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1

MultiUse solar thermal power generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes Ontario Engineering International, Inc. (OEI) approach to a solar thermal power generation system using a number of thermal power generation technologies for possible applications to Mars exploration, material processing and for power generation on Earth. The latest power stage and generator design presented here were the culmination of studies covering a wide variety of generator configurations and operating parameters. The many steps and rationale leading to OEI's design evolution and materials selection will not be repeated here except for a description of OEI's latest design, including a heat source support scheme and power stage configuration. OEI's performance predictions were based on its techniques for the thermal analyses of thermal power generators. The analytical results indicate that the OEI power system design, operating within the stipulated solar input and temperature limits and well within its mass goals, can yield power outputs and system efficiencies that substantially exceed existing solar power generation technologies. The calculated efficiency for a cascaded power generation system is estimated to be 42% for a DC output or 37% for an AC power output. With the addition of a thermal storage medium power can be provided on a continuous basis during any shadow period. Recent advances in thermal power generation technologies have now progressed to the point where a solar thermal power generation system can be fabricated. This system can provide terrestrial power generation capacity in remote areas and provide a means for load leveling in the commercial power grid. This system is also adaptable for material processing and/or life-support on Mars. .

Abbott, Russell

2001-02-01

2

Solar Thermal Power Generation, 1978; Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling, 1978; Solar Thermal Components, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on electrical power generation primarily through solar thermal processes, the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy, and components applied to solar the...

1978-01-01

3

Large scale solar thermal power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power generation options are reviewed and particular consideration is given to the central receiver system. It is noted that a 100 MW plant in a sunny region would employ about 15,000 heliostats, each with an area of 35 sq m, a central tower about 260 m high, and would cover an area of about 1.2 sq km. The plant

B. McNelis

1979-01-01

4

Thermal energy storage for power generation  

SciTech Connect

Studies strongly indicate that the United States will face widespread electrical power constraints in the 1990s, with most regions of the country experiencing capacity shortages by the year 2000. In many cases, the demand for increased power will occur during intermediate and peak demand periods. Much of this demand is expected to be met by oil- and natural gas-fired Brayton cycle turbines and combined-cycle plants. While natural gas is currently plentiful and reasonably priced, the availability of an economical long-term coal-fired option for peak and intermediate load power generation will give electric power utilities an option in case either the availability or cost of natural gas should deteriorate. 54 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Sathyanarayana, K.

1989-10-01

5

Device for thermal transfer and power generation  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-04-19

6

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used to generate steam for a Rankine steam power cycle. This allowed the coal-fired salt heater to be approximately one-third the size of a coal-fired boiler in a conventional cycling plant. The use of nitrate salt TES also reduced the levelized cost of power by between 5% and 24% depends on the operating schedule. The second case evaluate the use of thermal energy storage with an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this concept, the nitrate salt was heated by a combination of the gas turbine exhaust and the hot fuel gas. The IGCC plant also contained a low-temperature storage unit that uses a mixture of oil and rock as the thermal storage medium. Thermal energy stored in the low-temperature TES was used to preheat the feedwater after it leaves the condenser and to produce process steam for other applications in the IGCC plant. This concept study also predicted a 5% to 20% reduction in levelized cost of power compared to other coal-fired alternatives. If significant escalation rates in the price of fuel were assumed, the concept could be competitive with natural-gas-fired intermediate-load power generation. A sensitivity analysis of using a direct-contact heat exchanger instead of the conventional finned-tube design showed a significant reduction in the installed capital cost. 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.

1990-11-01

7

Thermal and power generating performances of thermoelectric energy recovery modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to demonstrate the performance of a thermoelectric energy recovery module (TERM). The TERM aims to convert the waste heat from power amplifier (PA) transistors into the useful power. The TERM contains a thermoelectric generator (TEG), a heat spreader, and a heat sink. A first order prototype of the TERM is generated and used as a test vehicle.

Kyoung Joon Kim

2010-01-01

8

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used

M. K. Drost; S. Somasundaram; D. R. Brown; Z. I. Antoniak

1990-01-01

9

Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power

A. V. Zhukov; A. N. Komarov; A. N. Safronov; I. V. Barsukov

2009-01-01

10

Stirling engines for low-temperature solar-thermal-electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation discusses the design and development of a distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation system that combines solar-thermal technology with a moderate-temperature Stirling engine to generate electricity. The conceived system incorporates low-cost materials and utilizes simple manufacturing processes. This technology is expected to achieve manufacturing cost of less than $1\\/W. Since solar-thermal technology is mature, the analysis, design, and experimental assessment

Artin der Minassians

2007-01-01

11

MHD POWER GENERATION BY NON-THERMAL IONIZATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO NUCLEAR ENERGY CONVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most severe limitations of MHD power generation is the high ; temperatures required for thermal ionization. Two alternative, nonthermal ; ionization methods are considered: electron-bearn injection and fission-product ; radiation. Electron-beam injection appears to be the most promising method. The ; thermodynamic cycle of a power plant incorporating a MHD generator and a reactor ; is considered.

E. J. Sternglass; T. C. Tsu; G. L. Griffith; J. H. Wright

1963-01-01

12

Economic evaluation of solar thermal hybrid H 2O turbine power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of two proposed solar thermal hybrid power generation systems (STHSs) have been evaluated. Each system consists of direct-steam-generation solar collectors, a steam accumulator and a gas turbine power generation system which uses steam as its working fluid. One (STHS-A) of the proposed systems emits CO2 generated by burning fuel, whereas the other (STHS-B) captures the CO2. Assuming that

Takanobu Kosugi; Pyong Sik Pak

2003-01-01

13

Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and\\u000a active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for\\u000a the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are\\u000a discussed. The order of switching the power

A. V. Zhukov; A. N. Komarov; A. N. Safronov; I. V. Barsukov

2009-01-01

14

Technical and economical evaluation of solar thermal power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a feasibilty on a solar power system based on the Stirling dish (SD) technology, reviews and compares the available Stirling engines in the perspective of a solar Stirling system.The system is evaluated, as a parameter to alleviate the energy system of the Cretan island while taking care of the CO2 emissions. In the results a sensitivity analysis

Theocharis Tsoutsos; Vasilis Gekas; Katerina Marketaki

2003-01-01

15

Thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal power plant is described that has a thermal prime mover and a supercharged gas generator for generating producer gas from coal which, following separation of fly ash and sulfur, serves as fuel for the power plant. A charging group for the gas generator consists of coupled air compressor and gas turbine units, the compressor unit providing compressed air

Pfenninger

1978-01-01

16

Thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results obtained from combined thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station are summarized. The obtained data are compared with the results of thermal and chemical tests carried out on steam generators at other nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors, and recommendations on selecting the steam-generator blowdown schedule are given.

Davidenko, N. N.; Trunov, N. B.; Saakov, E. S.; Berezanin, A. A.; Bogomolov, I. N.; Derii, V. P.; Nemytov, D. S.; Usanov, D. A.; Shestakov, N. B.; Shchelik, S. V.

2007-12-01

17

Industry sector analysis, Ecuador: Thermal power generating equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The article is derived from a report titled: The Thermal Power Generation Equipment Market in Ecuador, dated April 1993, prepared by P. Zaldumbide, A. Moreno, and N. Ordonez, American Embassy - Quito. The article consists of 10 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

Not Available

1993-04-01

18

Research and development on a distributed type solar thermal power generation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The R&D on a solar thermal power generation system of the plane parabolic type within the framework of the Japanese Sunshine Project is described. This system realizes high concentration of solar energy with a special concentrator module which combines 100 flat plate mirror heliostats of the central tower system with 5 parabolic troughs of the distributed system. A molten salt

I. Sumida; M. Tsukamoto; T. Sakamoto; T. Taki; S. Sato

1983-01-01

19

Towards Enhancement of the Economy of a Thermal Power Generating System through Prediction of Plant Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant ‘Heat Rate’ (HR) is a measure of overall efficiency of a thermal power generating system. It depends on a large number of factors, some of which are non-measurable, while data relating to others are seldom available and recorded. However, coal quality (expressed in terms of ‘effective heat value’ (EHV) as kcal\\/kg) transpires to be one of the important

Indranil Mukhopadhyay; Sudipta Chatterjee; Aditya Chatterjee

2007-01-01

20

Solar thermal power towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C

FRANK KREITH; RICHARD T. MEYER

1984-01-01

21

A hybrid power generation system utilizing solar thermal energy with CO 2 recovery based on oxygen combustion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CO2-recovering power generation system utilizing solar thermal energy was proposed. In the system, relatively low temperature saturated steam around 200 °C is produced by using solar thermal energy and is utilized as the working fluid of a gas turbine in which generated CO2 is recovered based on the method of oxygen combustion. Solar thermal utilization efficiency becomes considerably high

Pyong Sik Pak; Takeshi Hatikawa; Yutaka Suzuki

1995-01-01

22

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

23

Thermal behavior of a high power generator exciter bridge measured by optical fiber sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents temperature measurements taken at a 3-phase thyristor rectifier bridge in a synchronous generator using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors applied directly on the thyristors upper surface. The results show the thermal behavior of the thyristors during the generator's start-up-phase and the period of time after the synchronization, with regulating operations as reaction to different load conditions. The temperature analysis is supported by current, voltage and power values of the hydroelectric power plant monitoring system. The trend of curves describes the typical behavior of thyristors which is proven with a four term transient thermal model. The different heat effect a thyristor experiences inside the switching-cabinet are also discussed.

Probst, Werner K.; Bortolotti, Fernando; de Morais Sousa, Kleiton; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

2013-05-01

24

Horizontal Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulics at Various Steady-State Power Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional computer simulation and analyses of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics of the WWER 1000 nuclear power plant have been performed for 50% and 75% partial loads, 100% nominal load and 110% over-load. Presented results show water and steam mass flow rate vectors, steam void fraction spatial distribution, recirculation zones, swell level position, water mass inventory on the shell side,

Vladimir D. Stevanovic; Zoran V. Stosic; Michael Kiera; Uwe Stoll

2002-01-01

25

Special Electro-Hydraulic Valve for Hydro-Viscous Drive Used in Thermal Power Generation Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applied on the pulverized coal blowers or water-feeding pumps which are driven by huge electrical motors in one thermal power generation plant, acting as a kind of the soft start-up device, hydro-viscous drive (HVD) can help to save a lot of energy. The principle and structure of HVD is introduced in the paper. Through theoretical analysis of the HVD

Ning Chen

2009-01-01

26

Power generation costs and ultimate thermal hydraulic power limits in hypothetical advanced designs with natural circulation  

SciTech Connect

Maximum power limits for hypothetical designs of natural circulation plants can be described analytically. The thermal hydraulic design parameters are those which limit the flow, being the elevations, flow areas, and loss coefficients. WE have found some simple ``design`` equations for natural circulation flow to power ratio, and for the stability limit. The analysis of historical and available data for maximum capacity factor estimation shows 80% to be reasonable and achievable. The least cost is obtained by optimizing both hypothetical plant performance for a given output,a nd the plant layout and design. There is also scope to increase output and reduce cost by considering design variations of primary and secondary pressure, and by optimizing component elevations and loss coefficients. The design limits for each are set by stability and maximum flow considerations, which deserve close and careful evaluation.

Duffey, R.B.; Rohatgi, U.S.

1996-12-31

27

Performance of a direct steam generation solar thermal power plant for electricity production as a function of the solar multiple  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the influence of the solar multiple on the annual performance of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation (DSG). The reference system selected is a 50MWe DSG power plant, with thermal storage and auxiliary natural gas-fired boiler. It is considered that both systems are necessary for an optimum coupling to the electricity grid. Although

M. J. Montes; A. Abánades; J. M. Martínez-Val

2009-01-01

28

Performance and economics of a solar thermal power generation plant in Jubail, Saudi Arabia: Parabolic trough collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores the technical and economic feasibility of a thermal solar power generation plant using parabolic trough collectors (Euro Trough) in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia. Total annual available solar radiation is calculated at 1,970 kWhr. The size of the proposed solar thermal power plant is 50 MW. The designed solar field is composed of 100 loops with a

Adel M. Al-Nasser

2010-01-01

29

Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas turbine and a three-pressure heat recovery steam generator with reheat, for base load and load following operations. The oil-fired and gas-fired plants showed excellent gross thermal efficiency, 49.6 and 59.4 percent, respectively. Regarding the anthracite plant, based on a traditional subcritical pressure steam cycle, the unit gross efficiency was calculated at 42.3 percent. These efficiency values represent an increase of over 2 percent compared to the comparable plant class, operating today. This 2 percent efficiency gained translates into approximately 35,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas reduction, and a saving of 16,000 tonnes of coal, per year (based on 300MWe coal-fired plant). The positive results from the three simulations have demonstrated that by integrating planning and design optimization, significant gain of efficiency in thermal power plants is possible. This establishes the need for improved planning processes. It starts with a pre-planning process, before project tendering, to identify applicable operational issues and design features to enhance efficiency and reduce emissions. It should also include a pre-contract period to provide an opportunity for all OEM finalists to consolidate and fine-tune their designs for compatibility with those of others to achieve optimal performance. The inclusion of a period for final consolidation and integrated design enables the original goals of greater overall plant efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction to be achieved beyond those available from current planning and contracting procedures.

Pham, John Dinh Chuong

30

The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor\\/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors

Hollaway

1991-01-01

31

Research and development on a distributed type solar thermal power generation plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R&D on a solar thermal power generation system of the plane parabolic type within the framework of the Japanese Sunshine Project is described. This system realizes high concentration of solar energy with a special concentrator module which combines 100 flat plate mirror heliostats of the central tower system with 5 parabolic troughs of the distributed system. A molten salt (KCl-LiCl) type thermal storage unit is used to superheat saturated steam supplied by accumulators to 300-350 C for 90 minutes after 5 hours of heat storage. Specifications and hydrodynamic characteristics for a 1000 kWe pilot plant in Nio, Kagawa, Japan, constructed in 1980 are given.

Sumida, I.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Taki, T.; Sato, S.

1983-12-01

32

Solar thermal power  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal power is produced by three types of concentrating systems, which utilize parabolic troughs, dishes, and heliostats as the solar concentrators. These systems are at various levels of development and commercialization in the United States and in Europe. The U.S. Industry is currently developing these systems for export at the end of this century and at the beginning of the next one for remote power, village electrification, and grid-connected power. U.S. utilities are not forecasting to need power generation capacity until the middle of the first decade of the 21{sup st} century. At that time, solar thermal electric power systems should be cost competitive with conventional power generation in some unique U.S. markets. In this paper, the authors describe the current status of the development of trough electric, dish/engine, and power tower solar generation systems. 46 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Mancini, T.R.; Kolb, G.J.; Prairie, M.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

33

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05

34

A CO 2-capturing hybrid power-generation system with highly efficient use of solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics have been investigated for the proposed system. Saturated steam is produced at a relatively low temperature and is used as the working fluid for a methane-fired gas-turbine system. The solar thermal utilization efficiency is considerably higher than that for conventional solar thermal power plants in which superheated steam near 670 K is used. The proposed hybrid system recovers generated

Pyong Sik Pak; Yutaka Suzuki; Takanobu Kosugi

1997-01-01

35

Solar thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The\\u000a focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale.\\u000a In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of

L. Schnatbaum

2009-01-01

36

Solar thermal power towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1984-07-01

37

Solar powered gas generation. [combined solar thermal power plant for electrolysis of seawater and solar still  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to the utilization of solar energy by means of a reflector, a boiler and a turbogenerator whereby solar heat is concentrated and electric power is produced, utilization of the exhaust heat from the power cycle in the distillation of sea water, and utilization of the electric power in a plurality of electrolytic cells whereby hydrogen and oxygen

1978-01-01

38

Stirling engines for low-temperature solar-thermal-electric power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation discusses the design and development of a distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation system that combines solar-thermal technology with a moderate-temperature Stirling engine to generate electricity. The conceived system incorporates low-cost materials and utilizes simple manufacturing processes. This technology is expected to achieve manufacturing cost of less than $1/W. Since solar-thermal technology is mature, the analysis, design, and experimental assessment of moderate-temperature Stirling engines is the main focus of this thesis. The design, fabrication, and test of a single-phase free-piston Stirling engine prototype is discussed. This low-power prototype is designed and fabricated as a test rig to provide a clear understanding of the Stirling cycle operation, to identify the key components and the major causes of irreversibility, and to verify corresponding theoretical models. As a component, the design of a very low-loss resonant displacer piston subsystem is discussed. The displacer piston is part of a magnetic circuit that provides both a required stiffness and actuation forces. The stillness is provided by a magnetic spring, which incorporates an array of permanent magnets and has a very linear stiffness characteristic that facilitates the frequency tuning. In this prototype, the power piston is not mechanically linked to the displacer piston and forms a mass-spring resonating subsystem with the engine chamber gas spring and has resonant frequency matched to that of the displacer. The fabricated engine prototype is successfully tested and the experimental results are presented and discussed. Extensive experimentation on individual component subsystems confirms the theoretical models and design considerations, providing a sound basis for higher power Stirling engine designs for residential or commercial deployments. Multi-phase Stirling engine systems are also considered and analyzed. The modal analysis of these machines proves their self-starting potential. The start-up temperature, i.e., the heater temperature at which the system starts its operation, is derived based on the same modal analysis. Following the mathematical modeling, the design, fabrication, and test of a symmetric three-phase free-piston Stirling engine system are discussed. The system is designed to operate with moderate-temperature heat input that is consistent with solar-thermal collectors. Diaphragm pistons and nylon flexures are considered for this prototype to eliminate surface friction and provide appropriate seals. The experimental results are presented and compared with design calculations. Experimental assessments confirm the models for flow friction and gas spring hysteresis dissipation. It is revealed that gas spring hysteresis loss is an important dissipation phenomenon in low-power low-pressure Stirling engines, and should be carefully addressed during the design as it may hinder the engine operation. Further analysis shows that the gas hysteresis dissipation can be reduced drastically by increasing the number of phases in a system with a little compromise on the operating frequency and, hence, the output power. It is further shown that for an even number of phases, half of the pistons could be eliminated by utilizing a reverser. By introducing a reverser to the fabricated system, the system proves its self-starting capability in engine mode and validates the derived expressions for computing the start-up temperature.

der Minassians, Artin

39

Potential for ocean thermal energy conversion electric power generation in the Southeast region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the operating characteristics and investment costs of an OTEC electric power plant in the Southeast U.S. is presented. Conceptual design of an OTEC plant is discussed with the capital cost estimate, and conventional coal fuel plant costs. A computer analysis is made of the life cycle costs of electric power generation with conventional generating plants, and an OTEC

P. L. Sutherland; F. G. Arey Jr.; D. H. Guild

1979-01-01

40

Generation displacement, power losses and emissions reduction due to solar thermal water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A big portion of the electricity generated is wasted in the form of losses. Losses occur at all levels of the power system- generation, transmission, and distribution. However, at least 75% of the total system losses occur in the distribution system. We present a study of real power losses reduction at the distribution level due to the use of solar

J. Jimenez-Gonzalez; A. A. Irizarry-Rivera

2005-01-01

41

Solar Thermal Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

McDaniels, David K.

42

Solar Thermal Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

McDaniels, David K.

43

Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy generation of electricity is advocated as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions associated with the generation from fossil fuels. Whilst it is true that renewable sources do not generate significant carbon dioxide whilst producing electricity, as with fossil-fuelled plants they do embody significant emissions in their materials of construction. The “full-chain” environmental impacts of wind, hydro, solar-thermal

Brian Norton; Phillip C Eames; Steve NG Lo

1998-01-01

44

Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 3000C ���¢�������� 450 0C ) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

D. Y. Goswami

2012-09-04

45

Exergy analysis and investigation for various feed water heaters of direct steam generation solar–thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy and exergy analysis has been carried out for the different components of a proposed conceptual direct steam generation (DSG) solar–thermal power plant (STPP). It has been found that the maximum energy loss is in the condenser followed by solar collector field. The maximum exergy loss is in the solar collector field while in other plant components it is

M. K. Gupta; S. C. Kaushik

2010-01-01

46

Analysis of Thermal Economy of Combined Power Installations Employing Open-Cycle MHD Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model was used to analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of combined power plants incorporating MHD generators. The mathematical model devised by the authors consists of three parts. The first part is designed to describe processes determinin...

A. M. Roshchin L. S. Popyrin N. N. Pshenichnov

1972-01-01

47

Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very

John Dinh Chuong Pham

2005-01-01

48

Availability analysis of heat recovery steam generators used in thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined-cycle gas and steam turbine power plant presents three main pieces of equipment: gas turbines, steam turbines and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In case of HRSG failure the steam cycle is shut down, reducing the power plant output. Considering that the technology for design, construction and operation of high capacity HRSGs is quite recent its availability should be

F. J. G. Carazas; C. H. Salazar; G. F. M. Souza

2011-01-01

49

Power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive swing of the feedwater in power supply apparatus on the occurrence of a transient is suppressed by injecting an anticipatory compensating signal into the control for the feedwater. Typical overshoot occurs on removal of a large part of the load, the steam flow is reduced so that the conventional control system reduces the flow of feedwater. At the same

Cook

1984-01-01

50

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ń 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at EarthĄs surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

51

Next generation cooled long range thermal sights with minimum size, weight, and power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Situational awareness and precise targeting at day, night and severe weather conditions are key elements for mission success in asymmetric warfare. To support these capabilities for the dismounted soldier, AIM has developed a family of stand-alone thermal weapon sights based on high performance cooled IR-modules which are used e.g. in the infantryman of the future program of the German army (IdZ). The design driver for these sights is a long ID range <1500m for the NATO standard target to cover the operational range of a platoon with the engagement range of .50 cal rifles, 40mm AGLs or for reconnaissance tasks. The most recent sight WBZG has just entered into serial production for the IdZ enhanced system of the German army with additional capabilities like a wireless data link to the soldier backbone computer. Minimum size, weight and power (SWaP) are most critical requirements for the dismounted soldiers' equipment and sometimes push a decision towards uncooled equipment with marginal performance referring to the outstanding challenges in current asymmetric warfare, e.g. the capability to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants in adequate ranges. To provide the uncompromised e/o performance with SWaP parameters close to uncooled, AIM has developed a new thermal weapon sight based on high operating temperature (HOT) MCT MWIR FPAs together with a new low power single piston stirling cooler. In basic operation the sight is used as a clip-on in front of the rifle scope. An additional eyepiece for stand-alone targeting with e.g. AGLs or a biocular version for relaxed surveillance will be available. The paper will present details of the technologies applied for such long range cooled sights with size, weight and power close to uncooled.

Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Ziegler, J.

2013-06-01

52

Concentrating solar thermal power.  

PubMed

In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept. PMID:23816910

Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

2013-07-01

53

Electrical Power Generating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power...

F. J. Nola

1981-01-01

54

Piezoelectric, solar and thermal energy harvesting for hybrid low-power generator systems with thin-film batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The harvesting of ambient energy to power small electronic components has received tremendous attention over the last decade. The research goal in this field is to enable self-powered electronic components for use particularly in wireless sensing and measurement applications. Thermal energy due to temperature gradients, solar energy and ambient vibrations constitute some of the major sources of energy that can be harvested. Researchers have presented several papers focusing on each of these topics separately. This paper aims to develop a hybrid power generator and storage system using these three sources of energy in order to improve both structural multifunctionality and system-level robustness in energy harvesting. A multilayer structure with flexible solar, piezoceramic, thin-film battery and metallic substructure layers is developed (with the overhang dimensions of 93 mm × 25 mm × 1.5 mm in cantilevered configuration). Thermal energy is also used for charging the thin-film battery layers using a 30.5 mm × 33 mm × 4.1 mm generator. Performance results are presented for charging and discharging of the thin-film battery layers using each one of the harvesting methods. It is shown based on the extrapolation of a set of measurements that 1 mA h of a thin-film battery can be charged in 20 min using solar energy (for a solar irradiance level of 223 W m-2), in 40 min using thermal energy (for a temperature difference of 31 °C) and in 8 h using vibrational energy (for a harmonic base acceleration input of 0.5g at 56.4 Hz).

Gambier, P.; Anton, S. R.; Kong, N.; Erturk, A.; Inman, D. J.

2012-01-01

55

Examination of a Thermally Viable Structure for an Unconventional Uni-Leg Mg2Si Thermoelectric Power Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated an unconventional uni-leg structure thermoelectric generator (TEG) element using quad thermoelectric (TE) chips of Sb-doped n-Mg2Si, which were prepared by a plasma-activated sintering process. The power curve characteristics, the effect of aging up to 500 h, and the thermal gradients at several points on the module were investigated. The observed maximum output power with the heat source at 975 K and the heat sink at 345 K was 341 mW, from which the ? T for the TE chip was calculated to be about 333 K. In aging testing in air ambient, a remarkable feature of the results was that there was no notable change from the initial resistance of the TEG module for as long as 500 h. The thermal distribution for the fabricated uni-leg TEG element was analyzed by finite-element modeling using ANSYS software. To tune the calculation parameters of ANSYS, such as the thermal conductance properties of the corresponding coupled materials in the module, precise measurements of the temperature at various probe points on the module were made. Then, meticulous verification between the measured temperature values and the results calculated by ANSYS was carried out to optimize the parameters.

Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Iida, Tsutomu; Taguchi, Yutaka; Kurosaki, Shota; Hayatsu, Yusuke; Nishio, Keishi; Kogo, Yasuo; Takanashi, Yoshifumi

2012-06-01

56

The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction  

SciTech Connect

If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors (for operability, safety, and cost) and Integral Fast Reactors (for waste treatment and actinide burning) in a symbiotic large scale system. The CHS addresses the safety and cost issues through the use of advanced reactor designs, the waste management issue through the use of actinide burning, and the proliferation resistance issue through the use of an integral fuel cycle with co-located components. There are nine major components in the Combined Hybrid System linked by nineteen nuclear material mass flow streams. A computer code, CHASM, is used to analyze the mass flow rates CHS, and the reactor support ratio (the ratio of thermal/fast reactors), IFR of the system. The primary advantages of the CHS are its essentially actinide-free high-level radioactive waste, plus improved reactor safety, uranium utilization, and widening of the option base. The primary disadvantages of the CHS are the large capacity of IFRs required (approximately one MW{sub e} IFR capacity for every three MW{sub e} Thermal Reactor) and the novel radioactive waste streams produced by the CHS. The capability of the IFR to burn pure transuranic fuel, a primary assumption of this study, has yet to be proven. The Combined Hybrid System represents an attractive option for future nuclear power development; that disposal of the essentially actinide-free radioactive waste produced by the CHS provides an excellent alternative to the disposal of intact actinide-bearing Light Water Reactor spent fuel (reducing the toxicity based lifetime of the waste from roughly 360,000 years to about 510 years).

Hollaway, W.R.

1991-08-01

57

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

Nola, F. J.

1981-03-01

58

Daily Integrated Generation Scheduling for Thermal, Pumped-Storage Hydro and Cascaded Hydro Units and Purchasing Power Considering Network Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an innovative power generation scheduling method using quadratic programming (QP). The advantage of using our method is that it simultaneously solves unit commitment and economic load dispatch. We relax the binary variables of the unit state into continuous variables to apply QP to this problem. We also add the penalty term to converge the value of those variables to 0 or 1 to the objective function; the sum of fuel costs and start-up costs. This penalty term depends on per-unit fuel cost. The possibility of its variable converging to zero increases as the cost increases. This method was applied to a test system of daily generation scheduling that consisted of 29 thermal units, two pumped-storage units, four cascaded-hydro units, and one transmission. The schedule satisfied all constraints, i.e., load-power balance, operation reserve, power flow, minimum up/down-times, and fuel consumption. This result shows that the developed method is effective.

