly discusses the process of technology development, the state-of-the-art in thermal control, recent experiences with on-orbit two-phase systems, and the emerging thermal control technologies to meet these evolving needs. Some "lessons learned" based on experience with on-orbit systems are also presented.

Swanson, Theodore D.

2004-01-01

25

High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

Ryan, Robert

2003-01-01

26

Conditions for Classroom Technology Innovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the complex process of classroom technology innovation, following a group of teachers for 1 year as they attempted to implement technology-rich projects in their classrooms. Results indicated that 11 factors significantly impacted their degree of success. These factors fell into three interactive domains: the teacher, the innovation,…

Zhao, Yong; Pugh, Kevin; Sheldon, Stephen; Byers, Joe L.

2002-01-01

27

Proceedings of the Solar Thermal Technology Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on August 26 to 28, 1987, at the Marriott Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Solar Thermal Development Project, perspectives on central and distributed receiver technology including energy collection and conversion technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts and principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Tyner, C. E.

1987-08-01

28

Proceedings of the Solar Thermal Technology Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on June 17 to 19, 1986 at the Marriott Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Solar Thermal Development Project, perspectives on central and distributed receiver technology including energy collection and conversion technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts plus principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Diver, R. B.

1986-06-01

29

Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

Swanson, Theodore D.

1991-01-01

30

Commercial application of thermal protection system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system process technology is examined which is used in the manufacture of the External Tank for the Space Shuttle system and how that technology is applied by private business to create new products, new markets, and new American jobs. The term 'technology transfer' means different things to different people and has become one of the buzz words of the 1980s and 1990s. Herein, technology transfer is defined as a means of transferring technology developed by NASA's prime contractors to public and private sector industries.

Dyer, Gordon L.

1991-01-01

31

MSFC nuclear thermal propulsion technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on non-nuclear materials assessment, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) turbomachinery technologies, and high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing technology are presented. The objective of the materials task is to identify and evaluate candidate materials for use in NTP turbomachinery and propellant feed system applications. The objective of the turbomachinery technology task is to develop and validate advanced turbomachinery technologies at the component and turbopump assembly levels. The objective of the high temperature superconductors (HTS) task is to develop and validate advanced technology for HTS passive magnetic/hydrostatic bearing.

Swint, Shane

1993-01-01

32

Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

1996-05-01

33

NASA/Goddard Thermal Technology Overview 2014  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes the current plans and efforts at NASA Goddard to develop new thermal control technology for anticipated future missions. It will also address some of the programmatic developments currently underway at NASA, especially with respect to the Technology Development Program at NASA. While funding for basic technology development is still scarce, significant efforts are being made in direct support of flight programs. New technology development continues to be driven by the needs of future missions, and applications of these technologies to current Goddard programs will be addressed. Many of these technologies also have broad applicability to DOD, DOE, and commercial programs. Partnerships have been developed with the Air Force, Navy, and various universities to promote technology development. In addition, technology development activities supported by internal research and development (IRAD) program, the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program, and the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), are reviewed in this presentation. Specific technologies addressed include; two-phase systems applications and issues on NASA missions, latest developments of electro-hydrodynamically pumped systems, development of high electrical conductivity coatings, and various other research activities. New Technology program underway at NASA, although funding is limited center dot NASA/GSFC's primary mission of science satellite development is healthy and vibrant, although new missions are scarce - now have people on overhead working new missions and proposals center dot Future mission applications promise to be thermally challenging center dot Direct technology funding is still very restricted - Projects are the best source for direct application of technology - SBIR thermal subtopic resurrected in FY 14 - Limited Technology development underway via IRAD, NESC, other sources - Administrator pushing to revive technology and educational programs at NASA - new HQ directorate established

Butler, Daniel; Swanson, Theodore D.

2014-01-01

34

Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several

J. Bremser; S. R. Booth

1996-01-01

35

Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

Gattone, Felix

36

Marketing solar thermal technologies: strategies in Europe, experience in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal technologies (STTs) are mature in many EU Member States. However, in some EU regions solar applications, and especially the innovative ones (such as solar heating\\/cooling, solar drying, solar-powered desalination), remain at an early stage. The degree of development of each market does not depend on climate conditions (e.g., insolation) or on different technological developments. The major strengths, weaknesses,

Theocharis D Tsoutsos

2002-01-01

37

Thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow, bottom-hole temperature (BHT), and thermal conductivity data are used to evaluate the present thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin. Heat flow values decrease from 54-62 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the northern part of the basin to 39-53 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the southern portion of the basin. The variation in the regional conductive heat flow is controlled by basin geometry and by the distribution of radiogenic elements in the basement. The heat flow, thermal conductivity, and lithologic information were combined to construct a 3-D model of the temperature structure of the Anadarko basin. The highest temperatures sedimentary rocks older than Pennsylvanian are offset 35 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. This offset is related to the regional increase in heat flow to the north and to the presence of high thermal conductivity granite wash adjacent to the Wichita Mountains. A plot of the temperature difference between the equilibrium temperatures estimated from the model and the measured BHTs as a function of depth is remarkably similar to the published correction curve for BHTs for wells in Oklahoma. Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track (FT) data are used to estimate the paleogeothermal conditions in the basin. Published vitrinite reflectance values are consistent with a past geographic temperature distribution comparable to the observed distribution with the maximum values offset from the basin axis. FT analysis of sandstones from wells in the southeastern portion of the basin indicates that subsurface temperatures were at least 30C higher than at present, suggest the possibility of substantial erosion in this area.

Kelley, S.A.; Gallardo, J.D.; Carter, L.C.; Blackwell, D.D. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

38

NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future robotic NASA missions.

Swanson, Theodore D.; Birur, Gajanana C.

2003-01-01

39

Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

NONE

1995-09-01

40

Thermal protection in space technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The provision of heat protection for various elements of space flight apparata has great significance, particularly in the construction of manned transport vessels and orbital stations. A popular explanation of the methods of heat protection in rocket-space technology at the current stage as well as in perspective is provided.

Salakhutdinov, G. M.

1982-01-01

41

Literature review on thermal comfort in transient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional theory of thermal comfort in conditions characteristic for dwellings and offices (for example, that of Fanger) assumes steady-state conditions. Yet thermal conditions in buildings are seldom steady, due to the interaction between building structure, climate, occupancy, and HVAC system. This article reviews work on thermal comfort specifically undertaken to examine what variations in indoor temperatures may be acceptable.

J. L. M. Hensen

1990-01-01

42

Long-term goals for solar thermal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies are discussed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies

T. A. Williams; J. A. Dirks; D. R. Brown

1985-01-01

43

Persulfate persistence under thermal activation conditions.  

PubMed

Contaminant destruction with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S2O8(2-)) can be enhanced by activation, which increases the rate of persulfate decomposition to sulfate radicals (SO4*-). This step initiates a chain of radical reactions involving species (including SO4*- and OH*) that oxidize contaminants more rapidly than persulfate does directly. Among current activation methods, thermal activation is the least well studied. Combining new data for environmentally relevant conditions with previously published data, we have computed three sets of Arrhenius parameters (In A and Eact) that describe the rate of persulfate decomposition in homogeneous solutions over a wide range of temperature and pH. The addition of soil increases the decomposition rate of persulfate due to reactions with organic matter and possibly mineral surfaces, but the kinetics are still pseudo-first-order in persulfate and conform to the Arrhenius model. A series of respike experiments with soil at 70 degrees C demonstrate that once the oxidant demand is met, reaction rates return to values near those observed in the homogeneous solution case. However, even after the oxidant demand is met, the relatively short lifetime of the persulfate at elevated temperatures (e.g., >50 degrees C) will limit the delivery time over which persulfate can be effective. PMID:19174915

Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G; Johnson, Reid O'Brien

2008-12-15

44

NASA's nuclear thermal propulsion technology project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonnuclear subsystem technologies required for incorporating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) into space-exploration missions are discussed. Of particular interest to planned missions are such technologies as materials, instrumentation and controls, turbomachinery, CFD modeling, nozzle extension designs and models, and analyses of exhaust plumes. NASA studies are described and/or proposed for refractory metals and alloys, robotic NTP controls, and turbopump materials candidates. Alternative nozzle concepts such as aerospikes and truncated plugs are proposed, and numerical simulations are set forth for studying heavy molecules and the backstreaming of highly reactive free-radical hydrogen in the exhaust plume. The critical technologies described in the paper are central to the development of NTP, and NTP has the potential to facilitate a range of space exploration activities.

Peecook, Keith M.; Stone, James R.

1992-01-01

45

Thermal Interface Comparisons Under Flight Like Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal interface materials are used in bolted interfaces to promote good thermal conduction between the two. The mounting surface can include panels, heat pipes, electronics boxes, etc.. . On Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) project the results are directly applicable: a) Several high power avionics boxes b) Several interfaces from RWA to radiator through heat pipe network

Rodriquez-Ruiz, Juan

2008-01-01

46

Dynamic Testing of an Inflatable Structure Under Thermal Vacuum Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Transportation Programs Office is responsible for the development and demonstration of advanced launch vehicle and propulsion technologies. One of these advanced propulsion concepts being pursued is solar thermal propulsion. This concept employs a concentrated beam of sunlight to heat a working fluid within a solar thermal engine. Expansion of the fluid would provide thrust at an increased specific impulse. One way to concentrate the sun's light to a specific point in the engine cavity is to use a fresnel lens that is supported by an inflatable structure. Such propulsion systems could provide an inexpensive way of transferring and maintaining satellites to upper stage orbit trajectories. This paper describes the test hardware, procedures, and non-contacting measurement methodologies used to determine the modal characteristics of an inflatable concentrator under the thermal-vacuum conditions of space. These characteristics were necessary to identify for validation of a finite element model to be used for developing the spacecraft's pointing and control system.

Engberg, Robert; Lassiter, John

1999-01-01

47

Behavior of Materials Under Conditions of Thermal Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of available information on the behavior of brittle and ductile materials under conditions of thermal stress and thermal shock. For brittle materials, a simple formula relating physical properties to thermal-shock resistance is derived and used to determine the relative significance of two indices currently in use for rating materials. For ductile materials, thermal-shock resistance depends upon the complex interrelation among several metallurgical variables which seriously affect strength and ductility. These variables are briefly discussed and illustrated from literature sources. The importance of simulating operating conditions in tests for rating materials is especially to be emphasized because of the importance of testing conditions in metallurgy. A number of practical methods that have been used to minimize the deleterious effects of thermal stress and thermal shock are outlined.

Manson, S S

1954-01-01

48

Thermal batteries, their technologies and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal batteries, which from their inception have proven ideal for military applications requiring long shelf life, high power and reliability, and imperviousness to dynamic environmental conditions, are typically composed of an alkali metal and a transition metal chalcogenide electrochemical couple in a fused-salt electrolyte. The electrolyte, which is solid and nonconducting at ambient temperatures, melts after the ignition of integral pyrotechnic heat sources. Enough power is thus supplied for guidance and control of missiles and torpedoes, warhead fusing, and telemetry. Recent improvements have brought specific energies to the level of 70 W h/kg, and energy densities to 155 W h/l.

Press, Khushrow K.; Briscoe, J. Douglass

1990-04-01

49

Thermal sensation and comfort with different task conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective experiments with task conditioning systems, 3DU+, PEM, TU, and RCU were conducted to investigate the effect of three different types of Task air-conditioning systems on thermal comfort in a climate chamber. The chamber was conditioned at 28°C\\/50%RH with task systems and 26°C\\/50%RH without them. Under the condition with the task conditioning systems, the average rating of comfort sensation was

Hideyuki Amai; Shin-ichi Tanabe; Takashi Akimoto; Takeshi Genma

2007-01-01

50

Influence of contact conditions on thermal responses of the hand  

E-print Network

The objective of the research conducted for this thesis was to evaluate the influence of contact conditions on the thermal responses of the finger pad and their perceptual effects. A series of experiments investigated the ...

Galie, Jessica Anne

2009-01-01

51

IDENTIFICATION OF THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND  

E-print Network

during finite element simulations of multi-pass TIG welding, two simple experiments - called "disk conditions include the heat source that is equivalent to the TIG torch as well as the heat flux by convection studies are presently in progress in different laboratories to develop reliable tools for the failure

52

Concepts of learning and experience in developing solar thermal technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a picture of development of solar thermal technology, using the learning and experience curve concepts. The cost estimates for solar thermal energy technologies are made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy system. The concept

F Krawiec

1983-01-01

53

Solar thermal technology report, FY 1981. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program are discussed. Highlights of technical activities and brief descriptions of each technology are given. Solar thermal conversion concepts are discussed in detail, particularily concentrating collectors and salt-gradient solar ponds.

1982-01-01

54

Commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage technology  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. The purpose of the study was to develop and screen a list of potential entry market applications for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Several initial screening criteria were used to identify promising ATES applications. These include the existence of an energy availability/usage mismatch, the existence of many similar applications or commercial sites, the ability to utilize proven technology, the type of location, market characteristics, the size of and access to capital investment, and the number of decision makers involved. The in-depth analysis identified several additional screening criteria to consider in the selection of an entry market application. This analysis revealed that the best initial applications for ATES are those where reliability is acceptable, and relatively high temperatures are allowable. Although chill storage was the primary focus of this study, applications that are good candidates for heat ATES were also of special interest. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

1989-09-01

55

Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (˜100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

Maya, Isaac; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Watanabe, Yoichi; McClanahan, James A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu, Carman, Robert L.

1993-01-01

56

MIUS technology evaluation: thermal energy conveyance. [Conduits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy produced by a MIUS can be distributed at moderate temperatures, and low-pressure steam or water are most adaptable as energy-transfer media. This report discusses the types, cost, and performance of several types of conduits for thermal energy conveyance. Conduits applicable to water conveyance of thermal energy produced in a MIUS are evaluated from data on characteristics and economic

1976-01-01

57

Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

Scotti, Stephen J. (compiler)

1992-01-01

58

A Study on Zoning Regulations' Impact on Thermal Comfort Conditions in Non-conditioned Apartment Buildings in Dhaka City  

E-print Network

Unfavorable thermal comfort conditions are common in the non-conditioned apartment buildings typical of Dhaka (Ali, 2007; Hafiz, 2004). Causes behind such unfavorable thermal comfort conditions include (but are not limited to) Dhaka?s climate...

Islam, Saiful

2012-02-14

59

Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China.  

PubMed

The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature (T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions. PMID:25112452

Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

2015-01-01

60

Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

2015-01-01

61

Damage Accumulation and Failure of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradient Cyclic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. A fundamental understanding of the sintering and thermal cycling induced delamination of thermal barrier coating systems under engine-like heat flux conditions will potentially help to improve the coating temperature capability. In this study, a test approach is established to emphasize the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which can initially increase under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later decrease under the thermal gradient cyclic test due to coating cracking and delamination. Thermal conductivity prediction models have been established for a ZrO2-(7- 8wt%)Y2O3 model coating system in terms of heat flux, time, and testing temperatures. The coating delamination accumulation is then assessed based on the observed thermal conductivity response under the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The coating thermal gradient cycling associated delaminations and failure mechanisms under simulated engine heat-flux conditions will be discussed in conjunction with the coating sintering and fracture testing results.

Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, rober A.

2005-01-01

62

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

63

Nanoparticle Pre-Conditioning for Enhanced Thermal Therapies in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles show tremendous promise in the safe and effective delivery of molecular adjuvants to enhance local cancer therapy. One important form of local cancer treatment that suffers from local recurrence and distant metastases is thermal therapy. Here we review a new concept involving the use of nanoparticle delivered adjuvants to “pre-condition” or alter the vascular and immunological biology of the tumor to enhance its susceptibility to thermal therapy. To this end, a number of opportunities to combine nanoparticles with vascular and immunologically active agents are reviewed. One specific example of pre-conditioning involves a gold nanoparticle tagged with a vascular targeting agent (i.e. TNF-?). This nanoparticle embodiment demonstrates pre-conditioning through a dramatic reduction in tumor blood flow and induction of vascular damage which recruits a strong and sustained inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor. The ability of this nanoparticle pre-conditioning to enhance subsequent heat or cold thermal therapy in a variety of tumor models is reviewed. Finally, the potential for future clinical imaging to judge the extent of pre-conditioning and thus the optimal timing and extent of combinatorial thermal therapy is discussed. PMID:21542691

Shenoi, Mithun M.; Shah, Neha B.; Griffin, Robert J.; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Bischof, John C.

2011-01-01

64

Long-term goals for solar thermal technology  

SciTech Connect

This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

1985-05-01

65

Demonstration of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates and integrated heat exchanger technology to collect the heat from the cooling plates (Ref. 1). The next step in the development of this passive thermal approach was the demonstration of the control of the heat removal process and the demonstration of the passive thermal control technology in actual fuel cell stacks. Tests were run with a simulated fuel cell stack passive thermal management system outfitted with passive cooling plates, an integrated heat exchanger and two types of cooling flow control valves. The tests were run to demonstrate the controllability of the passive thermal control approach. Finally, successful demonstrations of passive thermal control technology were conducted with fuel cell stacks from two fuel cell stack vendors.

Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony; Wynne, Robert; Miller, Michael; Meyer, Al; Smith, William

2012-01-01

66

Solar thermal technology evaluation, fiscal year 1982. Volume 2: Technical  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology base of solar thermal energy is investigated. The materials, components, subsystems, and processes capable of meeting specific energy cost targets are emphasized, as are system efficiency and reliability.

1983-01-01

67

Dependence of human respiratory thermal washout on extrathoracic airway conditions.  

PubMed

Thermal washout curves have been proposed as noninvasive tools for analysing lower airway dimensions and pulmonary blood flow, but how upper airway heat transfer affects these washout curves is unclear. The present study was designed to compare extrathoracic and tracheobronchial contributions to thermal washout curves. Respiratory frequency, air ambient temperature, and body core temperature (tc) were varied in six male subjects before and after immersion in cold (1.1 degrees C) water for up to 2 h under three conditions: 1) control: ambient temperature (tamb) = 25 degrees C, rectal temperature change (delta tre) = 0 degrees C; 2) pre-immersion: tamb = 4 degrees C, delta tre = 0 degrees C; and 3) post-immersion: tamb = 25 degrees C, delta tre = -0.7 degrees C. Both peak expiratory nasal (tpn) and oral (tpo) airstream temperatures were measured. Each subject was tested twice. Expiratory tpo was generally higher than tpn in all conditions. Increasing breathing rates lowered tpn and tpo in the control and cold air environments. Orifice temperatures, which are presumed to reflect upper airway blood temperatures, correlated with both tpn and tpo. Lowering tc had no effect on washout curves during quiet breathing and affected only tpn during rapid breathing. The results suggest that while tracheobronchial conditions may contribute to thermal washout curves, extrathoracic conditions predominate. Strong correlations between orifice temperatures, peak expiratory nasal temperatures and peak expiratory oral temperature demonstrate the dominant role of upper airway heat exchange in determining thermal washout curves. PMID:9493660

Kaufman, J W

1997-12-01

68

Method for determining solar collector thermal characteristics under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented for the experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of a flat-plate solar collector under laboratory conditions. The technique involves the determination of the heat removal coefficient, overall loss coefficient and effectiveness coefficient of a collector from measurements of the water temperatures at the collector inlet and outlet, the water flow rate through the collector, the ambient

Yu. N. Malevskii; Yu. L. Myshko; S. I. Smirnov; B. V. Tarnizhevskii

1980-01-01

69

Thermal and Mechanical Microspacecraft Technologies for X-2000 Future Deliveries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal and mechanical technologies are an important part of the X-2000 Future Delivery (X-2000 FD) microspacecraft. A wide range of future space missions are expected to utilize the technologies and the architecture developed by the X-2000 FD. These technologies, besides being small in physical size, make the tiny spacecraft robust and flexible. The X2000 FD architecture is designed to be highly reliable and suitable for a wide range of missions such as planetary landers/orbiters/flybys, earth orbiters, cometary flybys/landers/sample returns, etc. One of the key ideas used in the development of these technologies and architecture is that several functions be in included in each of the thermal and mechanical elements. One of the thermal architecture being explored for the X-2000 FD microspacecraft is integrated thermal energy management of the complete spacecraft using a fluid loop. The robustness and the simplicity of the loop and the flexibility with which it can be integrated in the spacecraft have made it attractive for applications to X-2000 FD. Some of the thermal technologies to be developed as a part of this architecture are passive and active cooling loops, electrically variable emittance surfaces, miniature thermal switches, and specific high density electronic cooling technologies. In the mechanical area, multifunction architecture for the structural elements will be developed. The multifunction aspect is expected to substantially reduce the mass and volume of the spacecraft. Some of the technologies that will be developed are composite material panels incorporating electronics, cabling, and thermal elements in them. The paper to be presented at the 1999 conference, will describe the progress made so far in the microspacecraft thermal and mechanical technologies and approaches for the X2000 Future Deliveries microspacecraft.

Birur, Gaj; Bruno, Robin

1999-01-01

70

Advanced thermal control technologies for space science missions at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide range of deep space science missions are planned by NASA for the future. Many of these missions are being planned under strict cost caps and advanced technologies are needed in order to enable these challenging mssions. Because of the wide range of thermal environments the spacecraft experience during the mission, advanced thermal control technologies are the key to enabling many of these missions.

Birur, G. C.; O'Donnell, T.

2000-01-01

71

innovati nInnovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies  

E-print Network

Unit DEVap Cooling Core Cool, Dry Supply Air Return Air Outdoor Air NREL is a national laboratory moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses and are then dried by thermal heat. Many thermal sources, such as natural gas, combined heat and power systems

72

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal collectors on a medium to large scale. However the cost and energy requirement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) have fallen significantly in recent years, so that solar thermal powered RO deserves consideration. We compare commercial desalination processes on the basis of

G. Burgess; K. Lovegrove

73

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

E-print Network

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K Canberra ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA E-mail: greg.burgess@anu.edu.au Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally assisted) desalination has been conducted. Solar thermal driven Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) has been

74

Automated rapid thermal imaging systems technology  

E-print Network

A major source of energy savings occurs on the thermal envelop of buildings, which amounts to approximately 10% of annual energy usage in the United States. To pursue these savings, energy auditors use closed loop energy ...

Phan, Long N., 1976-

2012-01-01

75

The Effects of Nonuniform Thermal Boundary Condition on Thermal Stress Calculation of Water-Cooled W/Cu Divertors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal boundary condition has very important effects on the accuracy of thermal stress calculation of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor. In this paper, phase-change heat transfer was simulated based on the Euler homogeneous phase model, and local differences of liquid physical properties were considered under one-sided high heating conditions. The steady-state temperature field and thermal stress field under nonuniform thermal boundary conditions were obtained through numerical calculation. By comparison with the case of traditional uniform thermal boundary conditions, the results show that the distribution of thermal stress under nonuniform thermal boundary conditions exhibits the same trend as that under uniform thermal boundary conditions, but is larger in value. The maximum difference of maximum von Mises stress is up to 42% under the highest heating conditions. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal stress calculation of water-cooled W/Cu divertors.

Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Nan; Xu, Tiejun

2014-10-01

76

Solar Thermal Energy: An Overview of One-Sun Solar Thermal Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides an introduction to solar thermal energy. The presentation includes descriptions of solar basics, technology and future solar technology systems. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Burch, Jay

77

Porous materials for thermal management under extreme conditions.  

PubMed

A brief analysis is presented of how heat transfer takes place in porous materials of various types. The emphasis is on materials able to withstand extremes of temperature, gas pressure, irradiation, etc. i.e. metals and ceramics, rather than polymers. A primary aim is commonly to maximize either the thermal resistance (i.e. provide insulation) or the rate of thermal equilibration between the material and a fluid passing through it (i.e. to facilitate heat exchange). The main structural characteristics concern porosity (void content), anisotropy, pore connectivity and scale. The effect of scale is complex, since the permeability decreases as the structure is refined, but the interfacial area for fluid-solid heat exchange is, thereby, raised. The durability of the pore structure may also be an issue, with a possible disadvantage of finer scale structures being poor microstructural stability under service conditions. Finally, good mechanical properties may be required, since the development of thermal gradients, high fluid fluxes, etc. can generate substantial levels of stress. There are, thus, some complex interplays between service conditions, pore architecture/scale, fluid permeation characteristics, convective heat flow, thermal conduction and radiative heat transfer. Such interplays are illustrated with reference to three examples: (i) a thermal barrier coating in a gas turbine engine; (ii) a Space Shuttle tile; and (iii) a Stirling engine heat exchanger. Highly porous, permeable materials are often made by bonding fibres together into a network structure and much of the analysis presented here is oriented towards such materials. PMID:18272456

Clyne, T W; Golosnoy, I O; Tan, J C; Markaki, A E

2006-01-15

78

Thermal coefficients of technology assimilation by natural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of thermal coefficients of the rates of technology assimilation processes was made. Consideration of such processes as vegetation and soil recovery and pollution assimilation indicates that these processes proceed ten to several hundred times more slowly in earth's cold regions than in temperate regions. It was suggested that these differential assimilation rates are important data in planning for technological expansion in Arctic regions.

Mueller, R. F.

1971-01-01

79

COMPARISON OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper briefly summaries and compares six technologies which are considered to be innovative to the thermal destruction of hazardous wastes. The six technologies are: Fluidized Bed, Molten Salt, High Temperature Fluid Wall, Plasma Arc, Wet Air Oxidation and Supercritical Wate...

80

Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

1990-01-01

81

Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McNutt, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Heinicke, David [Group14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

2015-01-01

82

Thermal photon $v_3$ at LHC from fluctuating initial conditions  

E-print Network

We calculate the triangular flow parameter $v_3$ of thermal photons for 0--40\\% central collisions of Pb nuclei at LHC using an event-by-event hydrodynamic model with fluctuating initial conditions. Thermal photon $v_3$ with respect to the the participant plane angle is found to be positive and significant compared to the elliptic flow parameter $v_2$ of thermal photons. In addition, photon $v_3$ as a function of $p_T$ shows similar qualitative nature to photon $v_2$ in the region $1< p_T <6$ GeV/$c$. We argue that while $v_3$ originates from $\\epsilon_3$ deformations of the initial state density distribution, fast buildup of radial flow due to fluctuations is the main driving mechanism for the observed large value.

Rupa Chatterjee; Dinesh K. Srivastava; Thorsten Renk

2014-07-31

83

Thermal photon v3 at LHC from fluctuating initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the triangular flow parameter v3 of thermal photons for 0-40% central collisions of Pb nuclei at LHC using an event-by-event hydrodynamic model with fluctuating initial conditions. Thermal photon v3 with respect to the participant plane angle is found to be positive and significant compared to the elliptic flow parameter v2 of thermal photons. In addition, photon v3 as a function of pT shows similar qualitative nature to photon v2 in the region 1

Chatterjee, Rupa; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Renk, Thorsten

2014-11-01

84

Accepted practices of thermal spray technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the fourth and final article in a series of articles dealing with the metallographic preparation and evaluation of thermal spray coatings. Previous articles have covered variables and best practices for the sectioning, mounting, and coarse grinding of coated components. In this article, the relationship between fine grinding and polishing practices, consumables, and resultant plasma spray coating structure are discussed.

Sobota, Lori

2006-06-01

85

Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The

Isaac Maya; Nils J. Diaz; Edward T. Dugan; Yoichi Watanabe; James A. McClanahan; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Robert L. Carman

1993-01-01

86

Development of solar thermal technologies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is receiving much more attention in building energy systems in recent years. Solar thermal utilization should be based on integration of solar collectors into buildings. The facades of buildings can be important solar collectors, and, therefore, become multifunctional. In addition, solar collectors can be used to enhance the appearance of the facade when considering their aesthetic compatibility. Currently,

R. Z. Wang; X. Q. Zhai

2010-01-01

87

Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

Miura, Toyohiko

88

Effect of kinetic boundary condition on the thermal transpiration coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of kinetic boundary condition on the free molecular thermal transpiration coefficient ? is analyzed numerically. The Maxwell model boundary condition is applied in its original form in the sense that its accommodation coefficient depends on the speed of incident molecules. The results show that the value of ? depends much on the velocity dependency of the accommodation coefficient. The experimental result, ? < 0.5, can be reproduced if the grazing molecules reflect diffusely. This makes a sharp contrast with the previous works that ? =0.5 for the velocity independent accommodation coefficient.

Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Amakawa, Kenjiro

2014-12-01

89

Conditions That Facilitate the Implementation of Educational Technology Innovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight conditions that facilitate the adoption, implementation, and institutionalization of educational technology innovations and suggests applications to the transfer of portable software. Applications of these conditions involving educational technology in Indonesia, Chile, and Peru are evaluated, and guidelines for successful…

Ely, Donald P.

1990-01-01

90

Conditional Neural Fields Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago  

E-print Network

Conditional Neural Fields Jian Peng Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago 6045 S. Kenwood Ave. Chicago, IL 60637 jpengwhu@gmail.com Liefeng Bo Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago 6045 S. Kenwood Ave. Chicago, IL 60637 liefengbo@gmail.com Jinbo Xu Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago 6045 S

Anderson, Richard

91

Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal conditioning systems for satisfying engine net positive suction pressure (NPSP) requirements, and propellant expulsion systems for achieving propellant dump during a return-to-launch site (RTLS) abort were studied for LH2/LO2 and LCH4/LO2 upper stage propellant combinations. A state-of-the-art thermal conditioning system employing helium injection beneath the liquid surface shows the lowest weight penalty for LO2 and LCH4. A technology system incorporating a thermal subcooler (heat exchanger) for engine NPSP results in the lowest weight penalty for the LH2 tank. A preliminary design of two state-of-the-art and two new technology systems indicates a weight penalty difference too small to warrant development of a LH2 thermal subcooler. Analysis results showed that the LH2/LO2 propellant expulsion system is optimized for maximum dump line diameters, whereas the LCH4/LO2 system is optimized for minimum dump line diameter (LCH4) and maximum dump line diameter (LO2). The primary uncertainty is the accurate determination of two-phase flow rates through the dump system; experimentation is not recommended because this uncertainty is not considered significant.

Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

1982-01-01

92

Validating an infrared thermal switch as a novel access technology  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion. Methods In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information. Results User performance (p = 0.16) and response time (p = 0.25) with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture. Conclusions Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing. PMID:20687944

2010-01-01

93

Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions  

SciTech Connect

Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

Guidotti, R.A.

1995-07-01

94

Current Issues in Human Spacecraft Thermal Control Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient thermal management of Earth-orbiting human spacecraft, lunar transit spacecraft and landers, as well as a lunar habitat will require advanced thermal technology. These future spacecraft will require more sophisticated thermal control systems that can dissipate or reject greater heat loads at higher input heat fluxes while using fewer of the limited spacecraft mass, volume and power resources. The thermal control designs also must accommodate the harsh environments associated with these missions including dust and high sink temperatures. The lunar environment presents several challenges to the design and operation of active thermal control systems. During the Apollo program, landings were located and timed to occur at lunar twilight, resulting in a benign thermal environment. The long duration polar lunar bases that are foreseen in 15 years will see extremely cold thermal environments. Long sojourns remote from low-Earth orbit will require lightweight, but robust and reliable systems. Innovative thermal management components and systems are needed to accomplish the rejection of heat from lunar bases. Advances are required in the general areas of radiators, thermal control loops and equipment. Radiators on the Moon's poles must operate and survive in very cold environments. Also, the dusty environment of an active lunar base may require dust mitigation and removal techniques to maintain radiator performance over the long term.

Ungar, Eugene K.

2008-01-01

95

Active Dust Mitigation Technology for Thermal Radiators for Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dust accumulation on thermal radiator surfaces planned for lunar exploration will significantly reduce their efficiency. Evidence from the Apollo missions shows that an insulating layer of dust accumulated on radiator surfaces could not be removed and caused serious thermal control problems. Temperatures measured at different locations in the magnetometer on Apollo 12 were 38 C warmer than expected due to lunar dust accumulation. In this paper, we report on the application of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) technology being developed in our NASA laboratory and applied to thermal radiator surfaces. The EDS uses electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces generated by a grid of electrodes running a 2 micro A electric current to remove dust particles from surfaces. Working prototypes of EDS systems on solar panels and on thermal radiators have been successfully developed and tested at vacuum with clearing efficiencies above 92%. For this work EDS prototypes on flexible and rigid thermal radiators were developed and tested at vacuum.

Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Hopkins, J. W.; Holloway, N. M. H.; Connell, J. W.; Chen, A.; Irwin, S. A.; Case, S. O.; VanSuetendael, N. J.; Snyder, S. J.; Clements, J. S.

2010-01-01

96

Ceramic technology for solar thermal receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-temperature capability, resistance to corrosive environments and non-strategic nature of ceramics have prompted applications in the solar thermal field whose advantages over metallic devices of comparable performance may begin to be assessed. It is shown by a survey of point-focusing receiver designs employing a variety of ceramic compositions and fabrication methods that the state-of-the-art in structural ceramics is not sufficiently advanced to fully realize the promised benefits of higher temperature capabilities at lower cost than metallic alternatives. The ceramics considered include alumina, berylia, magnesia, stabilized zirconia, fused silica, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, mullite and cordierite, processed by such methods as isostatic pressing, dry pressing, slip casting, extrusion, calendaring and injection molding.

Kudirka, A. A.; Smoak, R. H.

1981-01-01

97

Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill President George W. Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration" (2004) - successful human and robotic missions to and from other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) must reduce the trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that the payload and scientific experiments' capabilities can be maximized. The new project described in this paper will generate thermal protection system (TPS) product that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in the optimization of vehicle weights, and provide materials and processes templates for use in the development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans.

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Levine, Stanley R.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

98

Thermal and electrical conductivity of iron at Earth's core conditions.  

PubMed

The Earth acts as a gigantic heat engine driven by the decay of radiogenic isotopes and slow cooling, which gives rise to plate tectonics, volcanoes and mountain building. Another key product is the geomagnetic field, generated in the liquid iron core by a dynamo running on heat released by cooling and freezing (as the solid inner core grows), and on chemical convection (due to light elements expelled from the liquid on freezing). The power supplied to the geodynamo, measured by the heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (CMB), places constraints on Earth's evolution. Estimates of CMB heat flux depend on properties of iron mixtures under the extreme pressure and temperature conditions in the core, most critically on the thermal and electrical conductivities. These quantities remain poorly known because of inherent experimental and theoretical difficulties. Here we use density functional theory to compute these conductivities in liquid iron mixtures at core conditions from first principles--unlike previous estimates, which relied on extrapolations. The mixtures of iron, oxygen, sulphur and silicon are taken from earlier work and fit the seismologically determined core density and inner-core boundary density jump. We find both conductivities to be two to three times higher than estimates in current use. The changes are so large that core thermal histories and power requirements need to be reassessed. New estimates indicate that the adiabatic heat flux is 15 to 16 terawatts at the CMB, higher than present estimates of CMB heat flux based on mantle convection; the top of the core must be thermally stratified and any convection in the upper core must be driven by chemical convection against the adverse thermal buoyancy or lateral variations in CMB heat flow. Power for the geodynamo is greatly restricted, and future models of mantle evolution will need to incorporate a high CMB heat flux and explain the recent formation of the inner core. PMID:22495307

Pozzo, Monica; Davies, Chris; Gubbins, David; Alfè, Dario

2012-05-17

99

Thermal and biochemical options for advanced RDF technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report details the current commercial status of the use of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) technologies and the future thermal and biochemical options. RDF is prepared by processing municipal solid waste to modify its size and to separate components which are not desirable. In the simplest form, RDF is sold as a solid fuel which displaces coal. However, coal is an inexpensive and plentiful energy source. Further, since RDF has a lower energy density than coal, substitute in existing boilers normally requires system derating. The options are to use combustion systems designed for RDF or emerging technologies which produce liquid or gaseous fuels. These conversion technologies may be either thermal or biochemical. Each system has a unique set of specifications that are imposed on the feedstock. In this paper the status of these advanced technologies and their preparation needs are discussed.

Walter, D.K. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US)); (Goodman, B. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (US)))

1988-01-01

100

High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this document, which was created by the U.S. Department of Energy, on solar thermal and photovoltaic systems. In addition to providing a general overview of these energy technologies, the document also includes a number of useful case studies highlighting construction projects which use energy efficient methods and equipment. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

101

Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Modulus Evolution of Thermal Barrier Coatings under High Heat Flux Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.

Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

1999-01-01

102

Overall Thermal Performance of Flexible Piping Under Simulated Bending Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible, vacuum-insulated transfer lines for low-temperature applications have higher thermal losses than comparable rigid lines. Typical flexible piping construction uses corrugated tubes, inner and outer, with a multilayer insulation (MLI) system in the annular space. Experiments on vacuum insulation systems in a flexible geometry were conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The effects of bending were simulated by causing the inner tube to be eccentric with the outer tube. The effects of spacers were simulated in a controlled way by inserting spacer tubes for the length of the cylindrical test articles. Two material systems, standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI), were tested under the full range of vacuum levels using a liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter to determine the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The results indicate that the flexible piping under simulated bending conditions significantly degrades the thermal performance of the insulation system. These data are compared to standard MLI for both straight and flexible piping configurations. The definition of an overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is described for use in design and analysis of cryogenic piping systems.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

103

Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2014-01-01

104

Advances in NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project for space exploration and the future plans for NTP technology are discussed. Current activities in the framework of the NTP project deal with nonnuclear material tests; instrumentation, controls, and health management; turbopumps; nozzles and nozzle extension; and an exhaust plume.

Peecook, Keith M.; Stone, James R.

1993-01-01

105

Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma

T. W Cheng; J. P Chu; C. C Tzeng; Y. S Chen

2002-01-01

106

Proceedings of the Distributed Receiver Solar Thermal Technology Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Receiver Solar Thermal Technology Conference was held on April 24 and 25, 1985 at the Classic Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories. Topics covered during the conference included a status summary of the Sandia Distributed Receiver Development project, perspectives on distributed electric technology and distributed receiver energy collection and conversion, technologies, systems analyses and applications experiments. The proceedings contain summaries (abstracts plus principal visual aids) of the presentations made at the conference.

Muire, J. F.

1985-04-01

107

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25(0) API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are noncarbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. An extensive basis for heavy oil development is provided, however, it is recommended that data on carbonate reservoirs, and tar sands be compiled. It was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

108

Spectroscopic arcjet diagnostic under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic hydrogen plasma properties were investigated for two different plasma conditions produced with thermal arcjet thrusters. One was the constricted arc column of a 10 kW thruster operated on pure hydrogen and simulated hydrazine, the other condition was the plume of a 1.5 kW thruster running on simulated hydrazine. Both experiments applied absolute intensity calibrated emission spectroscopy of the H-alpha and H-beta Balmer lines to measure the atomic hydrogen excitation temperature, the hydrogen density, and the electron density. All measurements were made spatially resolved by Abel-inverting the data. A way to determine the electron density spatially resolved from H-beta-line Stark broadening was found without inverting the complete line profile. The constricted arc measurements showed this plasma to be in thermal equilibrium, the temperatures and densities depending on the mass flow and power level. Evidence was found for the formation of a barrel shock in the flow behind the nozzle.

Zube, Dieter M.; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

1993-06-01

109

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

110

Experiments and models of active and thermal imaging under bad weather conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging cameras are widely used in military contexts for their night vision capabilities and their observation range; there are based on passive infrared sensors (e.g. MWIR or LWIR range). Under bad weather conditions or when the target is partially hidden (e.g. foliage, military camouflage) they are more and more complemented by active imaging systems, a key technology to perform target identification at long range. The 2D flash imaging technique is based on a high powered pulsed laser source that illuminates the entire scene and a fast gated camera as the imaging system. Both technologies are well experienced under clear meteorological conditions; models including atmospheric effects such as turbulence are able to predict accurately their performances. However, under bad weather conditions such as rain, haze or snow, these models are not relevant. This paper introduces new models to predict performances under bad weather conditions for both active and infrared imaging systems. We point out their effects on controlled physical parameters (extinction, transmission, spatial resolution, thermal background, speckle, turbulence). Then we develop physical models to describe their intrinsic characteristics and their impact on the imaging system performances. Finally, we approximate these models to have a "first order" model easy to deploy for industrial applications. This theoretical work will be validated on real active and infrared data.

Bernard, Erwan; Riviere, Nicolas; Renaudat, Mathieu; Guiset, Pierrick; Pealat, Michel; Zenou, Emmanuel

2013-10-01

111

Chronic Heat Stress and Cognitive Development: An Example of Thermal Conditions Influencing Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although thermal conditions influence the development of living organisms in a wide variety of ways, this topic has been recently ignored in humans. This paper reintroduces thermal conditions as a topic of importance for developmentalists by presenting an example of how thermal conditions are hypothesized to influence a particular developmental…

Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

2006-01-01

112

Numerical Determination of Critical Conditions for Thermal Ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of ignition or thermal explosion in an oxidizing porous body of material, as described by a dimensionless reaction-diffusion equation of the form .tu = .2u + .e-1/u over the bounded region O, is critically reexamined from a modern perspective using numerical methodologies. First, the classic stationary model is revisited to establish the proper reference frame for the steady-state solution space, and it is demonstrated how the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problem can be reexpressed as an initial value problem for a system of first-order differential equations, which may be readily solved using standard algorithms. Then, the numerical procedure is implemented and thoroughly validated against previous computational results based on sophisticated path-following techniques. Next, the transient nonstationary model is attacked, and the full nonlinear form of the reaction-diffusion equation, including a generalized convective boundary condition, is discretized and expressed as a system of linear algebraic equations. The numerical methodology is implemented as a computer algorithm, and validation computations are carried out as a prelude to a broad-ranging evaluation of the assembly problem and identification of the watershed critical initial temperature conditions for thermal ignition. This numerical methodology is then used as the basis for studying the relationship between the shape of the critical initial temperature distribution and the corresponding spatial moments of its energy content integral and an attempt to forge a fundamental conjecture governing this relation. Finally, the effects of dynamic boundary conditions on the classic storage problem are investigated and the groundwork is laid for the development of an approximate solution methodology based on adaptation of the standard stationary model.

Luo, W.; Wake, G. C.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.

2008-01-01

113

Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

1991-10-01

114

Thermal Plasma Technology: Where Do We Stand and Where Are We Going?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this overview, an attempt is made to assess the present and future research and development in thermal plasma processing of materials restricted to (1) thermal plasma coating technologies, (2) thermal plasma synthesis of fine powders, (3) thermal plasma waste destruction, and (4) thermal plasma spheroidization and densification. Since thermal plasma processing is, in general, governed by a large number

E. Pfender

1999-01-01

115

Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

2014-03-01

116

Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300oC and 850oC using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

Neti, Sudhakar; Oztekin, Alparslan; Chen, John; Tuzla, Kemal; Misiolek, Wojciech

2013-06-20

117

Peptide Formation Mechanism on Montmorillonite Under Thermal Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oligomerization of amino acids is an essential process in the chemical evolution of proteins, which are precursors to life on Earth. Although some researchers have observed peptide formation on clay mineral surfaces, the mechanism of peptide bond formation on the clay mineral surface has not been clarified. In this study, the thermal behavior of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on montmorillonite was observed during heating experiments conducted at 150 °C for 336 h under dry, wet, and dry-wet conditions to clarify the mechanism. Approximately 13.9 % of the Gly monomers became peptides on montmorillonite under dry conditions, with diketopiperazine (cyclic dimer) being the main product. On the other hand, peptides were not synthesized in the absence of montmorillonite. Results of IR analysis showed that the Gly monomer was mainly adsorbed via hydrogen bonding between the positively charged amino groups and negatively charged surface sites (i.e., Lewis base sites) on the montmorillonite surface, indicating that the Lewis base site acts as a catalyst for peptide formation. In contrast, peptides were not detected on montmorillonite heated under wet conditions, since excess water shifted the equilibrium towards hydrolysis of the peptides. The presence of water is likely to control thermodynamic peptide production, and clay minerals, especially those with electrophilic defect sites, seem to act as a kinetic catalyst for the peptide formation reaction.

Fuchida, Shigeshi; Masuda, Harue; Shinoda, Keiji

2014-02-01

118

Strategic Need for Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation needs. The experimental database will guide development of appropriate predictive methods and be available for code verification and validation (V&V) related to these systems.

James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; Su-Jong Yoon; Gregory K. Housley

2014-09-01

119

Study of thermal management for space platform applications: Unmanned modular thermal management and radiator technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candidate techniques for thermal management of unmanned modules docked to a large 250 kW platform were evaluated. Both automatically deployed and space constructed radiator systems were studied to identify characteristics and potential problems. Radiator coating requirements and current state-of-the-art were identified. An assessment of the technology needs was made and advancements were recommended.

Oren, J. A.

1981-01-01

120

Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

Jaffe, L. D.

1982-01-01

121

Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal  

E-print Network

1 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal...................................................................................................... 11 2. DUCT SEALANTS AND LONGEVITY TESTING

122

A novel technology for thermal control for ISP module for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal control is one of the most important themes in space package technology such as Integrated Sub-system Package technology. At present the technical solutions reducing heat stagnation are thermal dissipation and thermal cooling. In this paper a novel approach to increase thermal dissipation, based on the use of the pyroelectric materials, is proposed. The pyroelectric materials are able to convert

Riccardo Monti; Renato Barboni; Paolo Gasbarri; Umberto Lecci; Marco Zumpano

2010-01-01

123

ENERGY AND THERMAL COMFORT EVALUATION FOR DIFFERENT PASSIVE SOLUTIONS IN A KINDERGARTEN IN SUMMER CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a numerical model, which simulates the buildings thermal response with complex topology and evaluates the indoor environment comfort, in transient conditions, is used in the energy and thermal comfort evaluation for different passive solutions in a kindergarten, in Summer conditions. After the validation phase, this numerical model is applied in the evaluation of the building thermal behaviour,

Z. E. Conceição; Margarida C. Lopes; Manuela J. R. Lúcio

124

On the sensitivity of 4 different CPV module technologies to relevant ambient and operation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of four different CPV module technologies to most operating conditions relevant to CPV systems has been studied, namely DNI, spectrum, cell and lens temperature and clearness of the sky. In order to isolate the influence of a single operation parameter, the analysis of long-term outdoor monitoring data is required. The effect of lens temperature on cell current has been found to vary greatly between modules due to the different optical architectures studied. Maximum sensitivity is found for silicone-on-glass primary lenses. The VOC thermal coefficient was found to vary between module technologies, probably due to differences in maximum local effective concentration.

Domínguez, César; Besson, Pierre

2014-09-01

125

Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.

Heard, F.J.

1996-10-10

126

First responder thermal imaging cameras: establishment of representative performance testing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging cameras are rapidly becoming integral equipment for first responders for use in structure fires and other emergencies. Currently there are no standardized performance metrics or test methods available to the users and manufacturers of these instruments. The Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology is conducting research to establish test conditions that best represent the environment in which these cameras are used. First responders may use thermal imagers for field operations ranging from fire attack and search/rescue in burning structures, to hot spot detection in overhaul activities, to detecting the location of hazardous materials. In order to develop standardized performance metrics and test methods that capture the harsh environment in which these cameras may be used, information has been collected from the literature, and from full-scale tests that have been conducted at BFRL. Initial experimental work has focused on temperature extremes and the presence of obscuring media such as smoke. In full-scale tests, thermal imagers viewed a target through smoke, dust, and steam, with and without flames in the field of view. The fuels tested were hydrocarbons (methanol, heptane, propylene, toluene), wood, upholstered cushions, and carpeting with padding. Gas temperatures, CO, CO II, and O II volume fraction, emission spectra, and smoke concentrations were measured. Simple thermal bar targets and a heated mannequin fitted in firefighter gear were used as targets. The imagers were placed at three distances from the targets, ranging from 3 m to 12 m.

Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony; Rowe, Justin

2006-04-01

127

Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA?s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

128

High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market  

SciTech Connect

High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

Not Available

1990-12-01

129

NASA-EPA automotive thermal reactor technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the NASA-EPA automotive thermal reactor technology program is summarized. This program is concerned primarily with materials evaluation, reactor design, and combustion kinetics. From engine dynamometer tests of candidate metals and coatings, two ferritic iron alloys (GE 1541 and Armco 18-SR) and a nickel-base alloy (Inconel 601) offer promise for reactor use. None of the coatings evaluated warrant further consideration. Development studies on a ceramic thermal reactor appear promising based on initial vehicle road tests. A chemical kinetic study has shown that gas temperatures of at least 900 K to 1000 K are required for the effective cleanup of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, but that higher temperatures require shorter combustion times and thus may permit smaller reactors.

Blankenship, C. P.; Hibbard, R. R.

1972-01-01

130

Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

131

Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

132

Advanced solar thermal technologies for the 21st century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers the present status of solar thermal dynamic space power technologies and projects the various attributes of these systems into the future, to the years 2000 and 2010. By the year 2000, collector weights should decrease from 1.25 kg/sq m (1985 value) to about 1.0 kg/sq m. The specific weight is also expected to decrease from 6.0 kg/kw. By the year 2010, slight improvements in the free piston Stirling energy conversion system are postulated with efficiencies reaching 32 percent. In addition, advanced concentrator concepts should be operational.

Kohout, L. L.; Perez-Davis, M. E.

1986-01-01

133

Measurement of implant damage in sapphire with thermal wave technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of thermal wave technology for monitoring implant damage in sapphire substrate wafers. The information obtained is not easily obtainable from other techniques, such as UV reflectance or IR reflectance measurements. In CMOS/SOS device and circuit fabrication it is often desirable to monitor the effects of implant damage in the underlying sapphire substrate and at the edge of the silicon epi islands before and after anneals at various temperatures. This is particularly relevant to radiation-hard devices fabricated on silicon-on-sapphire (SOS).

Wu, C.P.; Kolondra, F. (David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, NJ (USA))

1990-06-01

134

Investigation of indoor thermal comfort under transient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. In indoor, thermal comfort can be basically predicted by the environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, air velocity and by the personal parameters as activity and clothing resistance. In this study, a mathematical model of thermal interaction between human body and environment was established and the effect of clothing

Omer Kaynakli; Muhsin Kilic

2005-01-01

135

Porous materials for thermal management under extreme conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief analysis is presented of how heat transfer takes place in porous materials of various types. The emphasis is on materials able to withstand extremes of temperature, gas pressure, irradiation, etc., i.e. metals and ceramics, rather than polymers. A primary aim is commonly to maximize either the thermal resistance (i.e. provide insulation) or the rate of thermal equilibration between

T. W. Clyne; I. O. G OLOSNOY; A. E. MARKAKI

2006-01-01

136

Poaceae pollen in the air depending on the thermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the meteorological elements, especially the thermal conditions and the Poaceae pollen appearance in the air, were analysed as a basis to construct a useful model predicting the grass season start. Poaceae pollen concentrations were monitored in 1991-2012 in Kraków using the volumetric method. Cumulative temperature and effective cumulative temperature significantly influenced the season start in this period. The strongest correlation was seen as the sum of mean daily temperature amplitudes from April 1 to April 14, with mean daily temperature >15 °C and effective cumulative temperature >3 °C during that period. The proposed model, based on multiple regression, explained 57 % of variation of the Poaceae season starts in 1991-2010. When cumulative mean daily temperature increased by 10 °C, the season start was accelerated by 1 day. The input of the interaction between these two independent variables into the factor regression model caused the increase in goodness of model fitting. In 2011 the season started 5 days earlier in comparison with the predicted value, while in 2012 the season start was observed 2 days later compared to the predicted day. Depending on the value of mean daily temperature from March 18th to the 31st and the sum of mean daily temperature amplitudes from April 1st to the 14th, the grass pollen seasons were divided into five groups referring to the time of season start occurrence, whereby the early and moderate season starts were the most frequent in the studied period and they were especially related to mean daily temperature in the second half of March.

Myszkowska, Dorota

2014-07-01

137

Stress analysis in thermal barrier coatings subjected to long-term exposure in simulated turbine conditions.  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, ruby fluorescence spectroscopy has been demonstrated as a powerful technique for monitoring residual stress evolution in the thermally grown oxide scale in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The measured residual stresses, in turn, can be used to monitor evolution of damage in the coatings. Effective use of this technology for real-time damage monitoring requires the identification of trends in measured stresses that can be used as indicators of damage evolution. The present work focuses on studying the evolution of residual stresses in TBC systems during long-term exposure to turbine operating conditions. The coatings are electron beam physical vapor deposited (EBPVD) and atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) zirconia. The stress evolution in both EBPVD and APS coatings is analytically modeled by an approach that takes into consideration contributions due to both thermal mismatch and oxide growth. Microstructural changes in the TBC system are correlated with measured stress trends through comparison with the modeled stresses. The stress measurements and modeling provide insight into failure modes and mechanisms, and to identify critical features in the measured stress data that can be used as indicators of failure in TBCs.

Nair, B. G.; Singh, J. P.; Grimsditch, M.; Ceramatec, Inc.

2004-03-15

138

Effects of Thermal Boundary Conditions on Entropy Generation during Natural Convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive numerical study on entropy generation during natural convection is studied in a square cavity subjected to a wide variety of thermal boundary conditions. Entropy generation terms involving thermal and velocity gradients are evaluated accurately based on the elemental basis set via the Galerkin finite element method. The thermal and fluid irreversibilities during the conduction and convection dominant regimes

Tanmay Basak; Ram Satish Kaluri; A. R. Balakrishnan

2011-01-01

139

Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment  

SciTech Connect

EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

140

Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials under Martian conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mean particle diameter of surficial units on Mars has been approximated by applying thermal inertia determinations from the Mariner 9 Infrared Radiometer and the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data together with thermal conductivity measurement. Several studies have used this approximation to characterize surficial units and infer their nature and possible origin. Such interpretations are possible because previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of particulate materials have shown that particle size significantly affects thermal conductivity under martian atmospheric pressures. The transfer of thermal energy due to collisions of gas molecules is the predominant mechanism of thermal conductivity in porous systems for gas pressures above about 0.01 torr. At martian atmospheric pressures the mean free path of the gas molecules becomes greater than the effective distance over which conduction takes place between the particles. Gas particles are then more likely to collide with the solid particles than they are with each other. The average heat transfer distance between particles, which is related to particle size, shape and packing, thus determines how fast heat will flow through a particulate material.The derived one-to-one correspondence of thermal inertia to mean particle diameter implies a certain homogeneity in the materials analyzed. Yet the samples used were often characterized by fairly wide ranges of particle sizes with little information about the possible distribution of sizes within those ranges. Interpretation of thermal inertia data is further limited by the lack of data on other effects on the interparticle spacing relative to particle size, such as particle shape, bimodal or polymodal mixtures of grain sizes and formation of salt cements between grains. To address these limitations and to provide a more comprehensive set of thermal conductivities vs. particle size a linear heat source apparatus, similar to that of Cremers, was assembled to provide a means of measuring the thermal conductivity of particulate samples. In order to concentrate on the dependence of the thermal conductivity on particle size, initial runs will use spherical glass beads that are precision sieved into relatively small size ranges and thoroughly washed.

Presley, M. A.; Christensen, P. R.

1993-01-01

141

Evaluation of airborne thermal, magnetic, and electromagnetic characterization technologies  

SciTech Connect

The identification of Buried Structures (IBS) or Aerial Surveillance Project was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development to demonstrate airborne methods for locating and identifying buried waste and ordnance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two technologies were demonstrated: (a) a thermal infrared imaging system built by Martin Marietta Missile Systems and (b) a magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveying system operated by EBASCO Environmental. The thermal system detects small differences in ground temperature caused by uneven heating and cooling of the ground by the sun. Waste materials on the ground can be detected when the temperature of the waste is different than the background temperature. The geophysical system uses conventional magnetic and EM sensors. These sensors detect disturbances caused by magnetic or conductive waste and naturally occurring magnetic or conductive features of subsurface soils and rock. Both systems are deployed by helicopter. Data were collected at four INEL sites. Tests at the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area (NODA) were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting ordnance on the ground surface. Tests at the Cold Simulated Waste Demonstration Pit were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting buried waste at a controlled site, where the location and depth of buried materials are known. Tests at the Subsurface Disposal Area and Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 burial area were made to evaluate capabilities for characterizing hazardous waste at sites that are typical of DOE buried waste sites nationwide.

Josten, N.E.

1992-03-01

142

Status of utility-interactive photovoltaic power conditioning technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design options for utility-interactive photovoltaic power conditioning technology for unit ratings from 2kW to 5 MW are compared. Line- and self-commutated inverter designs for both single and three-phase applications are described. Efficiency, weight, and cost projections are provided for comparing the design options. New circuit designs that take advantage of advances in power semiconductor devices are found to be the

T. S. Key; S. Krauthamer

1985-01-01

143

Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-print Network

walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal...

Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

2010-01-01

144

Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

Kelley, Anthony R.