Sawa, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yasuo; Tsurugai, Mitsuo; Onishi, Tsukasa

59

Rankine engine solar power generation. II - The power generation module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics and performance of a solar flat plate collector powered low temperature power generation module (PGM) funded by NASA are described. The PGM uses a halogen refrigerant as a working fluid, which is pumped from a reservoir to a chamber where it is heated by exchangers filled with an ethylene-glycol fluid which has gained thermal energy from a collector

W. D. Batton; R. E. Barber

1981-01-01

60

Quasi-steady state temperature distribution and numerical simulation on low Ste number latent heat storage thermal unit of solar thermal power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar thermal power generation systems, including direct steam generation, require isothermal energy storage systems for a saturation temperature range between 190° C and 310° C. One option to fulfill this requirement is the application of phase-change materials to absorb or release energy. In this paper, the basic concept of latent heat storage system is described, and a model of phase-change heat transfer of latent heat storage thermal unit for thermal energy storage system is built. Base on the practical thermo-physical properties of phase-change materials, Quasi-Steady State temperature distribution of phase-change heat transfer is analyzed under low Ste number. Numerical simulation (finite element method) taking account into the sensible heat is adopted and the results prove that the Quasi-Steady State temperature distribution obtained from theoretical is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulation. For a latent heat storage system with low Ste number characteristic, Quasi-Steady State solution can be used as the theoretical calculation foundation for engineering design.

Huang, J.; Zhu, D. S.

2010-03-01

61

Thermal energy storage for solar power generation - State of the art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature storage for applications in solar-thermal electric systems is considered. Noting that thermal storage is in either the form of latent, sensible or chemically stored heat, sensible heat storage is stressed as the most developed of the thermal storage technologies, spanning direct heating of a storage medium from 120-1250 C. Current methods involve solids, packed beds, fluidized beds, liquids, hot water, organic liquids, and inorganic liquids and molten salts. Latent heat storage comprises phase-change materials that move from solid to liquid with addition of heat and liquid to solid with the removal of heat. Metals or inorganic salts are candidates, and the energy balances are outlined. Finally, chemical heat storage is examined, showing possible high energy densities through catalytic, thermal dissociation reactions.

Shukla, K. N.

1981-12-01

62

Geothermal Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

NONE

2007-11-15

63

Solar thermal power plant  

SciTech Connect

A solar thermal power plant is disclosed containing a heliostat field and a collector system mounted upon a tower or column, the radiation receivers of the collector system being structured to be elongate, preferably circular ring sector-shaped and extending over part of the circumference of the crown or top of the tower. The removal of steam is accomplished directly or indirectly from a hot water storage which is alternately or overlappingly charged and discharged. According to one embodiment there are provided three heat receivers, two of which serve for charging and discharging the hot water storage, whereas in the third receiver there is directly generated steam for the compensation of time periods devoid of sun.

Oplatka, G.

1983-08-30

64

Aerodynamic and Thermal Operating Characteristics of a 45-Deg-Slant, Segmented Wall, Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Channel under No-Power Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test program was conducted to determine the aerodynamic and thermal operating characteristics of a 45-deg-slant, segmented wall, magnetohydrodynamic generator channel under no-power conditions. The generator channel was 30.3 in. long with an inside diam...

M. A. Nelius R. J. LeBoeuf J. D. McNeese

1968-01-01

65

MHD Power Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)|

Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

1975-01-01

66

Impacts of Wind Power on Thermal Generation Unit Commitment and Dispatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new simulation method that can fully assess the impacts of large-scale wind power on system operations from cost, reliability, and environmental perspectives. The method uses a time series of observed and predicted 15-min average wind speeds at foreseen onshore- and offshore-wind farm locations. A Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch (UC-ED) tool is adapted to allow for

Bart C. Ummels; Madeleine Gibescu; Engbert Pelgrum; Wil L. Kling; Arno J. Brand

2007-01-01

67

Jim Bridger Thermal-Electric Generation Project, Wyoming. To be Constructed by: Pacific Power and Light Company, Idaho Power Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production portion of the Jim Bridger Thermal-Electric Complex, including a 1500 MW coal-fired steam electric plant, a strip mine nearby, a 42-mile long water delivery system, and rail and highway access, is situated in central Sweetwater County in so...

1972-01-01

68

Jim Bridger Thermal-Electric Generation Project, Wyoming. Proposed by the Pacific Power and Light Company and Idaho Power Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Jim Bridger Thermal- Electric Complex including a 1500 MW coal-fired steam electric plant, a strip mine nearby, a 42-mile long water delivery system, and rail and highway access, is situated in central Sweetwater County in southwest Wyoming. The distr...

1971-01-01

69

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J.

1983-06-01

70

Electromagnetic Vibration Power Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows an alternative for supplying wireless sensors with energy: electrical power is generated from an ambient mechanical vibration by use of a vibration power generator. As the generator is excited by ambient mechanical vibration, its construction produces a relative movement of a magnetic circuit. This movement induces a current into an electrical coil due to Faraday's law. For

Z. Hadas; M. Kluge; V. Singule; C. Ondrusek

2007-01-01

71

Economic analysis of power generation from parabolic trough solar thermal plants for the Mediterranean region—A case study for the island of Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of a parabolic trough solar thermal technology for power generation in the Mediterranean region is economically feasible. The case study takes into account the available solar potential for Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources policy of the Cyprus

Andreas Poullikkas

2009-01-01

72

Ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various ocean thermal energy conversion power plants are examined which are practical with current technology, and are capable of exploiting the temperature difference between the warm sun-heated surface of the tropical ocean and cooler lower depths. The power plant types include: a submerged catamaran configuration, a modular submerged automatic unmanned plant, an anchored spar-buoy plant, a foam-lift open-cycle plant, and

G. L. Dugger; H. L. Olsen; W. B. Shippen; E. J. Francis; W. H. Avery

1975-01-01

73

Calculation of heating power generated from ferromagnetic thermal seed (PdCo-PdNi-CuNi) alloys used as interstitial hyperthermia implants.  

PubMed

High quality heating device made of ferromagnetic alloy (thermal seed) was developed for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. The device generates sufficient heat at room temperature and stops heating at the Curie temperature T (c). The power dissipated from each seed was calculated from the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop. A new mathematical formula for the calculation of heating power was derived and showed good agreement with those calculated from hysteresis loop and calorimetric method. PMID:17334704

El-Sayed, Adly H; Aly, A A; EI-Sayed, N I; Mekawy, M M; EI-Gendy, A A

2007-03-01

74

Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection of a power-law fluid past a stretching surface in the presence of thermal radiation and internal heat generation\\/absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convective flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting, power-law fluid past a stretching surface in the presence of heat generation\\/absorption and thermal radiation has been analyzed. After transforming the governing equations with suitable dimensionless variables, numerical solutions are generated by an implicit finite-difference technique for the non-similar, coupled flow. The solution is found to

Chien-Hsin Chen

2009-01-01

75

JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a subs...

D. Singh K. E. Martin N. Patel P. N. Hutton

2008-01-01

76

JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential

Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

2008-01-01

77

Environmental benefits of DGs and comparing their generation costs with thermal power plants considering production pollution on human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of DG presence in distribution network is the immediate result of technology development and power crisis in the world. Nowadays, using renewable energy sources and high efficiency electrical systems (Combined Heat and Power Generation) is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, exploitation systems and old managing in industry have lead to a misunderstanding of DG benefits. This,

M. Massaeli; S. A. M. Javadian; N. Khalesi

2011-01-01

78

Electrical power generating system  

SciTech Connect

An electrical power generating system includes a prime mover having a throttle control for converting a source of input energy into a mechanical output. The system includes an electrical generator having a plurality of output windings and a field winding for exciting the output windings. The generator is mechanically coupled to the mechanical output of the prime mover. Means are provided for sensing a plurality of parameters related to the performance of the system and further means are provided for converting each of the sensed parameters into a digital signal indicative of the magnitude of the sensed parameter. Additional means are provided responsive to the digital signals for developing a plurality of electrical output signals. The electrical output signals are utilized to control either or both the generator and the prime mover to thereby control the output of the power generating system. The system is further provided with circuits for sensing the phase position of the generator output voltage and current and the voltage in a main electrical power conductor. Accordingly, when the generator output is added to the power in the main power conductors, it is done so in phase. Some of the parameters sensed are generator output voltage , current and frequency, generator field winding current and engine throttle position. A digital logic circuit controls the excitation of the generator field winding to thereby control the generator output voltage and current.

Dimitrios, J.T.; Mezera, J.R.; Phillips, G.R.

1982-03-30

79

Magnetohydrodynamic power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical research has been conducted to investigate phenomena expected to be important in the development of MHD power generation. The areas investigated were: Boundary layers and generator loss mechanisms, plasma nonuniformities and instabilities, investigation of rod electrodes, seed-slag interaction and the reactivity of coal, disk generators, and temperature diagnostic techniques for combustion MHD plasmas. Brief summaries of the

C. H. Kruger; R. H. Eustis; M. Mitchner; S. A. Self; T. Nakamura

1985-01-01

80

Microgrids [distributed power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally friendly renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics and clean, efficient, fossil-fuels technologies such as micro-turbines and fuel cells are among new generating systems driving the demand for distributed generation of electricity. If combined heat and power at residential industrial plants or commercial buildings can be achieved the efficiencies can be higher than conventional central generation plants. The smallness of

B. Lasseter

2001-01-01

81

Wind power generating system  

SciTech Connect

Normally feathered propeller blades of a wind power generating system unfeather in response to the actuation of a power cylinder that responds to actuating signals. Once operational, the propellers generate power over a large range of wind velocities. A maximum power generation design point signals a feather response of the propellers so that once the design point is reached no increase in power results, but the system still generates power. At wind speeds below this maximum point, propeller speed and power output optimize to preset values. The propellers drive a positive displacement pump that in turn drives a positive displacement motor of the swash plate type. The displacement of the motor varies depending on the load on the system, with increasing displacement resulting in increasing propeller speeds, and the converse. In the event of dangerous but not clandestine problems developing in the system, a control circuit dumps hydraulic pressure from the unfeathering cylinder resulting in a predetermined, lower operating pressure produced by the pump. In the event that a problem of potentially cladestine consequence arises, the propeller unfeathering cylinder immediately unloads. Upon startup, a bypass around the motor is blocked, applying a pressure across the motor. The motor drives the generator until the generator reaches a predetermined speed whereupon the generator is placed in circuit with a utility grid and permitted to motor up to synchronous speed.

Schachle, Ch.; Schachle, E. C.; Schachle, J. R.; Schachle, P. J.

1985-03-12

82

Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.  

PubMed

Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

Beck, E J

1975-07-25

83

Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs...

J. L. Smith

1984-01-01

84

Thermal and dynamic analysis of the RING (Radiatively-cooled, Inertially-driven Nuclear Generator) power system radiator  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear option for a space-based power system appears most suitable for missions that require long-term, sustained operation at power levels above 100 kWe. Systems currently available operate at relatively low thermal efficiencies (6--10%). Thus, a 100 kWe system must discharge nearly 2 MWth of waste heat through the comparatively inefficient process of radiative cooling. The impact of the resultant radiator assembly size on overall power system weight is significant, and has led to proposals for radiators with potentially higher efficiencies. Examples include the: liquid droplet radiator; fabric radiator; bubble membrane radiator; rotating film radiator; and dust radiator. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Apley, W.J.; Babb, A.L.

1989-01-01

85

SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable power plants are needed, if a high amount of hydrogen shall be produced for the use in a climate-compatible energy market. Since the potentials of hydro and wind power are limited, solar electricity generation will take over an important part in the near future. Solar thermal power plants in the Mediterranean area are one promising option. After a short

Volker Quaschning; Franz Trieb

2001-01-01

86

MHD Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MHD Generator is now widely recognized as one of the more promising new methods for large-scale electric power generation. Its primary function, in the terminology of thermodynamics, is that of an ``expansion engine'' like the reciprocating piston engine and the turbine; and although premature, it is tempting to suppose that it represents the next and perhaps the ultimate step

A. Kantrowitz; R. J. Rosa

1974-01-01

87

Thermal simulation in power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal simulation tool for power components for a coupling between electrical and thermal models is presented. Thermal simulation in steady-state operation (thermal resistance) and dynamic response (transient-thermal resistance) are shown and compared with experiments. This tool, using FLUX 2-D software, allows the thermal behavior of hybrid components to be studied. In steady-state operation, the simulation results are in good

C. Schaeffer; J.-P. Ferrieux; R. Perret; B. Reymond

1992-01-01

88

Microturbine Power Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes some experience gained with a construction of an experimental testing stand for micro turbine power generation\\u000a with high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor and its control. The main goal of this research is to create an affordable\\u000a small (order of kW) power supply preferably for combined electrical energy and heat production, that could be used in households,\\u000a portable

Martin Novak; Jaroslav Novak; Ondrej Stanke; Jan Chysky

89

Hydroelectric power generating arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric power generating arrangement includes a container which is situated below the upper level of a body of water and has an inlet and an outlet. Water from the body of water is admitted into the receiving space bounded by the container through the inlet and drives a turbine, while water is being pumped out of the receiving space

Grub

1982-01-01

90

Solar Thermal Electric Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program is to develop design parameters for solar thermal electric power systems that can provide lowest cost electric power. Parametric performance and cost models are being developed for subsystems such as the concentrator...

1974-01-01

91

Solar thermal electricity - Power tower dominates research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) has tended to favor development of centralized solar thermal generating plants at the expense of smaller scale intermediate-temperature systems, though, according to a report from the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), the large solar electric plant, such as the 'power tower' presently being promoted by ERDA and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI),

W. D. Metz

1977-01-01

92

Magnetohydrodynamic power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical research has been conducted to investigate phenomena expected to be important in the development of MHD power generation. The areas investigated were: Boundary layers and generator loss mechanisms, plasma nonuniformities and instabilities, investigation of rod electrodes, seed-slag interaction and the reactivity of coal, disk generators, and temperature diagnostic techniques for combustion MHD plasmas. Brief summaries of the principal results and their expected impact for large scale MHD generators are given: (1) Secondary flows driven by transverse Lorentz forces are predicted to be a major phenomenon in large-scale generators. We have studied this phenomenon by conducting experiments in a laboratory-scale facility in which a high magnetic interaction parameter for driving such secondary flows has been achieved by applying axial current and by maintaining low flow rates. The results of measurements of transverse velocities show that the resulting secondary flows consist of intense, large-scale vortices which convectively distort the cross-plane distribution of important plasma properties. (2) An experimental approach based on measurements of the phase difference of acoustic waves excited in an MHD generator has been successfully employed to detect changes caused by the magnetoacoustic interaction. Predictions for large-scale MHD generators, based upon this same theory, suggest that the possible detrimental effects of the magnetoacoustic interaction cannot be ignored, and must be given serious attention in the design of large-scale facilities.

Kruger, C. H.; Eustis, R. H.; Mitchner, M.; Self, S. A.; Nakamura, T.

1985-06-01

93

Generator powered plasma focus  

SciTech Connect

An earlier set of experiments will be described briefly, in which plate flux compression generators were used to power a Plasma Focus. Currents, voltages and 'rundown times' obtained in these experiments are shown to agree well with a simple model. This same model is then used to show how dramatic operational improvements could be obtained with use of an appropriate fuse, provided the model remained valid.

Fowler, C. M.

2002-01-01

94

Investing in Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In light of considerable political and market risk emanating from energy market liberalization, global warming, and rapid\\u000a technological change, adequate investment in power generation capacity is of paramount importance for ensuring the security\\u000a of electricity supply and a smooth transition to a more decentralized, energy-efficient and renewable energy system. Consequently,\\u000a investors have to use more sophisticated approaches to determine optimal

Reinhard Madlener; Rik W. De Doncker

95

Thermal energy from a biogas engine/generator system  

SciTech Connect

A biogas fueled engine/generator equipped with heat recovery apparatus and thermal storage is described. The thermal energy is used to fuel a liquid fuel plant. Heat recovery is quantified and the static and dynamic performance of the thermal storage is described. At 1260 rpm the engine/generator produces 21 kW of electric power and 2500 kJ/min of thermal energy.

Stahl, T.; Fischer, J.R.; Harris, F.D.

1982-12-01

96

Solar power generation  

SciTech Connect

An absorption power generating process is described comprising: injecting low pressure steam at a subatmospheric pressure into an absorber chamber; injecting a rich desiccant into the absorber chamber; absorbing at least a portion of the low pressure steam into the rich desiccant to release heat from the desiccant and produce a weakened desiccant; removing at least a portion of the weakened desiccant from the absorber chamber; vaporizing at least a portion of the water from the weakened desiccant in an atmospheric of air to enrich the weakened desiccant; transferring the released heat from the absorber chamber to a stream of water to produce high pressure steam; expanding the high pressure steam through a turbine to produce power and low pressure steam.

Brown, W. II

1987-09-08

97

Two-stage Method for Optimal Thermal Generation Unit Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling the generation of thermal units is very important in a large-scale power system. Power generating units have to be selected to realize a reliable production of electric power with the lowest fuel costs. This paper presents a two-stage method to solve the unit commitment problem. The proposed method could not only get a better solution, but also spend less

Yuan-Kang Wu; Chun-Feng Lu

98

Thermal properties of power HBT's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of the thermal behavior of AlGaAs\\/GaAs HBT power transistors have been carried out to establish the quantitative tradeoff between power density, chip layout and junction temperatures. Numerical programs were used to model different aspects of HBT thermal behavior. These programs provide a dynamic solution for temperature distribution using a three-dimensional model which is very general in its ability to

J. Aiden Higgins

1993-01-01

99

Piezoelectric, Solar and Thermal Energy Harvesting for Hybrid Low-Power Generator Systems With Thin-Film Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The harvesting of ambient energy to power small electronic components has received tremendous attention over the last decade. The research goal in this field is to enable self-powered electronic components for use particularly in wireless sensing and meas...

A. Erturk D. J. Inman N. Kong P. Gambier S. R. Anton

2012-01-01

100

Power generation, operation, and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses the economic and engineering aspects used in the planning, operating, and controlling of power generation and transmission systems for electric utilities. It presents advanced mathematical and operations research methods used for electric power engineering problems. It covers methods currently applied in the control and operation of electric power systems. The contents are characteristics of power generation units.

A. J. Wood; B. F. Wollenberg

1984-01-01

101

Wave powered buoy generator  

SciTech Connect

The wave powered buoy generator includes a hollow buoy which has inner and outer surfaces. The buoy is preferably spherical in shape. One or more windings are mounted to the buoy parallel to its surfaces with each winding having a pair of ends. A magnetized device which, is preferably a ball, is located within the buoy for rolling back and forth therein. A device is connected to the ends of the windings for rectifying current flow therefrom. With this arrangement the buoy can be moored in a body of water, and, when there is water motion, the flux lines of the magnetized roller device cut the one or more windings so as to cause electrical current flow to be provided through the rectifying device.

Rowe, R.A.

1985-01-08

102

Wave powered buoy generator  

SciTech Connect

The wave powered buoy generator includes a hollow buoy which has inner and outer surfaces. The buoy is preferably spherical in shape. One or more windings are mounted to the buoy parallel to its surfaces with each winding havng a pair of ends. A magnetized device which, is preferably a ball, is located within the buoy for rolling back and forth therein. A device is connected to the ends of the windings for rectifying current flow therefrom. With this arrangement the buoy can be moored in a body of water, and, when there is water motion, the flux lines of the magnetized roller device cut the one or more windings so as to cause electrical current flow to be provided through the rectifying device.

Rowe, R.A.

1982-12-02

103

Thermal characterization of power transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idealized concept of thermal resistance as applied to power transistors is discussed. This concept must be used with care because two of the basic assumptions made in applying the concept to these devices are not valid. Contrary to these assumptions, it is shown that 1) the junction temperature of a power transistor is never spatially uniform, and 2) no

FRANK F. OETTINGER; DAVID L. BLACKBURN; S. Rubin

1976-01-01

104

Thermal Power Plant Micro Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object discusses and provides animations of the basic processes and components in a thermal power plant. Cycle descriptions and animations include the Carnot cycle, the basic Rankine cycle, and advanced Rankine cycles with reheating and feedwater heating. In addition, a Rankine cycle calculator allows the user to vary several operating parameters and observe the effect on power output and cycle efficiency.

2009-11-05

105

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the

John Brugman; Mai Hattar; Kenneth Nichols; Yuri Esaki

1995-01-01

106

Simulation and economic analysis of a CPV\\/thermal system coupled with an organic Rankine cycle for increased power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems the incident solar radiation is multiplied by a factor equal to the concentration ratio, with the use of lenses or reflectors. This is implemented, in order to increase the electric power production, since this value has a linear dependence from the incident radiation. Therefore, the specific energy production of the cells (kWh\\/m2) radically increases, but

G. Kosmadakis; D. Manolakos; G. Papadakis

2011-01-01

107

Ac Power. Generation and Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alternating current power generation and distribution of a square wave voltage in spacecraft was investigated; its feasibility was proved by development of a complete power conditioning system. An evaluation of electromagnetic interference of ac distribut...

W. Denzinger

1975-01-01

108

Low pellet gain and high efficiency icf power plant model by MHD power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a low pellet gain and high efficiency inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power generation system using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, and employ analytical comparative studies for power generation system options. When the thermal output at high temperature (about 2000–2400K) can be extracted from a fusion reactor, only an MHD generator can be used and can convert efficiently ICF

Takashi Kikuchi; Nob. Harada

2000-01-01

109

MHD power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator an electrically conducting gas replaces the rotating copper coil of the currently used electric generator. This substitution involves a principle which was recognized 150 years ago by Faraday. Development of the MHD process as an industrial method of generating electricity, however, had to wait until a better understanding of the dynamics and handling of hot

F. A. Hals; D. B. Stickler; R. Kessler; R. E. Gannon

1978-01-01

110

Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V-I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

2013-10-01

111

Genetic algorithm solution to coordinate the wind and thermal generation dispatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new innovative method to coordinate wind and thermal generation dispatch. As wind power penetrations increase in current power systems, its impact to conventional thermal unit should be investigated due to the intermittency and unpredictability of wind power generation. Development of better wind thermal coordination economic dispatch is necessary to determine the optimal dispatch scheme that can

K. Dhayalini; S. Sathiyamoorthy; C. Christober Asir Rajan

2012-01-01

112

Apparatus for generating electrical power  

SciTech Connect

A continuous water flow from selected ones of a plurality of reservoirs passes through turbines or the like within an hydroelectric power station to produce electrical power. The reservoirs are cyclically filled and evacuated through the power station by operation of a plurality of gates interconnecting reservoirs having different water height levels and an adjacent source of tidal waters. By programmed operation of the gates a continuous water pressure head can be maintained at the power station to assure continuous electrical power generation.

Casebow, W.J.

1980-03-11

113

Corrosion in power generating equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews the causes of corrosion-related events responsible for a significant loss of power plant availability. Problems that occur in the steam generating, geothermal, and nuclear components of power generating systems are discussed. Topics considered include the fundamental aspects of localized environmentally induced attack (e.g. pitting and crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking of low strength steels, corrosion fatigue), corrosion

M. O. Speidel; A. Atrens

1984-01-01

114

Automotive power generation and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some new developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power generation and control. A new load-matching technique is introduced that uses a simple switched-mode rectifier to achieve dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and

David J. Perreault; Vahe Caliskan

2004-01-01

115

A parametric study of solar thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal power plant discussed in this paper consists of four subsystems: collector system, storage system, prime mover, and generator. The paper considers a Rankine cycle engine which has high thermal efficiency, relatively simple mechanical components and acceptability for use over a wide range of powers. Three working fluids (butane, F113 and F114) are selected because of their low

A. A. Samuel; K. A. Bhaskaran; M. C. Gupta

1979-01-01

116

South Africa: Nuclear Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary South Africa currently produces about 40,000MW of power each year, which is utilized almost entirely without excess supply. To support the government's commitment to increase GDP growth to a sustainable six percent, electrical power generation and distribution must increase to at least 80,000MW by 2026. Additional power stations and major power lines are being built on a massive scale

Bheki Ndimande

117

Compact mist flow power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ocean thermal energy converter (OTEC) generates electricity from warm surface water in dropping 100 meters or so, and then raises it back to the surface using its own thermal energy in a large floating vacuum chamber. The mist flow process as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,216,657 is employed to accelerate water droplets and water vapor upward from the

Ridgway

1984-01-01

118

Biphasic behavior in thermal electrolytic generators using nickel cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal spectroscopy, with attention to background noise, enables accurate determination of sample activity and has revealed a biphasic behavior to the generated excess heat. Nickel cathodes (using ohmic thermal and other metallic cathodic controls) were examined versus either platinum or gold anodes in light water systems. The peak power amplification [?out?IN=?N1] was in the range of ~2.27 (+\\/-1.02). Peak power

Mitchell R. Swartz; Wellesley Hills

1997-01-01

119

Accurate thermal characterization of power semiconductor packages by thermal simulation and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the possibility of generating a compact thermal model based on thermal transient measurements is discussed and evaluated. A case study of a power diode in a cylindrical-shaped copper package is shown. The detailed model of the package is built and simulated in a CFD based thermal simulator software. The measurement results are compared to the results of

Andras Vass-Varnai; Robin Bornoff; Sandor Ress; Zoltan Sarkany; Sandor Hodossy; Marta Rencz

2011-01-01

120

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Thermoelectric Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are a vital part of the oceanographer's toolbox, allowing long-term measurements across a range of ocean depths of a number of ocean properties such as salinity, fluorescence, and temperature profile. Buoyancy-based gliding, rather than direct propulsion, dramatically reduces AUV power consumption and allows long-duration missions on the order of months rather than hours or days, allowing large distances to be analyzed or many successive analyses of a certain area without the need for retrieval. Recent versions of these gliders have seen the buoyancy variation system change from electrically powered to thermally powered using phase-change materials, however a significant battery pack is still required to power communications and sensors, with power consumption in the region of 250 mW. The authors propose a novel application of a thermoelectric generation system, utilizing the depth-related variation in oceanic temperature. A thermal energy store provides a temperature differential across which a thermoelectric device can generate from repeated dives, with the primary purpose of extending mission range. The system is modeled in Simulink to analyze the effect of variation in design parameters. The system proves capable of generating all required power for a modern AUV.

Buckle, J. R.; Knox, A.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.

2013-04-01

121

High power microwave generator  

DOEpatents

A device for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode, proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode, and form a cylindrical virtual cathode. Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode, and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode and the cylindrical real cathode.

Minich, R.W.

1986-05-15

122

High power microwave generator  

DOEpatents

A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

Minich, Roger W. (Patterson, CA)

1988-01-01

123

A wafer scale dynamic thermal scene generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a prototype WSTA (wafer scale transducer array), a wafer scale dynamic thermal scene generator is being developed to generate a controllable infrared (IR) image for use in calibrating IR detector arrays. The basic array consists of two cell types, one being a thermal pixel containing a poly Si resistor sitting on a suspended oxide bridge. The second cell contains

G. H. Chapman; M. Parameswaran; M. J. Syrzycki

1992-01-01

124

Second generation PFB for advanced power generation  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted under a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) contract to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant-called an advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plant-offers the promise of 45-percent efficiency (HHV), with emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant. Although pilot plant testing is still underway, preliminary estimates indicate the commercial plant Will perform better than originally envisioned. Efficiencies greater than 46 percent are now being predicted.

Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J.

1995-11-01

125

Thermal fatigue in silicon power transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silicon power transistor applications, thermal cycling of the transistor may activate a failure mechanism called thermal fatigue. This phenomenon is caused by the mechanical stresses set up by the differential in the thermal expansions of the various materials used in the assembly and heat sink of the transistor. Thermal fatigue often results in cracking of the silicon pellet or

G. A. Lang; B. J. Fehder; W. D. Williams

1970-01-01

126

Power Losses and Thermal Modeling of A Voltage Source Inverter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents thermal and power loss models of a three phase IGBT voltage source inverter used in the design of the 625KW fuel cell and reformer demonstration which is a top priority for the Office of Naval Research. The ability to generate thermal...

M. C. Oberdorf

2006-01-01

127

Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort.  