2006-01-01

145

Hydraulic fracturing theory for conditions of thermal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stresses associated with a temperature change of only 10°C are on the order of 10 to 100 bars. This illustrates the important influence thermal stresses can impose on the results of rock stress measurements by the hydraulic fracturing method. In order to examine the problem, expressions are derived to describe the stress field produced by non-steady state heat conduction

G. Stephens; B. Voight

1982-01-01

146

Simulation of Thermal Comfort in Air-Conditioning Room by Aripak  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied on an air-conditioning classroom which was influenced by both cold jet and buoyancy force of heat source, and numerical simulation of indoor thermal environment of turbulence heat transfer in summer steady-state condition was carried out by using simulation software Aripak. According to two major evaluating indices of thermal comfort, simulation showed the change relation of distribution of

Lin Qin; Cai Wang; Lifeng Wei

2009-01-01

147

Nonlinear control of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system with thermal load estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear controller for a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system capable of maintaining comfort conditions under time varying thermal loads. The controller consist of a regulator and a disturbance rejection component designed using Lyapunov stability theory. The mitigation of the effect of thermal loads other than design loads on the system is due to an

B. Arguello-Serrano; M. Velez-Reyes

1999-01-01

148

Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by the industrial team of Aerojet and Westinghouse building on and extending the Los Alamos efforts to flight system development. This presentation describes the NERVA program, the engine system testing that demonstrated the space-practical operation capabilities of nuclear thermal rockets, and the mission studies that point the way to most effectively use the NTR capabilities. Together, the two programs established a technology base that includes proven NTR capabilities of (1) over twice the specific impulse of chemical propulsion systems, (2) thrust capabilities ranging from 44kN to 1112kN, and (3) practical thrust-to-weight ratios for future NASA space exploration missions, both manned payloads to Mars and unmanned payloads to the outer planets. The overall nuclear rocket program had a unique management structure that integrated the efforts of the two government agencies involved-NASA and the then-existing Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this paper is to summarize and convey the technical and management lessons learned in this program as the nation considers the design of its future space exploration activities.

Klein, Milton

2004-02-01

149

Thermal analysis research applicable to space station technology needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal analysis, optimization, and software research and development at the NASA Langley Research Center which is applicable to analytical design calculations for space station structures are summarized. Topics discussed include integrated thermal-structural software, improved thermal radiation analysis, solution techniques for transient temperatures, unified thermal-structural finite elements, thermal structural sensitivity analysis and optimization, and concept and performance analysis for heat pipes.

Adelman, H. M.

1983-01-01

150

Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

Jaffe, L. D.

1981-01-01

151

Fiber support technology for thermal isolation and mechanical stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional methods for supporting cold components in optical systems and instruments often lead to excessive conductive heat loads. The need for better thermal isolation while maintaining structural rigidity motivated work on a tension system utilizing high performance fibers to support a focal plane assembly in an instrument to be flown in space. Utilizing Kevlar 49 fibers in an approach referred to as fiber support technology, we were able to reduce the conducted parasitic heat loads from 85 mW to less than 2 mW while increasing the 1st resonant frequency form about 50 Hz to 700 Hz. Various radiation suppression and wiring schemes were necessary to further reduce the total parasitic heat loads on this system. This paper outlines the details of this development effort making the use of a low input power miniature mechanical cooler possible. This approach seems consistent with the 'smaller', better, cheaper, faster' attitude of the nineties.

Jensen, Scott M.; Batty, J. Clair; McLain, David

1996-10-01

152

ABIOTIC DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE UNDER THERMAL REMEDIATION CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The degradation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride (Cl-) has been reported to occur during thermal remediation of subsurface environments. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate abiotic degradation of TCE at el...

153

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

1972-01-01

154

Status of utility-interactive photovoltaic power conditioning technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design options for utility-interactive photovoltaic power conditioning technology for unit ratings from 2kW to 5 MW are compared. Line- and self-commutated inverter designs for both single and three-phase applications are described. Efficiency, weight, and cost projections are provided for comparing the design options. New circuit designs that take advantage of advances in power semiconductor devices are found to be the most promising. Hardware efficiencies from 95 percent for single phase to 98 percent for three-phase applications are found.

Key, T. S.; Krauthamer, S.

1985-01-01

155

High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems  

SciTech Connect

R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

Ruckes, John

2006-04-15

156

Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

Triechler, Walter W.

157

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

158

Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these systems have been most commonly installed in open-plan office buildings in which they provide supply air and (in some cases) radiant heating directly into workstations. TAC systems can be classified into the following two major categories: (1) furniture-based, and (2) floor-based, underfloor air distribution (UFAD). A large majority of these systems include a raised floor system with which underfloor plenums are used to deliver conditioned air to the space through floor grills, or in conjunction with the workstation furniture and partitions.

Webster, Tom

2004-06-01

159

A technical and economic evaluation of thermal spallation drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal spallation of rock may be defined as a type of progressive rock failure caused by the creation of thermal stresses induced by a sudden application of heat from a high temperature source. This technology is applicable to only certain types of hard rock, such as dolomite, taconite, and granite. In 1981 and 1982, the deepest holes ever drilled by this process were drilled in granite to depths of 1086 feet and 425 feet respectively. Penetration rates at the bottom of the deeper hole reached a maximum of 100 ft/hr. Because of these high rates, considerable interest was generated concerning the use of this technology for the drilling of deep holes. Based on this interest, this study was undertaken to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of the technology in general. This methodology has been used for blasthole drilling, the cutting of chambers at the bottom of drilled holes, and the cutting of narrow grooves in rock. However, because of the very high temperatures generated by the flame jet and the application of the technology to only certain types of rock, other areas of use have been very limited. In this report, evaluation of the technology was performed by conceptually designing and costing a theoretical flame jet drilling rig. The design process reviews a number of different concepts of the various components needed, and then chooses those pieces of equipment that best suit the needs of the system and have the best chance of being properly developed. The final concept consists of a flexible umbilical hose containing several internal hoses for carrying the various required fluids. An evaluation of this system was then made to determine its operational characteristics. The drilling capabilities and the economics of this rig were then compared to a conventional rotary drilling rig by theoretically drilling two holes of approximately 15,000 feet in depth. This comparison was done by use of a spread sheet type computer program. The results of this study indicate that flame jet drilling performs significantly better in both time and cost. These results are due primarily to the high penetration rates, the reduced number of trips, and the decreased trip time due to the use of the umbilical. However, this significant time and cost advantage must be tempered by the fact that they are based on the assumption that the main components of the flame jet rig can be realistically and reliably built. Unfortunately, the use of an umbilical system presents very realistic and difficult design problems as hole depth extends beyond 7000 feet. Thus, unless a significant market for the use of this equipment can be found, further development of an umbilical type system is very questionable. An alternate system suggests by LASL may circumvent many of the problems stated. This concept consists of using concentric pipes and a down hole fluid separation system. Concentric pipe built by the Walker-Neer Manufacturing Company, Wichita Falls, Texas, has been used successfully in the drilling industry for years. Fluid separators have also been developed and used. Although this concept also presents problems, it may be worth investigating.

None

1984-07-10

160

Energy efficient engine, high pressure turbine thermal barrier coating. Support technology report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the work performed on a thermal barrier coating support technology task of the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development Program. A thermal barrier coating (TBC) system consisting of a Ni-Cr-Al-Y bond cost layer and ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic layer was selected from eight candidate coating systems on the basis of laboratory tests. The selection was based on coating microstructure, crystallographic phase composition, tensile bond and bend test results, erosion and impact test results, furnace exposure, thermal cycle, and high velocity dynamic oxidation test results. Procedures were developed for applying the selected TBC to CF6-50, high pressure turbine blades and vanes. Coated HPT components were tested in three kinds of tests. Stage 1 blades were tested in a cascade cyclic test rig, Stage 2 blades were component high cycle fatigue tested to qualify thermal barrier coated blades for engine testing, and Stage 2 blades and Stage 1 and 2 vanes were run in factory engine tests. After completion of the 1000 cycle engine test, the TBC on the blades was in excellent condition over all of the platform and airfoil except at the leading edge above midspan on the suction side of the airfoil. The coating damage appeared to be caused by particle impingement; adjacent blades without TBC also showed evidence of particle impingement.

Duderstadt, E. C.; Agarwal, P.

1983-01-01

161

Thermal responses and perceptions under distinct ambient temperature and wind conditions.  

PubMed

Wind conditions are widely recognized to influence the thermal states of humans. In this study, we investigated the relationship between wind conditions and thermal perception and energy balance in humans. The study participants were exposed for 20min to 3 distinct ambient temperatures, wind speeds, and wind angles. During the exposure, the skin temperatures as a physiological reaction and mental reactions of the human body were measured and the energy balance was calculated based on the human thermal-load method. The results indicate that the human thermal load is an accurate indicator of human thermal states under all wind conditions. Furthermore, wind speed and direction by themselves do not account for the human thermal experience. Because of the thermoregulation that occurs to prevent heat loss and protect the core of the body, a low skin temperature was maintained and regional differences in skin temperature were detected under cool ambient conditions. Thus, the human thermal load, which represents physiological parameters such as skin-temperature change, adequately describes the mixed sensation of the human thermal experience. PMID:25774021

Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamamoto, Takanori

2015-01-01

162

Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

163

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01

164

Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of rectangular sandwich panels under different edge conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide overall comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. In addition, thermal buckling curves of these sandwich panels are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory.

Ko, William L.

1994-01-01

165

Field Demonstration of Multi-Sensor Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems (Abstract)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, focused electrode leak location (FELL), ...

166

Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

1980-07-01

167

NON-THERMAL PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER CONTROL: A CRITICAL REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-thermal plasma is an emerging technique in environmental pollution control technology, produced by the high-voltage discharge processes and therefore a large amount of high energy electrons and active species are generated. The degradation of difficult-degraded organic pollutions will be greatly enhanced by the active species generated from non-thermal plasma process. However, research on non-thermal plasma technology on organic wastewater cleaning

Hsu-Hui Cheng; Shiao-Shing Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Din-Lit Ho

168

Boundary Conditions at the Walls with Thermionic Electron Emission in Two Temperature Modeling of "Thermal" Plasmas  

E-print Network

In this paper we propose new boundary conditions at the hot walls with thermionic electron emission for two-temperature thermal arc models. In the derived boundary conditions the walls are assumed to be made from refractory metals and that the erosion of the wall is small and, therefore, is not taken into account in the model. In these boundary conditions the plasma sheath formed at the electrode is considered as the interface between the plasma and the wall. The derived boundary conditions allow the calculation of the heat flux to the walls from the plasma and consequently the thermionic electron current that makes the two temperature thermal model self consistent.

Pekker, Leonid

2015-01-01

169

Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology.  

PubMed

To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma environment, incinerated ashes are vitrified into benign slag with large volume reduction and extreme detoxification. Several one-step heat treatment processes are carried out at four temperatures (i.e. 850, 950, 1,050 and 1,150 degrees C) to obtain various "microstructure materials". The major phase to form these materials is a solid solution of gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and åkermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) belonging to the melilite group. The physical and mechanical properties of the microstructure materials are improved by using one-step post-heat treatment process after plasma vitrification. These microstructure materials with good quality have great potential to serve as a viable alternative for construction applications. PMID:12092757

Cheng, T W; Chu, J P; Tzeng, C C; Chen, Y S

2002-01-01

170

Novel Thermal Powered Technology for UUV Persistent Surveillance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buoyancy Generation: Various technology attempts include melting a wax, which pushes directly against a piston (U.S. Patent 5,291,847) or against a bladder (Webb Research), using ammonia or Freon 21 (U.S. Patent 5,303,552), and using solar heat to expand an oil (www.space.com, April, 10, 2002). All these heat-activated buoyancy control designs have thus far proved impractical and have ultimately failed during repeated cycling in ocean testing. JPL has demonstrated fully reversible 10 C encapsulated wax phase change, which can be used to change buoyancy without electrical hydraulic pumps. This technique has greatly improved heat transfer and much better reversibility than previous designs. Power Generation: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems have been designed that transfer deep, cold sea water to the surface to generate electricity using turbine cycles with ammonia or water as the working fluid. JPL has designed several UUV systems: 1) Using a propeller water turbine to generate power on a gliding submersible; 2) Employing a compact CO2 turbine cycle powered by moving through thermoclines; and 3) Using melted wax to directly produce power through a piston-geared generator.

Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

2006-01-01

171

Free vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation of the vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates in the prebuckled region is presented. The investigation covers the broad class of trapezoidal plates with two opposite sides parallel. Each edge of the plate may be subjected to different uniform boundary conditions. variable thickness and arbitrary temperature distributions (analytical or experimental) for any desired combination of boundary conditions may be prescribed. Results obtained using this analysis are compared to experimental results obtained for isotropic plates with thermal stress, and to results contained in the literature for orthotropic plates without thermal stress. Good agreement exists for both sets of comparisons.

Bailey, C. D.; Greetham, J. C.

1973-01-01

172

Influence of thermalization on the initial condition for heavy ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the important role of the thermalization process in the initial distribution of QGP. We find that the negligible heat conduction inside QGP can be expressed as an effective Fourier law and we further analyse qualitatively the results caused by a thermalized initial condition. Based on this arguments, we construct a simple phenomenological model and work with the hydro code, and then we compare our results with the experimental data and the results of the standard initial model. It is found that, as we have argued, a thermalized initial condition suppresses the value of the elliptic flow.

Zhao, AMeng; Sun, WeiMin; Zong, HongShi

2014-11-01

173

Lattice thermal conductivity of MgO at conditions of Earth's interior.  

PubMed

Thermal conductivity of the Earth's lower mantle greatly impacts the mantle convection style and affects the heat conduction from the core to the mantle. Direct laboratory measurement of thermal conductivity of mantle minerals remains a technical challenge at the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions relevant to the lower mantle, and previously estimated values are extrapolated from low P-T data based on simple empirical thermal transport models. By using a numerical technique that combines first-principles electronic structure theory and Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory, we predict the lattice thermal conductivity of MgO, previously used to estimate the thermal conductivity in the Earth, at conditions from ambient to the core-mantle boundary (CMB). We show that our first-principles technique provides a realistic model for the P-T dependence of lattice thermal conductivity of MgO at conditions from ambient to the CMB, and we propose thermal conductivity profiles of MgO in the lower mantle based on geotherm models. The calculated conductivity increases from 15 -20 W/K-m at the 670 km seismic discontinuity to 40 -50 W/K-m at the CMB. This large depth variation in calculated thermal conductivity should be included in models of mantle convection, which has been traditionally studied based on the assumption of constant conductivity. PMID:20176973

Tang, Xiaoli; Dong, Jianjun

2010-03-01

174

Lattice thermal conductivity of MgO at conditions of Earth’s interior  

PubMed Central

Thermal conductivity of the Earth’s lower mantle greatly impacts the mantle convection style and affects the heat conduction from the core to the mantle. Direct laboratory measurement of thermal conductivity of mantle minerals remains a technical challenge at the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions relevant to the lower mantle, and previously estimated values are extrapolated from low P-T data based on simple empirical thermal transport models. By using a numerical technique that combines first-principles electronic structure theory and Peierls–Boltzmann transport theory, we predict the lattice thermal conductivity of MgO, previously used to estimate the thermal conductivity in the Earth, at conditions from ambient to the core-mantle boundary (CMB). We show that our first-principles technique provides a realistic model for the P-T dependence of lattice thermal conductivity of MgO at conditions from ambient to the CMB, and we propose thermal conductivity profiles of MgO in the lower mantle based on geotherm models. The calculated conductivity increases from 15 –20 W/K-m at the 670 km seismic discontinuity to 40 –50 W/K-m at the CMB. This large depth variation in calculated thermal conductivity should be included in models of mantle convection, which has been traditionally studied based on the assumption of constant conductivity. PMID:20176973

Tang, Xiaoli; Dong, Jianjun

2010-01-01

175

Thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine: isoperibolic calorimetric measurements at different conditions.  

PubMed

Thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine, NH2OH, was responsible for two serious accidents. However, its reactive behavior and the synergy of factors affecting its decomposition are not being understood. In this work, the global enthalpy of hydroxylamine decomposition has been measured in the temperature range of 130-150 °C employing isoperibolic calorimetry. Measurements were performed in a metal reactor, employing 30-80 ml solutions containing 1.4-20 g of pure hydroxylamine (2.8-40 g of the supplied reagent). The measurements showed that increased concentration or temperature, results in higher global enthalpies of reaction per unit mass of reactant. At 150 °C, specific enthalpies as high as 8 kJ per gram of hydroxylamine were measured, although in general they were in the range of 3-5 kJ g(-1). The accurate measurement of the generated heat was proven to be a cumbersome task as (a) it is difficult to identify the end of decomposition, which after a fast initial stage, proceeds very slowly, especially at lower temperatures and (b) the environment of gases affects the reaction rate. PMID:23644689

Adamopoulou, Theodora; Papadaki, Maria I; Kounalakis, Manolis; Vazquez-Carreto, Victor; Pineda-Solano, Alba; Wang, Qingsheng; Mannan, M Sam

2013-06-15

176

Lipid-derived aldehyde degradation under thermal conditions.  

PubMed

Nucleophilic degradation produced by reactive carbonyls plays a major role in food quality and safety. Nevertheless, these reactions are complex because reactive carbonyls are usually involved in various competitive reactions. This study describes the thermal degradation of 2-alkenals (2-pentenal and 2-octenal) and 2,4-alkadienals (2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal) in an attempt to both clarify the stability of aldehydes and determine new compounds that might also play a role in nucleophile/aldehyde reactions. The obtained results showed that alkenals and alkadienals decomposed rapidly in the presence of buffer and air to produce formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and the aldehydes corresponding to the breakage of the carboncarbon double bonds: propanal, hexanal, 2-pentenal, 2-octenal, glyoxal, and fumaraldehyde. The activation energy of double bond breakage was relatively low (? 25 kJ/mol) and the yield of alkanals (10-18%) was higher than that of 2-alkenals (? 1%). All these results indicate that these reactions should be considered in order to fully understand the range of nucleophile/aldehyde adducts produced. PMID:25529656

Zamora, Rosario; Navarro, José L; Aguilar, Isabel; Hidalgo, Francisco J

2015-05-01

177

Inverse Thermal Analysis of a Titanium Laser Weld Using Multiple Constraint Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse thermal analysis of a titanium laser weld using multiple constraint conditions is presented. This analysis employs a methodology that is in terms of numerical-analytical basis functions for inverse thermal analysis of steady-state energy deposition in plate structures. The results of this type of analysis provide parametric representations of weld temperature histories that can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, such as those for prediction of solid-state phase transformations. In addition, these temperature histories can be used to construct parametric-function representations for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other process parameters or welding processes whose process conditions are within similar regimes. The present study extends an inverse thermal analysis procedure applied in previous studies. This extension provides for the inclusion of constraint conditions associated with both solidification and phase transformation boundaries.

Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Huang, L.

2014-06-01

178

Thermal and Mechanical Microspacecraft Technologies for Deep Space Systems Program X2000 Future Deliveries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal and mechanical technologies are an important part of the Deep Space Systems Technology (DSST) Program X2000 Future Deliveries (FD) microspacecraft. A wide range of future space missions are expected to utilize the technologies and the architecture developed by DSST FD. These technologies, besides being small in physical size, make the tiny spacecraft robust and flexible. The DSST FD architecture is designed to be highly reliable and suitable for a wide range of missions such as planetary landers/orbiters/flybys, earth orbiters, cometary flybys/landers/sample returns, etc. Two of the key ideas used in the development of thermal and mechanical technologies and architectures are: 1) to include several of the thermal and mechanical functions in any given single spacecraft element and 2) the architecture be modular so that it can easily be adapted to any of the future missions. One of the thermal architectures being explored for the DSST FD microspacecraft is the integrated thermal energy management of the complete spacecraft using a fluid loop. The robustness and the simplicity of the loop and the flexibility with which it can be integrated in the spacecraft have made it attractive for applications to DSST FD. Some of the thermal technologies to be developed as a part of this architecture are passive and active cooling loops, electrically variable emittance surfaces, miniature thermal switches, and specific high density electronic cooling technologies. In the mechanical area, multifunction architecture for the structural elements will be developed. The multifunction aspect is expected to substantially reduce the mass and volume of the spacecraft. Some of the technologies that will be developed are composite material panels incorporating electronics, cabling, and thermal elements in them. The paper describes the current state of the technologies and progress to be made in the thermal and mechanical technologies and approaches for the DSST Future Deliveries microspacecraft.

Birur, Gajanana C.; Bruno, Robin J.

1999-01-01

179

Thermal characteristics of the 12-gigahertz, 200-watt output stage tube for the communications technology satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the methods used to measure component temperatures and heat-rejection rates in a simulated space environment on output stage tubes (OST's) developed for the Communications Technology Satellite is presented along with summaries of experimentally determined values. The OST's were operated over the entire anticipated operating drive range, from the dc beam (zero drive) condition to the 6-db overdrive condition. The baseplate temperature was varied from -10 to 58 C with emphasis placed on the testing done at 45 C, the normal anticipated operating temperature. The heat-rejection rate of the OST baseplate ranged from 7.6 W at the dc beam condition to 184.5 W at the 6-db overdrive condition; the heat-rejection rate of the multistage depressed collector (MDC) cover ranged from 192.2 to 155.9 W for the same conditions. The maximum OST temperature measured on the MDC cover was 227 C during a dc beam test. The minimum temperature measured, also on the MDC cover, was -67.5 C at the end of an extended simulated eclipse test period. No effects were observed on the OST thermal characteristics due to vibration testing or temperature-reversal cycle testing.

Curren, A. N.

1978-01-01

180

INFLUENCE OF THERMAL CHALLENGE ON CONDITIONED FEEDING FORAYS OF JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) conditioned to traverse a 2.4-m-long channel to receive a food reward where subjected to in-transit thermal challenges. Conditioning was to a criterion that required 80% of the fish to leave the 'home' area and reach the 'reward' area with...

181

Thermal comfort study of an air-conditioned lecture theatre in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the current thermal comfort conditions of an air-conditioned lecture theatre in a tertiary institution using objective measurement, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and subjective assessment. A CFD tool was used to simulate the indoor comfort parameters, such as temperature, airflow rate and relative humidity. Corroboration between results from the field measurements and predicted values was conducted.It was

K. W. D. Cheong; E. Djunaedy; Y. L. Chua; K. W. Tham; S. C. Sekhar; N. H. Wong; M. B. Ullah

2003-01-01

182

Numerical estimation of the electro-thermal conditions for vacuum switcher chamber operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma phenomena have different and complex features depending on concrete physical conditions. The plasma control and characteristics during the switching processes are directly dependent on the ignition conditions of the electric arc. The thermal state of the electric contacts before the moment of disconnection has an important role. The paper presents a mathematical model and an iterative solving method for

D. Olaru; F. Calin

2008-01-01

183

Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal interface material is one of the many tools often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. Historically, at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, numerous alternatives have come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and do not take into consideration other design issues, such as off-gassing, electrical conduction, isolation, etc. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to detail the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests. The results show that there are a number of better performing alternatives now available.

Glasgow, S. D.; Kittredge, K. B.

2003-01-01

184

SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 3: Space power and thermal management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of briefings from the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft integrated technology plan on thermal power and thermal management are presented. Topics covered include: space energy conversion research and technology; space photovoltaic energy conversion; chemical energy conversion and storage; thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high capacity power; surface power and thermal management; space platforms power and thermal management; and project SELENE.

1991-01-01

185

A SINDA thermal model using CAD/CAE technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach to thermal analysis described by this paper is a technique that incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a thermal model that has the advantages of Finite Element Methods (FEM) without abandoning the unique advantages of Finite Difference Methods (FDM) in the analysis of thermal systems. The incorporation of existing CAD geometry, the powerful use of a pre and post processor and the ability to do interdisciplinary analysis, will be described.

Rodriguez, Jose A.; Spencer, Steve

1992-01-01

186

Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) Technologies for Thermal Control of Future Mars Rovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanically pumped fluid loop has been the basis of thermal control architecture for the last two Mars lander and rover missions and is the key part of the MSL thermal architecture. Several MPFL technologies are being developed for the MSL rover include long-life pumps, thermal control valves, mechanical fittings for use with CFC-11 at elevated temperatures of approx.100 C. Over three years of life tests and chemical compatibility tests on these MPFL components show that MPFL technology is mature for use on MSL. The advances in MPFL technologies for MSL Rover will benefit any future MPFL applications on NASA s Moon, Mars and Beyond Program.

Birur, Gaj; Bhandari, Pradeep; Prina, Mauro; Bame, Dave; Yavrouian, Andre; Plett, Gary

2006-01-01

187

Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

Gordon, L. H.

1979-01-01

188

Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions  

SciTech Connect

This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

NONE

1995-07-01

189

LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

190

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of solar thermal technologies  

E-print Network

To build an electric car plus renewable energy system for Singapore, solar thermal technologies were investigated in this report in the hope to find a suitable "green" energy source for this small island country. Among all ...

Liu, Xiaogang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

191

OVERVIEW OF CONVENTIONAL AND INNOVATIVE LAND-BASED THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTE DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

For more than the past two decades, the USEPA has been aggressive in its research, development, performance testing, and in encouragement of the regulated use of proven thermal destruction (or incineration) technologies for the environmentally acceptable treatment and disposal of...

192

[The progress in retrieving land surface temperature based on thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing technologies].  

PubMed

Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in the study on the exchange of substance and energy between land surface and air for the land surface physics process at regional and global scales. Many applications of satellites remotely sensed data must provide exact and quantificational LST, such as drought, high temperature, forest fire, earthquake, hydrology and the vegetation monitor, and the models of global circulation and regional climate also need LST as input parameter. Therefore, the retrieval of LST using remote sensing technology becomes one of the key tasks in quantificational remote sensing study. Normally, in the spectrum bands, the thermal infrared (TIR, 3-15 microm) and microwave bands (1 mm-1 m) are important for retrieval of the LST. In the present paper, firstly, several methods for estimating the LST on the basis of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing were synthetically reviewed, i. e., the LST measured with an ground-base infrared thermometer, the LST retrieval from mono-window algorithm (MWA), single-channel algorithm (SCA), split-window techniques (SWT) and multi-channels algorithm(MCA), single-channel & multi-angle algorithm and multi-channels algorithm & multi-angle algorithm, and retrieval method of land surface component temperature using thermal infrared remotely sensed satellite observation. Secondly, the study status of land surface emissivity (epsilon) was presented. Thirdly, in order to retrieve LST for all weather conditions, microwave remotely sensed data, instead of thermal infrared data, have been developed recently, and the LST retrieval method from passive microwave remotely sensed data was also introduced. Finally, the main merits and shortcomings of different kinds of LST retrieval methods were discussed, respectively. PMID:19839318

Zhang, Jia-Hua; Li, Xin; Yao, Feng-Mei; Li, Xian-Hua

2009-08-01

193

Nuclear thermal propulsion technology: Results of an interagency panel in FY 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA LeRC was selected to lead nuclear propulsion technology development for NASA. Also participating in the project are NASA MSFC and JPL. The U.S. Department of Energy will develop nuclear technology and will conduct nuclear component, subsystem, and system testing at appropriate DOE test facilities. NASA program management is the responsibility of NASA/RP. The project includes both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology development. This report summarizes the efforts of an interagency panel that evaluated NTP technology in 1991. Other panels were also at work in 1991 on other aspects of nuclear propulsion, and the six panels worked closely together. The charters for the other panels and some of their results are also discussed. Important collaborative efforts with other panels are highlighted. The interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) NTP Technology Panel worked in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion concepts on a consistent basis. Additionally, the panel worked to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Five meetings of the panel were held in 1991 to continue the planning for technology development of nuclear thermal propulsion systems. The state-of-the-art of the NTP technologies was reviewed in some detail. The major technologies identified were as follows: fuels, coatings, and other reactor technologies; materials; instrumentation, controls, health monitoring and management, and associated technologies; nozzles; and feed system technology, including turbopump assemblies.

Clark, John S.; Mcdaniel, Patrick; Howe, Steven; Helms, Ira; Stanley, Marland

1993-01-01

194

Thermal plasma waste remediation technology: Historical perspective and current trends. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The idea of utilizing thermal plasma technology for waste processing goes back to the mid-1970`s during the energy crisis. Since then, more interest has been shown by universities, industry, and government in developing thermal plasma waste processing technology for hazardous and non-hazardous waste treatment. Much of the development has occurred outside of the United States, most significantly in Japan and France, while the market growth for thermal plasma waste treatment technology has remained slow in the United States. Despite the slow expansion of the market in the United States, since the early 1990`s there has been an increase in interest in utilizing thermal plasma technology for environmental remediation and treatment in lieu of the more historical methods of incineration and landfilling. Currently within the Department of Defense there are several demonstration projects underway, and details of some of these projects are provided. Prior to these efforts by the U.S. Government, the State of New York had investigated the use of thermal plasma technology for treating PCB contaminated solvent wastes from the Love Canal cleanup. As interest continues to expand in the application of thermal plasma technology for waste treatment and remediation, more and more personnel are becoming involved with treatment, regulation, monitoring, and commercial operations and many have little understanding of this emerging technology. To address these needs, this report will describe: (1) characteristics of plasmas; (2) methods for generating sustained thermal plasmas; (3) types of thermal plasma sources for waste processing; (4) the development of thermal plasma waste treatment systems; and (5) Department of Defense plasma arc waste treatment demonstration projects.

Counts, D.A.; Sartwell, B.D.; Peterson, S.H.; Kirkland, R.; Kolak, N.P.

1999-01-29

195

Ceramic matrix composites - Forerunners of technological breakthrough in space vehicle hot structures and thermal protection system  

SciTech Connect

The current status of carbon-carbon and carbon-silicon carbide composites developed for aerospace applications is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to production facilities and technologies for the manufacture of C-C and C-SiC composites, mechanical and thermal characteristics of carbon-carbon and carbon-silicon carbide materials, applications to thermal structures and protection, and technologies developed to build large C-SiC thermostructural components within the Hermes program. 9 refs.

Lacombe, A.; Rouges, J.

1990-01-01

196

Processes controlling the thermal regime of salt marsh channel beds Journal: Environmental Science & Technology  

E-print Network

Processes controlling the thermal regime of salt marsh channel beds Journal: Environmental Science to Environmental Science & Technology #12;1 Processes controlling the thermal regime of salt marsh channel beds (DTS) system deployed along 330-m of two intertidal salt marsh channel2 beds in northern California

Selker, John

197

technology offer SandTES -High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage  

E-print Network

technology offer SandTES - High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage key words: High Temperature Energy Storage | Fluidized Bed | Sand | The invention consists of a fluidized bed with internal heat together with Dr. Eisl of ENRAG GmbH. Background Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are essential

Szmolyan, Peter

198

Likely near-term solar-thermal water splitting technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic and materials considerations were made for some two- and three-step thermochemical cycles to split water using solar-thermal processing. The direct thermolysis of water to produce H2 using solar-thermal processing is unlikely in the near term due to ultra-high-temperature requirements exceeding 3000K and the need to separate H2 from O2 at these temperatures. However, several lower temperature (<2500K) thermochemical cycles

Christopher Perkins; Alan W. Weimer

2004-01-01

199

Dumping pump and treat: rapid cleanups using thermal technology  

SciTech Connect

Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons are often difficult to clean up, especially if the contaminants are present in or below the water table as a separate liquid-organic phase. Excavating and treating the contaminated soil may not be practical or even possible if the affected zone is relatively deep. Merely pumping groundwater has proven to be ineffective because huge amounts of water must be flushed through the contaminated area to clean it; even then the contaminants may not be completely removed. Due to the low solubility of most common contaminants, such pump and treat systems can be expected to take decades to centuries to actually clean a site. Today, many sites are required to pump and treat contaminated groundwater even though there is no expectation that the site will be cleaned. In these cases, the pumps simply control the spread of the contaminant, while requiring a continuous flow of money, paperwork, and management attention. Although pump and treat systems are relatively inexpensive to operate, they represent along term cost. Most importantly, they rarely remove enough contaminant to change the property`s status. Although a pump and treat system can offer compliance in a regulatory sense, it doesn`t solve the site`s liability problem. Thermal methods promise to solve this dilemma by actually cleaning a property in a short time period, thus limiting the period of liability. This may involve cleaning a site to closure during the initial contaminant-removal phase, or removal of the majority of the contaminant so that natural processes such as bioremediation can return the site to pristine condition over a period of years, without further owner intervention. Today`s regulatory environment encourages this approach through efforts such as the brownfields initiatives. In either case, this requires a strong commitment on the part of the site owner. Most if not all the cleanup occurs within the first year or so, and nearly all the cost. In our experience, the total cleanup cost is still significantly smaller than with conventional methods. The real benefit is the cleanup and thus the removal of liability within a realistic time frame.

Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

1997-03-11

200

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India  

SciTech Connect

Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

2007-01-01

201

Advanced Thermal Control Technologies for "CEV" (New Name: ORION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently investigating several technology options for advanced human spaceflight. This presentation covers some recent developments that relate to NASA's Orion spacecraft and future Lunar missions.

Golliher, Eric; Westheimer, David; Ewert, Michael; Hasan, Mojib; Anderson, Molly; Tuan, George; Beach, Duane

2007-01-01

202

Thermal Energy Storage for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

Brown, Daryl R

2000-12-31

203

Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

Brown, Daryl R.

2000-12-31

204

Technology Demonstration: Acoustic Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative sewer line assessment technologies that are designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of technologies that are suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less ...

205

New Technologies in Ammonia Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper describes a brief historic perspective of transition from natural refrigerants to synthetic and now back to natural refrigerants. The thermodynamic, physical and safety properties of ammonia are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of ammonia refrigerant are discussed. The heat exchanger technology has seen introduction of compact and efficient equipment both in shell and tube and plate technologies.

Risto Ciconkov; Zahid H. Ayub

2008-01-01

206

Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

207

A study on oscillating second-kind boundary condition for Pennes equation considering thermal relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effects of the thermal relaxation, the blood perfusion and the oscillating of ambient heat flux on the living tissue temperature in detail, we analytically investigated the one-dimensional CV model, a thermal wave model presented by Cattaneo and Vernott, for Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation under oscillating second-kind boundary condition. The results showed that the blood perfusion has the effect of maintaining the tissue's temperature. The heat propagation velocity decreases with the thermal relaxation time, while the absolute value of tissue's mean excess temperature at steady state increases with the thermal relaxation time. When the ambient heat flux oscillates, the tissue's temperature oscillates in the same period with a lag time. The results obtained in this paper are valuable for the research reference on the topic of tumor hyperthermia, heat injury, etc.

Zhu, Weiping; Xu, Peng; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Meimei; Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Lu, Junfeng

2014-05-01

208

Heat loss of heat pipelines in moisture conditions of thermal insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a wet fibroporous material in conditions of evaporation and steam diffusion were obtained. Values of heat and mass fluxes were established. The contribution of evaporation effect to total heat flux and need to consider volume fractions of water and steam into the structure of fibroporous material in calculation of effective thermal conductivity were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem can be ignored.

Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Gubina, E. V.

2014-08-01

209

Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fo?t, Jan; ?erný, Robert

2015-03-01

210

Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation

A. Chambers; M. Knecht; N. Soelberg; D. Eaton; D. Roberts; T. Broderick

1997-01-01

211

Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

Collaert, Robin

2013-02-01

212

The control of indoor thermal comfort conditions: introducing a fuzzy adaptive controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control and the monitoring of indoor thermal conditions represents a pre-eminent task with the aim of ensuring suitable working and living spaces to people. Especially in industrialised countries, in fact, several rules and standards have been recently released in order of providing technicians with suitable design tools and effective indexes and parameters for the checking of the indoor microclimate.

Francesco Calvino; Maria La Gennusa; Gianfranco Rizzo; Gianluca Scaccianoce

2004-01-01

213

Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage  

E-print Network

After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room...

Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

2006-01-01

214

Thermal Stability of Amino Acids in Siliceous Ooze under Alkaline Hydrothermal Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal systems have been considered as a suitable environment for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. For the assessment of this hypothesis, it is required to investigate behaviors of basic biomolecules, such as amino acids (AAs), under hydrothermal condition. Although many experiments on the thermal stability of the AAs in hydrothermal systems have been carried out,

K. Yamaoka; H. Kawahata; L. P. Gupta; M. Ito; H. Masuda

2006-01-01

215

ACTIVITY AND SPACE USE BY DEGUS: A TRADE-OFF BETWEEN THERMAL CONDITIONS AND FOOD AVAILABILITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the influence of environmental temperature (open versus shaded habitat) and experimental food availability on surface activity of the degu ( Octodon degus), a day-active herbivorous rodent that inhabits central Chile. We manipulated food availability and com- pared open and shaded study plots to determine the influence of thermal conditions on aboveground activity. Degus displayed a bimodal pattern of

LEONARDO D. BACIGALUPE; L. REZENDE; G. J. K ENAGY; FRANCISCO BOZINOVIC

2003-01-01

216

Thermal and economical optimization of air conditioning units with vapor compression refrigeration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of thermal and economical optimum design of air conditioning units with vapor compression refrigeration system, is presented. Such a system includes compressor, condenser, evaporator, centrifugal and axial fans. Evaporator and condenser temperatures, their heating surface areas (frontal surface area and number of tubes), centrifugal and axial fan powers, and compressor power are among the design variables. The

S Sanaye; H. R Malekmohammadi

2004-01-01

217

Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of sandwich panels under different edge conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system, combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations are established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three dimensional buckling interaction surfaces are constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide easy comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. Thermal buckling curves of the sandwich panels also are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory. In sandwich panels, the effect of transverse shear is quite large, and by neglecting the transverse shear effect, the buckling loads could be overpredicted considerably. Clamping of the edges could greatly increase buckling strength more in compression than in shear.

Ko, William L.

1993-01-01

218

Impact of technological processing conditions on optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured materials are intensively investigated due to their wide range of physical and chemical properties which result in a large variety of applications. From an industrial point of view, emphasis has not only to be on materials performance and on control of their properties, but also on cost reduction either for the materials, the processes, or for both. Materials are searched for which enable different processing technologies, feature sizes and shapes as well as an integration up to a centimeter scale. The combination of low-cost materials with tunable material parameters such as low optical absorption, tunable refractive index, good processability as well as high chemical, thermal and mechanical stability, is very attractive for integrated optical applications. A particular class of low-cost nanoscale materials which fulfills these requirements is the class of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER(R)s1) which are synthesized by catalytically controlled hydrolysis/ polycondensation reactions, resulting in storage-stable, photo-sensitive resins. The material properties, for example refractive index or optical absorption, can be widely varied by choice of alkoxysilane precursors or synthesis conditions such as catalysts or solvents. In addition, the material properties can also be significantly influenced by the technological processing conditions. For example, the degree of organic cross-linking can be adjusted by variation of UV initiator kind and concentration, or by various exposure doses. This, consequently, is directly correlated to the refractive index. The impact of processing conditions on the refractive index was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and refractive index measurements. The refractive indices are correlated to the material's degree of organic cross-linking, and application examples will be given.

Bock, Anne; Pieper, Torsten; Houbertz, Ruth; Sextl, Gerhard

2009-02-01

219

Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now

2004-01-01

220

Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was obtained by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm. In this research DPSM has been extended to model DPSM transient problems without using FFT. This modified technique has been denoted as t-DPSM. Using DPSM, scattering of focused ultrasonic fields by single and multiple cavities in fluid & solid media is studied. It is investigated when two cavities in close proximity can be distinguished and when it is not possible. A comparison between the radiation forces generated by the ultrasonic energies reflected from two small cavities versus a single big cavity is also carried out.

Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

221

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC. - THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires, Inc., works by vaporizing the organic contaminants from the soil with heat, isolating the contaminant! in a gas stream, and then destroying them in a high efficiency afterburner. he processed solids are either replaced f...

222

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC. THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires, Inc., works by vaporizing the organic contaminants from the soil with heat, isolating the contaminant! in a gas stream, and then destroying them in a high efficiency afterburner. The processed solids are either replaced ...

223

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Three major areas were identified for which solar thermal energy usage has potential applicability in Publicly Owned Treatment Works. These areas include space and domestic water heating, anaerobic digester heating, and sludge drying. The report contains a detailed analysis of so...

224

Assessment of Solar Thermal Energy Technologies in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal energy resource situation in Nigeria including the estimated potential and available amount of the resource, are presented in this paper. The status of the database is discussed, indicating its degree of adequacy and an identification of the gaps. The National Energy Policy Document states that \\

A. A. Adeyanju; K. Manohar

2011-01-01

225

High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

2007-06-01

226

Thermal neutral format based on the step technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exchange of models is one of the most serious problems currently encountered in the practice of spacecraft thermal analysis. Essentially, the problem originates in the diversity of computing environments that are used across different sites, and the consequent proliferation of native tool formats. Furthermore, increasing pressure to reduce the development's life cycle time has originated a growing interest in the so-called spacecraft concurrent engineering. In this context, the realization of the interdependencies between different disciplines and the proper communication between them become critical issues. The use of a neutral format represents a step forward in addressing these problems. Such a means of communication is adopted by consensus. A neutral format is not directly tied to any specific tool and it is kept under stringent change control. Currently, most of the groups promoting exchange formats are contributing with their experience to STEP, the Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data, which is being developed under the auspices of the International Standards Organization (ISO 10303). This paper presents the different efforts made in Europe to provide the spacecraft thermal analysis community with a Thermal Neutral Format (TNF) based on STEP. Following an introduction with some background information, the paper presents the characteristics of the STEP standard. Later, the first efforts to produce a STEP Spacecraft Thermal Application Protocol are described. Finally, the paper presents the currently harmonized European activities that follow up and extend earlier work on the area.

Almazan, P. Planas; Legal, J. L.

1995-01-01

227

Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.  

PubMed

This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. PMID:23948051

Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

2014-06-01

228

Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation used the Heated Tube Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center to perform a thermal stability and heat transfer characterization of RP-1 in an environment simulating that of a high chamber pressure, regenerative cooled rocket engine. The first step in the research was to investigate the carbon deposition process of previous heated tube experiments by performing scanning electron microscopic analysis in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy on the tube sections. This analysis gave insight into the carbon deposition process and the effect that test conditions played in the formation of deleterious coke. Furthermore, several different formations were observed and noted. One other crucial finding of this investigation was that in sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuels, the interaction of the sulfur components with copper based wall materials presented a significant corrosion problem. This problem in many cases was more life limiting than those posed by the carbon deposition process. The results of this microscopic analysis was detailed and presented at the December 2003 JANNAF Air-Breathing Propulsion Meeting as a Materials Compatibility and Thermal Stability Analysis of common Hydrocarbon Fuels (reference 1).

DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

2005-01-01

229

Stability of Lysozyme in Aqueous Extremolyte Solutions during Heat Shock and Accelerated Thermal Conditions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of lysozyme in aqueous solutions in the presence of various extremolytes (betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose, ectoine, and firoin) under different stress conditions. The stability of lysozyme was determined by Nile red Fluorescence Spectroscopy and a bioactivity assay. During heat shock (10 min at 70°C), betaine, trehalose, ectoin and firoin protected lysozyme against inactivation while hydroxyectoine, did not have a significant effect. During accelerated thermal conditions (4 weeks at 55°C), firoin also acted as a stabilizer. In contrast, betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose and ectoine destabilized lysozyme under this condition. These findings surprisingly indicate that some extremolytes can stabilize a protein under certain stress conditions but destabilize the same protein under other stress conditions. Therefore it is suggested that for the screening extremolytes to be used for protein stabilization, an appropriate storage conditions should also be taken into account. PMID:24465983

van Streun, Erwin L. P.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

2014-01-01

230

Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by

Milton Klein

2004-01-01

231

Effect of soil water content on soil thermal conductivity under field conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the thermal properties of soils is required in many areas of engineering, meteorology, agronomy, and ecosystem and soil science. Soil thermal conductivity varies in time and space, since it is influenced by soil properties as well as soil temperature and moisture conditions. We use the one dimensional heat conduction equation in conjunction with two-year data measured in a grass-covered field in North Carolina Piedmont to estimate soil thermal conductivity and to investigate how it is impacted by water content. In agreement with laboratory experiments reported in the literature, our results suggest that under dry conditions soil thermal conductivity increases across a relatively narrow range of soil water contents, above which a further increase in water content does not significantly change thermal conductivity. However, when soil approaches saturation, heat transfer is further improved, a fact not previously noted. This nonlinear behavior is consistent with the formation at high water contents of a continuous film of liquid water in soil aggregates of mineral and organic matter.

Vico, G.; Daly, E.; Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.

2008-12-01

232

Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal interface material is one of the many tools that are often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. These materials are placed between, for example, an avionics box and a cold plate, in order to improve the conduction heat transfer so that proper temperatures can be maintained. Historically at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM@ 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, there have been numerous alternatives come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and they do not take into consideration other design issues such as off-gassing, electrical conduction or isolation, etc. This paper details the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests.

Glasgow, Shaun; Kittredge, Ken

2003-01-01

233

Bayesian Framework Approach for Prognostic Studies in Electrolytic Capacitor under Thermal Overstress Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies for safety critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuator. Past experiences show that capacitors tend to degrade and fail faster when subjected to high electrical or thermal stress conditions during operations. This makes them good candidates for prognostics and health management. Model-based prognostics captures system knowledge in the form of physics-based models of components in order to obtain accurate predictions of end of life based on their current state of heal th and their anticipated future use and operational conditions. The focus of this paper is on deriving first principles degradation models for thermal stress conditions and implementing Bayesian framework for making remaining useful life predictions. Data collected from simultaneous experiments are used to validate the models. Our overall goal is to derive accurate models of capacitor degradation, and use them to remaining useful life in DC-DC converters.

Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai; Biswas, Gautam

2012-01-01

234

Report on Condition Assessment Technology of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The wastewater collection system infrastructure in the United States is recognized as being in poor condition and in urgent need of condition assessment and rehabilitation. As part of an effort to address aging infrastructure needs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEP...

235

Technology to Empower Patients with Chronic Conditions Kay Connelly  

E-print Network

some information on the Internet that her condition is related to migraines. Her mother had suffered from migraines for years and had recently discovered a connection between her migraines and chocolate of a condition, giving the #12;patient time to take defensive measures (e.g. take a migraine pill). The second

Connelly, Kay

236

EPS control technology based on road surface conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Electric Power Steering (EPS) System will be considered in this paper. We will discuss electrical power steering (EPS) design by utilizing information related to road surface conditions. Information regarding varying road surface conditions includes both pertinent information and ineffective information, which can be separated by frequency. These frequencies can be utilized in designing an EPS system more effectively in

Zhao Yan; Cheng Yi; Wang Hong

2009-01-01

237

Mechanism and kinetics of thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate under the nonisothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition of UO2(NO3)2·6H2O to U3O8 was studied by thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential thermal (DTA) analyses in combination\\u000a with gaschromatographic and chemical methods. The process is described by kinetic data recorded under the non-isothermal conditions.\\u000a UO2(NO3)2·6H2O transforms into UO3 in eight main stages in the 40–300°C range, and UO3 into U3O8, in three stages with the peaks

R. D. Kozlova; V. A. Matyukha; N. V. Dedov

2007-01-01

238

Woven Thermal Protection System Based Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology (HEEET)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely severe entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or Avcoat. Therefore mission planners typically assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust TPS material however its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-­-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This project was highly successful demonstrating that a Woven TPS solution compares favorably to CP in performance in simulated reentry environments and provides the opportunity to manufacture graded materials that should result in overall reduced mass solutions and enable a much broader set of missions than does CP. Building off the success of the WTPS project GCDP has funded a follow on project to further mature and scale up the WTPS concept for insertion into future NASA robotic missions. The matured WTPS will address the CP concerns associated with ground based test limitations and sustainability. This presentation will briefly discuss results from the WTPS Project and the plans for WTPS maturation into a heat-­-shield for extreme entry environment.

Chinnapongse, Ronald; Ellerbe, Donald; Stackpoole, Maragaret; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beerman, Adam; Feldman, Jay; Peterson Keith; Prabhu, Dinesh; Dillman, Robert; Munk, Michelle

2013-01-01

239

Woven Thermal Protection System Based Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology (HEEET)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or Avcoat. Therefore mission planners typically assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS material however its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This project was highly successful demonstrating that a Woven TPS solution compares favorably to CP in performance in simulated reentry environments and provides the opportunity to manufacture graded materials that should result in overall reduced mass solutions and enable a much broader set of missions than does CP. Building off the success of the WTPS project GCDP has funded a follow on project to further mature and scale up the WTPS concept for insertion into future NASA robotic missions. The matured WTPS will address the CP concerns associated with ground based test limitations and sustainability. This presentation will briefly discuss results from the WTPS Project and the plans for WTPS maturation into a heat-shield for extreme entry environment.

Ellerby, Donald; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Stackpoole, Margaret; Chinnapongse, Ronald; Munk, Michelle; Dillman, Robert; Feldman, Jay; Prabhu, Dinesh; Beerman, Adam

2013-01-01

240

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

NONE

1995-03-01

241

A Rubric for Self-Assessment of Essential Technology Conditions in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of a Web-based instrument that is part of a strategic planning initiative in technology in K-12 schools in Nebraska. The instrument provides rubrics for self-assessment of essential conditions necessary for integrating and adopting of technology. Essential conditions were defined by an extended panel of…

Steckelberg, Allen L.; Li, Lan; Liu, Xiongyi; Kozak, Mike

2008-01-01

242

Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, electro-scan (FELL-41), and a multi-sens...

243

Adoption of improved irrigation and drainage reduction technologies under limiting environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern irrigation technologies have been suggested as a means of conserving scarce water and reducing environmental pollution caused by irrigated agriculture. This paper applies an economic model of technology selection that provides a general framework to analyzing adoption of irrigation technologies under various environmental conditions. Data from the San Joaquin Valley of California is used to verify the theoretical relationships.

Ariel Dinar; Mark B. Campbell; David Zilberman

1992-01-01

244

Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, II: conditional technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genome modification via transgenesis has allowed researchers to link genotype and phenotype as an alternative approach to the characterization of random mutations through evolution. The synergy of technologies from the fields of embryonic stem (ES) cells, gene knockouts, and protein-mediated recombi...

245

Technology Demonstration: Acoustic Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate technologies that are designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment that can result in significant cost-savings to wastewater utilities. Smaller diameter pipes (i.e., less than 12-inch diameter) are gen...

246

The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) mooring technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing technology for mooring components which may be suitable for OTEC use is summarized. Due to the platform size, depth of water, and length of design life required for an operational OTEC plant, only large and high capacity mooring components were investigated. Engineering, test, and manufacturer's data on wire rope, synthetic rope (nylon, polyester and Kevlar), anchors, deck fittings and machinery, and design concepts for tension leg platform mooring systems are included. A significant portion of the effort was directed to the assessment of synthetic rope technology and its application to moorings.

Shields, D. R.; Wendt, R. L.; Johnson, B. A.

1982-12-01

247

Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics for an Inflatable Solar Concentrator in Atmospheric and Thermal Vacuum Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic testing of an inflatable solar concentrator structure in a thermal vacuum chamber as well as in ambient laboratory conditions is described in detail. Unique aspects of modal testing for the extremely lightweight inflatable are identified, including the use of a noncontacting laser vibrometer measurement system. For the thermal vacuum environment, mode shapes and frequency response functions are compared for three different test article inflation pressures at room temperature. Modes that persist through all the inflation pressure regimes are identified, as well as modes that are unique for each pressure. In atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions, dynamic measurements were obtained for the expected operational inflation pressure of 0.5 psig. Experimental mode shapes and frequency response functions for ambient conditions are described and compared to the 0.5 psig results from the thermal vacuum tests. Only a few mode shapes were identified that occurred in both vacuum and atmospheric environments. This somewhat surprising result is discussed in detail, and attributed at least partly to 1.) large differences in modal damping, and 2.) significant differences in the mass of air contained by the structure, in the two environments. Results of this investigation point out the necessity of testing inflatable space structures in vacuum conditions before they can be launched. Ground testing in atmospheric pressure is not sufficient for predicting on-orbit dynamics of non-rigidized inflatable systems.

Slade, Kara N.; Tinker, Michael L.; Lassiter, John O.; Engberg, Robert

2000-01-01

248

REVIEW OF MOBILE THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLID WASTE DESTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration has been dopted as a proven technology to dispose of: azardous waste regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Toxic substances under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Sludge waste under the Clean Water Act; Hazardous substances under ...

249

A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.  

PubMed

With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies. PMID:24457302

Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

2014-03-01

250

Development of the Variable Emittance Thermal Suite for the Space Technology 5 Microsatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of very small satellites, such as nano and microsatellites, logically leads to a requirement for smaller thermal control subsystems. In addition, the thermal control needs of the smaller spacecraft/instrument may well be different from more traditional situations. For example, power for traditional heaters may be very limited or unavailable, mass allocations may be severely limited, and fleets of nano/microsatellites will require a generic thermal design as the cost of unique designs will be prohibitive. Some applications may require significantly increased power levels while others may require extremely low heat loss for extended periods. Small spacecraft will have low thermal capacitance thus subjecting them to large temperature swings when either the heat generation rate changes or the thermal sink temperature changes. This situation, combined with the need for tighter temperature control, will present a challenging situation during transient operation. The use of "off-the-shelf" commercial spacecraft buses for science instruments will also present challenges. Older thermal technology, such as heaters, thermostats, and heat pipes, will almost certainly not be sufficient to meet the requirements of these new spacecraft/instruments. They are generally too heavy, not scalable to very small sizes, and may consume inordinate amounts of power. Hence there is a strong driver to develop new technology to meet these emerging needs. Variable emittance coatings offer an exciting alternative to traditional control methodologies and are one of the technologies that will be flown on Space Technology 5, a mission of three microsatellites designed to validate "enabling" technologies. Several studies have identified variable emittance coatings as applicable to a wide range of spacecraft, and to potentially offer substantial savings in mass and/or power over traditional approaches. This paper discusses the development of the variable emittance thermal suite for ST-5. More specifically, it provides a description of and the infusion and validation plans for the variable emittance coatings.

Douglas, Donya M.; Swanson, Theodore; Osiander, Robert; Champion, John; Darrin, Ann Garrison; Biter, William; Chandrasekhar, Prasanna; Obenschain, Arthur (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

251

Thermal Technology Development Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center - 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides an overview of thermal technology development activities carried out at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center during 2001. Specific topics covered include: two-phase systems (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, vapor compression systems and phase change materials), variable emittance systems, advanced coatings, high conductivity materials and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thermal coatings. The application of these activities to specific space missions is also discussed.

Butler, Dan

2002-01-01

252

Thermoelectric power enhancement by way of flow impedance for fixed thermal input conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid-to-liquid thermoelectric generators are now being considered for the purpose of converting low cost heat to electricity for local energy uses. The importance in investigating their system efficiency lies in the fact that the generator's purpose is to maintain a heat source and a heat sink for its embedded thermoelectric modules. Of particular importance is the generator's ability to maintain an asymmetric thermal field across its embedded modules since this mechanism partially dictates the devices' thermal to electric conversion efficiency. Indeed, since the modules' semiconductor materials' ability to generate an electromotive force is dependent on the quality of the thermal dipole across the material, gains in thermoelectric generator energy conversion efficiency are made possible with thermal system management. In an effort to improve the system conversion efficiency of a liquid-to-liquid thermoelectric generator (TEG), the present work builds upon recent advancements in TEG inner pipe flow optimisation by investigating the thermoelectric power enhancement brought upon by flow impeding panel inserts in a thermoelectric generator's flow channels for fixed thermal input conditions and with respect to varying insert panel densities. The pumping penalty associated with the flow impedance is measured in order to present and to discuss the net thermoelectric power enhancement.

Amaral, Calil; Brandão, Caio; Sempels, Éric V.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

2014-12-01

253

Graphite Ablation and Thermal Response Simulation Under Arc-Jet Flow Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Response and Ablation program, TITAN, was developed and integrated with a Navier-Stokes solver, GIANTS, for multidimensional ablation and shape change simulation of thermal protection systems in hypersonic flow environments. The governing equations in both codes are demoralized using the same finite-volume approximation with a general body-fitted coordinate system. Time-dependent solutions are achieved by an implicit time marching technique using Gauess-Siedel line relaxation with alternating sweeps. As the first part of a code validation study, this paper compares TITAN-GIANTS predictions with thermal response and recession data obtained from arc-jet tests recently conducted in the Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) at NASA Ames Research Center. The test models are graphite sphere-cones. Graphite was selected as a test material to minimize the uncertainties from material properties. Recession and thermal response data were obtained from two separate arc-jet test series. The first series was at a heat flux where graphite ablation is mainly due to sublimation, and the second series was at a relatively low heat flux where recession is the result of diffusion-controlled oxidation. Ablation and thermal response solutions for both sets of conditions, as calculated by TITAN-GIANTS, are presented and discussed in detail. Predicted shape change and temperature histories generally agree well with the data obtained from the arc-jet tests.

Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.; Reda, D. C.; Stewart, D. A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

254

Thermal Properties of Methane Hydrate by Experiment and Modeling and Impacts on Technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of pure methane hydrate, under conditions similar to naturally occurring hydrate-bearing sediments being considered for potential production, have been determined both by a new experimental technique and by advanced molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). A novel single-sided, Transient Plane Source (TPS) technique has been developed and used to measure thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity values of low-porosity methane hydrate formed in the laboratory. The experimental thermal conductivity data are closely matched by results from an equilibrium MDS method using in-plane polarization of the water molecules. MDS was also performed using a non-equilibrium model with a fully polarizable force field for water. The calculated thermal conductivity values from this latter approach were similar to the experimental data. The impact of thermal conductivity on gas production from a hydrate-bearing reservoir was also evaluated using the Tough+/Hydrate reservoir simulator.