PubMed

The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study is needed in the future to fully establish the validity of the OTCI formula and the model. One of the practical applications of this index is that could it be integrated in thermal control systems to develop human-centered environmental control systems for potential use in aircraft, mass transit vehicles, intelligent building systems, and space vehicles. PMID:12182196

Boregowda, S C; Tiwari, S N; Chaturvedi, S K

2001-12-01

128

Imaging with Optically Generated Thermal Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstmet-The propagation of a temperature modulation is described by a thermal wave, which is a highly damped scalar wave propagating at a low speed. Though the wave can be generated by any periodical energy deposition, absorption of modulated optical radiation has the advantage of a remote method. For thermal wave-detection optoacoustic techniques or noncontacting photothermal detection are used. The local

GERD BUSSE

1985-01-01

129

Power generation from waste incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSW) with heat recovery for power generation is being used increasingly in the US to reduce the volume of wastes to be landfilled. High-temperature incineration is also beginning to be used to decontaminate sites where hazardous chemicals were disposed of in the past with large amounts of heat usually wasted in such incinerators. This report

J. O. Kolb; K. E. Wilkes

1988-01-01

130

Investigations for biogas operated MHD power generators  

SciTech Connect

Biogas is produced from the anaerobic fermentation of the organic matter containing cellulose, such as agricultural wastes, human wastes, animal wastes, etc. It contains methane (50-70%), carbon dioxide (30-50%), and very small amounts of hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Adequate quantities of raw material to generate biogas are normally available in rural areas, and therefore, there is a possibility that almost all the energy requirements of the rural sector may be fulfilled by biogas. Presently in the rural sector, biogas is used mainly to provide thermal energy (for cooking, etc.), and up to a limited extent, to meet the electrical energy requirements by running electrical generators with engines powered by a mixture of oil and biogas. In this paper, the authors propose a scheme in which biogas can be used to generate electricity more efficiently by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. Investigations have been carried out to make feasibility studies for biogas-operated open cycle MHD power generators. Composition, temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded (with potassium) combustion products of biogas-air/oxygen systems have been analytically investigated for different percentages of CO/sub 2/ in biogas and at various combustor pressures for a seeding ratio of 1 percent by weight. The effect of preheating and enrichment of air on temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded combustion plasmas has also been studied.

Dahiya, R.P.; Chand, A.; Sharma, S.C.

1983-12-01

131

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

132

Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than

Vincent Ho; Albert Wong; Kilyoo Kim; Vijay Dhir

1987-01-01

133

Materials testing for central receiver solar-thermal power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of specific elevated temperature mechanical properties of materials used for critical components in solar control receiver power systems is described. The biaxial creep fatigue testing of type 316H stainless steel superheater tubing is discussed. A survey of sodium effects on candidate materials for solar-thermal electric piping and steam generators is presented. The mechanical properties data generation is evaluated.

S. Majumdar

1979-01-01

134

Unified model of solar thermal electric generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a unified model of a solar electric generation system (SEGS) is developed using a thermo-hydrodynamic model of a trough collector combined with a model of a traditional steam power-house. The model evaluates thermal properties, steam flow rate and pressure drop in a direct steam generation (DSG) or an oil based collector field. The SEGS’s performance in different

Saad D. Odeh

2003-01-01

135

Thermal Management of High Power Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report in this paper the thermal effects onto the performances of high power microwave transistors. Also, thermal simulation results along with means to optimize the heat dissipation on a wafer level are discussed. Finally we present a novel active thermal management technique using micro-fluidic channels. The simple fabrication process is presented. I. INTRODUCTION Due to the tremendous evolution of

J. Laskar; S. Nuttinck; S. Pinel

136

Thermal interface materials for power electronics applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical power electronics package, a grease layer forms the interface between the direct bond copper (DBC) layer or a baseplate and the heat sink. This grease layer has the highest thermal resistance of any layer in the package. Reducing the thermal resistance of this thermal interface material (TIM) can help achieve the FreedomCAR program goals of using a

Sreekant Narumanchi; Mark Mihalic; Kenneth Kelly; Gary Eesley

2008-01-01

137

Clean power generation from coal  

SciTech Connect

The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

Butler, J.W.; Basu, P. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-09-15

138

Solid oxide fuel cell distributed power generation  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that oxidize fuel without combustion to convert directly the fuel`s chemical energy into electricity. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is distinguished from other fuel cell types by its all solid state structure and its high operating temperature (1,000 C). The Westinghouse tubular SOFC stack is process air cooled and has integrated thermally and hydraulically within its structure a natural gas reformer that requires no fuel combustion and no externally supplied water. In addition, since the SOFC stack delivers high temperature exhaust gas and can be operated at elevated pressure, it can supplant the combustor in a gas turbine generator set yielding a dry (no steam) combined cycle power system of unprecedented electrical generation efficiency (greater 70% ac/LHV). Most remarkably, analysis indicates that efficiencies of 60 percent can be achieved at power plant capacities as low as 250 kWe, and that the 70 percent efficiency level should be achievable at the two MW capacity level. This paper describes the individual SOFC, the stack, and the power generation system and its suitability for distributed generation.

Veyo, S.E.

1997-12-31

139

Characterization of interfacial thermal resistance for packaging high-power electronics modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-power electronics modules, the heat generated by the power devices is transferred to the ambient environment by attaching a heat spreader to the semiconductor package. Once the heat spreader is selected, it has to be attached optimally to the semiconductor package to ensure efficient thermal management through the thermal interface. In most power electronics modules, solder or thermally conductive

Shatil Haque; Guo-Quan Lu

1999-01-01

140

INTEGRATED CONTROL OF NEXT GENERATION POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Control methodologies provide the necessary data acquisition, analysis and corrective actions needed to maintain the state of an electric power system within acceptable operating limits. These methods are primarily software-based algorithms that are nonfunctional unless properly integrated with system data and the appropriate control devices. Components of the control of power systems today include protective relays, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), distribution automation (DA), feeder automation, software agents, sensors, control devices and communications. Necessary corrective actions are still accomplished using large electromechanical devices such as vacuum, oil and gas-insulated breakers, capacitor banks, regulators, transformer tap changers, reclosers, generators, and more recently FACTS (flexible AC transmission system) devices. The recent evolution of multi-agent system (MAS) technologies has been reviewed and effort made to integrate MAS into next generation power systems. A MAS can be defined as ��a loosely-coupled network of problem solvers that work together to solve problems that are beyond their individual capabilities��. These problem solvers, often called agents, are autonomous and may be heterogeneous in nature. This project has shown that a MAS has significant advantages over a single, monolithic, centralized problem solver for next generation power systems. Various communication media are being used in the electric power system today, including copper, optical fiber and power line carrier (PLC) as well as wireless technologies. These technologies have enabled the deployment of substation automation (SA) at many facilities. Recently, carrier and wireless technologies have been developed and demonstrated on a pilot basis. Hence, efforts have been made by this project to penetrate these communication technologies as an infrastructure for next generation power systems. This project has thus pursued efforts to use specific MAS methods as well as pertinent communications protocols to imbed and assess such technologies in a real electric power distribution system, specifically the Circuit of the Future (CoF) developed by Southern California Edison (SCE). By modeling the behavior and communication for the components of a MAS, the operation and control of the power distribution circuit have been enhanced. The use of MAS to model and integrate a power distribution circuit offers a significantly different approach to the design of next generation power systems. For example, ways to control a power distribution circuit that includes a micro-grid while considering the impacts of thermal constraints, and integrating voltage control and renewable energy sources on the main power system have been pursued. Both computer simulations and laboratory testbeds have been used to demonstrate such technologies in electric power distribution systems. An economic assessment of MAS in electric power systems was also performed during this project. A report on the economic feasibility of MAS for electric power systems was prepared, and particularly discusses the feasibility of incorporating MAS in transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. Also, the commercial viability of deploying MAS in T&D systems has been assessed by developing an initial case study using utility input to estimate the benefits of deploying MAS. In summary, the MAS approach, which had previously been investigated with good success by APERC for naval shipboard applications, has now been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future developed by Southern California Edison. The results for next generation power systems include better ability to reconfigure circuits, improve protection and enhance reliability.

None

2010-02-28

141

Modeling the thermal state of tires for power loss calculations  

SciTech Connect

A combined thermo-mechanical model has been developed to aid in reducing tire power loss. The thermal analysis portion of this tire power loss model is the subject of this paper. A brief overview is first given of existing tire power loss thermal models. The present thermal analysis is then described in detail. It provides solutions to the basic equation of heat transfer within the tire structure and to its surroundings. The solutions are obtained by interpolating between an array of solutions that has been previously generated by use of the finite element nonlinear thermal analysis and stored in a data base. Required experimental inputs are detailed. Examples demonstrating the accuracy of this interpolation scheme are then presented. Conclusions reached are that: interpolation between an array of previously obtained solutions is a viable computational method for determining the thermal state of tires; and by interpolation, cost and time of the computer analysis are reduced while accuracy is maintained.

Browne, A.L.; Arambages, A.

1981-01-01

142

Solar thermal electric power information user study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results identified types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE Funded Researchers; Non-DOE-Funded Researchers; Representatives of Utilities; Electric Power Engineers; and Educators.

Belew, W. W.; Wood, B. L.; Marle, T. L.; Reinhardt, C. L.

1981-02-01

143

Numerical simulation and analysis of a patented desalination and power co-generation cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patented cycle for water desalination and power generation was evaluated with regard to thermal efficiency and water production. The inventor of the patent claimed that the patented cycle provides a thermal efficiency of 41 %, which is higher than current combined water and power generation steam plants. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the thermal efficiency and water

Hasan Fath; Fahd Al-Khaldi; Basel Abu-Sharkh

2004-01-01

144

Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than unity. Such nozzle and the MHD power generator replace the turbogenerator of a high temperature Rankine turboelectric cycle concept. As a result, the power generation system contains no movable parts. This provides high reliability, which is a very important factor in space application.

Ho, Vincent; Wong, Albert; Kim, Kilyoo; Dhir, Vijay

145

Control of Pollution from the Generation of Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early days of the Manhattan District, there has been concern over potential pollution from the manufacture of atomic weapons and the generation of nuclear power. With time it has become obvious that the nuclear power plants themselves are not important sources of radioactive wastes, although they can be responsible for thermal pollution, as are conventional fossil fuel burning

WALLACE DE LAGUNA

1969-01-01

146

Power Generation: The Next 30 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)

Holcomb, Robert W.

1970-01-01

147

Power Generation: The Next 30 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)|

Holcomb, Robert W.

1970-01-01

148

Advanced piggyback water power generator  

SciTech Connect

A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

Wiggs, B.R.

1988-02-16

149

Handbook of power generation: Transformers and generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book dwells on theories and then in depth on practical on-the-job applications for a wide spectrum of applications. Shows how to use available equipment. Some illustrative matter. Contents, abridged: Principles and characteristics of dc generators. Principles and characteristics of ac generators. Engine-driven and gas-turbine generators. Conversion equipment. Secondary distribution systems. Transformers. Saturable core reactors. Role-line construstion. Glossary. Index.

Traister

1983-01-01

150

Wind power generation reliability analysis and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intermittent renewable generation becomes more significant in the portfolio of power generation, it becomes increasingly important to assess its impact on the generation reliability of power systems. Therefore, it is the objective of this paper to evaluate the reliability impact of wind power penetration using the basic loss of load probability and expectation concepts. To this end, reliability impacts

C. D'Annunzio; S. Santoso

2005-01-01

151

Electromagnetic micro power generator — A comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive survey on vibration powered electromagnetic micro generator, which harvest mechanical energy from environment and convert this energy into useful electrical power for micro system and sensor node. The on-going research works on electromagnetic micro generator are reviewed as a background of this paper. Basic theories of micro generator to produce power from ambient motion by

Wong Chin Chye; Zuraini Dahari; Othman Sidek; Muhammad Azman Miskam

2010-01-01

152

Storage Systems for Solar Thermal Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are ...

J. E. Calogeras L. H. Gordon

1978-01-01

153

Thermal Power Breeders with Circulating Nuclear Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the design of a molten-salt thermal breeder reactor (MSBR) of 2250 Mwt (thermal) power output. The authors analyze the specific features of the reactor and its possible place among the other types of reactor in the nuclear engineering ...

V. L. Blinkin

1975-01-01

154

A contactless power supply for photovoltaic power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the alternative energy sources, the solar energy is recognized as an important energy source and its application is increasing. Especially in future, the hybrid solar energy generation system with battery and fuel cell will be widely used as an independent distributed power generation system. In this paper, a solar power hybrid home generation system using a contactless power supply

Eun-Soo Kim; Sung-In Kang; Kwang-Ho Yoon; Yoon-Ho Kim

2008-01-01

155

Turbine by-pass arrangement for thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turbine bypass arrangement for use in thermal power plants serves to bypass a portion of the steam delivered by the steam generator around the turbine and discharge it into the coupling sleeve located between the turbine outlet and the condenser inlet. The by-passed steam is divided into two parts, one of which is decompressed as well as desuperheated while

Lecocq

1975-01-01

156

Integrated propulsion and power modeling for bimodal nuclear thermal rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) engines have been shown to reduce the weight of space vehicles to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by utilizing a common reactor for propulsion and power generation. These savings lead to reduced launch vehicle costs and\\/or increased mission safety and capability. Experimental work of the Rover\\/NERVA program demonstrated the feasibility of NTR systems for trajectories

Joshua Clough

2007-01-01

157

Power plant with pressurized-gas generator  

SciTech Connect

A power plant essentially comprises a thermal prime mover, a pressurized-gas generator for generating hot producer gas from coal, the producer gas following separation out of dust and sulphur content being utilized as fuel for the power plant. Included is a pressure-charging group consisting of coupled compressor and gas turbine units, the compressor serving to compress air and deliver it to the pressurized gas generator, and the gas turbine being driven by the hot pressurized and unburned producer gas. Two dry-state dust separators for dust entrained in the producer gas are arranged in series in the flow path of the producer gas after leaving the pressurized-gas generator. The first dust separator is a cyclone type which functions to remove coarser particles of the dust and the second separator which is structurally integrated into the gas turbine to remove any dust particles still remaining in the producer gas is constituted by a volute casing located at the inlet end of the turbine which serves as a replacement for the normally used row of guide vanes and which functions to centrifuge out the dust into an annular duct through an entrance gap thereto formed in the outer wall of the turbine ahead of the first row of rotor blading thus to avoid any erosive action on the latter. A second similar annular duct for receiving centrifuged out dust particles can also be provided in the gas flow path immediately after the first row of rotor blading. The hot producer gas following expansion in passing through the turbine accompanied by a drop in temperature but without further cooling is then passed through a dry state porous mass which chemically binds and removes the sulphur content prior to delivery to a combustion chamber component wherein the prime mover is a further gas turbine driving a load such as electrical generator or to a boiler wherein the prime mover is a steam turbine.

Pfenninger, H.

1980-04-29

158

High Power Rechargeable Thermal Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report developed under STTR contract; a proof of concept for a portable, rechargeable thermal battery (RTB). Including a superinsulated case, a lightweight (10 lb) RTB can provide 250W for 2-6h at 140 Wh/kg with days of activation between recharging. It c...

T. D. Kaun

1997-01-01

159

Small spacecraft power and thermal subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This white paper provides a general guide to the conceptual design of satellite power and thermal control subsystems with special emphasis on the unique design aspects associated with small satellites. The operating principles of these technologies are explained and performance characteristics of current and projected components are provided. A tutorial is presented on the design process for both power and

D. Eakman; R. Lambeck; M. Mackowski; L. Slifer Jr.

1994-01-01

160

Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly  

DOEpatents

A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2001-10-02

161

Power Smoothing and MPPT for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation, and variable speed control and power factor control are executed for high efficiently for wind energy capture and high quality for power system voltage. In variable speed control, a wind speed or a generator speed is used for maximum power point tracking. However, performances

Takaaki Kai; Yuji Tanaka; Hirotoshi Kaneda; Daichi Kobayashi; Akio Tanaka

2008-01-01

162

DC microgrid based distribution power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an autonomous-control method for a DC microgrid system having distribution power generators. This system consists of following five generation and control units; a solar-cell generation unit, a wind-turbine generation unit, a battery energy-storage unit, a flywheel power-leveling unit, and an AC grid-connected power control unit. The proposed control method intended for suppression of circulating current detects only

Y. Ito; Y. Zhongqing; H. Akagi

2004-01-01

163

Precision evaluation for thermal fatigue life of power module using coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For power module, the reliability evaluation of thermal fatigue life by power cycling has been prioritized as an important concern. Since in power cycling produces there exists non-uniform temperature distribution in the power module, coupled thermal-structure analysis is required to evaluate thermal fatigue mechanism. The thermal expansion difference between a Si chip and a substrate causes thermal fatigue. In this

Tomohiro TAKAHASHI; Qiang Yu

2010-01-01

164

Power generation of a thermoelectric generator with phase change materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a thermoelectric generator that embeds phase change materials for wasted heat energy harvesting is proposed. The proposed thermoelectric generator embeds phase change materials in its device structure. The phase change materials store large amounts of heat energy using the latent heat of fusion. When the heat source contacts the thermoelectric generator, dissipated heat from the heat source is stored in the phase change materials. When the heat source is removed from the thermoelectric generator, the output power of the thermoelectric generator slowly decreases, while the output power of conventional thermoelectric generators decreases rapidly without the heat source. The additional air layer in the proposed thermoelectric generator disturbs the heat dissipation from the phase change materials, so the thermoelectric generator can maintain the power generation for longer without a heat source. The experimental results for the thermoelectric generator fabricated clearly show the latent heat effect of the phase change materials and the embedded air layer.

Jo, Sung-Eun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Yong-Jun

2013-11-01

165

Thermal Performance of Wind Turbine Power System's Engine Room  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greatly expanded use of wind energy has been proposed to reduce dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels for electricity generation. For wind turbine power generation, as a mature technology in the field of wind power utilization, its large-scale deployment is limited by the cooling technology. Therefore, the temperature distribution of the wind turbine power generation is a key issue for the design of the cooling system. It is because the characteristics of cooling system have a great effect on the performance of the wind turbine power generation. Based on some assumptions and simplifications, a thermal model is developed to describe the heat transfer behavior of wind turbine power system. The numerical calculation method is adopted to solve the governing equation. The heat generation and heat flux are investigated with a given operating boundary. The achieved results can be used to verify whether the cooling system meets the design requirements. Meanwhile, they also can reveal that among the influencing factors, the meteorological conditions, generated output and operation state as well seriously influence its thermal performance. Numerical calculation of the cooling system enables better understanding and results in performance improvement of the system.

Liu, Zhili; Jiang, Yanlong; Zhou, Nianyong; Shi, Hong; Kang, Na; Wang, Yu

166

The design of a solar cavity steam generator for electrical power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary design, principles of operation, and performance analysis of a 100,000-kWe solar power plant are presented. The power generation station is surrounded by eight mirror fields, with a tower-mounted-cavity steam generator at the south end of each field. Control concepts and effects of thermal cycling on component design are discussed. A model of the cavity, compatible with the French

T. Tracy; T. Howerton

1975-01-01

167

Solar-electric power generation: ocean-related energy and satellite solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and satellite solar power systems to generate electriciy is discussed in the third of a series presented at the National Science Teachers Association Convention. OTEC is a 24-hour energy source, but requires large installations of expensive equipment that would corrode rapidly in the ocean environment. Power transmission to land would also be

F. R. Jr

1979-01-01

168

Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.  

PubMed

Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

2013-01-01

169

Equilibrium and kinetic studies of in situ generation of ammonia from urea in a batch reactor for flue gas conditioning of thermal power plants  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia has long been known to be useful in the treatment of flue/tail/stack gases from industrial furnaces, incinerators, and electric power generation industries. In this study, urea hydrolysis for production of ammonia, in different application areas that require safe use of ammonia at in situ condition, was investigated in a batch reactor. The equilibrium and kinetic study of urea hydrolysis was done in a batch reactor at reaction pressure to investigate the effect of reaction temperature, initial feed concentration, and time on ammonia production. This study reveals that conversion increases exponentially with an increase in temperature but with increases in initial feed concentration of urea the conversion decreases marginally. Further, the effect of time on conversion has also been studied; it was found that conversion increases with increase in time. Using collision theory, the temperature dependency of forward rate constant developed from which activation energy of the reaction and the frequency factor has been calculated. The activation energy and frequency factor of urea hydrolysis reaction at atmospheric pressure was found to be 73.6 kJ/mol and 2.89 x 10{sup 7} min{sup -1}, respectively.

Sahu, J.N.; Patwardhan, A.V.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15

170

Utility views of MHD power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and ecological advantages of developing an open-cycle MHD process for generating electric power from MHD combustion of coal, without the use of turbines, rotating generators, or other moving parts absorbing energy, are discussed and listed explicitly. Higher efficiencies, low cost of electric power generated, far more manageable pollution problems, 50% less warm water effluents, inertialess startup and shutdown, reduced

C. H. Shih; M. K. Guha

1977-01-01

171

Thermal distribution in high power optical devices with power-law thermal conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a power-law approximation to model non-linear ranges of the thermal conductivity, and under this approximation derive a simple analytical expression for calculating the temperature profile in high power quantum cascade lasers and light emitting diodes. The thermal conductivity of a type II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) is used as an example, having negative or positive power-law exponents depending on the thermal range of interest. The result is an increase or decrease in the temperature, respectively, relative to the uniform thermal conductivity assumption.

Zhou, Chuanle; Grayson, M.

2012-01-01

172

Relation Between Electric Power and Temperature Difference for Thermoelectric Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric generation is the direct energy conversion method from heat to electric power. The conversion method is a very useful utilization of waste energy because of its possibility using a thermal energy below 423K. This research objective is to establish the thermoelectric technology on an optimum system design method and efficiency, and cost effective thermoelectric element in order to extract the maximum electric power from a wasted hot water. This paper is considered in manufacturing a thermoelectric generator and manufacturing of thermoelectric generator with 32 thermoelectric modules. It was also found that the electric voltage of thermoelectric generator with 32 modules slowly changed along temperature differences and the maximum power of thermoelectric generator using thermoelectric generating modules can be defined as temperature function.

Woo, Byung Chul; Lee, Hee Woong

173

Progress Towards Maximizing the Performance of a Thermoelectric Power Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, modeling, initial build and testing of a novel thermoelectric power generator (TPG), incorporating state of the art material technology with optimized thermal management. A numerical model simulates the operation of the device and facilitates its design. Advanced multi-parameter, gradient-based optimization techniques are used to better understand the interactions between various design variables and parameters in

D. T. Crane; L. E. Bell

2006-01-01

174

Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

2013-05-21

175

Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

Bel,; Lon E. (Altadena, CA); Crane, Douglas Todd (Pasadena, CA)

2009-10-27

176

Small spacecraft power and thermal subsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This white paper provides a general guide to the conceptual design of satellite power and thermal control subsystems with special emphasis on the unique design aspects associated with small satellites. The operating principles of these technologies are explained and performance characteristics of current and projected components are provided. A tutorial is presented on the design process for both power and thermal subsystems, with emphasis on unique issues relevant to small satellites. The ability of existing technology to meet future performance requirements is discussed. Conclusions and observations are presented that stress cost-effective, high-performance design solutions.

Eakman, D.; Lambeck, R.; Mackowski, M.; Slifer, L., Jr.

1994-12-01

177

Symbiotic coupling of wind power and nuclear power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling of wind power production as an intermittent supply to nuclear power generation as a base load supply is discussed. Wind turbines on a standby operational mode are net importers of power for their control and yaw mechanisms. They need a supply of about 5 kW of power from an existing grid. They also require the vicinity of a

Kate Rogers; Magdi Ragheb

2010-01-01

178

Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator  

SciTech Connect

A method for solar electric power generation in space is described. A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled. NASA

Lee, J.H.; Hohl, F.

1981-05-01

179

Wind and water power generator  

SciTech Connect

A wave-operated generator system utilizes flotation means for coupling the vertical movement of waves to an electrical generator using a rack and pinion assembly. Ratcheted pairs of gears convert the upward and the downward movement of the flotation means to unidirectional rotation. Supplemental generating systems which convert air and water current into electrical energy are used in conjunction with the wave-operated generator system.

Ivy, J.T.

1983-07-05

180

Thermal rating characteristics of UHF power capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demands of miniaturization and high reliability of capacitors are interrelated with the characteristic physical parameters of its dielectric, electrode, and termination material constituents. The same parameters determine the thermal design and rating of a capacitor. Equally important, the circuit designer requires well-defined component data on power rating, heat dissipation, temperature, voltage, and current ratings. For the correct choice of

M. J. Albert

1994-01-01

181

Optimization of cogeneration thermal power units  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a procedure for comparing the efficiencies of cogeneration thermal power units that takes variable conditions of their operation into account. A combined-cycle plant operating in accordance with the STIG cycle (i.e., with mixing of working fluids), a gas turbine unit equipped with a gas economizer, and a steam turbine unit equipped with a backpressure turbine are compared during

A. M. Kler; A. Yu. Marinchenko; Yu. M. Potanina

2009-01-01

182

Harnessing microbially generated power on the seafloor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many marine environments, a voltage gradient exists across the water–sediment interface resulting from sedimentary microbial activity. Here we show that a fuel cell consisting of an anode embedded in marine sediment and a cathode in overlying seawater can use this voltage gradient to generate electrical power in situ. Fuel cells of this design generated sustained power in a boat

Hilmar A. Stecher; Dawn E. Holmes; Daniel R. Bond; Daniel A. Lowy; Kanoelani Pilobello; Stephanie J. Fertig; Derek R. Lovley; Leonard M. Tender; Clare E. Reimers

2002-01-01

183

THE PROSPECTS OF MHD POWER GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for magnetohydrcdynamic (MHD) pcwer generation range from ; a small, short-duty-cycle unit for space applications to a large power station ; for commercial use. The gaseous MHD generator appears at first glance to have ; some outstanding advantages over the conventional turbogenerators in both ; stationary and auxiliary power applications. Appropriately high gas conductivity ; and reliable flow-containment

L. Steg; G. W. Sutton

1960-01-01

184

Electrical power generation and distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with moving fuel from remote sources to large centralized power generation plants are avoided with an economical system for collecting power from small stations located near the scattered, remote fuel sites. To avoid a need for many massive, costly transformers, a plurality of relatively low voltage generating stations are connected in series to cumulatively produce the high voltage

Jeppson

1977-01-01

185

Thermal Power Systems Small Power Systems Application Project: Siting Issues for Solar Thermal Power Plants with Small Community Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The siting issues associated with small, dispersed solar thermal power plants for utility/small community applications of less than 10 MWe are reported. Some specific requirements are refered to the first engineering experiment for the Small Power Systems...

H. J. Holbeck S. J. Ireland

1979-01-01

186

Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

187

Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power supplied by wind turbine generators (WTG) is widely random following the stochastic nature of weather conditions. For planning and decision making purposes, understanding and evaluation of the behaviour and distribution of WTG's output power are crucial. Monte Carlo simulation enables the realization of artificial futures by generating a huge number of sample paths of outcomes to perform this analysis. The paper presents an algorithm developed for a random wind speed generator governed by the probability density function of Weibull distribution and evaluates the WTG's output by using the power curve of wind turbines. The method may facilitate assessment of suitable turbine site as well as generator selection and sizing.

Muhamad Razali, N. M.; Misbah, Muizzuddin

2013-06-01

188

Development of the fuel cell power generation technology, 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEDO arranged results of the research on the development of the fuel cell power generation technology during fiscal 1981 to 1987. During 1981 to 1983, research and development were made on a dispersed generation type fuel cell power generation system using phosphoric acid fuel cells (low temperature/pressure type) and a thermal power plant substitution type fuel cell power generation system (high temperature/pressure type). During 1984 to 1986, in addition to the above, research was made on a total system of phosphoric acid fuel cells, trial operation of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant (matrix electrolyte method, paste electrolyte method) and a total system. In 1987, as to molten carbonate fuel cells, researches were made on stacks and a peripheral system, support, and a total system. As a comprehensive technology development of phosphoric acid fuel cells, researches were made on a fuel cell power generation system for isolated island use and a fuel cell power generation system for business use.