Warzinski, R.P.; Gamwo, I.K.; Rosenbaum, E.M.; Jiang, Hao; Jordan, K.D.; English, N.J. (Univ. College Dublin, IRELAND); Shaw, D.W. (Geneva College, Beaver Falls, PA)

2008-07-01

255

Overview of Altair's Thermal Control System and the Associated Technology Development Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In early 2004, President Bush announced a bold vision for space exploration. One of the goals included in this vision is a return to the moon by 2020. In response to this vision, NASA established the Constellation Program, which includes several project offices. One of the Constellation projects is Altair, which is the next generation Lunar Lander. The future Altair missions are very different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. As such, there are several project risks and design challenges that have never before been addressed. Due to the unique thermal environment associated with this mission, many of these risks and design challenges are associated with the vehicle's thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission profile, the operational phases, and the thermal design challenges unique to this particular vehicle. The paper will also describe the technology development efforts being performed to mitigate the risks and design challenges. The technology development project is performing a rigorous development effort that includes thermal control system fluids, evaporators, heat exchangers, and Lunar surface radiators. Constellation Program, there are several project offices. One of these projects includes the development of NASA's new lunar lander vehicle. The overall mission architecture for this vehicle, Altair, is very similar to Apollo's architecture. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Altair vehicle. In addition, Altair's thermal control system, including the functionality and the hardware, will be discussed. The paper will also describe the technology development process and the various technology developments currently underway.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2009-01-01

256

Distribution of coral reefs in the Pearl Islands (Gulf of Panama) in relation to thermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that coral reefs are largely confined to the north and east sides of islands because of favorable thermal conditions was tested and confirmed in the Pearl Islands, Panama. The growth rate of Pocillopom dumicornis, the chief reef-building species, declined mark- edly or ceased on shores exposed to temperatures in the range 2%21°C when median growth rates dropped to

PETER W. GLYNN; ROBERT H. STEWART

1973-01-01

257

The Impact of Fracture–Matrix Interaction on Thermal–Hydrological Conditions in Heated Fractured Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-continuum models have been widely used in modeling flow and transport in fractured porous rocks. Among many other ap- plications, dual-continuum approaches were used in predictive models of the thermal-hydrological conditions near emplacement tunnels (drifts) at Yucca Mountain, NV, the proposed site for a radioactive waste repository in the USA. In unsaturated formations such as those at Yucca Mountain, the

Jens T. Birkholzer; Yingqi Zhang

2006-01-01

258

Numerical Investigation of Thermal Stress Convention in Nonisothermal Gases Under Microgravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reported here are our results of our numerical/theoretical investigation into the effects of thermal stress in nonisothermal gases under microgravity conditions. The first part of the report consists of a brief summary of the accomplishments and conclusions of our work. The second part consists of two manuscripts, one being a paper presented at the 1998 MSAD Fluid Physics workshop, and the other to appear in Physics of Fluids.

Mackowski, D. W.

1999-01-01

259

Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, thermal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 148 papers contained in Volume 2 are arranged topically as follows -- (A) Conversion Technologies: Superconductivity applications; Advanced cycles; Heat engines; Heat pumps; Combustion and cogeneration; Advanced nuclear reactors; Fusion Power reactors; Magnetohydrodynamics; Alkali metal thermal to electric conversion; Thermoelectrics; Thermionic conversion; Thermophotovoltaics; Advances in electric machinery; and Sorption technologies; (B) Electrochemical Technologies: Terrestrial fuel cell technology; and Batteries

P. R. K. Chetty; W. D. Jackson; E. B. Dicks

1996-01-01

260

The Jet Principle: Technologies Provide Border Conditions for Global Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first define the "jet principle" of (e-)learning as providing dynamically suitable framework conditions for enhanced learning procedures that combine views from multiple cultures of science. Second it applies this principle to the case of the "Global Studies" curriculum, a unique interdisciplinary…

Ahamer, Gilbert

2012-01-01

261

Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the irrigation system to enrich the percolating water. The vadose zone monitoring system that was installed at the site allowed accurate monitoring of the wetting cycles, including: (1) wetting front propagation velocities, (2) temporal variation of the sediment water content, (2) chemical composition of the percolating water, (3) isotopic composition of BTEX compounds, (4) variations in nutrient concentration, and (5) variations in the vadose zone redox potential. Preliminary results showed that the wetting front crossed the entire vadose zone in four days reaching maximum water content values of 12 to 18 %. Temporal variation in the sediment BTEX concentrations indicated significant reduction in highly soluble and mobile compounds such as MTBE. Yet the chemical composition of the water samples through the first sampling campaign indicated that the limiting factor for biodegradation at the first wetting cycle was insufficient nitrogen. Results from each wetting cycles were used to improve the following wetting cycles in order to optimize the vadose zone conditions for microbial activity while minimizing leaching of contaminants to the groundwater.

Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

2010-12-01

262

Supercritical carbon dioxide tubular flow under temporally varying thermal boundary condition  

SciTech Connect

During transient operation of fusion power plants the amount of thermal energy transferred from plasma to surrounding blanket modules will be varied over time, and will affect behavior of the working fluid inside the blanket and power conversion system where the coolant is in a supercritical state. Transient behavior of the power is in pulsed state in tokamak. The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Operation (OSCO) loop is constructed to investigate the thermohydraulic characteristics of the supercritical fluid under temporally varying thermal boundary condition. In this study the tube outer wall temperature data are measured for abrupt change in thermal power as a preliminary power transient test. The OSCO test conditions are selected to include the erratic behavior of the supercritical fluid under pseudo-critical condition during transient. In order to incorporate the delayed response of utilized thermocouples, a time constant is applied to adjust the obtained results. Along with the experimental study, computational fluid dynamic software is used to perform detailed analysis over the test section geometry. The preliminary test results are presented for comparison against the available correlations from the literature. (authors)

Son, H. M.; Halimi, B. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); PHILOSOPHIA, 1 Gwanak Ro, Gwanak Gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

263

Transient thermal behaviour of a compressor rotor with ventilation: Test results under simulated engine conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of advanced compressors for modern aero-engines requires detailed knowledge of the transient thermal behavior of the rotor disks to enable accurate prediction of rotor life and, additionally, of the thermal growth of the rotor for the evaluation of tip clearances. In the quest for longer life and higher reliability of the parts as well as reduced clearances even at transient conditions, the designer has to be able to influence the thermal behavior of the rotor. A very effective way is to vent small amounts of air through the rotor cavities. The design of such a vented rotor is presented. The main emphasis is placed on a detailed description of a test rig specially built for this purpose. The testing was carried out under simulated engine conditions for a wide range of parameters. The results are compared with those obtained with a theoretical model derived from fundamental tests at the University of Sussex, where heat transfer in rotating cavities is investigated. Good agreement is observed. Some final tests were done in an engine. The results also exhibit good agreement with the rig results under simulated conditions, when the proper dimensionless parameters are considered, providing the validity of the simulation.

Reile, E.; Radons, U.; Hennecke, D. K.

1985-09-01

264

Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.

2013-11-01

265

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

266

Technology update: bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation for managing severe emphysema  

PubMed Central

Bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA) is an endoscopic lung volume reduction therapy that presents an effective treatment approach in patients with severe upper lobe-predominant emphysema. By instillation of heated water vapor, an inflammatory reaction is induced, leading to fibrosis and scarring of the lung parenchyma, resulting in lobar volume reduction. Clinical single-arm trials demonstrated great outcomes, with significant improvement of lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life. As the BTVA-induced local inflammatory response that seems to be essential for the desired lobar volume reduction can be associated with transient clinical worsening, strict monitoring of the patients is required. In future, the balance between efficacy and safety will constitute a major challenge. This review summarizes the BTVA procedure, the mechanism of action, and the results of the clinical trials, including the efficacy and safety data. PMID:25336993

Gompelmann, Daniela; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix JF

2014-01-01

267

Sustainable thermal energy storage technologies for buildings: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management in buildings is indispensable which would control the energy use as well as the cost involved while maintaining comfort conditions and requirements in indoor environments. Energy management is intensely coupled with energy efficiency and increasing of which would provide a cost-effective pathway for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, the magnitude of energy consumption in buildings seems

R. Parameshwaran; S. Kalaiselvam; S. Harikrishnan; A. Elayaperumal

2012-01-01

268

Experience on integration of solar thermal technologies with green buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green buildings of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science include an office building for the demonstration of public building and two residential buildings, which are for the demonstration of flat and villa, respectively. Here, a solar-powered integrated energy system including heating, air-conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supply was designed and constructed for the office building. However, only solar

X. Q. Zhai; R. Z. Wang; Y. J. Dai; J. Y. Wu; Q. Ma

2008-01-01

269

(Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications)  

SciTech Connect

Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

Tomlinson, J.J.

1990-12-19

270

Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.  

PubMed

The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C). PMID:23590117

Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

2013-05-22

271

A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies-parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish\\/engine systems-can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for

T. A. Williams; G. D. Burch; J. M. Chavez; T. R. Mancini; C. E. Tyner

1997-01-01

272

solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

1979-01-01

273

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30

274

Residential photovoltaic power conditioning technology for grid connected applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major advances in photovoltaic (PV) Power Conditioning (PC) with respect to performance and low-cost potential have been made. Solutions have been obtained to interface and control problems related to adapting available inverter designs to the grid-connected, residential photovoltaic experiments. A description is presented to contributing research and development activities. Attention is given to aspects of residential systems experience, conceptual design studies, questions of optimum topology development, and promising advanced designs for residential PV provided by development efforts of the private sector.

Key, T. S.; Klein, J. W.

1982-01-01

275

Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack

2006-01-01

276

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

1997-12-01

277

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs which contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range and are susceptible to recovery by in situ combustion and steam drive. The reservoirs for steam recovery are less than 2500 feet deep to comply with state-of-the-art technology. In cases where one reservoir would be a target for in situ combustion or steam drive, that reservoir is reported in both sections. Data were collectd from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

278

Heart Rate Variability in Sleeping Preterm Neonates Exposed to Cool and Warm Thermal Conditions  

PubMed Central

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies. PMID:23840888

Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

2013-01-01

279

Heart rate variability in sleeping preterm neonates exposed to cool and warm thermal conditions.  

PubMed

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies. PMID:23840888

Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

2013-01-01

280

Thermal Analysis of the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring Experiment Technology for X-Vehicles (NITEX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project was to perform a thermal analysis for the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) Technology Experiment for X-vehicles (NITEX). This electronics package monitors vehicle sensor information in flight and downlinks vehicle health summary information via telemetry. The experiment will be tested on the X-34 in an unpressurized compartment, in the vicinity of one of the vehicle's liquid oxygen tanks. The transient temperature profile for the electronics package has been determined using finite element analysis for possible mission profiles that will most likely expose the package to the most extreme hot and cold environmental conditions. From the analyses, it was determined that temperature limits for the electronics would be exceeded for the worst case cold environment mission profile. The finite element model used for the analyses was modified to examine the use of insulation to address this problem. Recommendations for insulating the experiment for the cold environment are presented, and were analyzed to determine their effect on a nominal mission profile.

Hegab, Hisham E.

2002-06-01

281

Mathematical Modelling of Thermal Process to Aquatic Environment with Different Hydrometeorological Conditions  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the mathematical model of the thermal process from thermal power plant to aquatic environment of the reservoir-cooler, which is located in the Pavlodar region, 17?Km to the north-east of Ekibastuz town. The thermal process in reservoir-cooler with different hydrometeorological conditions is considered, which is solved by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and temperature equation for an incompressible flow in a stratified medium. A numerical method based on the projection method, divides the problem into three stages. At the first stage, it is assumed that the transfer of momentum occurs only by convection and diffusion. Intermediate velocity field is solved by fractional steps method. At the second stage, three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved by the Fourier method in combination with tridiagonal matrix method (Thomas algorithm). Finally, at the third stage, it is expected that the transfer is only due to the pressure gradient. Numerical method determines the basic laws of the hydrothermal processes that qualitatively and quantitatively are approximated depending on different hydrometeorological conditions. PMID:24991644

Issakhov, Alibek

2014-01-01

282

LOW THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3) TECHNOLOGY, ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and five other case ...

283

Cold plasma - a non-thermal processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...

284

Review on sustainable thermal energy storage technologies, Part I: heat storage materials and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and their individual pros and cons for space and water heating applications. Traditionally, available heat has been stored in the form of sensible heat (typically by raising the temperature of water, rocks, etc.) for later use. In most of the low temperature applications, water is being used as

S. M. Hasnain

1998-01-01

285

Raising Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Technology Readiness Above 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NTP development is currently supported by the NASA program office "Advanced Exploration Systems". The concept is a main propulsion option being considered for human missions to Mars in the 2030's. Major NTP development took place in the 1960's and 1970's under the Rover/NERVA program. The technology had matured to TRL 6 and was preparing to go to TRL 7 with a prototype flight engine before the program was cancelled. Over the last 40 years, a variety of continuations started, but only lasted a few years each. The Rover/NERVA infrastructure is almost all gone. The only remains are a few pieces of hardware, final reports and a few who worked the Rover/NERVA. Two types of nuclear fuel are being investigated to meet the current engine design specific impulse of 900 seconds compared to approximately 850 seconds demonstrated during Rover/NERVA. One is a continuation of composite fuel with new coatings to better control mid-band corrosion. The other type is a CERMET fuel made of Tungsten and UO2. Both fuels are being made from Rover/NERVA lessons learned, but with slightly different recipes to increase fuel endurance at higher operating temperatures. The technology readiness level (TRL) of these current modified reactor fuels is approximately TRL 3. To keep the development cost low and help mature the TRL level past 4 quickly, a few special non-nuclear test facilities have been made to test surrogate fuel, with depleted uranium, as coupons and full length elements. Both facilities utilize inductive heating and are licensed to handle depleted uranium. TRL 5 requires exposing the fuel to a nuclear environment and TRL 6 requires a prototype ground or flight engine system test. Currently, three different NTP ground test facility options are being investigated: exhaust scrubber, bore hole, and total exhaust containment. In parallel, a prototype flight demonstration test is also being studied. The first human mission to Mars in the 2030's is currently 2033. For an advanced propulsion concept to be seriously considered for use, the engine development plans need to show it is feasible and affordable to reach TRL 8 by 2027 and can be qualified for human mission use.

Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

2014-01-01

286

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology - Summary of FY 1991 Interagency Panel Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) technical panel has been working in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts on a consistent basis, and to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes the efforts of the panel to date and summarizes the technology plans defined for NTP. Concepts were categorized based on probable technology readiness data, and innovative 'proof-of-concept' tests and analyses were defined. While further studies will be required to provide a consistent comparison of all of the NTP concepts, the current status of the studies is presented.

Clark, John S.; Mcdaniel, Patrick; Howe, Steven; Stanley, Marland

1991-01-01

287

Multi-alkali photocathode thermal performance analysis of image intensifier based on low-high temperature environment testing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level-light (LLL) weapon sight measurement technologies based on Low-high temperature environments testing conditions are always concerned by military equipments manufacturers. Because low-high temperature environment, etc. are under loaded function, the electric performance parameter change to make LLL weapon sight, causing the LLL weapon sight can't be worked and used normally while taking aim. Generally believed that many photocathode is n-type and p-type doping of the inner surface layer comprising more photocathode not light sensitive, but also sensitive to temperature. To image intensifier is non-working state at the temperature 70°C +/-2°C test boxes and thermostats time one hour, five minutes to image intensifier into -50°C+/-2°C Test Box temperature one hour, then five minutes again placed 70°C +/-2°C high temperature test box for three cycle question image intensifier restore normal temperature after the test. The experiments show that, when the temperature rises, the heat semiconductor photocathode current density, thermal current rise in the temperature range 0 to 70°C, 4°C temperature is increased, almost twice its current heat. Of course, image intensifier imported the equivalent background illumination will also increase, resulting in night vision systems observed at the scene image contrast and differential rates were lowered, target detection system performance last night caused the decline. A study of the reasons is the photo-cathode materials and fabrication of thermal electron emission standards restricting the ability.

Gao, Youtang; Tian, Si; Chang, Benkang; Qiu, Yafeng; Qiao, Jianliang

2008-03-01

288

Numerical and experimental analysis of inhomogeneities in SMA wires induced by thermal boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data on NiTi wire tensile tests display a surprising variety of results even though the same material has been studied. Hysteresis shapes can be observed that range from box- to cigar-like. In some cases, the variation may be the result of different post-fabrication treatment, such as annealing or cold working procedures. However, oftentimes local data are generated from average stress/strain concepts on the basis of global force and end displacement measurements. It is well known among experimentalists that this has a smoothening effect on data, but there is an additional, less well-known mechanism at work as well. This effect is due to thermomechanical coupling and the thermal boundary condition at the ends of the wires, and it manifests itself in a strong data dependence on the length of the employed specimen. This paper illustrates the effects of a thermal boundary layer in a 1D wire by means of an experimental study combined with a simulation based on the fully coupled momentum and energy balance equations. The system is modeled using COMSOL FEA software to simulate the distribution of strain, temperature, resistivity, and phase fractions. The local behavior is then integrated over the length of the wire to predict the expected behavior of the bulk wire as observed at its endpoints. Then, simulations are compared with results from a tensile test of a 100 mum diameter Dynalloy Flexinol wire between two large, steel clamps. Each step of the tensile test experiment is carefully controlled and then simulated via the boundary and initial conditions of the model. The simulated and experimental results show how the thermal boundary layer affects different length SMA wires and how the inhomogeneity prevents transition to austenite at the wire endpoints. Accordingly, shorter wires tend to be softer (more martensitic) than longer wires and exhibit a large reduction in recoverable strain because a larger percentage of their total length is impacted by the thermal boundary.

Furst, Stephen J.; Crews, John H.; Seelecke, Stefan

2012-11-01

289

Proceedings of the 1993 Non-Fluorocarbon Insulation, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

290

Fast access to the CMS detector condition data employing HTML5 technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on using HTML version 5 (HTML5) for accessing condition data for the CMS experiment, evaluating the benefits and risks posed by the use of this technology. According to the authors of HTML5, this technology attempts to solve issues found in previous iterations of HTML and addresses the needs of web applications, an area previously not adequately covered

Giuseppe Antonio Pierro; Francesca Cavallari; Salvatore Di Guida; Vincenzo Innocente

2011-01-01

291

Thermalization, isotropization, and elliptic flow from nonequilibrium initial conditions with a saturation scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we report on our results about the computation of the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, simulating the expansion of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the parton distribution function tuned at a fixed shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio ? /s. Our main goal is to put emphasis on the role of a saturation scale in the initial gluon spectrum, which makes the initial distribution far from a thermalized one. We find that the presence of the saturation scale reduces the efficiency in building up the elliptic flow, even if the thermalization process is quite fast ?therm?0.8fm/c and the pressure isotropization is even faster ?isotr?0.5fm/c. The impact of the nonequilibrium implied by the saturation scale manifests for noncentral collisions and can modify the estimate of the viscosity with respect to the assumption of full thermalization in pT space. We find that the estimate of ? /s is modified from ? /s?2/4? to ? /s?1/4? at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and from ? /s?3/4? to ? /s?2/4? at the Large Hadron Collider. We complete our investigation with a study of the thermalization and isotropization times of the fireball for different initial conditions and values of ? /s showing how the latter affects both isotropization and thermalization. Last, we have seen that the range of values explored by the phase-space distribution function f is such that at pT<0.5GeV the inner part of the fireball stays with occupation number significantly larger than unity despite the fast longitudinal expansion, which might suggest the possibility of the formation of a transient Bose-Einstein condensate.

Ruggieri, M.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.

2014-05-01

292

Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

Kujawa, P.

1981-02-01

293

Thermal diffusivity measurement of BMS 10-102 thermal insulation material in a vacuum condition using a cyclic heating method  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the many different types of spacecraft missions, insulation techniques are required to advance spacecraft thermal design. In order to create a reliable thermal design system, it is essential to characterize materials and basic properties accurately. In this paper, the cyclic heating method is used to measure the thermal diffusivity for a high-temperature porous material as an insulation material for

Gi-Won Nam; Cheol-Won Kong; Yeong-Moo Yi; Akira Ohnishi

2009-01-01

294

Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

2010-01-01

295

Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS exacerbation is very likely to happen during the warm period, against mitigation during the cold period of the year.

Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

2013-04-01

296

Modeling of Thermal Performance of Multiphase Nuclear Fuel Cell Under Variable Gravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique numerical method has been developed to model the dynamic processes of bulk evaporation and condensation processes, associated with internal heat generation and natural convection under different gravity levels. The internal energy formulation, for the bulk liquid-vapor phase change problems in an encapsulated container, was employed. The equations, governing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for both phases involved in phase change, were solved. The thermal performance of a multiphase uranium tetra-fluoride fuel element under zero gravity, micro-gravity and normal gravity conditions has been investigated. The modeling yielded results including the evolution of the bulk liquid-vapor phase change process, the evolution of the liquid-vapor interface, the formation and development of the liquid film covering the side wall surface, the temperature distribution and the convection flow field in the fuel element. The strong dependence of the thermal performance of such multiphase nuclear fuel cell on the gravity condition has been revealed. Under all three gravity conditions, 0-g, 10(exp -3)-g, and 1-g, the liquid film is formed and covers the entire side wall. The liquid film covering the side wall is more isothermalized at the wall surface, which can prevent the side wall from being over-heated. As the gravity increases, the liquid film is thinner, the temperature gradient is larger across the liquid film and smaller across the vapor phase. This investigation provides valuable information about the thermal performance of multi-phase nuclear fuel element for the potential space and ground applications.

Ding, Z.; Anghaie, S.

1996-01-01

297

Computer Modeling of Flow, Thermal Condition and Ash Deposition in a Hot-Gas Filtration Device  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to develop a computational model for simulating the gas flow, thermal condition and ash transport and deposition pattern in the hot-gas filtration systems. The computational model is to provide a virtual tool for design and operation modifications. Particular attention is given to the Particle Control Device (PCD) at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama. For evaluation of gas velocity and temperature field in the vessel, the FLUENT commercial CFD computer code is used. Ash particle transport and deposition pattern was analyzed with the Lagrangian particle tracking approach.

Ahmadi, G.; Mazaheri, A.; Liu, C.; Gamwo, I.K.

2002-09-19

298

The Calculation of the Heat Required for Wing Thermal Ice Prevention in Specified Icing Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were made in natural icing conditions with two 8-ft-chord heated airfoils of different sections. Measurements of meteorological variables conducive to ice formation were made simultaneously with the procurement of airfoil thermal data. The extent of knowledge on the meteorology of icing, the impingement of water drops on airfoil surfaces, and the processes of heat transfer and evaporation from a wetted airfoil surface have been increased to a point where the design of heated wings on a fundamental, wet-air basis now can be undertaken with reasonable certainty.

Bergrun, Norman R.; Jukoff, David; Schlaff, Bernard A.; Neel, Carr B., Jr.

1947-01-01

299

The grain growth of iron - Implications for the thermal conditions in a lunar ejecta blanket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The times and temperatures for the growth of single-domain to multidomain iron have been determined in a synthetic glass of Apollo 11 composition. All single-domain iron grows to multidomain iron under the following conditions: at 975 C in about 5 hours; at 900 C in about 18 days; at 810 C in about 320 days; and at 700 C in about 1100 years (extrapolated). The results, together with thermal constraints on the metamorphism of lunar breccias, indicate cooling rates of breccias containing single domain iron are appropriate for formation in an ejecta blanket.

Usselman, T. M.; Pearce, G. W.

1974-01-01

300

Indoor air quality and thermal comfort studies of an under-floor air-conditioning system in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) studies of an under-floor air-conditioning (UFAC) system in hot and humid climate. Thermal comfort parameters were measured at predetermined grid points within an imaginary plane to predict the airflow pattern of the supply air jet as well as to determine the occurrence of thermal stratification in the office space. Fanger’s

S. C. Sekhar; C. S. Ching

2002-01-01

301

Genotypic Influence on Aversive Conditioning in Honeybees, Using a Novel Thermal Reinforcement Procedure  

PubMed Central

In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER), bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS) with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US). This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee’s body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive. PMID:24828422

Junca, Pierre; Carcaud, Julie; Moulin, Sibyle; Garnery, Lionel; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

302

A novel underground solar thermal heat storage unit cum heat exchanger for non air-conditioned buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel passive space conditioning configuration is presented, integrating a Solar Collector System, Underground Storage Tank and Novel Heat Exchanger. This Underground Solar Thermal Heat Exchanger (USTHE) provided improved sensible heating\\/cooling of air by employing a Novel Heat Exchanger (NHX). The dynamic performance of the storage tank in USTHE is modelled using the finite difference method accounting thermal stratification of

Rakesh Kumar; S. C. Kaushik

2003-01-01

303

Prediction Computer Program for Whole Body Temperatures and its Application under Various Working Level and Thermal Environmental Condition Combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduced a computer program developed for the numerical analysis of thermal conditions of all segments and blood circulatory systems in the human body to precisely evaluate human thermal physiological responses. In this program, a cylindrical model consisting of internal multi-layers is adapted for the segment of the human body. For the multi-layered concentric cylindrical model we adopted a new

Shintaro YOKOYAMA; Michiyoshi TAO; Naoto KAKUTA

2007-01-01

304

TEM Observations of Corrosion Behaviors of Platinized Carbon Blacks under Thermal and Electrochemical Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Carbon blacks such as Vulcan XC-72 are widely used to support platinum (Pt) or Pt alloy catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Despite their widespread use, carbon blacks are susceptible to corrosion during fuel cell operations. In this work, the corrosion behaviors of platinized Vulcan XC-72 nanoparticles under thermal and electrochemical conditions were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal corrosion experiment was carried out in a gas-cell TEM, which allows for a direct observation of the thermal oxidation behavior of the nanoparticles. The electrochemical corrosion experiment was performed outside of the TEM by loading the nanoparticles on a TEM grid and then electrochemically corroding them step by step followed by taking TEM images from exactly the same nanoparticles after each step. This work revealed four types of structural changes: (i) total removal of structurally weak aggregates, (ii) breakdown of aggregates via neck-breaking, (iii) center-hollowed primary particles caused by an inside-out corrosion starting from the center to outer region, and (iv) gradual decrease in the size of primary particles caused by a uniform removal of material from the surface. These structural changes took place in sequence or simultaneously depending on the competition of carbon corrosion dynamical processes. The results obtained from this work provide insight on carbon corrosion and its effects on fuel cells' long-term performance and durability.

Liu, Z.Y. [General Motors Corporation; Zhang, J.L. [General Motors Corporation; Yu, P.T. [General Motors Corporation; Zhang, J.X. [General Motors Corporation; Makharia, R. [General Motors Corporation; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Stach, Eric [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

2010-01-01

305

Three-Dimensional Mixed Convection Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid with Thermal Radiation and Convective Conditions  

PubMed Central

The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter. PMID:24608594

Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H.; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab

2014-01-01

306

Fluid Pressure, Thermal and Chemical Effects in Conditioning Permeability and Triggered Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of permeability, heat or diffusive transfer area and triggered seismicity are intimately linked in forced-circulation systems such as EGS, CCS and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs where conditions are pushed far-from-equilibrium. We explore this evolution subject to coupled THMC processes in a prototypical EGS reservoir. We accommodate the influence of early-time changes in effective stress, mid-time changes in thermal stresses and ultimately incorporate long-term changes due to chemical effects. We develop a micromechanical model to represent the failure process and apply this model to represent energy release from individual critically oriented fractures. The changing stress state is calculated from the pore pressure, thermal drawdown and chemical effects for a coupled THMC model with dual porosity. This model is applied to a doublet geometry to explore the spatial and temporal migration for permeability evolution, access to reactive surface area and the triggering of seismicity as stimulation then production proceeds. Seismic activity is initially concentrated around the near-wellbore injection region. It is earliest for closely spaced fractures in reservoir rocks where the thermal drawdown of stress is largest at early times and results in numerous low-magnitude events. These observations are used to define the evolution of spatial changes within the reservoir and their migration with production, dependent on the mobilization of relic fractures.

Elsworth, D.; Izadi, G.; Zheng, B.; Taron, J.

2011-12-01

307

Thermal Comfort under Transient Metabolic and Dynamic Localized Airflow Conditions Combined with Neutral and Warm Ambient Temperatures  

E-print Network

, in practice, people move between spaces, and thermal conditions such as metabolic rate, surface temperatures, airflow speed and direction vary in a typical day. A human subject test was designed to determine the transient relationship between the people...

Ugursal, Ahmet

2012-02-14

308

Results of thermal performance evaluation of the Owens-Illinois sunpack liquid solar collector at indoor conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test procedures and results of the thermal performance of a liquid, evacuated tube, solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The collector tested was a module used on the early demonstration projects.

1979-01-01

309

Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

Sokolov, A. S. [JSC 'B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG)' (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG)' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15

310

Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this study is to be incorporated in planning of short- and long term maintenance programs of the Swedish Defence. In general the military buildings are expected to have better status than civilian buildings, due to the more rigorous control during the building process, performed by military building authorities.

Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

1995-03-01

311

Line-focus solar thermal energy technology development. FY 79 annual report for Department 4720  

SciTech Connect

The primary role of the Solar Energy Projects Department II (4720) is the development, evaluation, and testing of line-focus solar thermal technology. This report of FY 79 progress and accomplishments is divided into two parts: (1) Component and Subsystem Development including the design and analysis of collector modules, their components, and associated materials and processes, and (2) Systems and Applications Development, involving larger configurations of solar thermal line-focus systems. The emphasis is on parabolic troughs, but significant efforts on hemispherical bowls, compound parabolic collectors, and dishes for the Solar Total Energy Project are also described.

Bergeron, K D; Champion, R L; Hunke, R W [eds.

1980-04-01

312

Thermal Fatigue Testing of Plasma Transfer Arc Stellite Coatings on Hot Work Tool Steels under Steel Thixoforming Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal fatigue performance of Stellite 12 coating deposited on X32CrMoV33 hot work tool steel via the plasma transfer arc (PTA) process was investigated under steel thixoforming conditions. Stellite 12 coating has made\\u000a a favorable impact on the thermal fatigue performance of the X32CrMoV33 hot work tool steel. The latter survived steel thixoforming\\u000a conditions lasting much longer, for a total

Yucel Birol; Agca B. Kayihan

2011-01-01

313

Chemiluminescence as a condition monitoring method for thermal aging and lifetime prediction of an HTPB elastomer.  

SciTech Connect

Chemiluminescence (CL) has been applied as a condition monitoring technique to assess aging related changes in a hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene based polyurethane elastomer. Initial thermal aging of this polymer was conducted between 110 and 50 C. Two CL methods were applied to examine the degradative changes that had occurred in these aged samples: isothermal 'wear-out' experiments under oxygen yielding initial CL intensity and 'wear-out' time data, and temperature ramp experiments under inert conditions as a measure of previously accumulated hydroperoxides or other reactive species. The sensitivities of these CL features to prior aging exposure of the polymer were evaluated on the basis of qualifying this method as a quick screening technique for quantification of degradation levels. Both the techniques yielded data representing the aging trends in this material via correlation with mechanical property changes. Initial CL rates from the isothermal experiments are the most sensitive and suitable approach for documenting material changes during the early part of thermal aging.

Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Minier, Leanna M. G.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Trujillo, Ana B.

2007-03-01

314

Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate  

PubMed Central

Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n?=?52 over winter, n?=?47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal behaviour, and subsequently fitness, are expected to intensify as global warming continues. PMID:23776584

van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

2013-01-01

315

10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: thermal storage system test 1040. Part A. Bed conditioning procedure. Part B. Controls test procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the thermal storage unit bed conditioning procedure is to heat the thermal storage media (rock, sand, and oil) in the unit to 250°F to 300°F in order to remove all water in the bed and enable oil circulation at higher flows and temperatures to remove contamination and sediment from the oil. The general objectives of the 1040B

Cady

1984-01-01

316

Effects of service condition on rolling contact fatigue failure mechanism and lifetime of thermal spray coatings—A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The service condition determines the Rolling Contact Fatigue(RCF) failure mechanism and lifetime under ascertain material structure integrity parameter of thermal spray coating. The available literature on the RCF testing of thermal spray coatings under various condition services is considerable; it is generally difficult to synthesize all of the result to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the parameters which has a great effect on a thermal spray coating's resistance of RCF. The effects of service conditions(lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio) on the changing of thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime is introduced systematically. The effects of different service condition on RCF failure mechanism of thermal spray coating from the change of material structure integrity are also summarized. Moreover, In order to enhance the RCF performance, the parameter optimal design formula of service condition and material structure integrity is proposed based on the effect of service condition on thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime and RCF failure mechanism. The shortage of available literature and the forecast focus in future researches are discussed based on available research. The explicit result of RCF lifetime law and parameter optimal design formula in term of lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio, is significant to improve the RCF performance on the engineering application.

Cui, Huawei; Cui, Xiufang; Wang, Haidou; Xing, Zhiguo; Jin, Guo

2015-01-01

317

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01

318

A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment I: oxidation technologies at ambient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, due to the increasing presence of molecules, refractory to the microorganisms in the wastewater streams, the conventional biological methods cannot be used for complete treatment of the effluent and hence, introduction of newer technologies to degrade these refractory molecules into smaller molecules, which can be further oxidized by biological methods, has become imperative. The present work aims at highlighting

Parag R Gogate; Aniruddha B Pandit

2004-01-01

319

Engineering the Technology: Basic Conditions To Transfer Technology Innovation to Industrial Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the need for engineering education to address research and development, applied research, and technology transfer. It is important that engineering education considers as a major objective for engineering students the need of bridging the gap between what is produced in laboratories and the full scale of industrial production.…

Jones, Ary Marques

320

Thermal stability of static coronal loops: Part 1: Effects of boundary conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The linear stability of static coronal-loop models undergoing thermal perturbations was investigated. The effect of conditions at the loop base on the stability properties of the models was considered in detail. The question of appropriate boundary conditions at the loop base was considered and it was concluded that the most physical assumptions are that the temperature and density (or pressure) perturbations vanish there. However, if the base is taken to be sufficiently deep in the chromosphere, either several chromospheric scale heights or several coronal loop lengths in depth, then the effect of the boundary conditions on loop stability becomes negligible so that all physically acceptable conditions are equally appropriate. For example, one could as well assume that the velocity vanishes at the base. The growth rates and eigenmodes of static models in which gravity is neglected and in which the coronal heating is a relatively simple function, either constant per-unit mass or per-unit volume were calculated. It was found that all such models are unstable with a growth rate of the order of the coronal cooling time. The physical implications of these results for the solar corona and transition region are discussed.

Antiochos, S. K.; Shoub, E. C.; An, C. H.; Emslie, A. G.

1985-01-01

321

History of Sulphur Content Effects on the Thermal Stability of RP-1 under Heated Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As technologies advance in the aerospace industry, a strong desire has emerged to design more efficient, longer life, reusable liquid hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. To achieve this goal, a more complete understanding of the thermal stability and chemical makeup of the hydrocarbon propellant is needed. Since the main fuel used in modern liquid hydrocarbon systems is RP-1, there is concern that Standard Grade RP-1 may not be a suitable propellant for future-generation rocket engines due to concern over the outdated Mil-Specification for the fuel. This current specification allows high valued limits on contaminants such as sulfur compounds, and also lacks specification of required thermal stability qualifications for the fuel. Previous studies have highlighted the detrimental effect of high levels of mercaptan sulfur content (^50 ppm) on copper rocket engine materials, but the fuel itself has not been studied. While the role of sulfur in other fuels (e.g., aviation, diesel, and automotive fuels) has been extensively studied, little has been reported on the effects of sulfur levels in rocket fuels. Lower RP-1 sulfur concentrations need to be evaluated and an acceptable sulfur limit established before RP-1 can be recommended for use as the propellant for future launch vehicles. (5 tables, 8 figures, 9 refs.)

Irvine, Solveig A.; Schoettmer, Amanda K.; Bates, Ronald W.; Meyer, Michael L.

2004-01-01

322

Effect of thermal shock on the decomposition of rocks under controlled laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major factor determining the rate of weathering of a given rock are the climatic conditions of the surrounding environment, most notably type and amount of precipitation and temperature. For the latter, average annual temperature and where applicable, the frequency of freezing and thawing are often considered to be relevant for weathering. The rate of temperature change is mostly ignored. However, a rapid change in temperature, referred to as thermal shock could have more severe consequences of rock deterioration then gradual heating and cooling of rocks is gradual. Thermal shock induces a stress of such a magnitude that the material is unable to adjust fast enough and so it breaks down. The aim of this study is to examine the importance of mechanical decomposition of rocks when treated with thermal shock by freezing. The rate of decomposition of rocks of various sizes was measured based on their weight loss. In addition, they were immersed in water after freezing and the electrical conductivity and pH of the water were measured as an index for thermal-shock induced micro-fracturing. Samples of three rock types were chosen for the experiment: limestone, tuffaceous rock and basalt. Samples were examined in two separate cycles: (i) 24h immersion in ultra-clean water followed by 24h drying at 30o and (ii) 24h immersion, 24h temperature shock by freezing at -20?C and 6h thawing. Each cycle was repeated approximately 20 times. In each cycle three different sizes of rock were examined: <16mm, 16-8mm and 8-5mm. Limestone mass decreased for both cycles, although more distinctly after repeated thermal shocks. Furthermore, the rate of decay decreased with increasing rock size. Tuffaceous rock exposed to cycle (i) also showed a significant weight loss. Somewhat surprisingly, the mass of the tuffaceous rock exposed to thermal shock increased by about 13% in all sample size groups. It is possible that pore volume increased during experiment and that the rocks became capable of absorbing more water, but the rock was elastic enough not to break under stress. On the basalt, as expected, the rate of weight loss was the smallest. Cylce (ii) samples also showed more intensive mass reduction. Electrical conductivity and pH of the immersion water were constant throughout the experiment and did not change with the number of cycles. This implies that no significant chemical disintegration occurred. The results show that thermal shock can have a rock type-specific effect on physical weathering. The lacking effect on chemical weathering is expected due to the design of the experiment. Under natural conditions, with non-pH neutral water, the declining rock stability, indicated by the loss of mass, especially of the limestone, will mostly likely also enhance leaching and thus chemical weathering.

Kasanin-Grubin, Milica; Vezmar, Tijuana; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2013-04-01

323

A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies (DOE, 1996). The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun-Lab (the cooperative Sandia National Laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capacity by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G.D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01

324

Continental Scientific Drilling (CSD): Technology Barriers to Deep Drilling Studies in Thermal Regimes  

SciTech Connect

This report is the proceedings of a workshop. The primary thrust of these discussion was to identify the major key technology barriers to the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Thermal Regimes CSD projects and to set priorities for research and development. The major technological challenge is the high temperature to be encountered at depth. Specific problems derived from this issue were widely recognized among the participants and are reflected in this summary. A major concern for the projected Thermal Regimes CSD boreholes was the technology required for continuous coring, in contrast to that required for drilling without core or spot coring. Current commercial technology bases for these two techniques are quite different. The DOE has successfully fielded projects that used both technologies, i.e, shallow continuous coring (Inyo Domes and Valles Caldera) and deeper drilling with spot cores (Imperial Valley-SSSDP). It was concluded that future scientific objectives may still require both approaches, but continuous coring is the most likely requirement in the near term. (DJE-2005)

Kolstad, George A.; Rowley, John C.

1987-01-16

325

A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01

326

Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation - Results of the NASA/DOE task team study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops, six task teams were created to continue evaluation of various propulsion concepts, from which evolved an innovative concepts subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. This subpanel endeavored to evaluate each concept on a level technology basis, and to identify critical issues, technologies, and early proof-of-concept experiments. Results of the concept studies including the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter are presented.

Howe, Steven D.; Borowski, Stanley; Motloch, Chet; Helms, Ira; Diaz, Nils; Anghaie, Samim; Latham, Thomas

1991-01-01

327

Design Factors for Applying Cryogen Storage and Delivery Technology to Solar Thermal Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) and Multilayer Insulation (MLI) technology, originally developed for long term storage of cryogen propellants in microgravity, is ideally suited for propellant storage and delivery systems for solar thermal propulsion. With this technology the heat-induced pressure rise in the tank provides the propellant delivery pressure without the need for an auxiliary pressurant system, and propellant delivery is used to remove the excess heat to control tank pressure. The factors to consider in designing such a balanced system, are presented. An example of a minimum system design is presented along with examples of laboratory-tested hardware.

Millis, Marc G.

1996-01-01

328

Thermal power systems, point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 2: Detailed report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. The Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs.

Lucas, J.

1979-01-01

329

Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.  

PubMed

Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications. PMID:17412393

Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

2007-08-01

330

Advanced regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology for air toxics control - selected case histories  

SciTech Connect

Advanced design regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) systems have been developed and are in commercial scale use for control of process emissions containing air toxics (HAPs) and VOCs. High operating temperatures coupled with high thermal energy recovery efficiencies inherent with RTO technology provide for high destruction efficiencies while minimizing formation of objectionable combustion byproducts. These results are achieved with low system operating costs. This paper covers development of advanced design commercial RTO systems for control of air emissions from several important commercial processes: total reduced sulfur (TRS) and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pulp mill processes. Chlorinated organics and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The data presented represent the first commercial scale application of RTO technology to abate emissions from these processes. Particular design features required for each specific process, in order to provide reliable, safe and effective systems, are reviewed. Emissions abatement performance, as well as operational data, are presented for the systems.

Seiwert, J.J. Jr. [Smith Environmental Corp., Ontario, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

331

Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study  

SciTech Connect

In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Howe, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Borowski, S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Motloch, C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Helms, I. (Nuclear Utility Services, Damascus, MD (United States)); Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)); Latham, T. (United

1991-01-01

332

Geological and thermal conditions before the major Palaeoproterozoic gold-mineralization event at Ashanti, Ghana, as inferred from improved thermal  

E-print Network

at Ashanti, Ghana, as inferred from improved thermal modelling. Virginie HARCOUËT 1-2,(3) , Laurent GUILLOU in the Paleoproterozoic continental crust of southern Ghana are the subject of a detailed regional thermal modelling study. The Ashanti belt in Ghana (Figure 1) is particularly well-suited to this kind of study as it hosts the largest

333

Active infrared thermal imaging technology to detect the corrosion defects in aircraft cargo door  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft fuselage material corrosion problems have been major aviation security issues, which hinder the development of aviation industry. How can we use non-destructive testing methods to detect the internal corrosion defects from the outside of the fuselage, to find the hidden safety problems in advance and update the defective equipment and materials, has great significance for the prevention of accidents. Nowadays, the active infrared thermal imaging technology as a new nondestructive technology has been gradually used on a wide variety of materials, such as composite, metal and so on. This article makes use of this technology on an aircraft cargo door specimen to detect the corrosion defects. Firstly, use High-energy flash pulse to excite the specimen, and use the thermal image processing software to splice the thermal images, so the thermal images of the overall specimen can be showed. Then, heat the defects by ultrasonic excitation, this will cause vibration and friction or thermoelastic effects in the places of defects, so the ultrasonic energy will dissipate into heat and manifested in the uneven temperature of surface. An Infrared camera to capture the changes of temperature of material surface, send data to the computer and records the thermal information of the defects. Finally, extracting data and drawing infrared radiation-time curve of some selected points of interest to analyze the signal changes in heat of defects further more. The results of the experiments show that both of the two ways of heat excitation show a clear position and shape of defects, and the ultrasonic method has more obvious effect of excitation to the defects, and a higher signal to noise ratio than the flash pulse excitation, but flash pulse method do not contact the specimen in the process of excitation, and shows the location and shape of defects in the overall of the specimen has its advantages.

Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Cunlin; Zeng, Zhi; Xing, Chunfei; Li, Yanhong

2009-11-01

334

Thermal decomposition of technological polymer blends 1. Poly(aryl ether ether ketone) with a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition of blends of poly(aryl ether ether ketone), PEEK, with a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), VECTRA, was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis under dynamic conditions. The activation energies were obtained using integral and differential methods. The thermal analysis of the blends show that thermal stability is clearly affected with respect to the unblended materials, and it was also

M. Naffakh; G. Ellis; M. A. Gómez; C. Marco

1999-01-01

335

Technology Potential of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Systems in Federal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the findings of a technology market assessment for thermal energy storage (TES) in space cooling applications. The potential impact of TES in Federal facilities is modeled using the Federal building inventory with the appropriate climatic and energy cost data. In addition, this assessment identified acceptance issues and major obstacles through interviews with energy services companies (ESCOs), TES manufacturers, and Federal facility staff.

Chvala, William D.

2001-07-31

336

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application,

W. L. Foutz; J. E. Rogers; J. D. Mather

2008-01-01

337

Effects of Thermal and Cryogenic Conditionings on Flexural Behavior of Thermally Shocked Cu-Al2O3 Micro and NanoComposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation has used flexural test to explore the effects of thermal treatments, i.e., high-temperature and cryogenic environments on the mechanical property of Al2O3 particulate-reinforced Cu metal matrix micro and nanocomposites in ex-situ and in-situ conditions. Cu-5 vol. pct Al2O3 micro (10 ?m)- and nanocomposites (<50 nm) fabricated by powder metallurgy route were subjected to up-thermal shock cycle [193 K to 353 K (-80 °C to 80 °C)] and down-thermal shock cycle [353 K to 193 K (from 80 °C to -80 °C)] for different time periods followed by 3-point bend test. One batch of specimens (micro and nanocomposites) was conditioned at 353 K and 193 K (80 °C and -80 °C) separately followed by 3-point flexural test. High-temperature flexural test was performed at 373 K and 523 K (80 °C and 250 °C) on the micro and nanocomposites. All the fractured samples obtained after various thermal treatments were studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The development of thermal stresses quite often results in concentration of residual stresses at the particle/matrix interface eventually weakening it. Enhancement of flexural strength was recorded for down- as well as for up-thermal shock in microcomposites. The high-temperature flexural strengths of micro and nanocomposites are lower than those at ambient temperature. The amelioration and declination in mechanical properties as a consequence of thermal shock, thermal conditioning, and high-temperature flexural testing have been discussed in the light of fractography.

Dash, Khushbu; Panda, Sujata; Ray, Bankim Chandra

2013-10-01

338

Advanced power conditioning system technologies for high-megawatt fuel cell power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-megawatt power conditioning systems (PCSs) are required to convert the low-voltage produced by fuel cell modules in central station scale plants to the very much higher voltage levels required for delivery to the grid. As part of a NIST\\/DOE Interagency Agreement, advanced PCS architectures, circuit topologies, and component technologies are being evaluated to identify technologies requiring development to meet the

Allen R. Hefner Jr

2008-01-01

339

Estimating the effect of using cool coatings on energy loads and thermal comfort in residential buildings in various climatic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact from using cool roof coatings on the cooling and heating loads and the indoor thermal comfort conditions of residential buildings for various climatic conditions is estimated. The energy cooling loads and peak cooling demands are estimated for different values of roof solar reflectance and roof U-value. The results show that increasing the roof solar reflectance reduces cooling loads

A. Synnefa; M. Santamouris; H. Akbari

2007-01-01

340

Thermal condition monitoring system using log-polar mapping, quaternion correlation and max-product fuzzy neural network classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, most factories rely on machines to help boost up their production and process. Therefore, an effective machine condition monitoring system plays an important role in these factories to ensure that their production and process are running smoothly all the time. In this paper, a new and effective machine condition monitoring system using log-polar mapper, quaternion based thermal image correlator

Wai-Kit Wong; Chu-Kiong Loo; Poi-Ngee Tan

2010-01-01

341

Thermal comfort in the humid tropics: Field experiments in air conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal comfort field experiments were conducted in Singapore in both naturally ventilated highrise residential buildings and air conditioned office buildings. Each of the 818 questionnaire responses was made simultaneously with a detailed set of indoor climatic measurements, and estimates of clothing insulation and metabolic rate. Results for the air conditioned sample indicated that office buildings were overcooled, causing up to

R. J. de Dear; K. G. Leow; S. C. Foo

1991-01-01

342

Influence of thermal environment on optimal working conditions of thermoelectric generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization analysis of thermoelectric generators operation is of importance both for practical applications and theoretical considerations. Depending on the desired goal, two different strategies are possible to achieve high performance: through optimization one may seek either power output maximization or conversion efficiency maximization. Recent literature reveals the persistent flawed notion that these two optimal working conditions may be achieved simultaneously. In this article, we lift all source of confusion by correctly posing the problem and solving it. We assume and discuss two possibilities for the environment of the generator to govern its operation: constant incoming heat flux, and constant temperature difference between the heat reservoirs. We demonstrate that, while power and efficiency are maximized simultaneously if the first assumption is considered, this is not possible with the second assumption. This latter corresponds to the seminal analyses of Ioffe who put forth and stressed the importance of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. We also provide a simple procedure to determine the different optimal design parameters of a thermoelectric generator connected to heat reservoirs through thermal contacts with a finite and fixed thermal conductance.

Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

2014-10-01

343

Thermal traction contact performance evaluation under fully flooded and starved conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra high speed traction tests were performed on two traction fluids commonly employed. Traction data on these fluids is required for purposes of traction drive design optimization techniques. To obtain the traction data, an existing twin disc traction test machine was employed. This machine was modified to accommodate the range of test variables. All the data reported was obtained under conditions of side slip, a technique whereby only low power levels are required to simulate real traction drive contacts. Theoretical traction predictions were performed for a representative number of curves that showed the influence of rolling velocity, of contact pressure and of aspect ratio. To establish the accuracy of the thermal model the predictions were performed ith increasing levels of independence of experimentally determined parameters. In the final resulting prediction only two non linear thermal parameters were used for the prediction of 15 different traction curves covering the entire range of variables as used in the investigation, with the exception of the influence of asperity traction. Comparison of these theoretical curves and corresponding experimental traces show very good agreement.

Tevaarwerk, J. L.

1985-01-01

344

A comparative analysis of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces in the summer season in Singapore and Changsha, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the comparative analysis between the findings from two field surveys of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces during the summer season. The first survey was carried out from August 2010 to May 2011 in Singapore and the second survey was carried out from June 2010 to August 2010 in Changsha, China. The physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was utilized as the thermal index to assess the thermal conditions. Differences were found between the two city respondents in terms of thermal sensation, humidity sensation, and wind speed sensation. No big difference was found between the two city respondents regarding the sun sensation. The two city respondents had similar neutral PET of 28.1 °C for Singapore and 27.9 °C for Changsha, respectively. However, Singapore respondents were more sensitive to PET change than Changsha respondents and the acceptable PET range for Changsha respondents was wider than that for Singapore respondents. Besides, the two city respondents had different thermal expectations with the preferred PET of 25.2 °C and 22.1 °C for Singapore and Changsha, respectively. The results also reveal that Changsha respondents were more tolerant than Singapore respondents under hot conditions. Finally, two regression models were proposed for Singapore and Changsha to predict the human thermal sensation in a given outdoor thermal environment.

Yang, Wei; Wong, Nyuk Hien; Zhang, Guoqiang

2013-11-01

345

Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.  

PubMed

Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions. PMID:24510118

Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

2014-11-01

346

Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

347

Comparison of thermal exchanges in men and women under neutral and hot conditions.  

PubMed Central

1. The thermoregulatory responses in unacclimatized men and women were analysed and compared by means of standard heat exposure tests which allowed evaporative losses, body temperatures, heat storage and the complete thermal balance to be continuously recorded in all subjects. 2. The most pronounced differences were observed in delay before onset of sweating. Sweating always occurred faster with lower body temperatures in men than in women. The period immediately following ovulation was characterized by an increase in onset delay and a decrease in the sensitivity in sweating response compared with the pre-ovulation period. 3. The evaporative rate in the steady state did not change significantly in the post-ovulation period and was found to be higher in men who consequently had lower mean skin temperatures. Skin conductances, different under thermo-neutral conditions, were the same in men and women under hot conditions. 4. Women showed a more definite increase of body temperatures and heat storage than men due to delayed sweating and decreased sweating sensitivity. The body heat content in the steady state increased more markedly in women than in men. Furthermore, the highest heat storage values were found during the post-ovulation period. A high degree of correlation was found between body heat content and absolute onset delay. 5. The sweating kinetics and the transient phase just before the steady state of the thermal balance appeared to be decisive factors in the differentiation of the thermoregulatory behaviour in women before and after ovulation. Heat storage achieved during the transient phase and not made up by adequate evaporation seemed to be the cause of the large increase of body temperatures and heat content shown by women in hot environments. PMID:1177148

Bittel, J; Henane, R

1975-01-01

348

Fast access to the CMS detector condition data employing HTML5 technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on using HTML version 5 (HTML5) for accessing condition data for the CMS experiment, evaluating the benefits and risks posed by the use of this technology. According to the authors of HTML5, this technology attempts to solve issues found in previous iterations of HTML and addresses the needs of web applications, an area previously not adequately covered by HTML. We demonstrate that employing HTML5 brings important benefits in terms of access performance to the CMS condition data. The combined use of web storage and web sockets allows increasing the performance and reducing the costs in term of computation power, memory usage and network bandwidth for client and server. Above all, the web workers allow creating different scripts that can be executed using multi-thread mode, exploiting multi-core microprocessors. Web workers have been employed in order to substantially decrease the web page rendering time to display the condition data stored in the CMS condition database.

Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Cavallari, Francesca; Di Guida, Salvatore; Innocente, Vincenzo

2011-12-01

349

Application and development of technologies for engine-condition-based maintenance of emergency diesel generators  

SciTech Connect

The emergency diesel generator (EDG) of a nuclear power plant has the role of supplying emergency electric power to protect the reactor core system in the event of the loss of offsite power supply. Therefore, EDGs should be subject to periodic surveillance testing to verify their ability to supply specified frequencies and voltages at design power levels within a limited time. To maintain optimal reliability of EDGs, condition monitoring/diagnosis technologies must be developed. Changing from periodic disassemble maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) according to predictions of equipment condition is recommended. In this paper, the development of diagnosis technology for CBM and the application of a diesel engine condition-analysis system are described. (authors)

Choi, K. H.; Sang, G.; Choi, L. Y. S.; Lee, B. O. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company Central Research Institue, 70, 1312 -gil Yuseong-daero Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

350

Thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology is the goal of this project. The energy thus produced must be technically, as well as economically, competitive with other energy sources. This project is to support the industrial development of the required technology to achieve the above stated goal. Solar energy is concentrated by either a reflecting surface or a lense to a receiver where it is transferred to a working liquid or gas. Receiver temperatures are in the 1000 - 2000 F range. Conceptual design studies are expected to identify power conversion units with a viable place in the solar energy future. Rankine and Brayton cycle engines are under investigation. This report details the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's accomplishments with point-focusing technology in Fy 1978.

Lucas, J.

1979-01-01

351

Gypsum scale formation on a heated copper plate under natural convection conditions and produced water remediation technologies review  

E-print Network

Scaling or crystallization fouling of unwanted salts is one of the most challenging and expensive problems encountered in different applications such as heat exchangers and thermal water treatment technologies. Formation ...

Mirhi, Mohamad H. (Mohamad Hussein)

2013-01-01

352

Unique Charge Storage Characteristics of FEP/THV/FEP Sandwich Electret Membrane Polarized by Thermally Charging Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the synergy of three processes (space charge injection, dipole orientation and interfacial polarization) which determine the electret properties, a sandwich electret membrane FEP/THV/FEP (FEP: fluorinated ethylene propylene, THV: tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene-vinylidene) is prepared by the laminating method and the thermal charging technology. The surface potential measurement indicates that the sandwich electret membrane exhibits excellent charge storage stability. When washing the sample surface with alcohol, its surface potential first undergoes decay to zero, and then quickly restores to a high value. The surface potential value is associated with the charging electric field and temperature. The best charging condition is 18.75 MV·m?1 and 130°C. A charge storage profile is proposed, and the experimental results are in good agreement with this profile.

Chen, Gang-Jin; Lei, Ming-Feng; Xiao, Hui-Ming; Wu, Ling

2014-12-01

353

Real-time determination of optimal indoor-air condition for thermal comfort, air quality and efficient energy usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

For building, “surroundings” that effect on indoor-air condition change with respect to the time. Without proper determination of the desired indoor-air condition to heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, it may not be feasible to provide simultaneously occupants with thermal comfort and acceptable air quality with efficient energy consumption all the time. This paper presents an alternative methodology of real-time

S Atthajariyakul; T Leephakpreeda

2004-01-01

354

TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY: THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility. Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation, or SITE, program, a critical assessment was made of the American Combustion Pyretron? oxygen enha...

355

A quantitative sensitivity analysis on the behaviour of common thermal indices under hot and windy conditions in Doha, Qatar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human thermal perception is best described through thermal indices. The most popular thermal indices applied in human bioclimatology are the perceived temperature (PT), the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). They are analysed focusing on their sensitivity to single meteorological input parameters under the hot and windy meteorological conditions observed in Doha, Qatar. It can be noted, that the results for the three indices are distributed quite differently. Furthermore, they respond quite differently to modifications in the input conditions. All of them show particular limitations and shortcomings that have to be considered and discussed. While the results for PT are unevenly distributed, UTCI shows limitations concerning the input data accepted. PET seems to respond insufficiently to changes in vapour pressure. The indices should therefore be improved to be valid for several kinds of climates.

Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas

2015-02-01

356

Engine Operating Conditions that Cause Thermal-Fatigue Cracks in Turbojet-Engine Buckets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five engine tests were conducted to definitely establish the failure mechanism of leading-edge cracking and to determine which conditions of engine operation cause the failures. Five groups of S-616 and M-252 buckets from master lots were run consecutively in the same J47-25 engine. The tests included a steady-state run at full-power conditions, rapid cycling between idle and rated speed, and three different start-stop tests. The first start-stop test consisted of cycles of start and stop with 5 minutes of idle speed before each stop; the second included cycles of start and stop but with 15 minutes of rated speed before each stop; the third consisted of cycles of gradual starts and normal stops with 5 minutes at idle speed before each stop. The test results demonstrated that the primary cause of leading-edge cracking was thermal fatigue produced by repeated engine starts. The leading edge of the bucket experiences plastic flow in compression during starts and consequently is subjected to a tensile stress when the remainder of the bucket becomes heated and expands. Crack initiation was accelerated when rated-speed operation was added to each normal start-stop cycle. This acceleration of crack formation was attributed to localized creep damage and perhaps to embrittlement resulting from overaging. It was demonstrated that leading-edge cracking can be prevented simply by starting the engine gradually.

Johnston, James R.; Weeton, John W.; Signorelli, Robert A.

1959-01-01

357

New technologies for modeling fire and disturbed conditions in forest and rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, considerable resources have been invested in methods to predict erosion on agricultural lands. Technologies developed for agricultural conditions tended to focus on long term average annual erosion rates from sites that are tilled annually, or regularly as part of some rotation. Techno...

358

EPA FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS AT LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will describe a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies that was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted by EPA?s contractor (Battelle), and hosted by the Louisvil...

359

EPA Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains at Louisville, KY - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will describe a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies that was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted by EPA?s contractor (Battelle), and hosted by the Louisvill...

360

Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report  

EPA Science Inventory

This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

361

Graduate Studies Office, California Institute of Technology CONDITIONS FOR STUDENTS ON MEDICAL LEAVE  

E-print Network

Graduate Studies Office, California Institute of Technology CONDITIONS FOR STUDENTS ON MEDICAL LEAVE 1) A student on medical leave is expected to be in treatment and focus on getting healthy students on medical leave are eligible for coverage on Caltech's Health Care Benefit plan for up to one

Greer, Julia R.

362

Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location  

EPA Science Inventory

Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

363

Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 1; New Technologies and Validation Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, four experiments Thermal Loop, Dependable Microprocessor, SAILMAST, and UltraFlex - were conducted to advance the maturity of individual technologies from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. This paper presents the new technologies and validation approach of the Thermal Loop experiment. The Thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. Details of the thermal loop concept, technical advances, benefits, objectives, level 1 requirements, and performance characteristics are described. Also included in the paper are descriptions of the test articles and mathematical modeling used for the technology validation. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. Capabilities and limitations of the analytical model are also addressed.

Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

2010-01-01

364

Thermal characterization of polyethylene glycols applied in the pharmaceutical technology using differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of the molecular weight and thermal treatments on commercial polyethylene glycols (PEG) samples used in the pharmaceutical processing technology, has been analyzed using DSC and HSM. The molecular weight of these polymers range from 1500 to 200000. Thermal investigations on the melting behavior of original PEG samples (as received from the manufacturer) showed only

J. M. Ginés; M. J. Arias; A. M. Rabasco; C. Novák; A. Ruiz-Conde; P. J. Sánchez-Soto

1996-01-01

365

An assessment of off-gas treatment technologies for application to thermal treatment of Department of Energy wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe available air pollution control technologies for pollutants generated by thermal treatment of DOE wastes. A basic process for selecting air pollution control devices is summarized. Types of air pollutants generated by thermal treatment units are described, as well as the factors that influence the types and quantities of pollutants generated. This report

J. D. Dalton; R. L. Gillins; T. L. Harris; A. L. Wollerman

1992-01-01

366

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15

367

Assessing the impact of thermal acclimation on physiological condition in the zebrafish model.  

PubMed

The zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model organism in a wide range of scientific disciplines, but current information concerning the physiological temperature response of adult zebrafish is rather scarce. In this study, zebrafish were experimentally acclimated for 28 days to 18, 26 or 34 °C and a suite of non-invasive and invasive methods was applied to determine the thermal dependence of zebrafish physiological condition. With decreasing temperature, the metabolic rate of zebrafish decreased, as shown by the decreasing oxygen uptake and ammonia excretion rates, limiting the critical swimming speed, probably due to a decreased muscle fibre power output. In response to exercise, fuel stores were mobilized to the liver as shown by the increased hepatosomatic index, liver total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration but due to the low metabolic rate they could not be adequately addressed to power swimming activity at 18 °C. Conversely, the increased metabolic performance at high temperature came with an increased metabolic cost resulting in decreased energy status reflected particularly well by the non-invasive condition factor and invasive measures of carcass protein concentration, carcass total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration. We showed that the combined measurement of the relative condition factor and critical swimming speed is a powerful non-invasive tool for long-term follow-up studies. Invasive methods were redundant for measuring general energy status but they provided detailed information concerning metabolic reorganization. With this study we proved that the usefulness of the zebrafish as a model organism can easily be expanded to include physiological studies and we provided a reference dataset for the selection of measures of physiological responses for future studies using the zebrafish. PMID:22872185

Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Hagenaars, An; De Boeck, Gudrun; Blust, Ronny

2013-01-01

368

Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop: Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) Facility for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Effective and robust high temperature heat transfer systems are fundamental to the successful deployment of advanced reactors for both power generation and non-electric applications. Plant designs often include an intermediate heat transfer loop (IHTL) with heat exchangers at either end to deliver thermal energy to the application while providing isolation of the primary reactor system. In order to address technical feasibility concerns and challenges a new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility “Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test facility” (ARTIST) is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed

James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

2001-11-01

369

Thermal modeling of nickel-hydrogen battery cells operating under transient orbital conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study of the thermal operating characteristics of nickel-hydrogen battery cells is presented. Combined finite-element and finite-difference techniques are employed to arrive at a computationally efficient composite thermal model representing a series-cell arrangement operating in conjunction with a radiately coupled baseplate and coldplate thermal bus. An aggressive, low-mass design approach indicates that thermal considerations can and should direct the design of the thermal bus arrangement. Special consideration is given to the potential for mixed conductive and convective processes across the hydrogen gap. Results of a compressible flow model are presented and indicate the transfer process is suitably represented by molecular conduction. A high-fidelity thermal model of the cell stack (and related components) indicates the presence of axial and radial temperature gradients. A detailed model of the thermal bus reveals the thermal interaction of individual cells and is imperative for assessing the intercell temperature gradients.

Schrage, Dean S.

1991-01-01

370

Thermal and Structural Performance of Woven Carbon Cloth For Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arcjet testing and analysis of a three-dimensional (3D) woven carbon fabric has shown that it can be used as a thermal protection system and as a load bearing structural component for a low ballistic coefficient hypersonic decelerator called ADEPT (Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology). Results of arcjet tests proved that the 3D woven carbon fabric can withstand flight-like heating while under flight-like biaxial mechanical loads representative of those encountered during shallow entry flight path angles into the atmosphere of Venus. Importantly, the arcjet test results have been used to extend a preliminary material thermal response model based on previous testing of the same 3D woven carbon fabric under uni-axial mechanical loading.

Arnold, James O.; Peterson, Keith H.; Yount, Bryan C.; Schneider, Nigel; Chavez-Garcia, Jose

2013-01-01

371

Carbon-rich Giant Planets: Atmospheric Chemistry, Thermal Inversions, Spectra, and Formation Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent inference of a carbon-rich atmosphere, with C/O >= 1, in the hot Jupiter WASP-12b motivates the exotic new class of carbon-rich planets (CRPs). We report a detailed study of the atmospheric chemistry and spectroscopic signatures of carbon-rich giant (CRG) planets, the possibility of thermal inversions in their atmospheres, the compositions of icy planetesimals required for their formation via core accretion, and the apportionment of ices, rock, and volatiles in their envelopes. Our results show that CRG atmospheres probe a unique region in composition space, especially at high temperature (T). For atmospheres with C/O >= 1, and T >~ 1400 K in the observable atmosphere, most of the oxygen is bound up in CO, while H2O is depleted and CH4 is enhanced by up to two or three orders of magnitude each, compared to equilibrium compositions with solar abundances (C/O = 0.54). These differences in the spectroscopically dominant species for the different C/O ratios cause equally distinct observable signatures in the spectra. As such, highly irradiated transiting giant exoplanets form ideal candidates to estimate atmospheric C/O ratios and to search for CRPs. We also find that the C/O ratio strongly affects the abundances of TiO and VO, which have been suggested to cause thermal inversions in highly irradiated hot Jupiter atmospheres. A C/O = 1 yields TiO and VO abundances of ~100 times lower than those obtained with equilibrium chemistry assuming solar abundances, at P ~ 1 bar. Such a depletion is adequate to rule out thermal inversions due to TiO/VO even in the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters, such as WASP-12b. We estimate the compositions of the protoplanetary disk, the planetesimals, and the envelope of WASP-12b, and the mass of ices dissolved in the envelope, based on the observed atmospheric abundances. Adopting stellar abundances (C/O = 0.44) for the primordial disk composition and low-temperature formation conditions (T <~ 30 K) for WASP-12b lead to a C/O ratio of 0.27 in accreted planetesimals, and, consequently, in the planet's envelope. In contrast, a C/O ratio of 1 in the envelope of WASP-12b requires a substantial depletion of oxygen in the disk, i.e., by a factor of ~0.41 for the same formation conditions. This scenario also satisfies the constraints on the C/H and O/H ratios reported for WASP-12b. If, alternatively, hotter conditions prevailed in a stellar composition disk such that only H2O is condensed, the remaining gas can potentially have a C/O ~ 1. However, a high C/O in WASP-12b caused predominantly by gas accretion would preclude superstellar C/H ratios which also fit the data.

Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mousis, Olivier; Johnson, Torrence V.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

2011-12-01

372

CARBON-RICH GIANT PLANETS: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, THERMAL INVERSIONS, SPECTRA, AND FORMATION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The recent inference of a carbon-rich atmosphere, with C/O {>=} 1, in the hot Jupiter WASP-12b motivates the exotic new class of carbon-rich planets (CRPs). We report a detailed study of the atmospheric chemistry and spectroscopic signatures of carbon-rich giant (CRG) planets, the possibility of thermal inversions in their atmospheres, the compositions of icy planetesimals required for their formation via core accretion, and the apportionment of ices, rock, and volatiles in their envelopes. Our results show that CRG atmospheres probe a unique region in composition space, especially at high temperature (T). For atmospheres with C/O {>=} 1, and T {approx}> 1400 K in the observable atmosphere, most of the oxygen is bound up in CO, while H{sub 2}O is depleted and CH{sub 4} is enhanced by up to two or three orders of magnitude each, compared to equilibrium compositions with solar abundances (C/O = 0.54). These differences in the spectroscopically dominant species for the different C/O ratios cause equally distinct observable signatures in the spectra. As such, highly irradiated transiting giant exoplanets form ideal candidates to estimate atmospheric C/O ratios and to search for CRPs. We also find that the C/O ratio strongly affects the abundances of TiO and VO, which have been suggested to cause thermal inversions in highly irradiated hot Jupiter atmospheres. A C/O = 1 yields TiO and VO abundances of {approx}100 times lower than those obtained with equilibrium chemistry assuming solar abundances, at P {approx} 1 bar. Such a depletion is adequate to rule out thermal inversions due to TiO/VO even in the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters, such as WASP-12b. We estimate the compositions of the protoplanetary disk, the planetesimals, and the envelope of WASP-12b, and the mass of ices dissolved in the envelope, based on the observed atmospheric abundances. Adopting stellar abundances (C/O = 0.44) for the primordial disk composition and low-temperature formation conditions (T {approx}< 30 K) for WASP-12b lead to a C/O ratio of 0.27 in accreted planetesimals, and, consequently, in the planet's envelope. In contrast, a C/O ratio of 1 in the envelope of WASP-12b requires a substantial depletion of oxygen in the disk, i.e., by a factor of {approx}0.41 for the same formation conditions. This scenario also satisfies the constraints on the C/H and O/H ratios reported for WASP-12b. If, alternatively, hotter conditions prevailed in a stellar composition disk such that only H{sub 2}O is condensed, the remaining gas can potentially have a C/O {approx} 1. However, a high C/O in WASP-12b caused predominantly by gas accretion would preclude superstellar C/H ratios which also fit the data.

Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mousis, Olivier [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besancon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Johnson, Torrence V. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: nmadhu@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2011-12-20

373

Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30–31°S. PMID:25334020

Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

2014-01-01

374

Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species-specific effects, and add strength to the suggestion of an oceanography-driven, major spatial transition in coastal communities at 30-31°S. PMID:25334020

Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

2014-01-01

375

Recommendations for strengthening the infrared technology component of any condition monitoring program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides insights of a long term 'champion' of many condition monitoring technologies and a Level III infra red thermographer. The co-authors present recommendations based on their observations of infra red and other components of predictive, condition monitoring programs in manufacturing, utility and government defense and energy activities. As predictive maintenance service providers, trainers, informal observers and formal auditors of such programs, the co-authors provide a unique perspective that can be useful to practitioners, managers and customers of advanced programs. Each has over 30 years experience in the field of machinery operation, maintenance, and support the origins of which can be traced to and through the demanding requirements of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine forces. They have over 10 years each of experience with programs in many different countries on 3 continents. Recommendations are provided on the following: (1) Leadership and Management Support (For survival); (2) Life Cycle View (For establishment of a firm and stable foundation for a program); (3) Training and Orientation (For thermographers as well as operators, managers and others); (4) Analyst Flexibility (To innovate, explore and develop their understanding of machinery condition); (5) Reports and Program Justification (For program visibility and continued expansion); (6) Commitment to Continuous Improvement of Capability and Productivity (Through application of updated hardware and software); (7) Mutual Support by Analysts (By those inside and outside of the immediate organization); (8) Use of Multiple Technologies and System Experts to Help Define Problems (Through the use of correlation analysis of data from up to 15 technologies. An example correlation analysis table for AC and DC motors is provided.); (9) Root Cause Analysis (Allows a shift from reactive to proactive stance for a program); (10) Master Equipment Identification and Technology Application (To place the condition monitoring program in perspective); (11) Use of procedures for Predictive, Condition Monitoring and maintenance in general (To get consistent results); (12) Developing a scheme for predictive, condition monitoring personnel qualification and certification (To provide a career path and incentive to advance skill level and value to the company); (13) Analyst Assignment to Technologies and Related Duties (To make intelligent use of the skills of individuals assigned); (14) Condition Monitoring Analyst Selection Criteria (Key attributes for success are mentioned.); (15) Design and Modification to Support Monitoring (For old and new machinery to facilitate data acquisition); (16) Establishment of a Museum of Components and Samples Pulled from Service for Cause (For orientation and awareness training of operators and managers and exchange of information between analysts); (17) Goals (To promote a proactive program approach for machinery condition improvement).

Nicholas, Jack R., Jr.; Young, R. K.

1999-03-01

376

Space power thermal management materials and fabrication technologies for commerical use  

SciTech Connect

This technology is being developed in several new directions. Porous metal heat exchangers feature extraordinarily high specific surface ratios and have absorbed heat fluxes in excess of 100 MW/m{sup 2}. Porous metal structures are highly compliant, so the technology has been expanded to produce a compliant interface for the attachment of materials with widely different coefficients of thermal expansion such as low expansion carbon-carbon to high expansion metals. (3.) The paper also describes a process, developed for space nuclear power (thermionics), which achieves 100% dense tungsten by plasma spraying. This could have major application in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel or other pyrochemical processes, where it would replace gun-drilled tungsten-molybdenum tubes with pure tungsten tubes of smaller diameter, longer, and thiner walled. The process could produce pure tungsten components in complex shapes for arcjet thrusters and other electric propulsion devices. {copyright}American Institute of Physics 1995

Rosenfeld, J.H.; Anderson, W.G.; Horner-Richardson, K.; Hartenstine, J.R.; Keller, R.F. [Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Road, Lancaster, PA 17601 (United States); Beals, J.T. [United Technologies Research Center, Silver Lane, MS 13, East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States)

1995-01-20

377

Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology  

SciTech Connect

Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Estrada, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Spain)

1995-11-01

378

Optical stimulation of the hearing and deaf cochlea under thermal and stress confinement condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a controversy, to which extend cochlear stimulation with near infrared laser pulses at a wavelength of 1860 nm is based on optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells or -in contrast- is based on direct stimulation of the nerve cells in absence of functional hair cells. Thermal and stress confinement conditions apply, because of the pulse duration range (5 ns, 10 ?s-20 ms) of the two lasers used. The dependency of the signal characteristics on pulse peak power and pulse duration was investigated in this study. The compound action potential (CAP) was measured during stimulation of the cochlea of four anaesthetized guinea pigs, which were hearing at first and afterwards acutely deafened using intracochlear neomycin-rinsing. For comparison hydrophone measurements in a water tank were performed to investigate the optoacoustic signals at different laser interaction regimes. With rising pulse peak power CAPs of the hearing animals showed first a threshold, then a positively correlated and finally a saturating dependency. CAPs also showed distinct responses at laser onset and offset separated with the pulse duration. At pulse durations shorter than physiological response times the signals merged. Basically the same signal characteristics were observed in the optoacoustic hydrophone measurements, scaled with the sensitivity and response time of the hydrophone. Taking together the qualitative correspondence in the signal response and the absence of any CAPs in deafened animals our results speak in favor of an optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells rather than a direct stimulation of nerve cells.

Schultz, M.; Baumhoff, P.; Kallweit, N.; Sato, M.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.; Lenarz, T.; Kral, A.

2014-03-01

379

Scar prevention by laser-assisted scar healing (LASH) using thermal post-conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 810-nm diode laser system was developed to accelerate and improve the healing process in surgical scars. Using thermal post-conditioning, the laser system provides a localised moderate heating whose maximum temperature is controlled to prevent tissue damage and stimulate the heat shock proteins (HSP) synthesis. The 810-nm wavelength allows a deep penetration of the light into the dermis, without damaging the epidermis. The time along which surgical incision is treated (continuous wave) must therefore be selected carefully with respect to the temperature precision achieved within the heated volume. A top-hat profile is preferred to a Gaussian profile in order to ensure the skin surface temperature is homogenised, as is the temperature of the heated volume. The spot shape will depend on the medical indication. The treatment should be made safe and controlled by means of a safety strip containing an RFID chip which will transmit the various operating settings to the laser device. A clinical trial aims at evaluating the 810 nm-diode laser in surgical incisions, with only one laser treatment immediately after skin closure, of patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Surgical incisions were divided into two fields, with only portions randomly selected receiving laser treatment. At the final scar analysis (12 months) of the pilot study, the treated portion scored significantly better for both surgeon (P = 0.046) and patients (P = 0.025). Further studies may be warranted to better understand the cellular mechanisms leading to Laser-Assisted Skin Healing (LASH).

Gossé, Alban; Iarmarcovai, Gwen; Capon, Alexandre; Cornil, Alain; Mordon, Serge

2009-02-01

380

Thermal stabilities of drops of burning thermoplastics under the UL 94 vertical test conditions.  

PubMed

The properties of polymer melts will strongly affect the fire hazard of the pool induced by polymer melt flow. In this study the thermal stabilities of eight thermoplastic polymers as well as their melting drops generated under the UL 94 vertical burning test conditions were investigated by thermogravimetric experiments. It was found that the kinetic compensation effect existed for the decomposition reactions of the polymers and their drops. For polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the onset decomposition temperature and the two decomposition kinetic parameters (the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy) of the drop were less than those of the polymer. However, the onset decomposition temperature and the two kinetic parameters of PC's drop were greater than those of polycarbonate (PC). Interestingly, for polyethylenevinylacetate (EVA18) the drop hardly contained the vinyl acetate chain segments. Similarly, for the PMMA/LDPE blends and the PMMA/PP blends, when the volume fraction of PMMA was less than 50% the drop hardly contained PMMA, implying that the blend would not drip until PMMA burned away and its surface temperature approached the decomposition temperature of the continuous phase composed of LDPE or PP. PMID:23298738

Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jun

2013-02-15

381

Optimal Deployment of Thermal Energy Storage under Diverse Economic and Climate Conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an investigation of the economic benefit of thermal energy storage (TES) for cooling, across a range of economic and climate conditions. Chilled water TES systems are simulated for a large office building in four distinct locations, Miami in the U.S.; Lisbon, Portugal; Shanghai, China; and Mumbai, India. Optimal system size and operating schedules are determined using the optimization model DER-CAM, such that total cost, including electricity and amortized capital costs are minimized. The economic impacts of each optimized TES system is then compared to systems sized using a simple heuristic method, which bases system size as fraction (50percent and 100percent) of total on-peak summer cooling loads. Results indicate that TES systems of all sizes can be effective in reducing annual electricity costs (5percent-15percent) and peak electricity consumption (13percent-33percent). The investigation also indentifies a number of criteria which drive TES investment, including low capital costs, electricity tariffs with high power demand charges and prolonged cooling seasons. In locations where these drivers clearly exist, the heuristically sized systems capture much of the value of optimally sized systems; between 60percent and 100percent in terms of net present value. However, in instances where these drivers are less pronounced, the heuristic tends to oversize systems, and optimization becomes crucial to ensure economically beneficial deployment of TES, increasing the net present value of heuristically sized systems by as much as 10 times in some instances.

DeForest, Nicolas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

2014-04-15

382

Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx  

SciTech Connect

The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

2003-08-24

383

Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

1997-02-01

384

Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations.  

PubMed

Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy. PMID:25052337

Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio

2015-03-01

385

Acoustic Microscopy Analyses to Determine Good vs. Failed Tissue Engineered Oral Mucosa Under Normal or Thermally Stressed Culture Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) ultrasonic profilometry to determine acceptable vs. failed tissue engineered\\u000a oral mucosa. Specifically, ex vivo-produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOMEs) under normal or thermally stressed culture conditions were scanned with the SAM\\u000a operator blinded to the culture conditions. As seeded cells proliferate, they fill in and smooth out the surface irregularities;\\u000a they then stratify and

Frank Winterroth; Junho Lee; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Stephen E. Feinberg; Scott J. Hollister; Kyle W. Hollman

2011-01-01

386

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

387

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

2002-09-30

388

Action of benzimidazole fungicides on resorcinolic lipid metabolism in rye seedlings depends on thermal and light growth conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and homologue composition of alkylresorcinols were investigated in rye seedlings (Secale cereale L.) treated with benzimidazole fungicides and grown for 5 days under various thermal and light conditions. The fresh and dry biomasses of green and etiolated plants were greatly increased by benomyl and carbendazim at 29°C. At 22 and 15°C benomyl had an inhibitory action on growth

Elzbieta G. Magnucka; Yoshikatsu Suzuki; Stanislaw J. Pietr; Arkadiusz Kozubek; Robert Zarnowski

2007-01-01

389

SIMULATION OF A THERMAL SOLAR POWER PLANT OPERATING ON MARS UNDER CLEAR SKY AND DUST STORM CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power plant analyzed in this work consists of a selective solar collector–thermal engine combination. The paper focuses on solar power plant operation under various weather conditions during all seasons on Mars. Meteorological data measured at Viking Landers (VL) sites were used in computations. Two strategies to collect solar radiation were analyzed: a solar horizontal (H) collector and a solar

VIOREL BADESCU; GHEORGHE POPESCU; MICHEL FEIDT

2001-01-01

390

Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether school environments can adversely affect academic performance, we review scientific evidence relating indoor pollutants and thermal conditions, in schools or other indoor environments, to human performance or attendance. We critically review evidence for direct associations between these aspects of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and performance or attendance. Secondarily, we summarize, without critique, evidence on indirect connections potentially

Mark J. Mendell; Garvin A. Heath

2005-01-01

391

Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

2013-01-31

392

On the thermal stability of Co 2Z hexagonal ferrites for low-temperature ceramic cofiring technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co 2Z hexaferrite Ba 3Co 2Fe 24O 41 was prepared by a mixed oxalate co-precipitation route and the standard ceramic technology. XRD studies show that at T<1300 °C different ferrite phases coexist with the M-type hexaferrite as majority phase between 1000 and 1100 °C and the Y-type ferrite at 1230 °C. The Z-type material has its stability interval between 1300 and 1350 °C. Both synthesis routes result in almost single-phase Z-type ferrites after calcination at 1330 °C, intermediate grinding and sintering at 1330 °C. The permeability of Co 2Z-type ferrite of about ?=20 is stable up to several 100 MHz, with maximum losses ?'' around 700 MHz. Addition of 3 wt% Bi 2O 3 as sintering aid shifts the temperature of maximum shrinkage down to 950 °C and enables sintering of Z-type ferrite powders at 950 °C. However, the permeability is reduced to ?=3. It is shown here for the first time that Co 2Z ferrite is not stable under these conditions; partial thermal decomposition into other hexagonal ferrites is found by XRD studies. This is accompanied by a significant decrease of permeability. This shows that Co 2Z hexagonal ferrite is not suitable for the fabrication of multilayer inductors for high-frequency applications via the low-temperature ceramic cofiring technology since the material is not compatible with the typical process cofiring temperature of 950 °C.

Kra?unovska, S.; Töpfer, J.

393

Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

2010-01-01

394

Remote Sensing of In-Flight Icing Conditions: Operational, Meteorological, and Technological Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote-sensing systems that map aircraft icing conditions in the flight path from airports or aircraft would allow icing to be avoided and exited. Icing remote-sensing system development requires consideration of the operational environment, the meteorological environment, and the technology available. Operationally, pilots need unambiguous cockpit icing displays for risk management decision-making. Human factors, aircraft integration, integration of remotely sensed icing information into the weather system infrastructures, and avoid-and-exit issues need resolution. Cost, maintenance, power, weight, and space concern manufacturers, operators, and regulators. An icing remote-sensing system detects cloud and precipitation liquid water, drop size, and temperature. An algorithm is needed to convert these conditions into icing potential estimates for cockpit display. Specification development requires that magnitudes of cloud microphysical conditions and their spatial and temporal variability be understood at multiple scales. The core of an icing remote-sensing system is the technology that senses icing microphysical conditions. Radar and microwave radiometers penetrate clouds and can estimate liquid water and drop size. Retrieval development is needed; differential attenuation and neural network assessment of multiple-band radar returns are most promising to date. Airport-based radar or radiometers are the most viable near-term technologies. A radiometer that profiles cloud liquid water, and experimental techniques to use radiometers horizontally, are promising. The most critical operational research needs are to assess cockpit and aircraft system integration, develop avoid-and-exit protocols, assess human factors, and integrate remote-sensing information into weather and air traffic control infrastructures. Improved spatial characterization of cloud and precipitation liquid-water content, drop-size spectra, and temperature are needed, as well as an algorithm to convert sensed conditions into a measure of icing potential. Technology development also requires refinement of inversion techniques. These goals can be accomplished with collaboration among federal agencies including NASA, the FAA, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, NOAA, and the Department of Defense. This report reviews operational, meteorological, and technological considerations in developing the capability to remotely map in-flight icing conditions from the ground and from the air.

Ryerson, Charles C.

2000-01-01

395

Energy efficiency and comfort conditions in passive solar buildings: Effect of thermal mass at equatorial high altitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is based on the philosophy that architectural design should not just be a function of aesthetics, but also of energy-efficiency, advanced technologies and passive solar strategies. A lot of published literature is silent regarding buildings in equatorial highland regions. This dissertation is part of the body of knowledge that attempts to provide a study of energy in buildings using thermal mass. The objectives were to establish (1) effect of equatorial high-altitude climate on thermal mass, (2) effect of thermal mass on moderating indoor temperatures, (3) effect of thermal mass in reducing heating and cooling energy, and (4) the amount of time lag and decrement factor of thermal mass. Evidence to analyze the effect of thermal mass issues came from three sources. First, experimental physical models involving four houses were parametrically conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Second, energy computations were made using variations in thermal mass for determining annual energy usage and costs. Third, the data gathered were observed, evaluated, and compared with currently published research. The findings showed that: (1) Equatorial high-altitude climates that have diurnal temperature ranging about 10--15°C allow thermal mass to moderate indoor temperatures; (2) Several equations were established that indicate that indoor mean radiant temperatures can be predicted from outdoor temperatures; (3) Thermal mass can reduce annual energy for heating and cooling by about 71%; (4) Time lag and decrement of 200mm thick stone and concrete thermal mass can be predicted by a new formula; (5) All windows on a building should be shaded. East and west windows when shaded save 51% of the cooling energy. North and south windows when fully shaded account for a further 26% of the cooling energy; (6) Insulation on the outside of a wall reduces energy use by about 19.6% below the levels with insulation on the inside. The basic premise of this dissertation is that decisions that affect a building's use regarding thermal mass occur during early design stages. The intention is to present new knowledge to architects regarding the use of thermal mass in equatorial high altitude climates for energy-efficiency through passive solar strategies.