1994-02-01

189

An assessment of soil contamination due to heavy metals around a coal-fired thermal power plant in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of coals in thermal power plants is one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to generation of huge amounts of ashes, which are disposed off in large ponds in the vicinity of the thermal power plants. This problem is of particular significance in India, which utilizes coals of very high ash content (?55 wt%). Since the thermal power

A. Mandal; D. Sengupta

2006-01-01

190

Power electronics as efficient interface in dispersed power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global electrical energy consumption is rising and there is a steady increase of the demand on the power capacity, efficient production, distribution and utilization of energy. The traditional power systems are changing globally, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units, including both renewable and nonrenewable energy sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells, small hydro,

Frede Blaabjerg; Zhe Chen; S. B. Kjaer

2004-01-01

191

Solar thermal power systems. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

Not Available

1980-06-01

192

RF power generation in LHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line

O C Brunner; Hans Frischholz; D. Valuch

2003-01-01

193

Review of Microscale Magnetic Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the history, current state of the art, and ongoing challenges for compact (less than a few cubic centimeters) magnetic power generation systems in the microwatts to tens of watts power range. These systems are of great interest for powering sensor networks, robotics, wireless communication systems, and other portable electronics. The paper considers the following topics. 1) The

David P. Arnold

2007-01-01

194

Electrical power generation and storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for generating and temporarily storing generated electrical power in electro-chemical, chemical and electro-mechanical mediums and for efficiently reconverting the stored energy back to usable ac electrical energy. In one embodiment of the process, alternating current is converted to direct current which is used to power a chlorine-sodium hydroxide electrolysis cell. Process steam, from a steam generating

R. L. Scragg; A. B. Parker

1978-01-01

195

Thermal management for high performance integrated circuits with non-uniform chip power considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal management for nonuniform chip power integrated circuits is studied. Circuit chip power analysis was used to generate nonuniform chip power and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to calculate the chip temperature. This paper also presents an integrated thermomechanical analysis of a ceramic ball grid array (CBGA) single chip module (SCM) system under chip power loads. A three-dimensional

Tsorng-Dih Yuan; Bor Zen Hong; Howard H. Chen; Li-Kong Wang

2001-01-01

196

Seismic Proving Test of Equipment and Structures in Thermal Conventional Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of ensuring uninterrupted electric power supply was reaffirmed on the occasion of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, when the district was affected by extended power failure. The notice has been attached to the resistance of power generation facilities to severe earthquake. The seismic proving test of equipment and structures in thermal conventional power plant was conducted.

Toshio CHIBA; Satoshi FUJITA; Kazuo Ishida; Tomoki Sakurai; Hiroshi Akiyama

2002-01-01

197

Heliostat field layout for solar thermal power plants  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of the optimum distribution of heliostats, serving a solar tower collector for solar thermal power generation, is considered. A theoretical basis for the problem is posed, encompassing physical characteristics of the heliostats, their number, and intensity of the reflected radiation from each unit in function of their layout. Theoretical results lead to numerical procedures (program package FAUST). Various heliostat field configurations (project EURELIOS and GAST) are then discussed and evaluated in light of this model. (ESA)

Hartung; Kindermann; Mayer, W.

1980-06-01

198

Hazardous Emissions from Combustion of Fossil Fuel from Thermal Power Plants Based on Turbine Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal power generation is associated with the emission of hazardous gaseous and particulate pollutants, which is one of the major contributors to deteriorated local ambient air quality. A comprehensive emissions assessment was carried on three thermal power plants and one oil refinery operating on fossil fuel, mainly heavy residual oil. The background ambient air quality was also monitored for criteria

Mahboob Ali; Makshoof Athar; Misbahul Ain Khan; Shahida Begum Niazi

2011-01-01

199

Modeling second generation thermal imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical models of thermal imaging system performance have gradually become obsolete as TIS (thermal imaging systems) have become more complex and have improved in vertical performance. In particular, the effects of sampling and aliasing have not been included directly, but have had to be accounted for by side calculations before entering the data. In this paper, an approach to modeling second generation TIS is described in which the effects of sampling on both signal and noise are accounted for without requiring the user to make subsidiary calculations. The model is two-dimensional, using both vertical and horizontal resolution in the prediction of recognition and detection performance. A model for human perception is presented which differs slightly from the matched filter concept models and gives a closer match to measured data. The differences between modeling scanning and staring systems is discussed, as well as between systems with on-focal- rather than off-focal-plane sampling. Proper treatment of the several sources of noise in sampled systems is analyzed, including aliased noise.

Kennedy, Howard V.

1990-10-01

200

New low cost IGCC designs for competitive power generation  

SciTech Connect

Design studies of coal based 450 MW new IGCC power plants reveal their ability to compete in today's power generation market. Single train unit designs coupled with significant improvements in IGCC net output and efficiency have brought down the installed costs to the range of 850--1,000 $/kW and net thermal efficiency up to 43--47%. These improvements are shown to result from IGCC design configurations integrating new generation gas turbine combined cycles with High Pressure Texaco Gasification Technology and Elevated Pressure Air Separation Units.

Brdar, D.R.; Depuy, R.A.; Gulko, G.; Jandrisevits, M.; Paolino, J.

1999-07-01

201

A reagentless technology to prevent biofouling on the surfaces of equipment at nuclear and thermal power stations using generators of OH radicals and ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results obtained from the development and tests of a reagentless method to prevent biofouling in water cooling systems of equipment using generators of OH radicals and ozone constructed on the basis of impulse ultraviolet xenon lamps producing light with a wavelength of 172 nm.

Izyumov, S. V.; Shchekotov, E. Yu.; Shchekotov, D. E.; Krutskikh, D. A.

2011-07-01

202

Cleveland public power, generation, renovation  

SciTech Connect

Cleveland Public Power believes that a cooperative public-private effort will best serve the renovation of its 85MW unit. Accordingly, a request for proposals (RFP) is being developed to seek private sector proposals to renovate the plant, including financing, construction, operation, and maintenance of the facility over a long term period. The unit and the proposed renovation details are described in detail.

Pandy, J. Jr.

1984-04-11

203

Demonstration tokamak fusion power plant for early realization of net electric power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A demonstration tokamak fusion power plant Demo-CREST is proposed as the device for early realization of net electric power generation by fusion energy. The plasma configuration for Demo-CREST is optimized to satisfy the electric breakeven condition (the condition for net electric power, P_{\\rme}^net=0\\,MW ) with the plasma performance of the ITER reference operation mode. This optimization method is considered to be suitable for the design of a demonstration power plant for early realization of net electric power generation, because the demonstration power plant has to ensure the net electric generation. Plasma performance should also be more reliably achieved than in past design studies. For the plasma performance planned in the present ITER programme, net electric power from 0 to 500 MW is possible with Demo-CREST under the following engineering conditions: maximum magnetic field 16 T, thermal efficiency 30%, NBI system efficiency 50% and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. By replacing the blanket system with one of higher thermal efficiency, a net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the performance of the commercial plant with Demo-CREST can also be studied from the economic point of view. The development path from the experimental reactor 'ITER' to the commercial plant 'CREST' through the demonstration power plant 'Demo-CREST' is proposed as an example of the fast track concept.

Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Shinya, K.; Ogawa, Y.

2005-02-01

204

Automatic generation control scheme based wind power generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a multi-area AGC scheme including wind turbine generating system (WTG) suitable in a restructured power system has been proposed. Developed scheme utilizes a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller to control the output of the generators. The parameters of PID controller has been tuned according to Genetic Algorithm (GA) based performance indices. The functioning of proposed scheme

Sandeep Bhongade; Barjeev Tyagi; H. O. Gupta

2011-01-01

205

Control of thermal therapies with moving power deposition field.  

PubMed

A thermal therapy feedback control approach to control thermal dose using a moving power deposition field is developed and evaluated using simulations. A normal tissue safety objective is incorporated in the controller design by imposing constraints on temperature elevations at selected normal tissue locations. The proposed control technique consists of two stages. The first stage uses a model-based sliding mode controller that dynamically generates an 'ideal' power deposition profile which is generally unrealizable with available heating modalities. Subsequently, in order to approximately realize this spatially distributed idealized power deposition, a constrained quadratic optimizer is implemented to compute intensities and dwell times for a set of pre-selected power deposition fields created by a scanned focused transducer. The dwell times for various power deposition profiles are dynamically generated online as opposed to the commonly employed a priori-decided heating strategies. Dynamic intensity and trajectory generation safeguards the treatment outcome against modelling uncertainties and unknown disturbances. The controller is designed to enforce simultaneous activation of multiple normal tissue temperature constraints by rapidly switching between various power deposition profiles. The hypothesis behind the controller design is that the simultaneous activation of multiple constraints substantially reduces treatment time without compromising normal tissue safety. The controller performance and robustness with respect to parameter uncertainties is evaluated using simulations. The results demonstrate that the proposed controller can successfully deliver the desired thermal dose to the target while maintaining the temperatures at the user-specified normal tissue locations at or below the maximum allowable values. Although demonstrated for the case of a scanned focused ultrasound transducer, the developed approach can be extended to other heating modalities with moving deposition fields, such as external and interstitial ultrasound phased arrays, multiple radiofrequency needle applicators and microwave antennae. PMID:16481688

Arora, Dhiraj; Minor, Mark A; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B

2006-02-08

206

Control of thermal therapies with moving power deposition field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal therapy feedback control approach to control thermal dose using a moving power deposition field is developed and evaluated using simulations. A normal tissue safety objective is incorporated in the controller design by imposing constraints on temperature elevations at selected normal tissue locations. The proposed control technique consists of two stages. The first stage uses a model-based sliding mode controller that dynamically generates an 'ideal' power deposition profile which is generally unrealizable with available heating modalities. Subsequently, in order to approximately realize this spatially distributed idealized power deposition, a constrained quadratic optimizer is implemented to compute intensities and dwell times for a set of pre-selected power deposition fields created by a scanned focused transducer. The dwell times for various power deposition profiles are dynamically generated online as opposed to the commonly employed a priori-decided heating strategies. Dynamic intensity and trajectory generation safeguards the treatment outcome against modelling uncertainties and unknown disturbances. The controller is designed to enforce simultaneous activation of multiple normal tissue temperature constraints by rapidly switching between various power deposition profiles. The hypothesis behind the controller design is that the simultaneous activation of multiple constraints substantially reduces treatment time without compromising normal tissue safety. The controller performance and robustness with respect to parameter uncertainties is evaluated using simulations. The results demonstrate that the proposed controller can successfully deliver the desired thermal dose to the target while maintaining the temperatures at the user-specified normal tissue locations at or below the maximum allowable values. Although demonstrated for the case of a scanned focused ultrasound transducer, the developed approach can be extended to other heating modalities with moving deposition fields, such as external and interstitial ultrasound phased arrays, multiple radiofrequency needle applicators and microwave antennae.

Arora, Dhiraj; Minor, Mark A.; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B.

2006-03-01

207

Small geothermal power plant. Portable turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial cost of geothermal power plant per kW output electricity will generally increase if the unit becomes smaller. In order to encourage the utilization of small geothermal energy, the low initial cost equipments must be developed. The small geothermal power plant equipment shall be delivered in short time, transported easily, and installed in short periods. Geothermal portable turbine generator meets these requirements. Therefore, this is suitable for the power generation in the area with small electric power demand such as small islands and isolated area.

Nakamura, N.

1982-12-01

208

Optimization of cogeneration thermal power units  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a procedure for comparing the efficiencies of cogeneration thermal power units that takes variable conditions of\\u000a their operation into account. A combined-cycle plant operating in accordance with the STIG cycle (i.e., with mixing of working\\u000a fluids), a gas turbine unit equipped with a gas economizer, and a steam turbine unit equipped with a backpressure turbine\\u000a are compared during

A. M. Kler; A. Yu. Marinchenko; Yu. M. Potanina

2009-01-01

209

Optimization of cogeneration thermal power units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure for comparing the efficiencies of cogeneration thermal power units that takes variable conditions of their operation into account. A combined-cycle plant operating in accordance with the STIG cycle (i.e., with mixing of working fluids), a gas turbine unit equipped with a gas economizer, and a steam turbine unit equipped with a backpressure turbine are compared during their operation as part of a cogeneration station.

Kler, A. M.; Marinchenko, A. Yu.; Potanina, Yu. M.

2009-09-01

210

Electrical machines technology for aerospace power generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power generators for aerospace and aircraft applications are now required to be more reliable. It is noted that the wound field synchronous generator has been the workhorse for producing 400-Hz AC electric power for many years. Substantial evolution has occurred over the years by replacing low-speed generators with the 24,000-rpm design. The quality of the AC waveform produced by the wound field generators is excellent, the excitation power requirement is low, and control of output power is easily accomplished under abnormal operating conditions. Other changing requirements include variety of power types, increased reliability, and higher speeds and temperatures. It is pointed out that wound field synchronous generators have limitations due to rotating windings and rotating rectifiers. Other options such as self-regulating permanent magnet generators, switched reluctance generators, reluctance generators, flux switches overcome these limitations. It is suggested that the selection from these options must be based on the specific requirements for a given application, evaluating overall system constraints such as weight, performance, and cost.

Vaidya, Jayant G.

211

Fiber optical sensors in power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raising demand for increase of efficiency and reduction of costs in power generation causes a mind change and promotes the commercial use of fiber optical sensors for health monitoring and control purposes.

Willsch, Michael

2012-01-01

212

Innovative gasification technology for future power generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the p...

K. Mahajan L. J. Shadle R. S. Sadowski

1995-01-01

213

Generator Costs for Wind Power Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive debate has persisted about type of generation which is most appropriate for wind power conversion to electricity with focus on two basic considerations: (1) technical and (2) economic. This document addresses fundamental economic issues in princ...

T. W. Reddoch

1978-01-01

214

Development of Inductive Storage Pulsed Power Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pulse generator, Pawn, has been assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory. It uses inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The capacitor bank stores 1 MJ...

R. J. Commisso J. R. Boller G. Cooperstein R. D. Ford P. J. Goodrich

1988-01-01

215

Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator for Electrical Power Generation from Automotive Waste Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filled skutterudites are state-of-the- art thermoelectric (TE) materials for electrical power generation from waste heat. They have suitable intrinsic transport properties as measured by the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = S^2?T/? (S = Seebeck coefficient, ? = electrical conductivity, T = temperature, and ? = thermal conductivity) and good mechanical strength for operation at vehicle exhaust gas temperatures of >550 C. We have demonstrated TE electrical power generation on a production test vehicle equipped with a fully functional prototype TE generator (TEG). It was assembled with TE modules fabricated from filled skutterudites synthesized at GM. Our results and analysis show that improvement in total power generated can be achieved by enhanced thermal and electrical interfaces and contacts. A substantial T decrease along the exhaust gas flow results in a large variation of voltage, current, and power output for each TE module depending on its position in the module array. Total TEG output power depends directly on the position-dependent T profile via the temperature dependence of both ZT and Carnot efficiency. Total TEG power output also depends on how the modules are connected in parallel or series combinations because mismatch in output voltage and/or internal resistance among the modules degrades the performance of the entire array. Uniform T profiles and consistent TE module internal resistances improve overall TEG performance.

Meisner, Gregory

2012-02-01

216

Thermal Analysis of the Z-Pinch Power Plant Concept  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a preliminary thermal model for the Z-Pinch Power Plant is presented. This power plant utilizes fusion energy to generate electric energy in the GW range. The Z-Pinch Technology consists of compressing high-density plasma to produce X-rays to indirectly heat to ignition a deuterium/tritium fusion capsule. This ignition releases a minimum of 3 GJ every 10 seconds. The thermal energy generated is absorbed by the primary cycle fluid, and it is later used to power a Brayton or Rankine cycle. An advanced heat exchanger is used as the interface between the two cycles. This heat exchanger plays an important role in power plant performance. Three fluids (Flibe, Pb-17Li, and Li) were used for the plant performance analysis. The thermodynamic properties of the selected fluids determine the maximum operating temperature of the power cycles. Model results show that high temperatures (over 1000 deg. C) are developed in the primary cycle as needed to efficiently run the secondary cycle. The results of the performance parametric study demonstrated that the Brayton cycle exhibits better performance characteristics than the Rankine cycle for this type of application.

Modesto, M.A.; Lindgren, E.R.; Morrow, C.W. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

217

Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%,

U. C Mishra

2004-01-01

218

International Technical Seminar on Pumps for Thermal Power Stations Held at New Delhi, India on 13-14 March 1980. Volume II: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Seminar was organized with the objective of focusing attention of pump manufacturers on the requirements arising out of the future power generation programs, and of the thermal power stations on the significance of pumps in the power generating syste...

1980-01-01

219

Small geothermal power plant. Portable turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial cost of geothermal power plant per kW output electricity will generally increase if the unit becomes smaller. In order to encourage the utilization of small geothermal energy, the low initial cost equipments must be developed. The small geothermal power plant equipment shall be delivered in short time, transported easily, and installed in short periods. Geothermal portable turbine generator

N. Nakamura

1982-01-01

220

Review of pulsed rf power generation  

SciTech Connect

I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies.

Lavine, T.L.

1992-04-01

221

Adequacy evaluation of wind power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to assess the adequacy of wind power generation systems using the data collected from seven wind farms in Muppandal, Tamilnadu (India) with a total capacity of 37 MW. A Monte Carlo model simulation is incorporated in the algorithm to obtain the hourly power output of wind farms, which also takes into account the unavailability of wind turbines. A

M. Carolin Mabel; R. Edwin Raj; E. Fernandez

2010-01-01

222

Solar powered navigation buoy generator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar generating system designed to convert existing navigation buoys using conventional throw-away batteries to more economical rechargeable batteries lasting several years. It comprises a flat rectangular stainless steel mounting platform with two solar panels and two flexible antennas mounted on the platform and a hole punched in the center of the platform in the space between the two solar panels and sized to fit over the existing caisson of the buoy and adapted to be secured in place on the existing buoy caisson by means of the existing lens locking nut and security bolt of the caisson, a wiring harness connected to the solar panels mounted on the flat rectangular stainless steel platform adapted to extend through the wall of the buoy caisson and to connect with the rechargeable battery, further including a series connected blocking diode to prevent the battery from discharging during peak periods.

Meyers, R.D.

1991-11-19

223

Compact pulsed power generators for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given as follows. Compact pulsed power generators using high-power semiconductor switches are being developed at Nagaoka University of Technology, in collaboration with partners from Japanese industry. The switching units involved in these studies are the most up-to-date semiconductor switches such as static-induction thyristor (SI-thyristor), insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), high-power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), and semiconductor

W. Jiang; K. Yatsui; N. Shimizu; K. Iida; A. Tokuchi

2003-01-01

224

Tidal power plant and method of power generation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A plurality of tidal chambers are filled in succession during rising tide and then are allowed to sequentially empty during the half-cycle of falling tide. Power is generated by air flow across a turbine, as a manifold and valve means communicate air pressure from the tidal chambers during rising tide and vacuum pressure during falling tide. Sequential operation of the tidal chambers permits continuous generation of power during the full cycle of rising and falling tide.

Woodman; Harvey R. (Napavine, WA)

1978-07-04

225

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

SciTech Connect

In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium-temperature (200 to 400{degrees}C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal hydroxides was identified as a leading candidate for meeting Luz International's cost and performance requirements. The principal objectives of this study were to identify the design conditions, requirements, and potential feasibility for a chemical energy storage system applied to a SEGS solar thermal power plant. The remaining sections of this report begin by providing an overview of the chemical reaction energy storage concept and a SEGS solar thermal power plant. Subsequent sections describe the initial screening of alternative evaporation energy sources and the more detailed evaluation of design alternatives considered for the preferred evaporation energy source. The final sections summarize the results, conclusions, and recommendations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

Brown, D.R.; LaMarche, J.L.; Spanner, G.E.

1991-09-01

226

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal hydroxides was identified as a leading candidate for meeting Luz International's cost and performance requirements. The principal objectives of this study were to identify the design conditions, requirements, and potential feasibility for a chemical energy storage system applied to a SEGS solar thermal power plant. The remaining sections of this report begin by providing an overview of the chemical reaction energy storage concept and a SEGS solar thermal power plant. Subsequent sections describe the initial screening of alternative evaporation energy sources and the more detailed evaluation of design alternatives considered for the preferred evaporation energy source. The final sections summarize the results, conclusions, and recommendations.

Brown, D. R.; Lamarche, J. L.; Spanner, G. E.

1991-09-01

227

Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for solar electric power generation in space is described. A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas\\/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected

J. H. Lee; F. Hohl

1981-01-01

228

Solar Power Satellite Thermal Control Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of generating solar power in space and transmitting it to earth or any other desired destination such as a planet, moon, or to charge a space vehicle via microwaves, stems from a wide variety of human needs and necessities. It is now a well-known fact that world population increases at a very rapid rate, nearly 80 millions or

E. Sacchi; G. Cassisa; M. Gottero

2004-01-01

229

Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.

1983-06-01

230

Solar driven liquid metal mhd power generator  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a mhd generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the mhd generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

Hohl, F.; Lee, J.H.

1983-06-14

231

A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) must satisfy the requirements of specific loads given the signal level, stability, and power performance. In the design of such systems, one major challenge involves the interactions between the thermoelectric power source and the power stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC-DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC-DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design. Finally, the thermal-electric coupling effects caused by current-related heat source terms, such as the Peltier effect etc., are reported and discussed, and the potential influence on the power electronics design due to such coupling is analyzed.

Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min; Kang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhong

2012-06-01

232

Dislocation Generation by Thermal Stresses in Si: Modeling and Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed a finite-element modeling program to predict the thermally generated dislocation distribution in a wafer. This model uses measured parameters that are determined from generating dislocations under a known optical flux.

B. Sopori P. Sheldon P. Rupnowki D. Balzar

2005-01-01

233

Development of an independent type of hybrid power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the optimum control technology of an independent type of hybrid power system with wind and solar power generation, which enables a stable power supply to the loads, proposed and developed. This system comprises wind power generation inverter, solar power generation inverter, bidirectional inverter for storage batteries, and engine generator. Each inverter is connected with engine generator in

T. Hirose; H. Matsuo; Y. Ishizuka

2009-01-01

234

BRIEF COMMUNICATION: An alternative source for generating atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication presents an alternative source for the generation of non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure. It is based on a very simple electric diagram that generates, on the plasma electrode, an electric field sufficiently high to ionize various gases (helium, argon or even air), which flow at atmospheric pressure. The dc power supply is lower than 10 V, the frequency of the electric field is in the range 0.1-1 MHz and the plasma power is less than 1 W. The plasma is generated using only one electrode. It has all the characteristics of non-thermal plasmas.

Anghel, S. D.; Simon, A.

2007-08-01

235

Study on Terminal Voltage and Power Factor Control of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with two types of control method concerning induction generator used in wind power generating station. One is aiming at keeping the voltage magnitude of the node of the station and the other is aiming at keeping the constant power factor through the branch connecting to the station. Both of them are able to be in controllable area by adjusting generator reactive power using compensating capacitor. At first, the theoretical equations expressing terminal voltage and power factor for induction generator are derived, and then the compensating capacitor corresponding to the wind velocity variation is determined quantitatively. By using the proposed control method, it is confirmed to be able to keep the terminal voltage and operating power factor of wind power generation system to a target value even in the case when the abrupt deviation is caused by wind power disturbance.

Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Kuninaka, Ryo; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki; Funabashi, Toshihisa

236

Power processing issues for micro-power electrostatic generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

For various monitoring and sensing applications it is desirable to power the electronics by scavenging energy from any locally available source. A prototype generator for low frequency (human body) motion has been developed using a micro-machined (MEMS) implementation of an inertial generator based on a moving-plate capacitor. The prototype generates pulses of 300 V on a 10 pF capacitor. This

B. H. Stark; P. D. Mitcheson; P. Miao; T. C. Green; E. M. Yeatman; A. S. Holmes

2004-01-01

237

Geothermal power generation - An aggressive utility program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last ten years, utilities and resource production companies have made major commitments to the development of geothermal resources, located in the Imperial Valley. The program considered includes the construction of three flash steam power plants with varying objectives and designs which will assist in the assessment of the feasibility of hot water geothermal as a base load generation option. Attention is given to the geothermal potential, a 10 MW power plant project, a cooling water system, a 45 MW power plant project, an evaluation of steam condition and turbine, a Salton Sea 9 MW power plant project, resource exploration, a technology assessment, and the expected results.

Crane, G. K.

1981-05-01

238

Utilization of wind power of artificially generated mesoscale convection in the troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prospects on utilization of wind power of artificially generated mesoscale convection is studied. Thermal energy is converted to kinetic energy by the convection in the troposphere with high efficiency. The artificially generated mesoscale convection is considered to be applicable for artificial precipitation of rain, and solar/wind power plants in subtropical arid regions where solar thermal energy is abundant. Performance of several 100 GW class power plants is also studied theoretically. The utilization of wind power of artificially generated mesoscale convection is considered to be feasible for a new major energy sources for human activities, and for development in the subtropical developing countries.

Kinoshita, Mikio

239

Integrated propulsion and power modeling for bimodal nuclear thermal rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) engines have been shown to reduce the weight of space vehicles to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by utilizing a common reactor for propulsion and power generation. These savings lead to reduced launch vehicle costs and/or increased mission safety and capability. Experimental work of the Rover/NERVA program demonstrated the feasibility of NTR systems for trajectories to Mars. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the economic and performance benefits of BNTR operation. Relatively little, however, is known about the reactor-level operation of a BNTR engine. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a numerical BNTR engine model in order to study the feasibility and component-level impact of utilizing a NERVA-derived reactor as a heat source for both propulsion and power. The primary contribution is to provide the first-of-its-kind model and analysis of a NERVA-derived BNTR engine. Numerical component models have been modified and created for the NERVA reactor fuel elements and tie tubes, including 1-D coolant thermodynamics and radial thermal conduction with heat generation. A BNTR engine system model has been created in order to design and analyze an engine employing an expander-cycle nuclear rocket and Brayton cycle power generator using the same reactor. Design point results show that a 316 MWt reactor produces a thrust and specific impulse of 66.6 kN and 917 s, respectively. The same reactor can be run at 73.8 kWt to produce the necessary 16.7 kW electric power with a Brayton cycle generator. This demonstrates the feasibility of BNTR operation with a NERVA-derived reactor but also indicates that the reactor control system must be able to operate with precision across a wide power range, and that the transient analysis of reactor decay heat merits future investigation. Results also identify a significant reactor pressure-drop limitation during propulsion and power-generation operation that is caused by poor tie tube thermal conductivity. This leads to the conclusion that, while BNTR operation is possible with a NERVA-derived reactor, doing so requires careful consideration of the Brayton cycle design point and fuel element survivability.

Clough, Joshua

240

Current status of waste to power generation in Japan and resulting reduction of carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the current status of waste to power generation (WPG) in Japan and various scenarios involving indirect reduction\\u000a of carbon dioxide emissions by WPG. The number of WPG facilities domestically as of 2005 was 286. Power generation capacity\\u000a attained 1,515 MW and power generation 7,050 GWh\\/year. This amount substitutes energy otherwise acquired from natural resources\\u000a such as fossil fuels in thermal

Masaki Takaoka; Nobuo Takeda; Naruo Yamagata; Takahiro Masuda

241

An efficient way to use medium-or-low temperature solar heat for power generation – integration into conventional power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the medium-or-low temperature solar heat can be used to generate power efficiently by integrating into conventional coal-fired power plants. In so-called solar aided power generation (SAPG) technology, medium-or-low temperature solar heat is used to replace parts of bled-off steams in regenerative Rankine cycle to pre-heat feedwater. Thermal oil can be used as solar heat carrier and

Yongping Yang; Qin Yan; Rongrong Zhai; Abbas Kouzani; Eric Hu

2011-01-01

242

Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs).

Priyantha D. C Wijayatunga; W. J. L. S Fernando; Ram M Shrestha

2004-01-01

243

A novel short-term generation scheduling technique of thermal units using ant colony search algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel co-operative agents approach, ant colony search algorithm (ACSA)-based scheme, for solving a short-term generation scheduling problem of thermal power systems. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of an alternative intelligent search method in power system optimisation, particularly in short-term generation scheduling problems. The ACSA is derived from the theoretical biology

I. K Yu; Y. H Song

2001-01-01

244

Generation of Granulites Constrained by Thermal Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat source needed to generate granulites facies metamorphism is still an unsolved problem in geology. There is a close spatial relationship between granulite terrains and extensive silicic plutonism, suggesting heat advection by melts is critical to their formation. To investigate the role of heat advection by melt in the generation of granulites we use numerical 1-D models which include the movement of melt from the base of the crust to the middle crust. The model is in part constrained by petrological observations from the Coast Plutonic Complex (CPC) in British Columbia, Canada at ~ 54° N where migmatite and granulite are widespread. The model takes into account time dependent heat conduction and advection of melts generated at the base of the crust. The model starts with a crust of 55 km, consistent with petrologic and geochemical data from the CPC. The lower crust is assumed to be amphibolite in composition, consistent with seismologic and geochemical constraints for the CPC. An initial geothermal gradient estimated from metamorphic P-T-t paths in this region is ~37°C/km, hotter than normal geothermal gradients. The parameters used for the model are a coefficient of thermal conductivity of 2.5 W/m°C, a density for the crust of 2700 kg/m3 and a heat capacity of 1170 J/Kg°C. Using the above starting conditions, a temperature of 1250°C is assumed for the mantle below 55 km, equivalent to placing asthenosphere in contact with the base of the crust to simulate delamination, basaltic underplating and/or asthenospheric exposure by a sudden steepening of slab. This condition at 55 km results in melting the amphibolite in the lower crust. Once a melt fraction of 10% is reached the melt is allowed to migrate to a depth of 13 km, while material at 13 km is displaced downwards to replace the ascending melts. The steady-state profile has a very steep geothermal gradient of more than 50°C/km from the surface to 13 km, consistent with the generation of andalusite grade rocks. In order to match the observations of the granulite terrane within the CPC two extreme cases were found. The first case is when the mantle heat flux achieved a minimum persistent value of 95 mW/ m2 after decaying from initially having the asthenosphere at the base of the crust. This is equivalent to intruding 0.72 km/Ma of basalt at a depth of 68 km. Within the first 5 Ma, a pluton is formed at 13 km depth diffusing heat downwards into the colder lower crust for 30 Ma. After 35 Ma the model arrives to a steady-state profile where a pluton is at 13 km and the middle and lower crust are at temperatures above 700°C with partial melting within the bottom 12 km of the crust. Melting of the lowermost crust is constrained by the solidus curve of amphibolite. With greater mantle heat fluxes (asthenosphere even closer to the moho) the quasi-steady state is arrived at sooner. In the second case, when the mantle heat flux is 50 mW/m2, equivalent to intruding 0.38 km/Ma of basalts at constant rate at a depth of 80 km, the steady-state profile does not generate granulites in the middle crust. In this case, in order to produce granulites in the middle crust focusing of the melt is needed. Focusing implies that there is more melt being accumulated in the pluton than that being generated in the rock column directly below it, implying that melt migrates laterally from other areas and are accumulated in the profile. This increases the thickness of the crust. By focusing the melt by a factor of two, the steady state is arrived after 16 Ma. Our simulation shows that melt focusing is required for all mantle heat fluxes below 75 mW/m2.

Depine, G. V.; Andronicos, C. L.; Phipps-Morgan, J.

2006-12-01

245

The small community solar thermal power experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contractors were asked to develop a preferred system concept, to perform sensitivity analyses, and to outline recommended approaches for the follow-on design program of a one-megawatt solar thermal demonstration plant. The systems recommended by the contractors in each of the categories were: (1) McDonnell-Douglas Astronautics Company: Central tower with field of south-facing heliostats; (2) General Electric Company: Field of parabolic dishes with steam piped to a central turbine-generator unit; and (3) Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation: Field of parabolic dishes with a Stirling cycle engine/generator unit at the focus of each dish. A description of each of the proposed experimental plants is given.

Kiceniuk, T.

1981-05-01

246

ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations

Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

2005-01-01

247

Ensuring spinning reserve in generation deficient Indian power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power systems of many developing countries are facing sustained generation deficiency. India is not an exception to this. Due to generation shortage, Indian power system operates without spinning reserve as committing some of the available power generation units for spinning reserve is equivalent to loss of generation in power deficient scenario. In power system, spinning reserve is required for reliable

Sarasij Das

2009-01-01

248

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating period, and/or allow a higher fraction of power production to occur during high-valued peak demand periods. Higher energy storage densities make chemical energy storage a potentially attractive option. The results of the evaluation indicated that a system based on the reversible reaction, CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2, could be technically and economically feasible for this application, but many technical and economic issues must be resolved.

Brown, D. R.; Lamarche, J. L.; Spanner, G. E.

1992-04-01

249

Advanced high-power generator research program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes work accomplished in phase 3 of the advanced high-power generator research and development program, F33615-76-C-2168, part of an Air Force exploratory development program for high-power airborne electrical power supply technology. The program includes the design of a 5-mw generator for use in a 10-mw power supply and fabrication and testing of the generator rotor. The five program phases are: phase 1, design; phase 2, critical component testing; phase 3, rotor fabrication; phase 4, rotor testing; and phase 5, test plan preparation. The overall objective of the exploratory development program is to demonstrate through prototype hardware testing, that an ultralightweight (0.1 1b/kw), nonsuperconducting generator can be successfully built in the 1-to-10-mw power range. The program was terminated at the end of phase 3. This report covers the fabrication of a samarium-cobalt permanent magnet rotor which included: HIP-(hot isostatic pressure) bonding, heat treating, machining, magnet assembly, sleeve installation, and spinning.

Johnson, Tracy E.

1986-05-01

250

Generation of thermal muonium in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

We find that thermal-energy muonium atoms are emitted from a clean hot tungsten foil in which positive muons are stopping near the surface. The temperature dependence of the thermal muonium signal yields a surprisingly low activation energy of 0.66(4) eV, suggesting that we are observing the thermionic emission of muonium from the solid. The total muonium yield at 2300 K is about 0.04 per stopped muon of 23 MeV/c initial muon momentum. A number of new experiments should be possible using this unique source of thermal muonium in vacuum.

Mills A.P. Jr.; Imazato, J.; Saitoh, S.; Uedono, A.; Kawashima, Y.; Nagamine, K.

1986-04-07

251

Entropy-generated power and its efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple and analytically solvable model for a motor that generates mechanical motion by exploiting an entropic force arising from the topology of the underlying phase space. We show that the generation of mechanical forces in our system is surprisingly robust to local changes in kinetic and topological parameters. Furthermore, we find that the efficiency at maximum power of the motor may show discontinuities.

Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.; Esposito, M.

2013-10-01

252

Thermal power plants and method of operating a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal power plant is described in which an alkali metal vapor energy conversion circuit is arranged in heat transfer relationship with an additional circuit whose working medium does not vigorously react with alkali metal. Diphenyl, terphenyl are disclosed as suitable media. The additional circuit may in turn be in heat transfer relationship with a steam circuit, in which event

Rajakovics

1977-01-01

253

Thermal management strategies for high power semiconductor pump lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor pump lasers are an important component in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and Raman amplifiers. Thermal management has become one of the major obstacles of pump laser development. Understanding of the thermal behavior of high power laser packages is crucial to the thermal design and optimization of pump lasers. In this paper, we report on the thermal characteristics of a high

Xingsheng Liu; Martin H. Hu; Catherine G. Caneau; Rajaram Bhat; Lawrence C. Hughes; Chung-En Zah

2004-01-01

254

Thermal power systems small power systems application project: Siting issues for solar thermal power plants with small community applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The siting issues associated with small, dispersed solar thermal power plants for utility\\/small community applications of less than 10 MWe are reported. Some specific requirements are refered to the first engineering experiment for the Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project. The background for the subsequent issue discussions is provided. The SPSA Project and the requirements for the first engineering experiment

H. J. Holbeck; S. J. Ireland

1979-01-01

255

New Generation Perovskite Thermal Barrier Coating Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced ceramic materials of perovskite structure have been developed for potential application in thermal barrier coating systems, in an effort to improve the properties of the pre-existing ones like yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yb2O3 and Gd2O3 doped strontium zirconate (SrZrO3) and barium magnesium tantalate (Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3) of the ABO3 and complex A(B'1/3B''2/3)O3 systems, respectively, have been synthesized using ball milling prior to solid state sintering. Thermal and mechanical investigations show desirable properties for high-temperature coating applications. On atmospheric plasma spraying, the newly developed thermal barrier coatings reveal promising thermal cycle lifetime up to 1350 °C.

Ma, W.; Jarligo, M. O.; Mack, D. E.; Pitzer, D.; Malzbender, J.; Vaßen, R.; Stöver, D.

2008-12-01

256

Materials for a solar thermal electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric power generating system using solar heat to operate a Stirling engine driven alternator is presented in detail and analyzed. The Dish Stirling Solar Thermal Electric Power System (DSSTEP) is an array of modular generating units consisting of paraboloidal concentrators which focus the incident solar flux at the focal plane to produce the high temperatures needed for efficient operation of the heat engine. The concentrator, made of back silvered glass for superior reflectivity and greater erosion resistance has a diameter of 10 m. The Stirling Engine receives the heat produced by the generating units and through heating and cooling of the working fluid (helium at 1500 F under 2500 psi pressure) drives the piston and generates power. The Dish Stirling Solar Receiver (DSSR) consists of four quadrants, each containing 12 copper tubes (coated with an Alloy 617 shell) 0.265 in O.D. and 0.145 in I.D. Metallographic studies of specimens under simulated operating conditions gave no evidence of problems and a receiver is being constructed for a full system test.

Myskowski, E. T.; Frankel, H. E.; Woodward, J. R.; Mueller, R. S.

1980-12-01

257

A thermoelectric generator using porous si thermal isolation.  

PubMed

In this paper we report on a thermoelectric generator (TEG) using thermal isolation provided by a thick porous Si layer locally formed on the Si wafer and thermocouples composed of p-doped polycrystalline Si/Al. The "hot" contacts of the thermocouples lie on the porous Si layer, while the "cold" contacts lie on bulk crystalline Si. A housing was also designed and fabricated in order to transfer any external temperature change on the "hot" contacts of the thermocouples, the "cold" contacts being isolated from the "hot" contacts by a thick resist layer. The fabrication of the sensing element (Si die) is fully compatible with batch Si processing. The output power of the thermoelectric generator depends on the porous Si isolation layer thickness, porosity, structure and morphology. For a mesoporous Si layer of 60% porosity and a macroscopic temperature differential of 10 K, an output power of 0.39 ?W/cm2 was measured for a 50 ?m thick porous Si layer. PMID:24152923

Hourdakis, Emmanouel; Nassiopoulou, Androula G

2013-10-10

258

Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction  

DOEpatents

The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

Ross, J.; Escher, C.

1988-06-07

259

Open cycle chemical power and thermal management integration for space weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weapons typically require large amounts of power and substantial cooling. Independent design of the power-generator and thermal-management subsystems leads to excessive platform weight. Chemically fueled space-based lasers have large reactant-conditioning heat-input requirements. An integrated power and thermal-management system (IPTMS) for these weapons uses the waste heat from the power generation cycle to provide reactant heating. Electrically powered weapons have high power and cooling requirements. In an IPTMS, a common expendable hydrogen supply permits the cooling fluid to be used as the power-generation working fluid. Optimization of the temperature selected for the cryogenically cooled components is shown to provide minimum overall hydrogen consumption, and thus minimizes system weight.

Weber, Kent; Giellis, Roger

1987-06-01

260

Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

2010-09-01

261

Microelectromechanical power generator and vibration sensor  

SciTech Connect

A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which can be used to generate electrical power in response to an external source of vibrations, or to sense the vibrations and generate an electrical output voltage in response thereto. The MEM apparatus utilizes a meandering electrical pickup located near a shuttle which holds a plurality of permanent magnets. Upon movement of the shuttle in response to vibrations coupled thereto, the permanent magnets move in a direction substantially parallel to the meandering electrical pickup, and this generates a voltage across the meandering electrical pickup. The MEM apparatus can be fabricated by LIGA or micromachining.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-11-28

262

New High Thermal Conductivity Thermoplastics for Power Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend towards higher density, higher frequency, higher power active devices in placing increasingly difficult demands on device packaging. Materials with high thermal conductivities are replacing the traditional ceramics in hermetic, high power packages, and MCM\\/ hybrid modules. Thermally enhanced plastic packages more frequently feature heat sinks embedded in the package for direct attachment of the power devices. Today's challenge

R. L. Dietz; D. Peck; P. J. Robinson; M. G. Firmstone; P. M. Bartholomew; G. Paterson

1997-01-01

263

Thermal effects of leakage power in 3D ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal issue is a primary concern in three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) design. In modern IC design, leakage power is becoming a key design challenge which contributes to thermal issues. Due to technology scaling, the leakage power is rising so quickly that it largely increases the die temperature. In this paper, we first investigate the impact of leakage power on

Yuchun Mal; Kan Wang; Sheqin Dong; Yu Wang; Xianlong Hong

2010-01-01

264

Plasma plume MHD power generator and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

1993-01-01

265

Estimation of solar power generating capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. In order to integrate this type of source into an existing power distribution system, system planners need an accurate model that predicts the availability of the generating capacity. Solar resources are known to exhibit a high variability in space and time due to the influence of other climatic factors

Lin Phyo Naing; Dipti Srinivasan

2010-01-01

266

Power generation from landfill gas. Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nine papers and four discussion sessions are presented at a one day meeting on power generation from landfill gas organised for the UK Dept. of Energy. Topics covered include the research and demonstration programs funded by the UK DOE, the trace componen...

J. F. Gorman D. H. Maunder G. E. Richards

1992-01-01

267

Power generator utilizing elevation-temperature differential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power generator is disclosed that includes a closed pressure resisting tubular loop having a lower warmed end and an upper cooled end joined by connecting penstock column and a return column. The tubular loop is filled with a fluid under pressure, the critical point of which is between the temperatures of the cooled and warmed ends, to cause the

Pommier

1980-01-01

268

Black tungsten for solar power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of micro/nano textured tungsten as an efficient solar absorber is explored via computational electrodynamics simulations. Pseudo-random structures are investigated, along with the effects of protective oxide coatings. These structures show extremely high absorption across the solar spectrum along with relaxed requirements for manufacturing, allowing them to be applied for power generation.

Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K.; Gupta, Mool C.

2013-08-01

269

Permanent Magnet Generators for Portable Military Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Army MERDC has a continuing program to develop and update a family of portable and/or mobile power generation sets for use by the United States military services. In the past decade, a number of new permanent magnet materials have been d...

E. F. Hammond A. E. King A. L. Jokl

1971-01-01

270

Magnetic fields generated by power lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors compute the magnetic fields generated by a lot of typical power line configurations and compare these values with the results given both by analytical models and by measurements. The computations have been made by means of a flexible calculation code developed by the authors. This code overcomes some simplifying assumptions introduced in previous analytical studies.

A. Geri; A. Locatelli; G. M. Veca

1995-01-01

271

Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

Abreu, Lisias

272

Thermal management strategies for high power semiconductor pump lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor pump lasers are an important component in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and Raman amplifiers. Thermal management has become one of the major obstacles of pump laser development. Understanding of the thermal behavior of high-power laser packages is crucial to the thermal design and optimization of pump lasers. In this paper, we report on the thermal characteristics of a high-power pump

Xingsheng Liu; Martin H. Hu; Catherine G. Caneau; Rajaram Bhat; Chung-En Zah

2006-01-01

273

Recent advances in RF power generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a review of the progress and methods used in RF generation for particle accelerators. The frequencies of interest are from a few megahertz to 100 GHz, and the powers are for super linear collider applications, but in this case the pulses are short, generally below 1 {mu}s. The very high-power, short-pulse generators are only lightly reviewed here, and for more details the reader should follow the specialized references. Different RF generators excel over various parts of the frequency spectrum. Below 100 MHz solid-state devices and gridded tubes prevail, while the region between 400 MHz and 3 GHz, the cyclotron-resonant devices predominate, and above 250 GHz, Free-Electron Lasers and ubitrons are the most powerful generators. The emphasis for this review is on microwave generation at frequencies below 20 GHz, so the cyclotron-resonant devices are only partially reviewed, while the progress on free-electron laser and ubitrons is not reviewed in this paper. 39 refs., 4 figs.

Tallerico, P.J.

1990-01-01

274

Optical generation of radio-frequency power  

SciTech Connect

An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100`s of mW`s at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ``wall-plug`` efficiency approaching 34%.

Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

1994-11-01

275

Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding thermal pad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited by mechanical stress. The power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by the stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm3. However, no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of the piezoelectric transformer is limited to 33 W/cm3 typically. This fact implies that there is another physical limitation in piezoelectric transformer. In fact, it is also known that piezoelectric material is constrained by vibration velocity. Once the vibration velocity is too large, the piezoelectric transformer generates heat until it cracks. To explain the instability of piezoelectric transformer, we will first model the relationship between vibration velocity and resulting heat by a physical feedback loop. It will be shown that the vibration velocity as well as the heat generation determines the loop gain. A large vibration velocity and heat may cause the feedback loop to enter into an unstable state. Therefore, to enhance the power capacity of piezoelectric transformer, the heat needs to be dissipated. In this paper, we used commercial thermal pads on the surface of the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate the heat. The mechanical current of piezoelectric transformers can move from 0.382A/2W to 0.972A/9W at a temperature of 55°C experimentally. It implies that the power capacity possibly increases 3 times in the piezoelectric material. Moreover, piezoelectric transformers that are well suited in applications of high voltage/low current becomes also well suited for low voltage/high current power supplies that are widely spread. This technique not only increases the power capacity of the piezoelectric transformer but also allows it to be used in enlarged practical applications. In this paper, the theoretical modeling will be detailed and verified by experiments.

Su, Y. H.; Liu, Y. P.; Vasic, D.; Costa, F.

2012-03-01

276

Evaluation of solar thermal storage for base load electricity generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stabilize solar electric power production during the day and prolong the daily operating cycle for several hours in the nighttime, solar thermal power plants have the options of using either or both solar thermal storage and fossil fuel hybridization. The share of solar energy in the annual electricity production capacity of hybrid solar-fossil power plants without energy storage is only about 20%. As it follows from the computer simulations performed for base load electricity demand, a solar annual capacity as high as 70% can be attained by use of a reasonably large thermal storage capacity of 22 full load operating hours. In this study, the overall power system performance is analyzed with emphasis on energy storage characteristics promoting a high level of sustainability for solar termal electricity production. The basic system parameters, including thermal storage capacity, solar collector size, and annual average daily discharge time, are presented and discussed.

Adinberg, R.

2012-10-01

277

Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

2009-03-01

278

A numerical investigation of a thermodielectric power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a novel micro-thermodielectric power generation system was investigated in order to determine if thermodielectric power generation can be practically employed and if its performance can compete with current portable power generation technologies. Thermodielectric power generation is a direct energy conversion technology that converts heat directly into high voltage direct current. It requires dielectric (i.e., capacitive) materials whose

Akiva A. Sklar

2005-01-01

279

Harmonic power generation of IMPATT diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The harmonic power generation capability of IMPATT diodes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The existing computer simulation program for IMPATT diodes, employing the drift-diffusion model, is used to investigate four different conventional double-drift IMPATT diodes operated in the active mode and three pin diodes with different lengths operated in the passive mode and three pin diodes with different lengths operated in the passive mode at a fundamental frequency of 23 GHz. For conventional IMPATT diodes, the depletion-layer modulation effect, which strongly depends on the diode doping structure, is essential for harmonic power generation. Because of the moderate dependence of the harmonic current on the terminal RF voltage, the GaAs and Si uniform diodes seem to be promising devices for harmonic power generation. The GaAs uniform diode can achieve the highest third-harmonic efficiency, of the order of 4.1 percent, while the Si uniform diode can achieve the highest third-harmonic power of the order of 1.

Pao, C. K.

1985-09-01

280

D0 Experimental Area Emergency Backup Power and Generator Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DO experimental area has a generator designated as emergency power. This generator provides power for critical loads and starts automatically upon loss of commercial power. This note concerns the testing of this generator. A list of loads is attached to this note. One of the loads on the emergency power grid is a 10KVA Uninterruptable Power Supply(UPS). The UPS

D. Markley

1991-01-01

281

Investigation of Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects in Superconducting Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of this contract is primarily applied research to demonstrate electrical, thermal and magnetic effects in a superconductor under conditions which will occur in superconductor generators. The work during the first quarter consisted prim...

H. W. Mooncai R. L. Mela R. Hancox E. F. Doyle M. Hurwitz

1964-01-01

282

Turbostar: an ICF reactor using both direct and thermal power conversion. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Combining direct and thermal power conversion results in a 52% gross plant efficiency with DT fuel and 68% with advanced DD fuel. We maximize the fraction of fusion-yield energy converted to kinetic energy in a liquid-lithium blanket, and use this energy directly with turbine generators to produce electricity. We use the remainder of the energy to produce electricity in a standard Rankine thermal power conversion cycle.

Pitts, J.H.

1986-07-31

283

ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

2005-01-20

284

Ash from thermal power plants as secondary raw material.  

PubMed

The basic characteristic of thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia is that they use low-grade brown coal (lignite) as a fuel. Depending on the location of coal mines, lignite may have different properties such as heating value, moisture, and mineral content, resulting in different residue upon combustion. Because of several million tonnes of ash and slag generated every year, their granularmetric particle size distribution, and transport and disposal methods, these plants have a negative impact on the environment. According to the waste classification system in the Republic of Serbia, ash and slag from thermal power plants are classified as hazardous waste, but with an option of usability. The proposed revision of waste legislation in Serbia brings a number of simple and modern solutions. A procedure is introduced which allows for end-of-waste criteria to be set, clarifying the point where waste ceases to be waste, and thereby introducing regulatory relief for recycled products or materials that represent low risk for the environment. The new proposal refocuses waste legislation on the environmental impacts of the generation and management of waste, taking into account the life cycle of resources, and develops new waste prevention programmes. Stakeholders, as well as the general public, should have the opportunity to participate in the drawing up of the programmes, and should have access to them. PMID:17562607

Cudi?, Vladica; Kisi?, Dragica; Stojiljkovi?, Dragoslava; Jovovi?, Aleksandar

2007-06-01

285

Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

SciTech Connect

Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2008-02-15

286

Tritium labeling by thermally generated tritons  

SciTech Connect

The predominant effect of thermal atom irradiation on solid molecules is saturation of their aromatic functions. Only low level of tritium exchange is observed for aliphatic solids. In contrast, liquids whose frozen surface can be rendered somewhat mobile at appropriate temperatures exhibit more exchange than addition. The rank order of effectiveness of several metals in promoting exchange/addition appears similar to the rank order for heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.; Saljoughian, M.

1988-06-01

287

Coupled Monte Carlo neutronics and thermal hydraulics for power reactors  

SciTech Connect

The availability of high performance computing resources enables more and more the use of detailed Monte Carlo models even for full core power reactors. The detailed structure of the core can be described by lattices, modeled by so-called repeated structures e.g. in Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP5 or MCNPX. For cores with mainly uniform material compositions, fuel and moderator temperatures, there is no problem in constructing core models. However, when the material composition and the temperatures vary strongly a huge number of different material cells must be described which complicate the input and in many cases exceed code or memory limits. The second problem arises with the preparation of corresponding temperature dependent cross sections and thermal scattering laws. Only if these problems can be solved, a realistic coupling of Monte Carlo neutronics with an appropriate thermal-hydraulics model is possible. In this paper a method for the treatment of detailed material and temperature distributions in MCNP5 is described based on user-specified internal functions which assign distinct elements of the core cells to material specifications (e.g. water density) and temperatures from a thermal-hydraulics code. The core grid itself can be described with a uniform material specification. The temperature dependency of cross sections and thermal neutron scattering laws is taken into account by interpolation, requiring only a limited number of data sets generated for different temperatures. Applications will be shown for the stationary part of the Purdue PWR benchmark using ATHLET for thermal- hydraulics and for a generic Modular High Temperature reactor using THERMIX for thermal- hydraulics. (authors)

Bernnat, W.; Buck, M.; Mattes, M. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zwermann, W.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH, Forschungszentrum, Boltzmannstrase 14, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-07-01

288

Solar Thermal Power Systems Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Projects. Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition stu...

A. Marriott

1980-01-01

289

MHD-steam thermal power plant electrical stations with zero stack emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system study of a combined cycle MHD-steam thermal power plant electrical station with zero stack emission through recirculation of CO 2, is presented. The design of the MHD generator of the topper is done by means of a quasi-one dimensional optimization model. The technology of the components is conventional. An overall efficiency larger than 40% for power plants with

C. A. Borghi; P. L. Ribani

1996-01-01

290

Optimum power plant capacity of ocean-based ocean thermal energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is proposed to optimize the ocean thermal energy conversion plant capacity on the basis of performance evaluation by the heat transfer area of heat exchanger per net generated output power. This optimization process is illustrated by the example of a plant with total output capacity of 100 MW (working fluid NH3). Temperature and pump power allocations and the

Takenobu Kajikawa; Takashi Agawa; Takuya Homma

1977-01-01

291

18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant...the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and thermoelectric generating...

2010-04-01

292

18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant...the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and thermoelectric generating...

2009-04-01

293

A Method for Load Frequency Control using Battery in Power System with Highly Penetrated Photovoltaic Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally believed that a large amount of battery system will be needed to store surplus electric energy due to high penetration of renewable energy (RE) such as photovoltaic generation (PV). Since main objective of high penetration of REs is to reduce amount of CO2 emission, reducing kWh output of thermal generation that does emit large amount of CO2 in power system should be considered sufficiently. However, thermal generation takes a important role in load frequency control (LFC) of power system. Therefore, if LFC could be done with battery and hydro generation, kWh output of thermal generation would be reduced significantly. This paper presents a method for LFC using battery in power system with highly penetrated PVs. Assessment of the effect of the proposed method would be made considering mutual smoothing effect of highly penetrated PVs.

Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Komami, Shintaro; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

294

HYBRID APPROACH FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE POWER GENERATION SYSTEM IN OFF-GRID ISLAND AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For power generation in off-grid island area, hybrid approach with micro-grids is a good solution. Using a combination of photovoltaic modules, micro-hydro, solar thermal, diesel generator, storage devices and power conditioning systems can develop hybrid power system. The work as a whole is included resource assessment techniques, load analysis for an assumed load curve and optimisation of the different components

Saiful ISLAM; Johan DRIESEN; Ronnie BELMANS

295

Large Frame Gas Turbines, The Leading Technology of Power Generation Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing large-capacity gas turbines for use in power generation as the main machines in combined cycle power plants, MHI has made every effort to increase thermal efficiency. Since the 1980s when the commercial operation of power generation plants with a combustion temperature of 1 100 deg.C began, the combustion temperatures have been increasing at a rate of approximately 20

YASUSHI FUKUIZUMI; SHIGEHIRO SHIOZAKI; AKIMASA MUYAMA; SUMIU UCHIDA

296

ADVANCED CO2 CYCLE POWER GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-02NT41621 to develop a conceptual design and determine the performance characteristics of a new IGCC plant configuration that facilitates CO{sub 2} removal for sequestration. This new configuration will be designed to achieve CO{sub 2} sequestration without the need for water gas shifting and CO{sub 2} separation, and may eliminate the need for a separate sequestration compressor. This research introduces a novel concept of using CO{sub 2} as a working fluid for an advanced coal gasification based power generation system, where it generates power with high system efficiency while concentrating CO{sub 2} for sequestration. This project supports the DOE research objective of development of concepts for the capture and storage of CO{sub 2}.