Ogoli, David Mwale

396

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01

397

Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

2013-12-01

398

Thermal bioclimatic conditions and patterns of behaviour in an urban park in Göteborg, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in urban areas frequently use parks for recreation and outdoor activities. Owing to the complexity of the outdoor environment, there have only been a few attempts to understand the effect of the thermal environment on people's use of outdoor spaces. This paper therefore seeks to determine the relationship between the thermal environment, park use and behavioural patterns in an

Sofia Thorsson; Maria Lindqvist; Sven Lindqvist

2004-01-01

399

480 - FIRST RESULTS OF A SOLAR-THERMAL LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING CONCEPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal low-flow liquid-desiccant air handling machine was procured, installed, and field tested. The goal of the present investigation is to evaluate the field performance of the machine and characterize its operation for the temperature range of a solar thermal array. The system studied includes a natural gas boiler supplying the heat, and a cooling tower for heat rejection. System

B. M. Jones; S. J. Harrison

400

Effect of Glow Discharge Conditions on Structure and Thermal Properties of Polysilazane Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysilazane thin films were prepared by glow discharge polymerization of hexamethylcyclotrisilazane in mixture with various gases: argon, nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia. The effect of gas type on thermal stability and chemical structure of glow discharge polysilazane was studied. Thermo-gravimetric measurements performed within a temperature range of 20–1000° C, showed that the best thermal stability was exhibited by polysilazane prepared at

A. M. Wróbel; M. Kryszewski

1978-01-01

401

Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

1998-02-01

402

Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring  

PubMed Central

We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method”) using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal. PMID:23774988

Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

403

Robust vehicle detection under various environmental conditions using an infrared thermal camera and its application to road traffic flow monitoring.  

PubMed

We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as "our previous method") using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as "our new method"). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal. PMID:23774988

Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

404

Conditionals  

E-print Network

This article introduces the classic accounts of the meaning of conditionals (material implication, strict implication, variably strict conditional) and discusses the difference between indicative and subjunctive/counterfactual ...

von Fintel, Kai

2011-01-01

405

Potential effect of fracture technology on IPTS (Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock) analysis (Fracture toughness: K sub la and K sub lc and warm prestressing)  

SciTech Connect

A major nuclear plant life extension issue to be confronted in the 1990's is pressure vessel integrity for the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) loading condition. Governing criteria associated with PTS are included in The PTS Rule'' (10 CFR 50.61) and Regulatory Guide 1.154: Format and Content of Plant-Specific Pressurized Thermal Shock Safety Analysis Reports for Pressurized Water Reactors. The results of the Integrated Pressurized Water Reactors. The results of the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) Program, along with risk assessments and fracture analyses performed by the NRC and reactor system vendors, contributed to the derivation of the PTS Rule. Over the last several years, the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a series of large-scale fracture-mechanics experiments. The Thermal Shock Experiments (TSE), Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiments (PTSE), and Wide Plate Experiments (WPE) produced K{sub IC} and K{sub Ia} data that suggest increased mean K{sub IC} and K{sub Ia} curves relative to the ones used in the IPTS study. Also, the PTSE and WPE have demonstrated that prototypical nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels are capable of arresting a propagating crack at K{sub I} values considerably above 220 MPa{radical}m, the implicit limit of the ASME Code and the limit used in the IPTS studies. This document provides a discussion of the results of these experiments.

Dickson, T.L.

1990-01-01

406

Analytical Solution of Thermal Wave Models on Skin Tissue Under Arbitrary Periodic Boundary Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and understanding the heat transfer in biological tissues is important in medical thermal therapeutic applications. The biothermomechanics of skin involves interdisciplinary features, such as bioheat transfer, biomechanics, and burn damage. The hyperbolic thermal wave model of bioheat transfer and the parabolic Pennes bioheat transfer equations with blood perfusion and metabolic heat generation are applied for the skin tissue as a finite and semi-infinite domain when the skin surface temperature is suddenly exposed to a source of an arbitrary periodic temperature. These equations are solved analytically by Laplace transform methods. The thermal wave model results indicate that a non-Fourier model has predicted the thermal behavior correctly, compared to that of previous experiments. The results of the thermal wave model show that when the first thermal wave moves from the first boundary, the temperature profiles for finite and semi-infinite domains of skin become separated for these phenomena; the discrepancy between these profiles is negligible. The accuracy of the obtained results is validated through comparisons with existing numerical results. The results demonstrate that the non-Fourier model is significant in describing the thermal behavior of skin tissue.

Fazlali, R.; Ahmadikia, H.

2013-01-01

407

The U.S. Department of Energy`s role in commercialization of solar thermal electric technology  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported the development of solar thermal electric (STE) technology since the early 1970s. From its inception, the program has held a long-term goal of nurturing STE technologies from the research and development (R&D) stage through technology development, ultimately leading to commercialization. Within the last few years, the focus of this work -has shifted from R&D to cost-shared cooperative projects with industry. These projects are targeted not just at component development, but at complete systems, marketing approaches, and commercialization plans. This changing emphasis has brought new industry into the program and is significantly accelerating solar thermal`s entry into the marketplace. Projects such as Solar Two in the power tower area, a number of dish/Stirling joint ventures in the modular power area, and operations and maintenance (O&M) cost reduction studies will be discussed as examples of this new focus.

Burch, G.D. [United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-10-01

408

Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement. Part 2; Structural Analysis Technologies and Modeling Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology review and assessment of modeling and analysis efforts underway in support of a safe return to flight of the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) are summarized. This review and assessment effort focuses on the structural modeling and analysis practices employed for ET TPS foam design and analysis and on identifying analysis capabilities needed in the short-term and long-term. The current understanding of the relationship between complex flight environments and ET TPS foam failure modes are reviewed as they relate to modeling and analysis. A literature review on modeling and analysis of TPS foam material systems is also presented. Finally, a review of modeling and analysis tools employed in the Space Shuttle Program is presented for the ET TPS acreage and close-out foam regions. This review includes existing simplified engineering analysis tools are well as finite element analysis procedures.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

2004-01-01

409

Condition monitoring through advanced sensor and computational technology : final report (January 2002 to May 2005).  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this joint research project was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensors and computational technology for continuous monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This project included investigating and adapting several advanced sensor technologies from Korean and US national laboratory research communities, some of which were developed and applied in non-nuclear industries. The project team investigated and developed sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms. The researchers installed sensors and conducted condition monitoring tests on two test loops, a check valve (an active component) and a piping elbow (a passive component), to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced sensors and computational technology to achieve the project goal. Acoustic emission (AE) devices, optical fiber sensors, accelerometers, and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) were used to detect mechanical vibratory response of check valve and piping elbow in normal and degraded configurations. Chemical sensors were also installed to monitor the water chemistry in the piping elbow test loop. Analysis results of processed sensor data indicate that it is feasible to differentiate between the normal and degraded (with selected degradation mechanisms) configurations of these two components from the acquired sensor signals, but it is questionable that these methods can reliably identify the level and type of degradation. Additional research and development efforts are needed to refine the differentiation techniques and to reduce the level of uncertainties.

Kim, Jung-Taek (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon, Korea); Luk, Vincent K.

2005-05-01

410

Photovoltaic and solar-thermal technologies in residential building codes, tackling building code requirements to overcome the impediments to applying new technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the building code requirements and impediments to applying photovoltaic (PV) and solar-thermal technologies in residential buildings (one- or two-family dwellings). It reviews six modern model building codes that represent the codes to be adopted by most locations in the coming years: International Residential Code, First Draft (IRC), International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), International Mechanical Code (IMC), International

D. Wortman; L. Echo-Hawk; J. Wiechman; S. Hayter; D. Gwinner

1999-01-01

411

Thermal Stability of Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte Under AMTEC Operating Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical component of alkali metal thermal-to electric converter (AMTEC) devices for long duration space missions is the sodium beta-alumina solid electrolyte ceramic (BASE), for which there exists no substitute.

Williams, R.; Homer, M.; Kulleck, J.; Lara, L.; Kisor, A.; Cortez, R.; Shields, V.; Ryan, M.

1999-01-01

412

A novel test method for measuring the thermal properties of clothing ensembles under dynamic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic thermal properties of clothing ensembles are important to thermal transient comfort, but have so far not been properly quantified. In this paper, a novel test procedure and new index based on measurements on the sweating fabric manikin-Walter are proposed to quantify and measure the dynamic thermal properties of clothing ensembles. Experiments showed that the new index is correlated to the changing rate of the body temperature of the wearer, which is an important indicator of thermal transient comfort. Clothing ensembles having higher values of the index means the wearer will have a faster changing rate of body temperature and shorter duration before approaching a dangerous thermo-physiological state, when he changes from 'resting' to 'exercising' mode. Clothing should therefore be designed to reduce the value of the index.

Wan, X.; Fan, J.

2008-06-01

413

Current Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion technologies at the Center for Space Nuclear Research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power and propulsion has been considered for space applications since the 1950s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors / rocket engines in the Rover/NERVA programs1. The Aerojet Corporation was the prime contractor for the NERVA program. Modern changes in environmental laws present challenges for the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel composition that is significantly different from those of the NERVA project can be engineered; this may be needed to ensure public support and compliance with safety requirements. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing a number of technologies, modeling and testing processes to further the development of safe, practical and affordable nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

Robert C. O'Brien; Steven K. Cook; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe; Ronald Samborsky; Daniel Brasuell

2012-09-01

414

A new 3He-free thermal neutrons detector concept based on the GEM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal neutron detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier technology is presented. It is configured to let a neutron beam interact with a series of borated glass layers placed in sequence along the neutron path inside the device. The detector has been tested on beam both at the ISIS (UK) spallation neutron source and at the TRIGA reactor of ENEA, at the Casaccia Research Center, near Rome in Italy. For a complete characterization and description of the physical mechanism underlying the detector operation, several Monte Carlo simulations were performed using both Fluka and Geant4 code. These simulations are intended to help in seeking the optimal geometrical set-up and material thickness (converter layer, gas gap, sheet substrate) to improve the final detector design in terms of achieving the best detector efficiency possible.

Pietropaolo, A.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Quintieri, L.; Raspino, D.; Celentano, G.; Vannozzi, A.; Frasciello, O.

2013-11-01

415

Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

Gates, W. R.

1983-02-01

416

Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

2007-06-04

417

Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

Gates, W. R.

1983-01-01

418

Interfacial fracture characteristic and crack propagation of thermal barrier coatings under tensile conditions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been extensively used in aircraft engines for improved durability and performance for\\u000a more than fifteen years. In this paper, thermal barrier coating system with plasma sprayed zirconia bonded by a MCrAlY layer\\u000a to SUS304 stainless steel substrate was performed under tensile tests at 1000°C. The crack nucleation, propagation behavior\\u000a of the ceramic coatings in as

W. G. Mao; C. Y. Dai; L. Yang; Y. C. Zhou

2008-01-01

419

The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

1981-01-01

420

Characterization of a thermal neutron beam monitor based on gas electron multiplier technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research into valid alternatives to 3He detectors is fundamental to the affordability of new neutron spallation sources like the European Spallation Source (ESS). In the case of ESS it is also essential to develop high-rate detectors that can fully exploit the increase of neutron flux relative to present neutron sources. One of the technologies fulfilling these requirements is the gas electron multiplier (GEM), since it can combine a high rate capability (MHz/mm2), a coverage area up to 1 m2 and a space resolution better than 0.5 mm. Its use as a neutron detector requires conversion of neutrons into charged particles. This paper describes the realization and characterization of a thermal neutron GEM-based beam monitor equipped with a cathode containing ^{10}B for neutron conversion. This device is constituted by a triple GEM detector whose cathode is made of an aluminum sheet covered by a 1 ? m thick ^{{nat}}B4C layer. The method used to realize a long-lasting ^{{nat}}B4C layer is described and the properties of such a layer have been determined. The detector performances (measured on the ISIS-VESUVIO beam line) in terms of beam profile reconstruction, imaging, and measurement of the thermal neutron beam energy spectrum are compatible with those obtained by standard beam monitors.

Croci, Gabriele; Cazzaniga, Carlo; Claps, Gerardo; Tardocchi, Marco; Rebai, Marica; Murtas, Fabrizio; Vassallo, Espedito; Caniello, Roberto; Cippo, Enrico Perelli; Grosso, Giovanni; Rigato, Valentino; Gorini, Giuseppe

2014-08-01

421

Survey of the supporting research and technology for the thermal protection of the Galileo Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo Probe, which is scheduled to be launched in 1985 and to enter the hydrogen-helium atmosphere of Jupiter up to 1,475 days later, presents thermal protection problems that are far more difficult than those experienced in previous planetary entry missions. The high entry speed of the Probe will cause forebody heating rates orders of magnitude greater than those encountered in the Apollo and Pioneer Venus missions, severe afterbody heating from base-flow radiation, and thermochemical ablation rates for carbon phenolic that rival the free-stream mass flux. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the experimental work and computational research that provide technological support for the Probe's heat-shield design effort. The survey includes atmospheric modeling; both approximate and first-principle computations of flow fields and heat-shield material response; base heating; turbulence modelling; new computational techniques; experimental heating and materials studies; code validation efforts; and a set of 'consensus' first-principle flow-field solutions through the entry maneuver, with predictions of the corresponding thermal protection requirements.

Howe, J. T.; Pitts, W. C.; Lundell, J. H.

1981-01-01

422

Critical analysis of the thermal inertia approach to map soil water content under sparse vegetation and changeable sky conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports a critical analysis of the thermal inertia approach to map surface soil water content on bare and sparsely vegetated soils by means of remotely sensed data. The study area is an experimental area located in Barrax (Spain). Field data were acquired within the Barrax 2011 research project. AHS airborne images including VIS/NIR and TIR bands were acquired both day and night time by the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) between the 11th and 13rd of June 2011. Images cover a corn pivot surrounded by bare soil, where a set of in situ data have been collected previously and simultaneously to overpasses. To validate remotely sensed estimations, a preliminary proximity sensing set up has been arranged, measuring spectra and surface temperatures on transects by means of ASD hand-held spectroradiometer and an Everest Interscience radiometric thermometer respectively. These data were collected on two transects: the first one on bare soil and the second from bare to sparsely vegetated soil; soil water content in both transects ranged approximately between field and saturation values. Furthermore thermal inertia was measured using a KD2Pro probe, and surface water content of soil was measured using FDR and TDR probes. This ground dataset was used: 1) to verify if the thermal inertia method can be applied to map water content also on soil covered by sparse vegetation, and 2) to quantify a correction factor of the downwelling shortwave radiation taking into account sky cloudiness effects on thermal inertia assessment. The experiment tests both Xue and Cracknell approximation to retrieve the thermal inertia from a dumped value of the phase difference and the three-temperature approach of Sobrino to estimate the phase difference spatial distribution. Both methods were then applied on the remotely sensed airborne images collected during the following days, in order to obtain the spatial distribution of the surface soil moisture on bare soils and sparse vegetation coverage. Results verify that the thermal inertia method can be applied on sparsely vegetated soil characterized by fractional cover up to ~0.25 (maximum value within this experiment); a lumped value of the phase difference allows a good estimate of the thermal inertia, whereas the comparison with the three-temperature approach did not give conclusive responses because ground radiometric temperatures were not acquired in optimal conditions. Results also show that clear sky only at the time of the remote sensing acquisitions is not a sufficient condition to apply the thermal inertia method. A corrective coefficient taking into account the actual sky cloudiness throughout the day allows accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of the thermal inertia (r2 ~ 0.9) and soil water content (r2 ~ 0.7).

Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Corbari, Chiara; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Sobrino, José Antonio

2012-09-01

423

Study over thermal state of gas turbine engine metal-ceramic rotor blades and nozzle guide vanes under thermal shock and thermal-cyclic loading conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure a reliable operation of the 2.5 MW gas turbine engine (GTE- 2.5)[1] with the inlet gas temperature TIT=1623 K, studies were performed over the thermal state of the nozzle guide vanes and rotor blades with the temperatures, rates and flows of the working media and cooling air simulating all the potential turbine stage operating duties. The steady state and thermal-cyclic tests having been accomplished, there was no visible defect on the rotor blades and the nozzle vanes. Afterwards, they survived the endurance tests at the rated cooling. Therefore, the functionality of the shell thin-wall hybrid nozzle vanes and rotor blades under the variable operating duties of the gas turbine at the “shock” and “cyclic” loads of the working media temperature variations has been demonstrated.

Soudarev, A. V.; Souryaninov, A. A.; Podgorets, V. Ya.; Grishaev, V. V.; Tikhoplav, V. Yu; Molchanov, A. S.; Soudarev, B. V.

2004-05-01

424

Rock thermal conductivity at the cap rock and initial conditions in two-phase volcanic hydrothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

Numerical experiments are performed to investigate the rock thermal conductivity influence in the formation of the thermodynamic initial conditions of two-phase systems located in volcanic rocks. These systems exhibit pressure and temperature profiles characterized by a sudden change or discontinuity in their vertical gradients. Vapor dominated, two-phase fluids are found at the upper reservoir's levels. Liquid is the dominated phase within the layers below some critical point. Numerical results presented in this paper, suggest that the vertical location of this point of discontinuity be controlled by the thermal conductivity existing between the limit of the reservoir and the caprock. Too high values could originate liquid dominated reservoirs. Small values would be at the origin of vapor dominated reservoirs. A characteristic middle value could be responsible for the formation of a counter flow mechanism originating the initial conditions observed at some locations of the Los Azufres, Mexico, geothermal field.

Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga

1993-01-28

425

Plasticity of the thermal requirements of exotherms and adaptation to environmental conditions  

PubMed Central

In exothermal organisms, temperature is an important determinant of the rate of ecophysiological processes, which monotonically increase between the minimum (td min) and maximum (td max) temperatures typical for each species. In insects, td min and td max are correlated and there is a approximately 20°C interval (thermal window WT = td max ? td min) between them over which insects can develop. We assumed that other exotherms have similar thermal windows because the thermal kinetics of their physiological processes are similar. In this study, we determined the thermal requirements for germination in plants. Seeds of 125 species of Central European wild herbaceous and crop plants were germinated at nine constant temperatures between 5 and 37°C, and the time to germination of 50% of the seeds D and rate of germination R (=1/D) were determined for each temperature and the Lactin model used to determine td min, td max, and WT. The average width of the thermal windows for seeds was significantly wider (mean 24°C, 95% CI 22.7–24.2°C), varied more (between 14.5 and 37.5°C) and development occurred at lower temperatures than recorded for insects. The limiting temperatures for germination, td min and td max, were not coupled, so the width of the thermal window increased with both a decrease in td min and/or increase in td max. Variation in WT was not associated with taxonomic affiliation, adult longevity, or domestication of the different species, but tends to vary with seed size. Plants are poor at regulating their temperature and cannot move to a more suitable location and as a consequence have to cope with wider ranges in temperatures than insects and possibly do this by having wider thermal windows. Synthesis: The study indicated specificity of WT in different exotherm taxa and/or their development stages. PMID:25247067

Honek, Alois; Martinkova, Zdenka; Lukas, Jan; Dixon, Anthony F G

2014-01-01

426

Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - Technology and performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Central-Station (CS) Photovoltaic (PV) systems have the potential of economically displacing significant amounts of centrally generated electricity. However, the technical viability and, to some extent, the economic viability of central-station PV generation technology will depend upon the availability of large power conditioners that are efficient, safe, reliable, and economical. This paper is an overview of the technical and cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for central-station power plants. The paper also examines various already commercially available PCS hardware that may be suitable for use in today's central PV power stations.

Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bulawka, A.

1985-01-01

427

Thermal decomposition of glucose and diamond formation under diamond-stable high pressure–high temperature conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition of glucose C6H12O6 was investigated under diamond-stable high pressure and high temperature (HP–HT) conditions at 7.7 GPa and 1500°C in a platinum sealed capsule. Glucose was first decomposed to amorphous carbon and a fluid mainly composed of H2O. In coexistence with the latter, the graphitization of the former proceeded very rapidly within 1 h followed by the recrystallization

Shinobu Yamaoka; M. D Shaji Kumar; Hisao Kanda; Minoru Akaishi

2002-01-01

428

Solar thermal technologies - Potential benefits to U.S. utilities and industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy systems were investigated which complement nuclear and coal technologies as a means of reducing the U.S. dependence on imported petroleum. Solar Thermal Energy Systems (STES) represents an important category of solar energy technologies. STES can be utilized in a broad range of applications servicing a variety of economic sectors, and they can be deployed in both near-term and long-term markets. The net present value of the energy cost savings attributable to electric utility and IPH applications of STES were estimated for a variety of future energy cost scenarios and levels of R&D success. This analysis indicated that the expected net benefits of developing an STES option are significantly greater than the expected costs of completing the required R&D. In addition, transportable fuels and chemical feedstocks represent a substantial future potential market for STES. Due to the basic nature of this R&D activity, however, it is currently impossible to estimate the value of STES in these markets. Despite this fact, private investment in STES R&D is not anticipated due to the high level of uncertainty characterizing the expected payoffs. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10547

Terasawa, K. L.; Gates, W. R.

1983-08-01

429

Solar thermal technologies - Potential benefits to U.S. utilities and industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy systems were investigated which complement nuclear and coal technologies as a means of reducing the U.S. dependence on imported petroleum. Solar Thermal Energy Systems (STES) represents an important category of solar energy technologies. STES can be utilized in a broad range of applications servicing a variety of economic sectors, and they can be deployed in both near-term and long-term markets. The net present value of the energy cost savings attributable to electric utility and IPH applications of STES were estimated for a variety of future energy cost scenarios and levels of R&D success. This analysis indicated that the expected net benefits of developing an STES option are significantly greater than the expected costs of completing the required R&D. In addition, transportable fuels and chemical feedstocks represent a substantial future potential market for STES. Due to the basic nature of this R&D activity, however, it is currently impossible to estimate the value of STES in these markets. Despite this fact, private investment in STES R&D is not anticipated due to the high level of uncertainty characterizing the expected payoffs. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10547

Terasawa, K. L.; Gates, W. R.

1983-01-01

430

Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

1985-01-01

431

Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil.

Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B. [Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Beardsley, G.P. [Air Force Base Conversion Agency, Rantoul, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

432

Analytical Predictions of Thermal Stress in the Stardust PICA Heatshield Under Reentry Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We performed finite element analyses on a model of the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield from the Stardust sample return capsule (SRC) to predict the thermal stresses in the PICA material during reentry. The heatshield on the Stardust SRC was a 0.83 m sphere cone, fabricated from a single piece of 5.82 cm-thick PICA. The heatshield performed successfully during Earth reentry of the SRC in January 2006. Material response analyses of the full, axisymmetric PICA heatshield were run using the Two-Dimensional Implicit Ablation, Pyrolysis, and Thermal Response Program (TITAN). Peak surface temperatures were predicted to be 3385K, while the temperature at the PICA backface remained at the estimated initial cold-soak temperature of 278K. Surface recession and temperature distribution results from TITAN, at several points in the reentry trajectory, were mapped onto an axisymmetric finite element model of the heatshield. We used the finite element model to predict the thermal stresses in the PICA from differential thermal expansion. The predicted peak compressive stress in the PICA heatshield was 1.38 MPa. Although this level of stress exceeded the chosen design limit for compressive stresses in PICA tiles for the design of the Orion crew exploration vehicle heatshield, the Stardust heatshield exhibited no obvious mechanical failures from thermal stress. The analyses of the Stardust heatshield were used to assess and adjust the level of conservatism in the finite element analyses in support of the Orion heatshield design.

Squire, Thomas; Milos, Frank; Agrawal, Parul

2009-01-01

433

Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

2004-05-04

434

Reliable source of conditional states from single-mode pulsed thermal fields by multiple-photon subtraction  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the effect of multiple-photon subtraction on the generation of conditional states in the pulsed regime. Our experimental scheme relies on a beam splitter (BS) and a pair of linear photodetectors that are able to resolve up to tens of photons. We use a single-mode thermal field at the input port of the BS to test the reliability of our scheme, and we show good agreement with the theory by fully characterizing the conditional outgoing states in terms of photon-number statistics and non-Gaussianity.

Allevi, A. [Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia U.d.R. Como, I-22100 Como (Italy); Andreoni, A. [Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia U.d.R. Como, I-22100 Como (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita degli Studi dell'Insubria, I-22100 Como (Italy); Bondani, M. [Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia U.d.R. Como, I-22100 Como (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-22100 Como (Italy); Genoni, M. G.; Olivares, S. [Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia U.d.R. Milano Universita, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

2010-07-15

435

Using new technologies to improve the prevention and management of chronic conditions in populations.  

PubMed

Lifestyle factors are important in the development of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes, and chronic disease risk can be reduced by changes in lifestyle behaviors linked to these conditions. The use of mass media and community-wide strategies targeting these behaviors has been extensively evaluated since the 1970s. This review summarizes some examples of interventions and their use of media conducted within the old communications landscape of the 1970s and 1980s and the key lessons learned from their design, implementation, and evaluation. We then consider the potential and evidence base for using contemporary technology applications and platforms-within the new communications landscape-to improve the prevention and management of lifestyle-related chronic diseases in the future. We discuss the implications and adaptation of lessons derived from the ways in which new technologies are being used in commercial and political contexts and their relevance for public health. Finally, we consider some recent examples of applying new technologies to public health issues and consider some of the challenges in this rapidly developing field. PMID:25581147

Oldenburg, Brian; Taylor, C Barr; O'Neil, Adrienne; Cocker, Fiona; Cameron, Linda D

2015-03-18

436

Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a complex ecosystem comprised of several and mutually interacting components, both abiotic (organo-mineral associations) and biotic (microbial and pedofaunal populations and plants), where a single parameter depends on other factors and affects the same and other factors, so that a network of influences among organisms coexists with the reciprocal actions between organisms and their environment. Therefore, it is difficult to undoubtedly determine what is the cause and what the effect within relationships between factors and processes. Soil is commonly studied through the evaluation and measurement of single parameters (e.g. the content of soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass, enzyme activities, pH, etc.), events (e.g. soil erosion, compaction, etc.) and processes (e.g. soil respiration, carbon fluxes, nitrification/denitrification, etc.), often carried out in laboratory conditions in order to limit the number of factors acting within the ecosystem under study, but missing the information about the global soil environment that way. In the last decade, several scientists have proposed and suggested the need for a holistic approach to soil ecosystems in different contexts. Recently, we have applied a sensing system developed in the last decades and capable of analysing complex mixtures of gases and volatiles (odours or aromas) in atmospheres, namely called electronic nose (EN). Typically, ENs are devices consisting of an array of differentially and partially specific, despite selective, sensors upon diverse coatings of sensitive films, i.e. interacting with single analytes of the same chemical class, despite not highly specific for a single substance, only, but showing also lower extent of cross-selectivity towards compounds of other chemical classes. ENs can be used in the classifications of odours by processing the collected responses of all sensors in the array through pattern recognition analyses, in order to obtain a chemical fingerprint (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of substances, occurring in the atmospheres of differently treated soils, which were identified throu

De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

2013-04-01

437

Nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies for improving the safety and shelf-life of aquaculture raised seafood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The volume of seafood raised by aquaculture has increased in recent years. This seafood can occasionally become contaminated with foodborne pathogens resulting in foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls. In recent years a number of nonthermal and advanced thermal technologies have been devel...

438

Continuous in-line gasification\\/vitrification process for thermal waste treatment: process technology and current status of projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermoselect High Temperature Recycling process has been developed in order to make available a thermal waste treatment technology avoiding major problems as known from traditional techniques like landfills or ashes, filter dust and emission producing processes. It combines slow degassing with fixed bed oxygen blown gasification and mineral and metal residue melting in a closed loop system. Municipal, industrial

Bernd Calaminus; R. Stahlberg

1998-01-01

439

Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams and industrial flue gases by non-thermal plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NOx , SOx, etc.), volatile organic compounds (VOC), greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substance (ODS), etc., have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges become significant due to advantages such as lower cost, higher removal efficiency, smaller space volume, etc.

Kuniko Urashima; Jen-Shih Chang

2000-01-01

440

Partial and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort— Part I: Uniform environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects exposed to uniform environments were polled for their local and overall (whole-body) thermal sensation and comfort. Sensation and comfort for local body parts vary greatly. In cool environments, hands and feet feel colder than other body parts. The head, insensitive to cold but sensitive to warm, feels warmer than the rest of the body in warm environments. Overall sensation

Edward Arens; Hui Zhang; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01