A. Nehrozoglu

2004-01-01

297

Simulation of Piezoelectric Jellyfish Power Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy problem is getting increasingly serious. As such, unused energy recovery technology is crucial for environmental protection, which has been investigated extensively. Several methods have been developed to utilize scavenged energy from the environment, such as waste heat, solar energy, wind energy, and tides energy to convert into useful power. There is a new idea of piezoelectric jellyfish generator which combines the utilization of sea wave and vibration energy. When sea wave passes through the jellyfish, the wave causes the tentacles to vibrate. The tentacles is made of piezoelectric polymer which can convert the strain energy into electrical energy. This paper discusses about the piezoelectric jellyfish's tentacles being disturbed by wave in the sea. We employed the commercial CFD software CFD-ACE+ 2006 to simulate this phenomenon. The parameters including its tentacle length (L) and wave propagating function (Y) are studied which affect the piezoelectric jellyfish capacity to generate power.

Wu, Yeong-Jen; Lai, Wei-Hsiang

298

ADVANCED CO2 CYCLE POWER GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-02NT41621 to develop a conceptual design and determine the performance characteristics of a new IGCC plant configuration that facilitates CO{sub 2} removal for sequestration. This new configuration will be designed to achieve CO{sub 2} sequestration without the need for water gas shifting and CO{sub 2} separation, and may eliminate the need for a separate sequestration compressor. This research introduces a novel concept of using CO{sub 2} as a working fluid for an advanced coal gasification based power generation system, where it generates power with high system efficiency while concentrating CO{sub 2} for sequestration. This project supports the DOE research objective of development of concepts for the capture and storage of CO{sub 2}.

A. Nehrozoglu

2003-10-01

299

Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary

Krotiuk

1990-01-01

300

PIEZOELECTRIC MICRO POWER GENERATOR FOR ENERGY HARVESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), power generating device is developed. It is designed to resonate at specific vibrational frequencies from an ambient, vibrational energy source, thereby creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The energy harvesting device uses the piezoelectric d33 mode and is fabricated with three mask steps. Our cantilever device was designed to have a

R. Sood; Y. B. Jeon; S. G. Kim

301

Gas and steam electrical power generating system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electrical power generation plant has a gas turbine subsystem free of a compressor. A compressor subsystem remote from the gas turbine subsystem has an inlet receiving air and an outlet furnishing compressed air. A compressed air line interlinks the outlets and gas turbine subsystem. An aspect or the invention includes combusting sufficient fuel having sulphur content with sufficient limestone to establish a ratio of Ca/S greater than 3.4.

Humphries, Jr.; James J. (Wellesley Hills, MA)

1997-04-22

302

A microturbine for electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-stage axial microturbine has been developed with a rotor diameter of 10mm. This turbine is a first step in the development of a microgenerator that produces electrical energy from fuel. The turbine is made of stainless steel using die-sinking electro-discharge machining. It has been tested to speeds up to 160,000rpm and generates a maximum mechanical power of 28W with

Jan Peirs; Dominiek Reynaerts; Filip Verplaetsen

2004-01-01

303

The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

Lake, James Alan

2000-11-01

304

Weight driven rotary power generating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The present invention entails a weight driven rotary power generating apparatus that is designed to efficiently provide energy that can be harnessed and effectively utilized. Forming the weight driven rotary power generating apparatus of the present invention is a heavy flywheel rotatively mounted within a frame structure and including a plurality of radially extending and circumferentially spaced projectors or drive panels that extends from the flywheel. Peripherally disposed about said flywheel is a closed, off-axis weight track that includes a plurality of weights movable therein. Because of the off-axis orientation with respect to the flywheel, the track is oriented such that as the weights fall due to gravity through a falling run of said track, they engage said projectors projecting from said flywheel and act to drive said flywheel. Once past the falling run, the power generating apparatus is provided with a chain weight transfer assembly that engages the weights as they enter a return run of said track and act to transfer said weights to an elevated position where they may be held and selectively released in accordance with the rpm of said flywheel. Once released, the respective weights again move through the falling run and act to drive the flywheel as just described.

Jones, S.W.

1982-06-08

305

Rectifier-less piezoelectric micro power generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel thin film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) MEMS energy harvesting device is designed and developed for powering autonomous wireless sensors. It is designed to harvest energy from parasitic vibrational energy sources and convert it to electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The new pie-shaped design for the harvester is about a size of a nickel and has a radical departure from previous design concepts. This design always generates positive tension on the PZT layer and then positive charge output throughout vibration cycles. It produces mono-polarity output charge without using any additional bridge rectifier circuitry, which will be a huge cost saving for commercial production of scaled-up products. Contrary to the high Q cantilever designs, the new design has a low Q, doubly anchored beam design, which provides a wide bandwidth of operational frequency. This will enable more robust power generation even if the frequency spectrum of the source vibration varies unexpectedly. Furthermore, the beam shape is optimized to achieve uniform strain throughout the PZT layer. To authors' knowledge, this is the first self-rectifying piezoelectric power generator at the MEMS-scale

Hajati, Arman; Kim, Sang-Gook

2008-05-01

306

Combined body and power generating system  

SciTech Connect

A system is disclosed for converting a standard buoy design into an electrical power producing apparatus. The vertical arms slide in sleeves attached to the buoy body and terminate in feet in the form of flat discs. As the buoy bobs and pivots in the water, the resistance of the feet to motion cause the arms to reciprocate, operating pneumatic piston pumps within the buoy. These piston pumps power pneumatic turbines which activate generators for producing electrical power. The moving parts of the linkages connecting the arms to the pumps are protected by a plastic casing which keeps out sea water. The casing includes facets which act as sails. Annular wipers are provided between the arms and sleeves within which the arms reciprocate, so as to prevent sea water from seeping therebetween.

Paleologos, G.E.

1982-12-14

307

Parylene-based electret power generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electret power generator is developed using a new electret made of a charged parylene HT® thin-film polymer. Here, parylene HT® is a room-temperature chemical-vapor-deposited thin-film polymer that is MEMS and CMOS compatible. With corona charge implantation, the surface charge density of parylene HT® is measured as high as 3.69 mC m-2. Moreover, it is found that, with annealing at 400 °C for 1 h before charge implantation, both the long-term stability and the high-temperature reliability of the electret are improved. For the generator, a new design of the stator/rotor is also developed. The new micro electret generator does not require any sophisticated gap-controlling structure such as tethers. With the conformal coating capability of parylene HT®, it is also feasible to have the electret on the rotors, which is made of either a piece of metal or an insulator. The maximum power output, 17.98 µW, is obtained at 50 Hz with an external load of 80 M?. For low frequencies, the generator can harvest 7.7 µW at 10 Hz and 8.23 µW at 20 Hz.

Lo, Hsi-wen; Tai, Yu-Chong

2008-10-01

308

Standalone Hybrid Wind-Solar Power Generation System Applying Dump Power Control Without Dump Load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a unique standalone hybrid power generation system, applying advanced power control tech- niques, fed by four power sources: wind power, solar power, storage battery, and diesel engine generator, and which is not connected to a commercial power system. Considerable effort was put into the development of active-reactive power and dump power controls. The result of laboratory experiments

Toshiro Hirose; Hirofumi Matsuo

2012-01-01

309

CONVERTING ENERGY FROM RECLAIMED HEAT: THERMAL ELECTRIC GENERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of solar energy acquiring devices has been slow to gain acceptance due to their overall low power generation versus high cost of a solar system. The goal of this project is to construct a model which increases the overall power generation of a solar building system by...

310

Generation scheduling methodology for thermal units with wind energy system considering unexpected load deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology of short term generation scheduling (unit commitment) for thermal units integrated with wind energy system considering the unexpected deviation on load demand. The deviation in load demand occurs mainly due to variation in temperature which in turns yields error in load forecasting. Since the usual unit commitment (UC) scheduling as well as economic power dispatch

Tomonobu Senjyu; Shantanu Chakraborty; Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Hirofumi Toyama; Naomitsu Urasaki; Toshihisa Funabashi

2008-01-01

311

Nonlinear models for mechanical energy production in imperfect generators driven by thermal or solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show how the nonlinear kinetics of energy transfer in propelling fluids and imperfect (non-Carnot) thermal machines can be imbed into the contemporary theory of irreversible energy generators and heat pumps. We quantitatively describe effects of nonlinear heat transfer assuming that heat fluxes are proportional to the difference of temperature in certain power, Ta. We also show

Stanislaw Sieniutycz; Piotr Kuran

2005-01-01

312

Thermal Decomposition of Furan Generates Propargyl Radicals  

SciTech Connect

The thermal decomposition of furan has been studied by a 1 mm x 2 cm tubular silicon carbide reactor, C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O + {Delta} {yields} products. Unlike previous studies, these experiments are able to identify the initial furan decomposition products. Furan is entrained in either He or Ar carrier gas and is passed through a heated (1600 K) SiC tubular reactor. Furan decomposes during transit through the tubular reactor (approximately 65 {micro}s) and exits to a vacuum chamber. Within one nozzle diameter of leaving the nozzle, the gases cool to less than 50 K, and all reactions cease. The resultant molecular beam is interrogated by photoionization mass spectroscopy as well as infrared spectroscopy. Earlier G2(MP2) electronic structure calculations predicted that furan will thermally decompose to acetylene, ketene, carbon monoxide, and propyne at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, these calculations forecast that propargyl radical could result. We observe all of these species (see Scheme 1). As the pressure in the tubular reactor is raised, the photoionization mass spectra show clear evidence for the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons.

Vasiliou, A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Daily, J. W.; Ellison, G. B.

2009-07-01

313

Exergetic analysis of a solar thermal power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents a second law analysis based on an exergy concept for a solar thermal power system. Basic energy and exergy analysis for the system components (viz. parabolic trough collector\\/receiver and Rankine heat engine, etc.) are carried out for evaluating the respective losses as well as exergetic efficiency for typical solar thermal power systems under given operating conditions. It

Narendra Singh; S. C. Kaushik; R. D. Misra

2000-01-01

314

Solar thermal power technology: Present status and ideas for the future  

SciTech Connect

Rapid industrial developments and the resulting need for additional electrical power in major population centers of the world such as India, China, and Brazil have created a need and an opportunity for power from clean and renewable sources of energy. The need to develop and use resources such as solar energy, wind, and biomass has assumed even greater importance in view of the concern for environmental damage that could occur if all of the anticipated power demand in the expanding economies were met by fossil fuels. Recent advances in wind energy technology have made it economically competitive with fossil-fuel-generated electricity, wherever sufficient wind resource is available. Solar thermal power can be economically competitive with coal-generated electricity if environmental costs are accounted for. However, without considering such environmental costs (a realistic scenario for developing countries like India and China), solar resources are not cost competitive at present because of the high capital costs. The potential exists for reducing the costs by improving the performance of thermal power systems. The system performance can be improved by employing new and innovative ideas in thermal power cycles. This article reviews some recent developments in thermodynamic cycles as well as new and innovative thermal power cycles applicable to solar thermal power.

Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-02-01

315

Do-it-yourself wind power generation wall  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A do-it-yourself wind power generation wall includes a plurality of wind power generation modules, each having a bushing, a wind power generation unit and a connecting rod. The exterior of the bushing forms a plurality of insert portions, and the wind power generation unit includes an electric generator connected to the bushing, and a vane wheel connected to the electric generator and formed on a side of the bushing, and an end of the connecting rod is sheathed onto an insert portion of the bushing, and each wind power generation module is connected to form a power generation wall. The invention allows users to freely install the power generation wall according to the environment of the application and greatly enhances the site and scope of using the power generation wall.

2009-09-29

316

Nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic performance research program plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program plan is to present a more detailed description of the thermal-hydraulic research program than that provided in the NRC Five-Year Plan so that the research plan and objectives can be better understood and evaluated by the offices concerned. The plan is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) with input from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and updated periodically. The plan covers the research sponsored by the Reactor and Plant Systems Branch and defines the major issues (related to thermal-hydraulic behavior in nuclear power plants) the NRC is seeking to resolve and provides plans for their resolution; relates the proposed research to these issues; defines the products needed to resolve these issues; provides a context that shows both the historical perspective and the relationship of individual projects to the overall objectives; and defines major interfaces with other disciplines (e.g., structural, risk, human factors, accident management, severe accident) needed for total resolution of some issues. This plan addresses the types of thermal-hydraulic transients that are normally considered in the regulatory process of licensing the current generation of light water reactors. This process is influenced by the regulatory requirements imposed by NRC and the consequent need for technical information that is supplied by RES through its contractors. Thus, most contractor programmatic work is administered by RES. Regulatory requirements involve the normal review of industry analyses of design basis accidents, as well as the understanding of abnormal occurrences in operating reactors. Since such transients often involve complex thermal-hydraulic interactions, a well-planned thermal-hydraulic research plan is needed.

Not Available

1988-07-01

317

Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

318

3-D thermal simulation of power module packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and implementation of an analytical 3-D thermal model for fast and accurate thermal simulation of power device modules in electro-thermal converter simulation. A Fourier-based solution is used to solve the 3-D heat equation. The solution can describe the variation of temperature through the whole IPM structure with time. The model can simulate thermal interactions resulting

I. R. Swan; A. T. Bryant; N.-A. Parker-Allotey; P. A. Mawby

2009-01-01

319

Thermal resistance comparison of high power infrared emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on thermal characterization of high power infrared (IR) emitter. Thermal transient method is used to measure the junction temperature and calculate the thermal resistance (Rth). The emphasis is placed upon the investigation of thermal resistance value of units from different production lots at room temperature (25°C ± 0.5°C) for a limited range of input current (500mA, 800mA

Wei-Ching Liew; Chin-Peng Ching; Mutharasu Devarajan

2011-01-01

320

Cogeneration via MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) Power Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

By passing the combustion gases through magnetic field, magneto generator converts heat directly to electricity power without moving parts. The inherent characteristic of high efficiency and low emission makes Coal fired electric power generation technology attractive to be a potential alternative power generation method in the future. This article presents the working principle of MHD generator and describes the coal

Manohar Kulkarni; Xiangyang Gong

2003-01-01

321

Testing the type GT10S (SGT 700) gas turbine units at the Sochi thermal power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results from thermal tests of the GT-10S gas-turbine units produced by Siemens, operating as part of PGU-39\\u000a power-generating units Nos. 1 and 2 at the Sochi thermal power station, which are the first ones of this type in Russia.

S. V. Malakhov; G. G. Ol’khovskii; V. A. Golubnichii

2006-01-01

322

Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed

Shigeo Morimoto; Tomohiko Nakamura; Yoji Takeda

2003-01-01

323

Solar power generating systems as sources of non-polluting energy (power generation in space and power generation on the ground)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various systems of solar power generation in space and on the ground which have been made public thus far are considered. In connection with the proposed American system for building solar power stations in space, the composition of the solar power stations and the microwave power transmission system, the efficiency of the microwave power transmission system, the method of delivering

T. Tani; T. Horigome

1974-01-01

324

Investigation of the Characteristics of MHD Power Generation by a Corona Jet Across a Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a common magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, the plasma is produced by equilibrium thermal ionization with working temperatures over 2000 K, and it is difficult to select wall materials that will withstand these high temperatures. The authors present the case that using the low-temperature corona jet produced by nonequilibrium gas discharge can lower the temperature in the MHD electrical power

Xinliang Wang; Dan Ye; Fan Gu

2008-01-01

325

Heat transfer problem associated with an MHD power generation system - An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the field of MHD has advanced to the point where the development of an operational system is feasible. The primary system being considered by ERDA is an open-cycle MHD\\/steam cycle power loop. Critical thermal problems impact the system due to hot ionized plasma, seed injection, slag deposition and high temperature air heaters. MHD power generation has entered the

A. W. Postlethwaite; M. M. Sluyter

1977-01-01

326

High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1?kW?m-2) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity.

Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J. Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

2011-07-01

327

High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.  

PubMed

The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. PMID:21532584

Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

2011-05-01

328

Thermal Analysis of High Power White Light-emitting Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can be readily produced by combing a monochromatic LED with phosphors. Heat is generated in the junction and packaging materials during the electrical-optical energy conversion process and light conversion/extraction process. Therefore, thermal management is important for high power white LEDs. In the first part of this work, the influence of die attach adhesive (DAA) on thermal performance of high power LED emitter was studied. It shows that the junction temperature can be significantly reduced by increasing the thermal conductivity of DAA material (up to 20 W/mK), and/or enlarging the DAA area (up to the size of the die), and/or reducing the bond-line thickness of the DAA layer. The following three parts investigated the factors that affect the thermal performances of a single-chip white LED package and a multi-chip white LED package by a combination of optical and thermal simulations. The simulation models were verified by corresponding experiments. It shows that the phosphor temperature is always higher than the junction temperature and should be evaluated for thermal design. At a given CCT of light output, the junction temperature decreases as phosphors are moving away from the chip (in the order of coating, incup, and remote) due to less absorption of backscattered light. However, the phosphor temperature decreases as phosphors are approaching the chip and/or as the concentration in the phosphor layer is increased (or the thickness of the phosphor layer is reduced) as a result of enhancement of heat conduction in the phosphor layer after formation of low resistance chains of phosphor particles. The phosphor temperature can be up to 211.4 degree Celsius in a 10 × 10 chip array (100 W) LED package with remote phosphor. The last part focused on the cooling effect of high emissivity coatings. Under free convection, a reduction of 10.9 degree Celsius and 11 degree Celsius in the board temperature was observed when a 10% ZnO coating and 10% TiO 2 coating was applied on board, respectively. It is attributed to the enhancement of heat conduction and an increase in the effective surface area by nano-sized filler in silicone matrix.

Yan, Bohan

329

New method to assess tube support plate clogging phenomena in steam generators of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized water reactor steam generators (PWR SGs) are large components whose main function is to cool the fission reactor by extracting the thermal power conveyed by the primary coolant, and thus to produce steam for the turbine generator. Tube support plate (TSP) clogging phenomena may occur in the SG when iron oxide particles carried in the secondary feedwater get unavoidably

D. Bouskela; V. Chip; B. El Hefni; J. M. Favennec; M. Midou; J. Ninet

2010-01-01

330

Neutron generator power supply modeling in EMMA  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has prime responsibility for neutron generator design and manufacturing, and is committed to developing predictive tools for modeling neutron generator performance. An important aspect of understanding component performance is explosively driven ferroelectric power supply modeling. EMMA (ElectroMechanical Modeling in ALEGRA) is a three dimensional compile time version of Sandia`s ALEGRA code. The code is built on top of the general ALEGRA framework for parallel shock-physics computations but also includes additional capability for modeling the electric potential field in dielectrics. The overall package includes shock propagation due to explosive detonation, depoling of ferroelectric ceramics, electric field calculation and coupling with a general lumped element circuit equation system. The AZTEC parallel iterative solver is used to solve for the electric potential. The DASPK differential algebraic equation package is used to solve the circuit equation system. Sample calculations are described.

Robinson, A.C.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Montgomery, S.T.; Peery, J.S; Merewether, K.O.

1996-12-01

331

Integration of high temperature thermal energy storage into a solar thermal Brayton cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods have been developed to support the design and analysis of thermal energy storage (TES) systems for solar thermal power plants employing high temperature Brayton, closed cycle thermal engines with helium or air as the heat transport fluid. System level studies have been undertaken to assess the impact of storage on plant performance, to establish storage system design and

W. D. Beverly; W. W. Engle; F. O. Mahony

1977-01-01

332

Thermoelectric Analysis for Helical Power Generation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a three-dimensional helical thermoelectric generation (TEG) system is examined by exposing it to a temperature difference with hot and cold sources. The helical paths for the two thermal fluids give the TEG device the potential to efficiently convert thermal energy. The characteristic performance of the helical system is numerically analyzed by using the finite-volume method in a compact system. The helical system is compared with a straight system in which all the thermoelectric (TE) elements present equivalent geometry. The difference in the TE performance between the two systems is not significant when the TE surfaces are maintained at constant temperatures. Both the electromotive force and the current in the TEG system increase linearly with the temperature difference ?T applied at the two module surfaces. The current preferentially flows through a main path determined by the geometry of the TE element. The merits of the helical design are its compactness, space saving, and smooth fluid flow due to gravity, compared with the straight system.

Meng, Xiangning; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

2013-10-01

333

Seawater pump study: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program. Final report. [For ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pumping power required to move cold seawater and warm seawater through an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant is a significant portion of the plant power output; therefore, seawater pump performance, sizing, and cost information are very influential inputs into any power plant system design optimizations. The analysis and evaluation of large seawater pumping systems selected specifically for

1978-01-01

334

Compressed air energy storage turbomachinery cycle with compression heat recovery, storage, steam generation and utilization during power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) plant cycle which utilizes otherwise wasted compression heat by storing such heat in a thermal energy storage (TES) device for subsequent use for steam generation and injection into compressed air flow before entering a high pressure combustion which expands such compressed air to produce additional power. The cycle consists of the

Nakhamkin

1988-01-01

335

A Vector Control for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation due to high efficiently for wind energy capture. An inverter system is required to control wind turbine speed and power factor in those generators. The inverter rating of the synchronous generator equals to generator rating. However, DFIG has the advantage that the inverter rating

Takaaki Kai; Yuji Tanaka; Hirotoshi Kaneda; Daichi Kobayashi; Akio Tanaka

2008-01-01

336

Fast thermal profiling of power semiconductor devices using Fourier techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of temperature variation of power semiconductor devices in power electronic circuits is important to obtain optimum designs and estimate reliability levels. Temperature estimation of power electronic devices has generally been performed using transient thermal equivalent circuits. In the presence of varying load cycles, it has been typical to resort to a time domain electrical simulation tool such as

Jody J. Nelson; Giri Venkataramanan; Ayman M. EL-Refaie

2003-01-01

337

Fast thermal profiling of power semiconductor devices using Fourier techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of temperature variation of power semiconductor devices in power electronic circuits is important to obtain optimum designs and estimate reliability levels. Temperature estimation of power electronic devices has generally been performed using transient thermal equivalent circuits. In the presence of varying load cycles, it has been typical to resort to a time-domain electrical simulation tool such as P-Spice

Jody J. Nelson; Giri Venkataramanan; Ayman M. EL-Refaie

2006-01-01

338

Eighth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of the VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation contain the results of most recent R and D work aimed at practical realization of this advanced method of electrical power generation. The papers presented to the Co...

1983-01-01

339

43 CFR 431.6 - Power generation estimates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.6 Power generation estimates. Reclamation shall submit annually on or before April 15 to Western...

2011-10-01

340

43 CFR 431.6 - Power generation estimates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.6 Power generation estimates. Reclamation shall submit annually on or before April 15 to Western...

2012-10-01

341

Piezoelectric power generation for civil infrastructure systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil infrastructure systems (CIS) employ various small electronic components ranging from temperature and humidity sensors used in buildings to acoustics emission sensors used for damage detection in bridges. Other than solar energy that has already found several applications in CIS; moving loads, surface strain fluctuations, and wind energy available in the vicinity of CIS constitute important sources of energy that can be converted into electricity. This paper focuses on low power generation from these energy sources using piezoelectric transduction. Moving loads caused by travelling vehicles can be used for exciting piezoceramics located on the road. Structural vibrations resulting from various sources such as support motions and interaction of CIS with the surrounding fluid may yield local surface strain fluctuations. Wind energy is available not only due to regular atmospheric flow but also due to the motion of vehicles travelling at relatively high speeds. This paper investigates and formulates (1) the electromechanical moving load problem for slender bridges with a piezoelectric cantilever and with embedded piezoceramics, (2) the problem of piezoelectric power generation from surface strain fluctuations using a piezoceramic patch, and (3) piezoelectric energy harvesting from wind excitation through aeroelastic flutter.

Erturk, A.; Inman, D. J.

2011-03-01

342

Thermal magnetic noise generated by an eddy current shielded room  

SciTech Connect

Using a SQUID-based second-order gradiometer, we have measured the thermal magnetic noise generated by a thick aluminum plate and an eddy current shielded room used for biomagnetic measurements. The measured noise agrees with the theoretical prediction for the thermal noise fields generated by infinite conducting slabs. The noise is substantial near the walls of the shielded room, but is predicted to be less than 0.02 fT/..sqrt..Hz at 1 Hz at the center of the room. This is too small to influence the biomagnetic measurements usually taken at this location.

Stroink, G.; MacAulay, C.

1986-04-01

343

Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the propagation conditions: MLR is a product of PLHR after passage through the perturbed magnetospheric regions. The work is supported by OFN-15 RAS program, RFBR grants Nos. 09-02-97058-r, 09-02-91052-NCNI-a.

Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei

344

Parametric thermal analysis of the performance of a thermoelectric generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parametric analysis is presented for the performance of a thermoelectric generator based on its operating conditions. The mathematical model, consisting of non linear equations, is made dimensionless to allow the characteristic parameters to be evidenced. The proposed parameterization lends generality to the results obtained. In particular the relationships have been investigated between the temperature difference inside the thermoelectric cell and that on the outside of the generator, and the effect of the outer thermal resistances of the generator on the working conditions. These parameters have a significant effect on the efficiency and therefore on the optimization of the operating conditions of the thermoelectric generator.

Casano, G.; Piva, S.

2012-11-01

345

Thermal Pollution, Its Effects and Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the following aspects of thermal pollution: Power needs; Thermal electric power generation as a waste heat source; Thermal pollution effects; Waste heat treatment; Waste heat utilization; and Thermal power plant siting criteria and proc...

R. W. Zeller

1970-01-01

346

Supersonic Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation System and Its Preliminary Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) power generation system has an important potential application in high-speed aero craft. According to the principles of MHD power generation, shock tunnel and ionization, a supersonic MHD power generation system is developed and introduced in this paper. Helium is used for driver gas and argon for driven gas. Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is selected to obtain

Tao Zhu; Yinghong Li; Yiwen Li; Bailing Zhang; Feng Chen

2012-01-01

347

18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power generation. 801.12 Section...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant...waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

2013-04-01

348

43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16 Section...Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power generation must be incidental...

2011-10-01

349

43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Using water for power generation. 418.16 Section...Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power generation must be incidental...

2012-10-01

350

46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements...capacity of the electric ship's...service load power interruption...Vessels with electric propulsion...generators which supply both...

2010-10-01

351

46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements...capacity of the electric ship's...service load power interruption...Vessels with electric propulsion...generators which supply both...

2009-10-01

352

Investigation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model is developed as a tool for investigating optimized maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for TEG systems within automotive exhaust heat energy recovery applications. The model comprises three main subsystems that make up the TEG system: the heat exchanger, thermoelectric material, and power conditioning unit (PCU). In this study, two MPPT algorithms known as the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm and extremum seeking control (ESC) are investigated. A synchronous buck-boost converter is implemented as the preferred DC-DC converter topology, and together with the MPPT algorithm completes the PCU architecture. The process of developing the subsystems is discussed, and the advantage of using the MPPT controller is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate that the ESC algorithm implemented in combination with a synchronous buck-boost converter achieves favorable power outputs for TEG systems. The appropriateness is by virtue of greater responsiveness to changes in the system's thermal conditions and hence the electrical potential difference generated in comparison with the P&O algorithm. The MATLAB/Simulink environment is used for simulation of the TEG system and comparison of the investigated control strategies.

Phillip, Navneesh; Maganga, Othman; Burnham, Keith J.; Ellis, Mark A.; Robinson, Simon; Dunn, Julian; Rouaud, Cedric

2013-07-01

353

Thermal management methods for compact high power LED arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The package and system level temperature distributions of a high power (>1W) light emitting diode (LED) array has been investigated using numerical heat flow models. For this analysis, a thermal resistor network model was combined with a 3D finite element submodel of an LED structure to predict system and die level temperatures. The impact of LED array density, LED power density, and active versus passive cooling methods on device operation were calculated. In order to help understand the role of various thermal resistances in cooling such compact arrays, the thermal resistance network was analyzed in order to estimate the contributions from materials as well as active and passive cooling schemes. An analysis of thermal stresses and residual stresses in the die are also calculated based on power dissipation and convection heat transfer coefficients. Results show that the thermal stress in the GaN layer are compressive which can impact the band gap and performance of the LEDs.

Christensen, Adam; Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

2007-09-01

354

Solar Thermal Power System for Lunar ISRU Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) processes require thermal energy at various temperatures. Chemical recovery process (pyrolysis, gas-solid reactions, gas-liquid or three-phase reactions and desorption) requires thermal energy at temperatures from 1000 K to 2500 K. Manufacturing processes (hot liquid processing, sinter forming, composite forming, welding, etc.) can be accomplished with thermal energy at temperatures 1200 K ~ 1800 K. For these materials process applications, solar thermal power can be effectively utilized. Physical Sciences Inc. has been developing a innovative solar power system in which solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide transmission line made of low loss optical fiber. In this paper we will present the recent progress of the solar thermal power source being developed at PSI, and discuss potential applications of the system to Lunar ISRU processes.

Nakamura, Takashi; Senior, Constance L.

2005-02-01

355

Simulation of urban water distribution system for distributed power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed power generation is an emerging technique for satisfying the growing power demand due to the continuous population growth in the urban areas. Successful siting of distributed power generator needs to consider the spatial demand for power and the supporting infrastructures. One of the important supporting infrastructures is water supply system. This paper describes a framework that integrates urban growth

Preethi Prakash Rao; Ke Li

2011-01-01

356

Voltage control availability of distributed generators in power distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of many profitable or advantageous natures of distributed generators (DGs), for power systems, such badly behaved natures of DGs as (1) unstable power output, (2) voltage problem, (3)harmonics, (4)reverse power flow, etc. also exist. Therefore, it has been always emphasized that the unfavorable effects should not exist when distributed generators are connected to the power system. However, in

K. Nara; S. Ishizu; Y. Mishima

2005-01-01

357

Performance evaluation of solar thermal electric generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified model of a solar electric generation system (SEGS) is developed using a thermo–hydrodynamic model of a direct steam collector combined with a model of a traditional steam power house. The model is used to study the performance of different collector field and power house arrangements under Australian conditions. To find the effect of collector inclination on the SEGS

S. D Odeh; M Behnia; G. L Morrison

2003-01-01

358

Development of Vibration Condition Monitoring System Applying Optical Sensors for Generator Winding Integrity of Power Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the vibration condition monitoring diagnosis system developed for stator and rotor winding integrity assessment of 100MW class gas turbine generator in combined-cycle thermal power plant. High reliability of windings is one of the most essential prerequisite for generators of power utilities. Assessing the condition of stator winding insulation systems requires objective information from condition monitoring system. In-service monitoring is essential if a power plant is following a condition-based maintenance strategy. Generator damages are caused by the high vibration and the power system instability by secondary impacts of an unannounced plant stop and the life of the generator is decreased. The mechanical vibration in generator is induced by both mechanical and magnetic forces. The vibration condition monitoring system is required for the improved savings of operation and maintenance cost in terms of reliability in power plant.

Kim, Yeon Whan; Ho, Ju-Young; Lee, Young Shin

359

High Power Density Alkali Metal Thermal To Electric Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

DISCUSSION The a1 kal i metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) is an emerging technology for static power conversion that has potential of matching dynamic system efficiency. This high efficiency is produced when cells of fl\\

R. K. Sievers; R. F. Wright

1990-01-01

360

Solar Thermal Power Systems. Annual Technical Progress Report, FY 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the pri...

1979-01-01

361

Tillgaenglighetsstatistik foer vaermekraft. (Availability statistics for thermal power plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpo...

1989-01-01

362

Tilgaenglighetsstatistik foer vaermekraft. (Availability statistics for thermal power plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpo...

1991-01-01

363

Tilgaenglighetsstatistik foer vaermekraft. (Availability statistics for thermal power plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpo...

1990-01-01

364

Tillgaenglighetsstatistik foer vaermekraft. (Availability statistics for thermal power plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpo...

1988-01-01

365

Review of the Solar Thermal Power Industry: Future Outlook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Solar Energy Industries Association reviewed most of the companies in the solar thermal power industry to establish current activities and plans for the future. Interviews provided information on the industry's size, composition, profitability, and R ...

J. J. Erickson C. La Porta

1986-01-01

366

Solar Thermal Power Systems Based on Optical Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical and economic feasibility study of a solar thermal power system based upon optical transmission of collected solar energy to a central absorber and boiler unit is presented. The study includes system definition, modeling, and preliminary compon...

L. L. Vant-Hull

1974-01-01

367

Thermal Analysis of a Power Conditioning Unit for a Howitzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a thermal analysis for a power conditioning unit for the M119 A1 howitzer. The analysis includes conduction, convection, and radiation as described by the Army's rigorous environmental standards. The analysis was completed using comp...

C. Kessler J. A. Cordes

2009-01-01

368

Application of Induction Generators in Power Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of induction generators in power systems is discussed. The performance of induction generators as function of machine and system parameters and as function of var source control is evaluated and compared with that of synchronous generators...

F. P. de Mello L. N. Hannett J. W. Feltes

1981-01-01

369

Analytical thermal model validation for Cassini radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft is designed to rely, without precedent, on the waste heat from its three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to warm the propulsion module subsystem, and the RTG end dome temperature is a key determining factor of the amount of waste heat delivered. A previously validated SINDA thermal model of the RTG was the sole guide to understanding

Edward L Lin

1997-01-01

370

Geophysical fluid dynamics background for ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background material and brief assessments in several areas of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) which bear directly on problems of the ocean thermal power plant operation are provided. Relevant GFD research areas discussed include: turbulence and thermal wakes; ocean circulation and the permanent thermocline; air\\/sea interaction and thermocline variation; weather and climate modeling; and marine ecosystems. The relationships of each GFD

S. A. Piacsek; J. Toomre; G. O. Roberts

1976-01-01

371

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal collectors on a medium to large scale. However the cost and energy requirement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) have fallen significantly in recent years, so that solar thermal powered RO deserves consideration. We compare commercial desalination processes on the basis of

G. Burgess; K. Lovegrove

372

Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant...

P. Denholm R. Sioshansi

2010-01-01

373

New power politics will determine generation's path  

SciTech Connect

The US power industry's story in 2009 will be all about change, to borrow a now-familiar theme. Though the new administration's policy specifics had not been revealed as this report was prepared, it appears that flat load growth in 2009 will give the new Obama administration a unique opportunity to formulate new energy policy without risking that the lights will go out. New coal projects are now facing increasing difficulties. It looks as though the electricity supply industry will continue to muddle through. It may see an advancement in infrastructure investment, significant new generation or new technology development. It also faces the possibility that policies necessary to achieving those goals will not materialize, for political and economic reasons. 4 figs.

Maize, K.; Neville, A.; Peltier, R.

2009-01-15

374

A Low Cost Power Electronic Interface for Small Scale Wind Generators in Single Phase Distributed Power Generation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a low cost power electronic interface for interfacing variable speed small scale wind turbine generators to a single phase distributed generation system. The power electronics architecture employs an AC\\/DC\\/AC topology for converting the variable power input from a permanent magnet wind generator to a constant voltage, constant frequency grid. The inverter is unidirectional, transformer less and is

Chem Nayar; Hooman Dehbonei; Liuchen Chang

2005-01-01

375

Prospectives for China's solar thermal power technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's total installed electrical power capacity reached 700GW by the end of 2007 and is predicted to surpass 900GW in 2010. The rapid increase in energy demand and increasing global warming have both pushed China to change its current electrical power structure where coal power accounts for nearly 75% of the total electric power generation. China has already become the

Zhifeng Wang

2010-01-01

376

The Thermal Discharges From Nuclear Power Plants in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of sea water for industrial cooling presents a real threat to the ecological environment in the ocean. in Taiwan where many electric power plants along the coast take sea water for cooling, people are concerned seriously about nuclear power plants. There are three nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Each plant has two units for generating power. the

Kuang-Lung Fan

1992-01-01

377

Liquid powered, closed loop power generating system and process for using same  

SciTech Connect

A liquid powered, closed loop power generating system which generates power substantially as a result of the flow of a pressurized liquid through its power generating means is disclosed. The liquid flows through the power generating means and into a dissolving means wherein it dissolves a pressurized gas to form a solution, thereby reducing the pressures of both gas and liquid. The solution is separated into gas and liquid whereby both are repressurized. The liquid then flows back to the power-generating means and the gas flows back to the dissolving means, whereby both materials are recycled. A process for generating power is also disclosed.

Cardone, J.T.; Shatz, K.J.

1981-09-22

378

Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project  

SciTech Connect

To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nationâ??s best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission â?? providing top quality medical care and instruction â?? without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power outages. TECOâ??s operation is the largest Chilled Water District Energy System in the United States. The company used DOEâ??s funding to help install a new high efficiency CHP system consisting of a Combustion Turbine and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator. This CHP installation was just part of a larger project undertaken by TECO to ensure that it can continue to meet TMCâ??s growing needs. The complete efficiency overhaul that TECO undertook supported more than 1,000 direct and indirect jobs in manufacturing, engineering, and construction, with approximately 400 of those being jobs directly associated with construction of the combined heat and power plant. This showcase industrial scale CHP project, serving a critical component of the nationâ??s healthcare infrastructure, directly and immediately supported the energy efficiency and job creation goals established by ARRA and DOE. It also provided an unsurpassed model of a district energy CHP application that can be replicated within other energy intensive applications in the industrial, institutional and commercial sectors.

E. Bruce Turner; Tim Brown; Ed Mardiat

2011-12-31

379

Thermal and power characteristics of plasma torch with reverse vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental investigations of electrical and thermal characteristics of a vortex plasma torch with a reverse vortex, generated in a hollow blind-end electrode, are presented. It is shown that the reverse vortex essentially improves the performance of the plasma torch and contributes to an increase in the thermal efficiency and enthalpy of the plasma jet.

Essiptchouk, A. M.; Charakhovski, L. I.; Filho, G. P.; Maciel, H. S.; Otani, Ch; Barros, E. A.

2009-09-01

380

Thermal and power characteristics of plasma torch with reverse vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental investigations of electrical and thermal characteristics of a vortex plasma torch with a reverse vortex, generated in a hollow blind-end electrode, are presented. It is shown that the reverse vortex essentially improves the performance of the plasma torch and contributes to an increase in the thermal efficiency and enthalpy of the plasma jet.

A. M. Essiptchouk; L. I. Charakhovski; G. P. Filho; H. S. Maciel; Ch Otani; E. A. Barros

2009-01-01

381

Application of the ant colony search algorithm to short-term generation scheduling problem of thermal units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new cooperative agents approach, the ant colony search algorithm (ACSA), for solving a short-term generation scheduling problem of a thermal power system. One of the main goals of this paper is to investigate the applicability of an alternative intelligent search method in power system optimisation. The ACSA is derived from the theoretical biology on the topic

In-Keun Yu; C. S. Chou; Y. H. Song

1998-01-01

382

Cache decay: exploiting generational behavior to reduce cache leakage power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power dissipation is increasingly important in CPUs rang- ing from those intended for mobile use, all the way up to high- performance processors for high-end servers. While the bulk of the power dissipated is dynamic switching power, leakage power is also beginning to be a concern. Chipmakers expect that in future chip generations, leakage's proportion of total chip power will

Stefanos Kaxiras; Zhigang Hu; Margaret Martonosi

2001-01-01

383

Air Force Perspective on Present and Future Space Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaics continue to be the primary source for electric power for space missions. The need for ever higher power, specific power, areal power density, and radiation resistance continues to push development of novel solar cell technologies. To meet present and future space power requirements, conventional crystalline multijunction solar cells, next generation thin-film solar cells, and novel technologies are being pursued.

John M. Merrill; Paul Hausgen; Donna Senft; Jennifer Granata

2006-01-01

384

Flue gas conditioning for reducing suspended particulate matter from thermal power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased population and industrial development demands sustainable electricity, the majority of which is produced by thermal power stations, which utilize coal as a fuel all over the world. Coal burning results in generation of large quantities of coal residues, which contains very fine particles that tend to become air-borne and which contribute to the formation of suspended particulate matter (SPM).

S. Shanthakumar; D. N. Singh; R. C. Phadke

2008-01-01

385

A mathematical model for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adequate dynamic models are developed for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear power plants with their fast running capacity on a personal computer. The dynamic models are formulated for the primary loop systems, coupling of reactor kinetics with the feedback reactivity, and the U-tube steam generator used in most pressurized water reactors. The main work is intended to demonstrate the

Gee Y. Han

2000-01-01

386

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincón; M. Romero

2006-01-01

387

Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications  

SciTech Connect

Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

English, R.E.

1982-01-01

388

Pulsed-power diode generation of high-power microwaves  

SciTech Connect

The generation of microwave radiation at gigahertz frequencies in high-voltage pulsed-power diodes has been investigated with electromagnetic particle simulations. Pulsed power in the form of a 0.5-1.0 MV, TEM wave is fed to the diode via a 5-cm diameter cylindrical stalk onto which a 30-cm diameter cathode has been mounted. Located some 3 to 5 cm in front of the cathode is a foil anode grid. As the TEM wave propagates between the stalk and an outer cylindrical cage (70-cm diameter) a stream of electrons are emitted off the stalk when the local electric field exceeds 200 kV/cm. This flow is then magnetically insulated and confined by the induced B/sub theta/ fields resulting from the 25- to 50-kA current flow within the stalk. Convex shaping of the cathode surface allows the emitted electrons to form a virtual cathode beyond the grid, then phase bunch to produce narrow bandwidth 1-GHz microwaves over an area equal to that of the cathode. The electromagnetic radiation from the dipole-like electron motions centered on the grid, which follow closely the classical Barkhausen-Kurz description, are reported.

Peratt, A.L.; Mostrom, M.A.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Thode, L.E.

1983-01-01

389

Solar Thermal Power System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development of a solar thermal power system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this solar thermal system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator array which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide (OW) transmission line made of low loss optical fibers. The OW transmission line directs the solar radiation to the thermal receiver for thermochemical processing of lunar regolith for oxygen production on the lunar surface. We report the results pertaining to: (1) component development status; (2) regolith melting capability; (3) system efficiency; and (4) system weight. Conceptual designs of the solar thermal system for two lunar oxygen production processes are presented.

Nakamura, Takashi; van Pelt, Aaron D.; Gustafson, Robert J.; Clark, Larry

2008-01-01

390

Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft  

DOEpatents

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2012-03-13

391

Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft  

DOEpatents

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2009-12-29

392

CMOS Image Sensors With Self-Powered Generation Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerations for CMOS image sensors with self-power generation capability design are presented. Design of CMOS imagers, utilizing self-powered sensors (SPS) is a new approach for ultra low-power CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) implementations. The SPS architecture allows generation of electric power by employing a light sensitive device, located on the same silicon die with an APS and thus reduces power

Alexander Fish; Shy Hamami; Orly Yadid-Pecht

2006-01-01

393

Calculation of guaranteed mean power from wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for calculating the 'guaranteed mean' power output of a wind turbine generator is proposed. The term 'mean power' refers to the average power generated at specified wind speeds during short-term tests. Correlation of anemometers, the method of bins for analyzing non-steady data, the PROP Code for predicting turbine power, and statistical analysis of deviations in test data from theory are discussed. Guaranteed mean power density for the Clayton Mod-OA system was found to be 8 watts per square meter less than theoretical power density at all power levels, with a confidence level of 0.999. This amounts to 4 percent of rated power.

Spera, D. A.

1981-05-01

394

Solar thermal and wind energy power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transparent panel enclosed tower provides a confined space for solar heating air. An upright wind turbine, mounted on the tower top, communicates with the tower enclosed space. As the solar heated air expands and becomes lighter it is displaced by cooler atmospheric air at the bottom of the tower creating a turbine driving thermal updraft in combination with wind

Argo

1980-01-01

395

Power-flattening techniques for radioisotopic thermoelectric generators. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to investigation of a novel means of reducing the potential ecologic hazards that may be associated with radiosotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG's). A number of short-lived isotopes have lower toxicities and are more ecologically acceptable than the Plutonium 238 used at present. In addition, the shorter half lives significantly reduce the time period during which isotope encapsulation must be assured (approximately 10 half lives). The technical approach involves the use of a gas-controlled heat pipe to maintain a nearly constant heat input to the thermoelectric converter in spite of the decay profile of a short-lived isotopic heat source. Excess thermal power available early in life, is automatically shorted around the thermoelectric module by way of the heat pipe. A development model of a gas-controlled heat pipe capable of performing the required task was constructed and tested during this program.

Eastman, G.Y.

1984-07-01

396

Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a iew thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants fs released in the atmosphere on

A. M. Khan; Vivek Pandey; Jyoti Shukla; Nandita Singh; Mohd Yunus; S. N. Singh; K. J. Ahmad

1990-01-01

397

Effects of Wind Energy on Thermal Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing wind energy use affects both existing power plants as well as future investments in the electricity market. Only a small contribution to total system reliability is added by wind energy. Part load operation and lower efficiency caused by the integration of wind energy lead to higher specific emissions of thermal power plants. Consequently, the reduction of emissions by wind

Hans Roth; Philipp Kuhn; Ulrich Wagner

2007-01-01

398

Hydrodynamics of Gulf Stream ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report considers the external hydrodynamic aspects of Gulf Stream sited Ocean Thermal Power Plants. Specific details of the ocean resource including flow, temperature, and density profiles are examined for suitability at selected sites. In the light of the most current system design, a semi-submersible 400 Mwe net power plant, the fluid mechanical detail of the interaction of the hot

R. H. Kirchhoff; P. A. Mangarella; J. G. McGowan

1975-01-01

399

Modelling and Simulation of Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of advanced control systems to optimize the overall performance of Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power Plants is nowadays a priority research line. The development of dynamic models for use in simulation and control of this kind of power plants is presented in this article, focused on the CESA-I solar plant of the Plataforma Solar de Almería (Southern Spain).

L. J. Yebra; M. Berenguel; S. Dormido; M. Romero

2005-01-01

400

Prediction-data-based maximum-power-point-tracking method for photovoltaic power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) method for a photovoltaic (PV) power generation system was studied which can efficiently generate PV power even under changing weather conditions. In order to research a method suitable for the actual photovoltaic power system, PV characteristics of the maximum power point were measured for more than six months using a PV curve tracer. The actual maximum

Nobuyoshi Mutoh; Takatoshi Matuo; Kazuhito Okada; Masahiro Sakai

2002-01-01

401

Self-powered signal processing using vibration-based power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power design trends raise the possibility of using ambient energy to power future digital systems. A chip has been designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a digital system from power generated by vibrations in its environment. A moving coil electromagnetic transducer was used as a power generator. Calculations show that power on the order of 400

Rajeevan Amirtharajah; Anantha P. Chandrakasan

1998-01-01

402

Exercise bike powered electric generator for fitness club appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generator powered by a stationary bicycle for the purposes of generating electricity for fitness club appliances is considered. A generator is connected to a stationary bicycle in such a way as the circular rotation of the front wheel rotates the coils of wires inside the generator between the poles of the magnets inside the generator. The resulting Direct Current

R. Strzelecki; M. Jarnut; G. Benysek

2007-01-01

403

Non-Equilibrium Plasma MHD Electrical Power Generation at Tokyo Tech  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the recent activities on radio-frequency (rf) electromagnetic-field-assisted magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation experiments at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. An inductively coupled rf field (13.56 MHz) is continuously supplied to the disk-shaped Hall-type MHD generator. The first part of this paper describes a method of obtaining increased power output from a pure Argon plasma MHD power generator by incorporating an rf power source to preionize and heat the plasma. The rf heating enhances ionization of the Argon and raises the temperature of the free electron population above the nominally low 4500 K temperatures obtained without rf heating. This in turn enhances the plasma conductivity making MHD power generation feasible. We demonstrate an enhanced power output when rf heating is on approximately 5 times larger than the input power of the rf generator. The second part of this paper is a demonstration of a physical phenomenon of the rf-stabilization of the ionization instability, that had been conjectured for some time, but had not been seen experimentally. The rf heating suppresses the ionization instability in the plasma behavior and homogenizes the nonuniformity of the plasma structures. The power-generating performance is significantly improved with the aid of the rf power under wide seeding conditions. The increment of the enthalpy extraction ratio of around 2% is significantly greater than the fraction of the net rf power, that is, 0.16%, to the thermal input.

Murakami, T.; Okuno, Y.; Yamasaki, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology 4259-G3-38, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2008-02-21

404

Non-Equilibrium Plasma MHD Electrical Power Generation at Tokyo Tech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the recent activities on radio-frequency (rf) electromagnetic-field-assisted magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation experiments at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. An inductively coupled rf field (13.56 MHz) is continuously supplied to the disk-shaped Hall-type MHD generator. The first part of this paper describes a method of obtaining increased power output from a pure Argon plasma MHD power generator by incorporating an rf power source to preionize and heat the plasma. The rf heating enhances ionization of the Argon and raises the temperature of the free electron population above the nominally low 4500 K temperatures obtained without rf heating. This in turn enhances the plasma conductivity making MHD power generation feasible. We demonstrate an enhanced power output when rf heating is on approximately 5 times larger than the input power of the rf generator. The second part of this paper is a demonstration of a physical phenomenon of the rf-stabilization of the ionization instability, that had been conjectured for some time, but had not been seen experimentally. The rf heating suppresses the ionization instability in the plasma behavior and homogenizes the nonuniformity of the plasma structures. The power-generating performance is significantly improved with the aid of the rf power under wide seeding conditions. The increment of the enthalpy extraction ratio of around 2% is significantly greater than the fraction of the net rf power, that is, 0.16%, to the thermal input.

Murakami, T.; Okuno, Y.; Yamasaki, H.

2008-02-01

405

Solar Power Generating Systems as Sources of Non-Polluting Energy (Power Generation in Space and Power Generation on the Ground).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various systems of solar power generation in space and on the ground which have been made public thus far are considered. In connection with the proposed American system for building solar power stations in space, the composition of the solar power statio...

T. Horigome T. Tani

1974-01-01

406

Yb :CALGO as material for high power ultrafast laser and focus on thermal conductivity variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity values of laser material Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 (CALGO) with various doping rate in Yb3+ were measured experimentally and compared to predictive values obtained by modelling. The observed variation of the thermal conductivity with the Yb3+ content could be explained by changing the ratio of site substitution Gd3+/Ca2+ by Yb3+. The influence of velocity sound and interionic distance values on thermal conductivity was also studied. Finally, laser results obtained with a 2%Yb:CALGO thin-disk were presented, strengthening the potential of Yb:CALGO for high power laser and ultra-short pulses generation.

Jaffrčs, A.; Ricaud, S.; Suganuma, A.; Viana, B.; Loiseau, P.; Georges, P.; Druon, F.

2013-03-01

407

Assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United

D. A. Huber; R. J. Kirk; J. Pietruszkiewicz; R. S. Smith

1983-01-01

408

''An assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation''  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. This study was managed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal Utilization. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared

D. A. Hauber; R. J. Kirk; J. Pietruszkiewicz; R. S. Smith

1983-01-01

409

Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the

D. G. Beremand; D. G. Evans; D. L. Alger

1981-01-01

410

13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, WITH C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER IN BACKGROUND. STEEL FRAME SUPPORTS HOISTING MECHANISM USED TO MOVE, REPAIR, OR REPLACE GENERATORS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

411

Generator and rechargeable battery system for pedal powered vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generator and rechargeable battery system for use with pedal powered vehicles, such as bicycles, and where either the generator or battery can intermittently power a load such as a lighting system of the vehicle in one mode of operation, and in which the generator can recharge the battery in another mode of operation. A simple selection switch which is

Ryan

1985-01-01

412

Simulation of a seawater MHD power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) power generation systems are expected to become popular with the development of superconducting technology because of their low cost and high efficiency. MHD power generation directly utilizes electromotive force, which arises when seawater crosses a magnetic field. The helical-type MHD generator is composed mainly of a helical partition board and electrodes, which include a cathode pipe on the

Xiaojun Liu; Tsukasa Kiyoshi; Minoru Takeda

2006-01-01

413

A simplified wind power generation model for reliability evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources, especially wind turbine generators, are considered as important generation alternatives in electric power systems due to their nonexhausted nature and benign environmental effects. The fact that wind power penetration continues to increase has motivated a need to develop more widely applicable methodologies for evaluating the actual benefits of adding wind turbines to conventional generating systems. Reliability evaluation

Rajesh Karki; Po Hu; R. Billinton

2006-01-01

414

Subnanosecond Pulsed-Power Generated Electric Fields for Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes ongoing research on the use of pulsed power-generated electric fields as a delicate tool for skin cancer treatment. A prolate-spheroidal impulse radiating antenna is used as a noninvasive technique for generating an electromagnetic implosion to kill melanoma cells. Index Terms—Pulsed-power generated electric field, Impulse radiating antennas, Cancer treatment

Serhat Altunc; Andy Warhol

2009-01-01

415

Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy

J. Fleurial; T. Caillat; R. C. Ewell

2005-01-01

416

The small community solar thermal power experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contractors were asked to develop a preferred system concept, to perform sensitivity analyses, and to outline recommended approaches for the follow-on design program of a one-megawatt solar thermal demonstration plant. The systems recommended by the contractors in each of the categories were: (1) McDonnell-Douglas Astronautics Company: Central tower with field of south-facing heliostats; (2) General Electric Company: Field of parabolic

T. Kiceniuk

1981-01-01

417

Economics of wind-farm power generation in India  

SciTech Connect

The financial aspects of wind power generation in India are examined. The cost estimate scaling function for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) is empirically obtained. Other cost components have also been examined and effort is made to generate a cost function for wind farms with grid connected HAWT wind energy conversion systems. The cost function is then used to compute the cost of wind generated electricity from the wind farms in India and the results are compared with the reported cost of generation from the wind farms. The potential of wind-farm power generation is discussed in the light of the cost of power generation by selected conventional technologies in India.

Sinha, C.S.; Kandpal, T.C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)

1990-01-01

418

An Evolutionary Path for Concentrating Thermal Solar Power Technologies: A New Approach for Modeling CSP Power Costs and Potential  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) technology is a potentially competitive power generation option, particularly in arid regions where direct sunlight is abundant. We examine the potential role of CSP power plants and their contribution to carbon emissions reduction. The answers to these questions depend on the cost of electricity generated by CSP plants. Although a few studies have projected future CSP costs based on assumptions for technology advancement and the effect of economies of scale and learning curves, few studies have considered the combined effects of intermittency, solar irradiance changes by season, and diurnal and seasonal system load changes. Because the generation of a solar plant varies over a day and by season, the interactions between CSP generators and other generators in the electric system can play an important role in determining costs. In effect, CSP electricity generation cost will depend on the CSP market penetration. This paper examines this relationship and explores possible evolutionary paths for CSP technologies with and without thermal storage.

Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

2008-05-08

419

Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The

D. C. Fee; P. E. Blackburn; D. E. Busch; D. W. Dees; J. Dusek; T. E. Easler; W. A. Ellingson; B. K. Flandermeyer; R. J. Fousek; J. J. Heiberger; S. Majumdar; C. C. McPheeters; F. C. Mrazek; J. J. Picciolo; J. P. Singh; R. B. Poeppel

1988-01-01

420

Detection of thermally generated defects on a Cu(111) surface  

SciTech Connect

A nonlinear-optical technique has been used to detect thermally generated atomic defects on the Cu(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. From the temperature dependence of the second-harmonic (SH) -generation efficiency and anisotropy for 350{lt}{ital T}{lt}850 K, we infer the creation of an increasing number of surface point defects with increasing temperature, and deduce a formation energy of 0.13{plus minus}0.04 eV. This interpretation is corroborated by the similarity of the SH rotational anisotropy following surface Ar{sup +}-ion bombardment at low temperatures.

Bloch, J.; Luepke, G.; Janz, S.; van Driel, H.M. (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada) Ontario Laser and Lightwave Research Centre, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada))

1992-05-15

421

Acoustic harmonic generation due to thermal embrittlement of inconel 718  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an attempt to characterize the deterioration of a structural material's mechanical properties by nonlinear\\u000a acoustics. In this particular case, the damage was caused by “thermal embrittlement” during which the material, here the nickel-based\\u000a alloy Inconel 718, loses a significant fraction of its fracture toughness. Harmonic generation was the experimental method\\u000a used to characterize the microstructural changes in

D. J. Barnard; G. E. Dace; O. Buck

1997-01-01

422

Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues  

SciTech Connect

A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

Not Available

1993-08-01

423

Improvement of financial efficiency and cost effectiveness in energy sector: A case study from Indian thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity is generated based on potential resources like coal, crude oil, water, wind, solar and nuclear energy. India depends largely on thermal power using coal as raw material despite the reality that indigenous stock of this raw material is depleting fast. At the same time coal based thermal stations are losing out financial viability gradually in terms of deteoriating efficiency,

S. Ghosh; S. C. Basu; P. P. Sengupta

2010-01-01

424

Three-dimensional thermal modeling of lithium-polymer batteries under galvanostatic discharge and dynamic power profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional model is developed to simulate and compare heat generation and transport within a lithium polymer electrolyte battery under galvanostatic discharges and a dynamic power profile (the Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS)). The results indicate that the anisotropic thermal conductivity within the battery is an important factor influencing thermal performance and should be taken into consideration in battery

Yufei Chen; James W. Evans

1994-01-01

425

Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems  

SciTech Connect

An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31%. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation or indirectly as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64% and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solarpowered liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

Byvik, C.E.; Buoncristiani, A.M.; Smith, B.T.

1983-11-01

426

High voltage power condition systems powered by flux compression generators  

SciTech Connect

Compact, high-gain magnetic flux compressors (FCGs) are convenient sources of substantial energy for plasma-physics and electron-beam-physics experiments, but the need for high-voltage, fast-rising pulses is difficult to meet directly with conventional generators. While a variety of novel concepts employing simultaneous, axially- detonated explosive systems are under development, power-conditioning systems based on fuse opening switches and high-voltage transformers constitute another approach that complements the fundamental size, weight, and configuration of the small helical flux compressor. In this paper, we consider first a basic inductive store/opening switch circuit and the implications associated with, specifically, a fuse opening switch and an FCG energy source. We develop a general solution to a transformer/opening switch circuit---which also includes (as a special case) the direct inductive store/opening switch circuit (without transformer) and we report results of one elementary experiment demonstrating the feasibility of the approach. 9 figs.

Reinovsky, R.E.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Vorthman, J.E.

1989-01-01

427

Generating Functions for the Powers of Fibonacci Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this note, based on the Binet formulas and the power-reducing techniques, closed forms of generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences as well.|

Terrana, D.; Chen, H.

2007-01-01

428

Western Venezuela Power Generation Expansion Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power Tech Associates conducted this study in 2003 to determine the feasibility of creating additional power generating capacity at ENELVEN's Ramon Laguna facility in Maracaibo, Venezuela. As part of the investigation existing units are assessed and alter...

2003-01-01

429

Thermoelectric module construction for low temperature gradient power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy related carbon dioxide emissions are the largest contributors to greenhouse gasses [1]. Thermoelectric power generation that exploits natural temperature differences between the air and earth can be a zero-emission replacement to small stand-alone power sources. Maximizing the temperature drop across the module is crucial to achieving optimal output power. An equation relating output power to thermoelectric module parameters is

Y. Meydbray; R. Singh; Ali Shakouri

2005-01-01

430

A simple wind power generating system with permanent magnet type synchronous generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose an inexpensive wind power generating system in this paper. Existing wind power generating systems are mostly of large capacity (over 100 kW) and high-priced (about 1000 USS\\/kW). Because of the erratic changes of wind power and of smoothing peak power, an AC\\/DC converter-fed battery system is recommended. Thus, one requires the exact rotating speed of generators (especially

Naoki Yamamura; Muneaki Ishida; Takamasa Hori

1999-01-01

431

Thermal power plant water treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements and treatment costs of water used in a fossil fuel fired power station are reduced by a process which employs multiple reverse osmosis stages. This process also employs station waste heat to concentrate solid waste material to facilitate disposal thereof.

H. Ludwig; K. Marquardt

1982-01-01

432

Generation control in small isolated power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, interest in isolated small power systems is rapidly increasing. This interest is due to the fact that larger power plants are economically unfeasible in many regions due to increasing system and fuel costs. When the system operates in isolation then load tracking problem arises which can cause voltage and frequency problems. One possible solution to keep power balance in

M. Milosevic; G. Andersson

2005-01-01

433

Bonneville Power Administration generating resource acquisition process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

BPA relies on its Resource Program and the Council's Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (Plan) to determine new firm power needs. The Resource Program estimates the need for additional power to meet BPA's firm loads, taking into account the pr...

1990-01-01

434

Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design  

SciTech Connect

The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation.

Krotiuk, W.J.

1990-01-01

435

Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable

Arunasalam

1986-01-01

436

Vibration characteristics about thermal variation of BFP in power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BFPs(Boiler Feedwater Pump) in power plants are used for pumping high pressure and high temperature water. The pressure pulsation of high pressure pumps is the vibration caused by fluid forces. If the frequency of the exciting source is adjacent to one of the natural frequencies of the pump, it can cause high vibration by resonance. The natural vibration characteristics of pump depend on thermal variation. This paper examines vibration characteristics due to thermal variation experimentally and analytically.

Song, A. H.; Song, J. D.; Kim, H. S.; Jung, G. C.

2012-11-01

437

Power Balance Theory Based Voltage and Frequency Control for IAG in Wind Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an application of the power balance theory in a voltage and frequency controller (VFC) of an autonomous wind power generation using an isolated asynchronous generator (IAG) feeding three-phase four wire loads. The reference generator currents are estimated using the power balance theory to control the voltage and frequency of IAG system. Three-leg voltage source converter (VSC)

Bhim Singh; Shailendra Sharma

2009-01-01

438

Unalaska geothermal exploration project. Electrical power generation analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the most cost-effective power cycle for utilizing the Makushin Volcano geothermal resource to generate electricity for the towns of Unalaska and Dutch Harbor. It is anticipated that the geothermal power plant would be intertied with a planned conventional power plant consisting of four 2.5 MW diesel-generators whose commercial operation is due to begin in 1987. Upon its completion in late 1988, the geothermal power plant would primarily fulfill base-load electrical power demand while the diesel-generators would provide peak-load electrical power and emergency power at times when the geothermal power plant would be partially or completely unavailable. This study compares the technical, environmental, and economic adequacy of five state-of-the-art geothermal power conversion processes. Options considered are single- and double-flash steam cycles, binary cycle, hybrid cycle, and total flow cycle.

Not Available

1984-04-01

439

Simulating thermal power plant processes on a message passing environment.  

PubMed

Simulators play a very important role in the operation of thermal power plants and also in the design of control systems for these plants. To cater to this requirement elaborate methodologies have been developed to simulate thermal power plant processes in an interactive way. Due to the intensive computations involved, such simulators use one or more high through-put computers known as the simulation computers. This paper puts forward a method where parallel processing on a low latency message passing environment has been used to simulate thermal power plant processes following a modular approach. This eliminates the need of an expensive high through-put simulation computer, thus cutting down the hardware cost associated with a simulator and increasing the system reliability manifold. PMID:14582885

Gupta, A; Ganguly, R; Chakraborty, S; Mazumdar, C; Popovic, D

2003-10-01

440

Explosive flux compression generators for rail gun power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of explosive magnetic flux compression generators is described that has been used successfully to power rail guns. A program to increase generator current magnitudes and pulse lengths is outlined. Various generator loss mechanisms are discussed and plans to control some of them are outlined. Included are various modifications of the conventional strip generators that are more resistant to

C. M. Powler; D. R. Peterson; R. S. Caird; D. J. Erickson; B. L. Freeman; J. C. King

1982-01-01

441

Dependences of Generator Parameters on Pulsed Power Ice Breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, investigation on breaking of ice using a pulsed power generator as a navigation of ice-breaker at ice-covered ocean, was described. In these experiments, pulsed arc discharge was formed by Marx generator. In order to investigate the dependence of input energy required for ice breaking on circuit parameters of generator, the capacitance of generator was changed. The input energy for ice-breaking was calculated from waveforms of electric power. It was found that the input energy for ice-breaking decreased as the peak power increased with decrease of the capacitance of generator.

Ihara, Satoshi; Kominato, Yuichi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Yamabe, Chobei; Ushio, Shuki

442

The impact of large scale wind power generation on power system oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing amounts of wind turbines are connected to electrical power systems. This affects many aspects of their operation and behaviour. In this paper, the impact of large scale wind power generation on power system oscillations is treated. The three main types of power system oscillations, namely oscillations of a group of generators against a strong system and intra- and inter-area

J. G. Slootweg; W. L. Kling

2003-01-01

443

Optimal reactive power flow with distributed generating plants in electric power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the solution of reactive power flow optimization for electric power distribution systems integrating with distributed generating (Distributed Generator: DG) plants which can support daily load demand. To reduce the total energy losses of the entire system, transformer tap and reactive power injection from available reactive power source are required. The setting of variables based on a particular

U. Leeton; T. Ratniyomchai; T. Kulworawanichpong

2010-01-01

444

Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas\\/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical

J. H. Lee; F. Hohl

1983-01-01

445

Applications of Power Electronics in Automotive Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the use of switched-mode power electronics to enhance the power, efficiency, and transient performance of Lundell alternators. The application of power electronics in conjunction with both the alternator field and armature are explored. It is shown that the combination of a foil field winding and improved field control electronics enable substantial improvements in field packing factor

David J. Perreault; Thomas A. Keim; Jeffrey H. Lang; Leandro M. Lorilla

446

Impact of natural gas market on power generation development in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concerned with research of natural gas market and itpsilas impact on power generation development in Russia. We can state that the gas share at thermal power plants of Russia, despite a sharp gas price rise (from 50$\\/1000 m3 currently to 170 $\\/1000 m3 in 2020), can be decreased only 11-12% in favor of increase in the coal share,

N. I. Voropai; V. I. Rabchuk; S. M. Senderov; N. I. Pyatkova

2008-01-01

447

A global fouling factor methodology for analyzing steam generator thermal performance degradation  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years, steam generator (SG) thermal performance degradation has led to decreased plant efficiency and power output at numerous PWR nuclear power plants with recirculating-type SGs. The authors have developed and implemented methodologies for quantitatively evaluating the various sources of SG performance degradation, both internal and external to the SG pressure boundary. These methodologies include computation of the global fouling factor history, evaluation of secondary deposit thermal resistance using deposit characterization data, and consideration of pressure loss causes unrelated to the tube bundle, such as hot-leg temperature streaming and SG moisture separator fouling. In order to evaluate the utility of the global fouling factor methodology, the authors performed case studies for a number of PWR SG designs. Key results from two of these studies are presented here. In tandem with the fouling-factor analyses, a study evaluated for each plant the potential causes of pressure loss. The combined results of the global fouling factor calculations and the pressure-loss evaluations demonstrated two key points: (1) that the available thermal margin against fouling, which can vary substantially from plant to plant, has an important bearing on whether a given plant exhibits losses in electrical generating capacity, and (2) that a wide variety of causes can result in SG thermal performance degradation.

Kreider, M.A.; White, G.A.; Varrin, R.D. Jr. [Dominion Engineering, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01

448

Load Frequency Control in Power System with Distributed Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method to improve the load frequency control in a power system with distributed generation (DG). DG is assumed to include photovoltaic generation, wind power generation, fuel cells and etc. In this paper, a simulation is performed using a microgrid model or island model that is composed of a storage system with either wind power generation or photovoltaic generation system as the DG. The effectiveness of load frequency control (LFC) using a storage system is examined using a power transmission simulator. The model for the experiment has been composed of inverter, battery, synchronous generator and load. Using this model, the comparison examination was done in respect of output setting control and the case in which the PI control was used. As a result, when the output set-point control using power demand estimation method is executed, the control characteristic is very excellent.

Yukita, Kazuto; Ota, Takuya; Fujimoto, Koji; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katuhiro

449

Investigation and study on compressed air storage power generation system, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressed air storage power generation system (CAES) was studied. As a system for response to peak loads, both output and efficiency were better than those of the previous year due to the study on the temperature of the turbine's inlet. As a system for response to peak and middle loads, steam power generation, which makes use of exhaust heat from the aftercooler and the low pressure turbine's outlet, was integrated into the system, and its heat efficiency was better than that of the usual thermal power generation. However, it is inferior to the latest LNG combined cycle power generation and it does not appeal much as a middle load power source. Deformation strength characteristics of the underground cavity rocks were clarified, and a multi-structure lining method was suggested. Its location area is restricted by the layer distribution. Construction cost per kW is 220,000 yen, and the power generation prime cost is a little higher than that of pumped storage power generation. As a pumped storage power station has difficulty in finding suitable location and is higher in costs, CAES can be put into existence as a system for response to peak loads in view of economy in the future.

1989-03-01

450

Discharge characteristic of nanosecond-pulse DBD in atmospheric air using magnetic compression pulsed power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric barrier discharge driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses can offer highly efficient non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and is widely used for plasma applications. In this paper, the discharge is generated using a compact pulsed power generator based on one-stage magnetic compression. The output pulse can be up to 30 kV with a rise time of about 40 ns and a full

Tao Shao; Cheng Zhang; Yang Yu; Zheng Niu; Hui Jiang; Jiayu Xu; Wenfeng Li; Ping Yan; Yuanxiang Zhou

451

Status report on MHD electrical power generation–IAEA\\/ENEA International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of commercial large-scale MHD electrical power generation is reviewed in the light of information presented at the Third International Symposium on MHD Electrical Power Generation (Salzburg, 1966) and of subsequent developments. Research and development activities, and the state of evaluation of engineering and economic factors are assessed in respect of open-cycle MHD power plant, closed-cycle MHD power

B. C. Lindley

1967-01-01

452

Two-generator-concepts for electric power generation in More Electric Aircraft Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an Aircraft power generation topology is proposed for a More Electric Engine. There two generators are attached to the engine, a startergenerator on the high pressure- and a generator on the low pressure shaft. Both electric outputs are connected in parallel and feed together one 270 VDC power system of the airplane. The aim is to control

K. Muehlbauer; D. Gerling

2010-01-01

453

Technical and economical system comparison of photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal power systems depending on annual global irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrating solar thermal power and photovoltaics are two major technologies for converting sunlight to electricity. Variations of the annual solar irradiation depending on the site influence their annual efficiency, specific output and electricity generation cost. Detailed technical and economical analyses performed with computer simulations point out differences of solar thermal parabolic trough power plants, non-tracked and two-axis-tracked PV systems. Therefore,

Volker Quaschning

2004-01-01

454

Heat Transfer and Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation in Oil-fired Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this study is the production of electric power in an oil-fired, residential heatingsystem using thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion devices. This work uses experimental, computational, and analytical methods to investigate thermal mechanisms that drive electric power production in the TPV systems. An objective of this work is to produce results that will lead to the development of systems that generate enough electricity such that the boiler is self-powering. An important design constraint employed in this investigation is the use of conventional, yellow-flame oil burners, integrated with a typical boiler. The power production target for the systems developed here is 100 W - the power requirement for a boiler that uses low-power auxiliary components. The important heattransfer coupling mechanisms that drive power production in the systems studied are discussed. The results of this work may lead to the development of systems that export power to the home electric system.

Butcher, T.; Hammonds, J.S.; Horne, E.; Kamath, B.; Carpenter, J.; Woods, D.R.

2010-10-21

455

Future Trends in Nuclear Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 20 years since the Calder Hall reactors were ordered, the U.K. has accumulated wide experience of building and operating nuclear power stations. Early stations proved expensive because of technological novelty and infrequent orders, but the economics of nuclear power stations where regular orders can be assured are increasingly favourable. Other factors do not provide fundamental limitations to nuclear

A. B. Lovins; John Hill; K. E. Zimen; Edward Eisner

1974-01-01

456

High Power X-Band Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a klystron amplifier operating at 8 kMc and delivering one megawatt of CW power. Two long-pulse interim tubes were tested but neither achieved significant average power levels. The development of output windows fo...

W. R. Luebke J. Leidigh T. Wessel-Berg

1964-01-01

457

High Power X-Band Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a klystron amplifier operating at 8 kMc and delivering one megawatt of CW power. After its four-hour acceptance test at the 110 kilowatt average power level, the second long pulse tube was operated CW at 350 kilow...

W. R. Luebke T. Wessel-Berg

1964-01-01

458

High-Power X-Band Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a klystron amplifier operating at 8 kMc and delivering one megawatt of CW power. A long pulse tube was tested to 60 kilowatts of average power at which point catastrophic window failure occurred. A second long-pul...

W. R. Luebke J. Leidigh T. Wessel-Berg

1964-01-01

459

High Power X-Band Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the program is to develop a klystron amplifier operating at 8 kMc and delivering one megawatt of CW power. Results are presented on a low average power pulsed tube having an extended-interaction output cavity. Further development work on th...

W. R. Luebke J. Leidigh T. Wessel-Berg

1964-01-01

460

New generation of reactors for space power  

SciTech Connect

Space nuclear reactor power is expected to enable many new space missions that will require several times to several orders of magnitude anything flown in space to date. Power in the 100-kW range may be required in high earth orbit spacecraft and planetary exploration. The technology for this power system range is under development for the Department of Energy with the Los Alamos National Laboratory responsible for the critical components in the nuclear subsystem. The baseline design for this particular nuclear sybsystem technology is described in this paper; additionally, reactor technology is reviewed from previous space power programs, a preliminary assessment is made of technology candidates covering an extended power spectrum, and the status is given of other reactor technologies.

Boudreau, J.E.; Buden, D.

1982-01-01

461

Energy economics of automotive power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of 50 percent of the liquid fuels used in static industrial applications by solid fuel would reduce the crude oil offtake by 17 percent; elimination of the demand for high octane gasoline would increase the thermal efficiency of the production of road fuels by 5 percent; replacement of the gasoline engine by diesel or stratified charge engines could reduce

Tipler

1975-01-01

462

Power loss in AMTEC, an advanced space power generation cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a lot of work has been done in designing the Alkali Metal Thermo Electric Converter (AMTEC), a power cell, primarily aimed at for deep space exploration, and later on for terrestrial use. During an extended testing of AMTEC the maximum power output was found rapidly decreasing (more so in the begining) with time. This is one of the major problems yet to overcome in AMTEC technology before it could be used for deep space expolration. We have throughly analyzed AMTEC by computer simulation and identified major causes for power degradation associated with its components namely, its electrolyte and electrodes. Some suggestions are offered to reduce the power degradation rate.

Lodhi, M. A. K.; Vijayaraghavan, P.; Chaudhury, M. S.

2001-03-01

463

Ocean thermal power and windpower systems - Natural solar energy conversion for near-term impact on world energy markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of two energy conversion systems which use the natural solar collection of the earth and its atmosphere over land and sea as their power input is discussed. The first concept, for large scale power generation, is based on a Rankine cycle heat engine driven by the thermal difference which exists between the warm tropical surface waters of the

W. E. Heronemus; J. G. McGowan

1975-01-01

464

The thermal circuit of a nuclear power station's unit built around a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main results obtained from calculations of the steam generator and thermal circuit of the steam turbine unit for a nuclear power unit with supercritical-pressure water coolant and integral layout are presented. The obtained characteristics point to the advisability of carrying out further developments of this promising nuclear power technology.

Silin, V. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Tagirov, A. M.; Tregubova, O. I.; Belov, I. V.; Povarov, P. V.

2010-12-01

465

Local Air Quality Impacts due to Downwash Around Thermal Power Plants: Numerical Simulations of the Effect of Building Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary adverse environmental impacts associated with power generation facilities and in particular thermal power plants is local air quality. When these plants are operated at inland areas the dry type cooling towers used may significantly increase ambient concentrations of air pollutants due to the building downwash effect. When one or more buildings in the vicinity of a

Serpil Kayin; Gürdal Tuncel; Coskun Yurteri

1999-01-01

466

Green power - wind generated protection and control considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind-generated energy systems have some unique challenges for protection and control engineers. The typical wind farm is not a new form of generation being interconnected to the bulk power system. The success of the evolving Green Power Interconnected Projects is very dependent on the following of a logical method used by electrical systems, leading to a long life for the

D. Hornak; N. H. J. Chau

2004-01-01

467

Probabilistic Projection of Nuclear and Coal Electric Power Generation Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the results of an analysis of future nuclear and coal-fired plant power generation costs in which the probability distributions of key variables are used with a Monte Carlo driver code to obtain power generation cost distributions for ...

K. A. Williams J. G. Delene

1987-01-01

468

Low temperature differential stirling engine based power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into various forms of sustainable power generation is required to address the rising problems associated with fossil fuel limitations. A new research programme aims to show that electric power generation using low-grade heat and Stirling engine technology can be made commercially viable. Using the Modified Beale Number, and preliminary software modelling, an initial prototype has been designed. This prototype

Paul T. Gaynor; Russell Y. Webb; Caleb C. Lloyd

2008-01-01

469

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC POWER GENERATION USING NUCLEAR FUEL. Research Report 87  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the basic theory of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power ; generators is given. The basic electrical properties of gases are reviewed. ; Over-all performance characteristics of MHD generators are presented as a ; function of these gas properties. It is pointed out that MHD shows most promise ; for applications where high power (one megawatt and up) is desired.

Rosa

1960-01-01

470

Biomass pyrolysis for power generation — a potential technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of process and routes are available for power generation from biomass. PYROLYSIS is another emerging technology, wherein biomass is converted to liquids, gases and char — liquid fuels being the main target. Power generation using this technology is essentially the use of pyrolytic oils for the gas turbine integrated into a combined cycle. Using this process has

Anuradda Ganesh; Rangan Banerjee

2001-01-01

471

POTENTIAL FOR SIGNIFICANT WIND POWER GENERATION AT ANTARCTIC STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic scientific stations are generally powered by conventional diesel boilers and generator sets which consume large amounts of fossil fuels. In addition to being difficult and expensive to ship, fuel can threaten the local environment. The potential for wind power generation is high, but few commercial wind turbines can resist the harsh local conditions. The 10 kW \\

Antoine Guichard; Peter Magill; Patrice Godon; David Lyons; Chris Brown

472

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-06-01

473

Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.

Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

2012-04-01

474

Market concentration and marketing power among electricity generators in Texas  

SciTech Connect

Policy initiatives designed to foster competition among electricity generators in Texas face a special challenge due to the relative isolation of that system. This isolation contributes to high levels of market concentration and market power that could hinder the development of a truly competitive market. This paper examines market concentration and market power in the ERCOT market for electricity generation by calculating the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) under various assumptions to gauge the degree of market concentration among generators in ERCOT. In addition, some ongoing studies of market power in ERCOT are discussed. The distinction between market concentration and market power is highlighted.

Zarnikau, J.; Lam, A. [Planergy Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1998-11-01

475

Thermionic Power Generation from Reentry Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental analyses are presented which describe the operation and characteristics of a hypersonic plasma generator for reentry vehicles. In Section I, the principle of the generator operation is outlined, previous results are briefly reviewed, and supporting arc tunnel experimental data are included. In Section II, the ionization enhancement by nose cone cesium seeding of the flow field is

K. J. Touryan; M. M. Sluyter

1966-01-01

476

Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

NONE

1997-09-01

477

Search for thermally generated monovacancies in silicon using monoenergetic positrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a monoenergetic, variable-energy positron beam, measurements of Doppler broadening and positronium fraction for positron-annihilation radiation from high-resistivity silicon have been made up to the melting point. The measurements show no clear evidence of positron trapping into thermally generated monovacancies which Dannefaer, Mascher, and Kerr observed by measuring the lifetimes of positrons emitted by an in situ source. A lower limit of about 3.6 eV is placed on the formation enthalpy of a neutral monovacancy, subject to assumptions about positron-trapping rate, binding energy, and monovacancy formation entropy.

Throwe, J.; Leung, T. C.; Nielsen, B.; Huomo, H.; Lynn, K. G.

1989-12-01

478

Adaptive optimal control of steam temperatures for thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive optimal control method using a process control computer was developed for boiler steam temperature control for thermal power plants. A process dynamics model, which describes the dynamic plant behavior, is used in the calculations for adaptive optimal control. The mode used is a multi-input and output ARMA (autoregressive moving-average) with parameters identified online by the Kalman filter method.

M. Nomura; Y. Sato

1989-01-01

479

Analysis of photovoltaic\\/thermal electric power plant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual definition and performance evaluation of a 100 megawatt (MW) hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal electric power plant has been carried out. The concept utilizes the ability of gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells to achieve high conversion efficiency at high incident fluxes and elevated temperatures. Solar energy is focused by a field of steerable mirrors (heliostats) onto a tower mounted receiver whose outer

D. F. Gluck; W. A. Kelley

1979-01-01

480

Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES\\/Stirling system is

D. T. Morgan

1979-01-01

481

Numerical simulations of a low power microchannel thermal cycling reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roadblock to the development of stand-alone microscale biomedical and chemical analysis systems is the relatively high heating power requirement of the microscale reactors, which typically exceeds the capability of low cost batteries. In this study, a microchannel thermal cycling reactor design using in-channel heating and passive cooling is proposed and a numerical model has been developed. Numerical simulations were

David Erickson; Dongqing Li

2002-01-01

482

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Background for Ocean Thermal Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vertical temperature gradient in the tropical oceans can be used to operate ocean thermal power plants (OTPP's) that function as heat engines. Such energy extraction would entail very large scale pumping of both warm surface water and cold bottom wate...

S. A. Piacsek J. Toomre G. O. Roberts

1976-01-01

483

APPLICATIONS FOR DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED ALLOYS IN THERMAL POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersing small quantities of ceramic particles along the grain boundaries of an alloy can substantially increase its resistance to creep at high temperatures. This creep resistance, if matched with corrosion resistance, makes these alloys particularly suited for the highest-temperature applications within thermal power systems. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is working with Oak Ridge

John P. Hurley

484

Method for engineering diagnostics at thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system for diagnosing equipment at thermal power plants is intended to check the efficiency of the equipment and to search for defects that arise during operation. A method used in the USSR for detecting damage such as breaks in turbine blades and the distortion of turbine rotors is discussed. The developed diagnosis method consists of comparing changes in vibration

Ya. S. Urintsev; Yu. A. Averbakh; V. I. Berlyand; M. M. Volynskii; V. L. Shiber

1981-01-01

485

Low Power Thermal Tuning of Second-order Microring Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient thermal tuning of 36 pm\\/K and 60 muW\\/GHz is shown for high-index-contrast silicon nitride second-order filters. Their compact size, large free-spectral range, low tuning power, and silicon compatibility make these resonators attractive for photonic integration.

R. Amatya; C. W. Holzwarth; M. A. Popovic; F. Gan; H. I. Smith; F. Kartner; R. J. Ram

2007-01-01

486

Thermally driven acoustic oscillations, Part VI: Excitation and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In continuation of previous work in the field of thermally driven acoustic oscillations, the problem of excited oscillations is treated and presented in detail for the Sondhauss tube and for gas-liquid oscillations. The problem of the maximally attainable mechanical power from a Sondhauss tube is discussed.

Ulrich A. Mfiller; Nikolaus Rott

1983-01-01

487

Solar thermal power cycle with integration of methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have proposed a new solar thermal power cycle which integrates methanol decomposition and middle-temperature solar thermal energy, and investigated its features based on the principle of the cascade utilization of chemical exergy. Also, the methanol decomposition with a catalyst was experimentally studied at temperatures of 150–300°C and under atmospheric pressure. The chemical energy released by methanol

Hui Hong; Hongguang Jin; Jun Ji; Zhifeng Wang; Ruixian Cai

2005-01-01

488

Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst