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1

Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-healing materials provide a route for enhanced damage tolerance in materials for aerospace applications. In particular, puncture-healing upon impact has the potential to mitigate significant damage caused by high velocity micrometeoroid impacts. This type of material also has the potential to improve damage tolerance in load bearing structures to enhance vehicle health and aircraft durability. The materials being studied are those capable of instantaneous puncture healing, providing a mechanism for mechanical property retention in lightweight structures. These systems have demonstrated healing capability following penetration of fast moving projectiles -- velocities that range from 9 mm bullets shot from a gun (approx.330 m/sec) to close to micrometeoroid debris velocities of 4800 m/sec. In this presentation, we report on a suite of polymeric materials possessing this characteristic. Figure 1 illustrates the puncture healing concept. Puncture healing in these materials is dependent upon how the combination of a polymer's viscoelastic properties responds to the energy input resulting from the puncture event. Projectile penetration increases the temperature in the vicinity of the impact. Self-healing behavior occurs following puncture, whereby energy must be transferred to the material during impact both elastically and inelastically, thus establishing two requirements for puncture healing to occur: a.) The need for the puncture event to produce a local melt state in the polymer material and b.) The molten material has to have sufficient melt elasticity to snap back and close the hole. 1,2 Previous ballistic testing studies revealed that Surlyn materials warmed up to a temperature approx.98 C during projectile puncture (3 C higher than it s melting temperature). 1,2 The temperature increase produces a localized flow state and the melt elasticity to snap back thus sealing the hole. Table 1 lists the commercially polymers studied here, together with their physical properties. The polymers were selected based on chemical structure, tensile strengths, tensile moduli, glass transition temperature, melting temperatures, and impact strength. The thermal properties of the polymers were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Mechanical properties were assessed by a Sintech 2W instron according to ASTM D1708 or D638 at crosshead speeds of 5.08 cm/min. 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm panels of the different materials were prepared and ballistic testing was performed at various temperatures. The panels were shot with a .223 caliber semiautomatic rifle from a distance of 23 meters at various temperatures. Chronographs were used to measure initial and final bullet velocity. Temperatures at the site of impact were measured using a FLIR ThermaCAM S60 thermal camera. A Vision Research model Phantom 9 high speed video camera was used to capture high speed video footage of ballistics testing.

Gordon, K. L.; Working, D. C.; Wise, K. E.; Bogert, P. B.; Britton, S. M.; Topping, C.C.; Smith, J. Y.; Siochi, E. J.

2009-01-01

2

Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motivation for this work is to develop self-healing polymeric materials to enable damage tolerant systems, and to tailor puncture healing for use temperatures and applications. This will be a benefit in environments and conditions where access for manual repair is limited or impossible, or where damage may not be detected.

Bogert, Philip B.; Working, Dennis C.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Smith, Janice Y.; Topping, Crystal C.; Britton, Sean M.; Bagby, Paul R.; Siochi, Emilie J.

2010-01-01

3

Bonding thermoplastic polymers  

DOEpatents

We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

Wallow, Thomas I. (Fremont, CA); Hunter, Marion C. (Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen Lee (Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Domeier, Linda A. (Danville, CA)

2008-06-24

4

Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers  

SciTech Connect

Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01

5

Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer  

DOEpatents

A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Cash, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01

6

Bonding of thermoplastic polymer microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastics are highly attractive substrate materials for microfluidic systems, with important benefits in the development\\u000a of low cost disposable devices for a host of bioanalytical applications. While significant research activity has been directed\\u000a towards the formation of microfluidic components in a wide range of thermoplastics, sealing of these components is required\\u000a for the formation of enclosed microchannels and other microfluidic

Chia-Wen Tsao; Don L. DeVoe

2009-01-01

7

Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer  

SciTech Connect

A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

1984-11-21

8

Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices  

DOEpatents

A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

Frechet, Jean M. J. (Oakland, CA); Svec, Frantisek (Alameda, CA); Rohr, Thomas (Leiden, NL)

2008-10-07

9

TOPICAL REVIEW: Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molding of micro components from thermoplastic polymers has become a routinely used industrial production process. This paper describes both the more than 30-year-old history and the present state of development and applications. Hot embossing, injection molding, reaction injection molding, injection compression molding, thermoforming, and various types of tool fabrication are introduced and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. In addition,

M. Heckele; W. K. Schomburg

2004-01-01

10

Puncture-Healing Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Filled Ionomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionomers are polymers that contain ionic groups in relatively low concentrations along the polymer backbone. These ionic groups, in the presence of oppositely charged ions, form aggregates that lead to novel physical properties of the polymer. React-A-Seal(trademark) and Surlyn(trademark) are poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) ionomer-based materials and Nucrel(trademark) is the EMAA acid copolymer neutralized to produce Surlyn(trademark). React-A-Seal(trademark), Surlyn(trademark), and Nucrel(trademark) recover into their original shapes following a high impact puncture at velocities ranging from 300 to 1200 ft/s ('self-healing'). This self-healing process may be of great benefit in space applications where structures are exposed to matter impacts. A thermal IR camera indicated a temperature increase to 98 C for Nucrel(trademark) 925, Surlyn(trademark) 8940, React-A-Seal(trademark), and Surlyn(trademark) 8920 after initial penetration. To understand and generalize the observed phenomena, questions concerning the mechanism of the puncture resealing must be answered. One suggestion is that the elastic character of the melt created by the puncture drives the self-healing. This inference is based on the observed temperature rise of approx. 3 C above the melting temperature of the samples (approx. 95 C) during the impact. With the expectation of gaining additional insight into the self-healing phenomenon, a thermodynamic and viscoelastic investigation was conducted using primarily DSC and DMA. Surlyn(trademark) and React-A-Seal(trademark) showed the characteristic order-disorder transition at approx. 52 C that has been reported in literature. Master curves were constructed from the creep isotherms for the four EMAA samples. An aging study was performed to investigate the irreproducibility and "tailing effect" observed in the creep data. The aging study indicated that, with increased aging time and temperature, changes in the polyethylene matrix lead to complexities in morphology resulting in changes in the magnitude and shape of the creep curves.

Ward, Thomas C.

2003-01-01

11

Mechanical properties of a new thermoplastic polymer orthodontic archwire.  

PubMed

A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained and extruded into wires with round and rectangular cross sections. We evaluated the potential of new aesthetic archwire: tensile, three point bending, friction and stress relaxation behaviour, and formability characteristics were assessed. Stresses delivered were generally slightly lower than typical beta-titanium and nickel-titanium archwires. The polymer wire has good instantaneous mechanical properties; tensile stress decayed about 2% over 2h depending on the initial stress relaxation for up to 120h. High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires. The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic conventional archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. This new polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires. PMID:25063084

Varela, Juan Carlos; Velo, Marcos; Espinar, Eduardo; Llamas, Jose Maria; Rúperez, Elisa; Manero, Jose Maria; Javier Gil, F

2014-09-01

12

Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

Pater, Ruth H. (inventor)

1992-01-01

13

Bonding of thermoplastic polymer microfluidics Chia-Wen Tsao Don L. DeVoe  

E-print Network

REVIEW Bonding of thermoplastic polymer microfluidics Chia-Wen Tsao Ã? Don L. DeVoe Received: 20 Abstract Thermoplastics are highly attractive substrate materials for microfluidic systems, with important microchannels and other microfluidic elements, and thus bonding remains a critical step in any thermo- plastic

Rubloff, Gary W.

14

Initiation of shape-memory effect by inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles in thermoplastic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shape-memory polymers, changes in shape are mostly induced by heating, and exceeding a specific switching temperature, Tswitch. If polymers cannot be warmed up by heat transfer using a hot liquid or gaseous medium, noncontact triggering will be required. In this article, the magnetically induced shape-memory effect of composites from magnetic nanoparticles and thermoplastic shape-memory polymers is introduced. A polyetherurethane

R. Mohr; K. Kratz; T. Weigel; M. Lucka-Gabor; M. Moneke; A. Lendlein

2006-01-01

15

Effects of Surface Plasma Treatment on Tribology of Thermoplastic Polymers  

E-print Network

polyethylene (LDPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and Hytrel1 (HY, a thermoplastic elastomer with plasma, PC and LDPE show more pronounced and useful effects, such as a lowering of dynamic friction in PC and wear reduction in LDPE. These results can be explained in terms of the changes in chemical struc- tures

North Texas, University of

16

Predicting Wear From Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers  

E-print Network

to evaluate the performance of dental materials [7] and engineering thermoplastics [6, 8, 9]. Despite- sistance to wear is determined by evaluation of the resid- ual depth Rh and percentage of viscoelastic: poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA, RTP Company), polyphenylsulfone (Solvay Advanced Poly- mers, L

North Texas, University of

17

Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes.

Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

1995-08-01

18

Noncontact microembossing technology for fabricating thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets.  

PubMed

Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PS (polyStyrene), and PC (polycarbonate) from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs. PMID:25162063

Chang, Xuefeng; Xie, Dan; Ge, Xiaohong; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

19

Noncontact Microembossing Technology for Fabricating Thermoplastic Optical Polymer Microlens Array Sheets  

PubMed Central

Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PS (polyStyrene), and PC (polycarbonate) from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs. PMID:25162063

Chang, Xuefeng; Ge, Xiaohong; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

20

Ex Situ Integration of Multifunctional Porous Polymer Monoliths into Thermoplastic Microfluidic Chips.  

PubMed

A unique method for incorporating functional porous polymer monolith elements into thermoplastic microfluidic chips is described. Monolith elements are formed in a microfabricated mold, rather than within the microchannels, and chemically functionalized off chip before insertion into solvent-softened thermoplastic microchannels during chip assembly. Because monoliths may be trimmed prior to final placement, control of their size, shape, and uniformity is greatly improved over in-situ photopolymerization methods. A characteristic trapezoidal profile facilitates rapid insertion and enables complete mechanical anchoring of the monolith periphery, eliminating the need for chemical attachment to the microchannel walls. Off-chip processing allows the parallel preparation of monoliths of differing compositions and surface chemistries in large batches. Multifunctional flow-through arrays of multiple monolith elements are demonstrated using this approach through the creation of a fluorescent immunosensor with integrated controls, and a microfluidic bubble separator comprising a combination of integrated hydrophobic and hydrophilic monolith elements. PMID:25018587

Kendall, Eric L; Wienhold, Erik; Rahmanian, Omid D; DeVoe, Don L

2014-10-31

21

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES & MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS OF FOUR PERFLUORINATED THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic viscosity measurements and molecular weight estimates have been made on four commercial, amorphous fluoropolymers with glass transitions (Tg) above 100 C: Teflon AF 1600, Hyflon AD 60, Cytop A and Cytop M. These polymers are of interest as binders for the insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) because of their high density and Tg above ambient, but within a suitable processing range of TATB. As part of this effort, the rheological properties and molecular weight distributions of these polymers were evaluated.

Hoffman, D M; Shields, A L

2009-02-24

22

Selecting and designing with the right thermoplastic polymer for your microfluidic chip: a close look into cyclo-olefin polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineers who are developing microfluidic devices and bioMEMs for life science applications have many aspects to consider when selecting the proper base materials for constructing a device. While glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are the staple materials for proof-of-concept and prototype chip fabrication, they are not a feasible solution for commercial production due to their slow, labor-intensive production rate. Alternatively, a molded or extruded thermoplastic solution can deliver the precision, consistency, and high volume capability required for commercial scale production. Traditional thermoplastics, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), and polystyrene (PS), are well known by development engineers in the bioscience community; however, cyclo-olefin polymer (COP), a relative newcomer in the world of plastics, is gaining increasing attention for use in microfluidic devices due to its unique balance of key properties compared to conventional thermoplastics. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive look at the properties which make COP an excellent candidate for providing the flow cell support and reagent storage functions in microfluidic assays. We also explore the processing attributes and capabilities of COP resin and film which are crucial for manufacturing high-performance microfluidic devices.

Nevitt, Mark

2013-03-01

23

Universal hydrophilic coating of thermoplastic polymers currently used in microfluidics.  

PubMed

A number of materials used to fabricate disposable microfluidic devices are hydrophobic in nature with water contact angles on their surface ranging from 80° to over 100°. This characteristic makes them unsuitable for a number of microfluidic applications. Both the wettability and analyte adsorption parameters are highly dependent on the surface hydrophobicity. In this article, we propose a general method to coat the surface of five materials: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This fast and robust process, which is easily implementable in any laboratory including microfabrication clean room facilities, was devised by combining gas-phase and wet chemical modification processes. Two different coatings that improve the surface hydrophilicity were prepared via the "dip and rinse" approach by immersing the plasma oxidized materials into an aqueous solution of two different poly(dimethylacrylamide) copolymers incorporating a silane moiety and functionalized with either N-acryloyloxysuccinimide (NAS) (poly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) (poly(DMA-GMA-MAPS). The coating formation was confirmed by contact angle (CA) analysis comparing the variation of CAs of uncoated and coated surfaces subjected to different aging treatments. The antifouling character of the polymer was demonstrated by fluorescence and interferometric detection of proteins adsorbed on the surafce. This method is of great interest in microfluidics due to its broad applicability to a number of materials with varying chemical compositions. PMID:24037663

Zilio, Caterina; Sola, Laura; Damin, Francesco; Faggioni, Lucia; Chiari, Marcella

2014-02-01

24

Initiation of shape-memory effect by inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles in thermoplastic polymers.  

PubMed

In shape-memory polymers, changes in shape are mostly induced by heating, and exceeding a specific switching temperature, T(switch). If polymers cannot be warmed up by heat transfer using a hot liquid or gaseous medium, noncontact triggering will be required. In this article, the magnetically induced shape-memory effect of composites from magnetic nanoparticles and thermoplastic shape-memory polymers is introduced. A polyetherurethane (TFX) and a biodegradable multiblock copolymer (PDC) with poly(p-dioxanone) as hard segment and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) as soft segment were investigated as matrix component. Nanoparticles consisting of an iron(III)oxide core in a silica matrix could be processed into both polymers. A homogeneous particle distribution in TFX could be shown. Compounds have suitable elastic and thermal properties for the shape-memory functionalization. Temporary shapes of TFX compounds were obtained by elongating at increased temperature and subsequent cooling under constant stress. Cold-drawing of PDC compounds at 25 degrees C resulted in temporary fixation of the mechanical deformation by 50-60%. The shape-memory effect of both composite systems could be induced by inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field (f = 258 kHz; H = 30 kA x m(-1)). The maximum temperatures achievable by inductive heating in a specific magnetic field depend on sample geometry and nanoparticle content. Shape recovery rates of composites resulting from magnetic triggering are comparable to those obtained by increasing the environmental temperature. PMID:16537442

Mohr, R; Kratz, K; Weigel, T; Lucka-Gabor, M; Moneke, M; Lendlein, A

2006-03-01

25

Initiation of shape-memory effect by inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles in thermoplastic polymers  

PubMed Central

In shape-memory polymers, changes in shape are mostly induced by heating, and exceeding a specific switching temperature, Tswitch. If polymers cannot be warmed up by heat transfer using a hot liquid or gaseous medium, noncontact triggering will be required. In this article, the magnetically induced shape-memory effect of composites from magnetic nanoparticles and thermoplastic shape-memory polymers is introduced. A polyetherurethane (TFX) and a biodegradable multiblock copolymer (PDC) with poly(p-dioxanone) as hard segment and poly(?-caprolactone) as soft segment were investigated as matrix component. Nanoparticles consisting of an iron(III)oxide core in a silica matrix could be processed into both polymers. A homogeneous particle distribution in TFX could be shown. Compounds have suitable elastic and thermal properties for the shape-memory functionalization. Temporary shapes of TFX compounds were obtained by elongating at increased temperature and subsequent cooling under constant stress. Cold-drawing of PDC compounds at 25°C resulted in temporary fixation of the mechanical deformation by 50–60%. The shape-memory effect of both composite systems could be induced by inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field (f = 258 kHz; H = 30 kA·m?1). The maximum temperatures achievable by inductive heating in a specific magnetic field depend on sample geometry and nanoparticle content. Shape recovery rates of composites resulting from magnetic triggering are comparable to those obtained by increasing the environmental temperature. PMID:16537442

Mohr, R.; Kratz, K.; Weigel, T.; Lucka-Gabor, M.; Moneke, M.; Lendlein, A.

2006-01-01

26

Hemocompatibility of Inorganic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings on Thermoplastic Polyurethane Polymers  

PubMed Central

Biocompatibility improvements for blood contacting materials are of increasing interest for implanted devices and interventional tools. The current study focuses on inorganic (titanium, titanium nitride, titanium oxide) as well as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating materials on polymer surfaces (thermoplastic polyurethane), deposited by magnetron sputtering und pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. DLC was used pure (a-C:H) as well as doped with silicon, titanium, and nitrogen + titanium (a-C:H:Si, a-C:H:Ti, a-C:H:N:Ti). In-vitro testing of the hemocompatibility requires mandatory dynamic test conditions to simulate in-vivo conditions, e.g., realized by a cone-and-plate analyzer. In such tests, titanium- and nitrogen-doped DLC and titanium nitride were found to be optimally anti-thrombotic and better than state-of-the-art polyurethane polymers. This is mainly due to the low tendency to platelet microparticle formation, a high content of remaining platelets in the whole blood after testing and low concentration of platelet activation and aggregation markers. Comparing this result to shear-flow induced cell motility tests with e.g., Dictostelium discoideum cell model organism reveals similar tendencies for the investigated materials. PMID:24955532

Lackner, Juergen M.; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Paul; Bruckert, Franz; Weidenhaupt, Marianne; Major, Roman; Sanak, Marek; Wiesinger, Martin; Heim, Daniel

2012-01-01

27

Study of Double-Side Ultrasonic Embossing for Fabrication of Microstructures on Thermoplastic Polymer Substrates  

PubMed Central

Double-side replication of polymer substrates is beneficial to the design and the fabrication of 3-demensional devices. The ultrasonic embossing method is a promising, high efficiency and low cost replication method for thermoplastic substrates. It is convenient to apply silicon molds in ultrasonic embossing, because microstructures can be easily fabricated on silicon wafers with etching techniques. To reduce the risk of damaging to silicon molds and to improve the replication uniformity on both sides of the polymer substrates, thermal assisted ultrasonic embossing method was proposed and tested. The processing parameters for the replication of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), including ultrasonic amplitude, ultrasonic force, ultrasonic time, and thermal assisted temperature were studied using orthogonal array experiments. The influences of the substrate thickness, pattern style and density were also investigated. The experiment results show that the principal parameters for the upper and lower surface replication are ultrasonic amplitude and thermal assisted temperature, respectively. As to the replication uniformity on both sides, the ultrasonic force has the maximal influence. Using the optimized parameters, the replication rate reached 97.5% on both sides of the PMMA substrate, and the cycle time was less than 50 s. PMID:23630605

Luo, Yi; Yan, Xu; Qi, Na; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Liangjiang

2013-01-01

28

Towards tunable sensitivity of electrical property to strain for conductive polymer composites based on thermoplastic elastomer.  

PubMed

The use of conductive polymer composites (CPCs) as strain sensors has been widely investigated and various resistivity-strain sensitivities are desirable for different applications. In this study, the use of mixed carbon fillers and functionalized carbon nanotubes was demonstrated to be vital for preparing thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based strain sensors with tunable sensitivity. To understand the strain sensing behavior, we carried out scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), mechanical test, and rheology-electrical measurement. Hybrid fillers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon black (CB) could reduce the entanglement in conductive network structure, thus increase the resistivity-strain sensitivity. Furthermore, incorporation of additional functionalized MWNTs in the CPCs could enhance the interfacial interaction between nanofillers and TPU, leading to further increase in sensitivity. Through such a simple method, strain sensors could be efficiently fabricated with large strain-sensing capability (strain as large as 200%) and a wide range of strain sensitivity (gauge factor ranging from 5 to 140238). Finally, the exponential revolution of resistive response to strain was fitted with a model based on tunneling theory by Simmons. It was observed that the change in tunneling distance and the number of conductive pathways could be accelerated significantly by adjusting conductive network structure and interfacial interaction. This study provides a guideline for the preparation of high-performance CPC strain sensors with a large range of resistivity-strain sensitivity. PMID:23713404

Lin, Lin; Liu, Siyao; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaoyu; Ji, Mizhi; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

2013-06-26

29

Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

2014-06-10

30

Modeling and Simulation of the Flow of a Thermoplastic Polymer during Filling of a Cylindrical Micro-Cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is related to experiments and modelling concerning viscous polymer flow such as cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and cyco-olefin copolymer (COC) arising in the hot embossing process in order to understand and predict the filling of microcavities. The simulation results are obtained for axisymmetric geometries. The filling time and the dimensions of polymer with the rheological and experimental process parameters are obtained. From the variations of the radius characterizing the squeeze flow of the polymers between plates with or without cavities, it is possible to relate the rheological properties (fluidity index, consistency, melt flow index and viscosity) to the aptitude of the polymers to reproduce the geometrical shape and surface asperities of a microstructured mould. The flow imposed to the polymeric material in shear or elongational mode was correlated to the rheological approach. This approach allows to better understand the compression of thermoplastic disks as well as the filling mechanism of cylindrical cavities while providing a predictive approach for the of embossing pressure during the process.

Sahli, M.; Gelin, J. C.; Malek, C. Khan; Roques-Carmes, C.

2007-05-01

31

Preparation of Thermoplastic X-ray Masks for Medical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this thesis was to study the appropriate polymer for preparation of thermoplastic masks for medical applications. The commercial thermoplastic mask was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that the type of polymer being used is polycaprolactone. The tensile strength, hardness and impact strength of the commercial thermoplastic mask

Jindarat Pimsamarn

32

Low platinum loading electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells fabricated using thermoplastic ionomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low platinum loading catalyst layers for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) consist of a thin film of highly inter-mixed ionomer and catalyst that is applied to the electrolyte membrane. High performances are achieved with loadings as low as 0.12 mg Pt cm?2 at the cathode and even lower loadings are required at the anode. However, the long-term performance of these

Mahlon S. Wilson; Judith A. Valerio; Shimshon Gottesfeld

1995-01-01

33

A Process for Semi-Solid Moulding of High Viscosity Thermoplastic Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new moulding process for manufacturing micro parts made from high viscosity polymers has been developed as a result of a feasibility study. The process basically involves compression moulding of a polymeric preform by heating it up to its semi-solid state, i.e. between its glass transition temperature and melting temperature. The apparatus is made up of three main parts: a forming device, a single cavity micro mould and an induction heating system. The processing technique was successfully tested in the manufacturing of 10 mm round discs with a flange and inner bore using high viscosity polymers such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In a further miniaturization study, U-shaped micro seals with an outer diameter up to 2.5 mm were also successfully manufactured from non-injection mouldable PTFE. Thus, the new process is a realistic alternative technique to the existing micro moulding processes with respect to its capability to process a huge variety of polymers, even ultra high viscosity materials and the possibility to create micro parts with non-uniform wall thickness distributions.

Frick, Achim; Rochman, Arif; Martin, Peter

2011-05-01

34

A thermoplastic polyimidesulfone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polymer system has been prepared which has the excellent thermoplastic properties generally associated with polysulfones, and the solvent resistance and thermal stability of aromatic polyimides. This material, with improved processability over the base polyimide, can be processed in the 260-325 C range in such a manner as to yield high quality, tough unfilled moldings; strong, high-temperature-resistant adhesive bonds; and well consolidated, graphite-fiber-reinforced moldings (composities). The unfilled moldings have physical properties that are similar to aromatic polysulfones which demonstrates the potential as an engineering thermoplastic. The adhesive bonds exhibit excellent retention of initial strength levels even after thermal aging for 5000 hours at 232 C. The graphite-fiber-reinforced moldings have mechanical properties which makes this polymer attractive for the fabrication of structural composites.

St.clair, T. L.; Yamaki, D. A.

1982-01-01

35

Measurements of temperature during fatigue of a thermoplastic polymer composite using FBG sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that cyclic fatigue induces hysteretic heating and temperature increase in polymer composite materials. Optical sensing technology is well developed to perform efficient in-field monitoring of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of engineering composite structures in sectors ranging from automotive to aerospace, where the implications of thermal fatigue are important. In this paper an experimental method and its results for temperature measurements in a glass/polypropylene composite beam subjected to cyclic bending at 6 Hz are reported. Since the sensors are sensitive to both temperature and strain, they are placed on the surface and in the centre of the specimen during processing, thus minimizing the effects of the mechanical strain during loading. Temperature increases of 9 °C both inside and on the specimen surface are recorded with fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and verified by full-field temperature analysis using infrared thermography on the surface and thermocouples on both the surface and through the thickness of the composite. Discrimination between relatively large dynamic strain (responsible for ~280 pm Bragg wavelength shift oscillations), birefringence (responsible for ~70 pm), and temperature variations (9 °C leads to a Bragg wavelength shift of ~240 pm) is achieved by suitable integration of embedded FBGs and optical data processing. The achieved temperature resolution is 1 °C. The method outlined in this paper can be applied in various experimental configurations for temperature measurements in polymeric materials.

Facchini, M.; Botsis, J.; Sorensen, L.

2007-04-01

36

Investigation of physical properties of thermoplastic polyimides  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic polyimides are a class of promising high temperature polymers for aerospace applications. NASA-developed LARC-TPI is a prominent member of this family of polymers. Its physical characteristics have been measured as a function of its curing schedule. The results and their possible interpretations are discussed.

Singh, J.J.; Stoakley, D.M.

1987-12-01

37

Aerogel/polymer composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

38

Fabrication and characterization of a foamed polylactic acid (PLA)/ thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials that are able to respond to external stimulus such as heat by altering their shape. Bio-compatible SMPs have a number of advantages over static materials and are being studied extensively for biomedical and clinical applications (such as tissue stents and scaffolds). A previous study has demonstrated that the bio-compatible polymer blend of polylactic acid (PLA)/ thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) (50/50 and 70/30) exhibit good shape memory properties. In this study, the mechanical and thermo-mechanical (shape memory) properties of TPU/PLA SMP blends were characterized; the compositions studied were 80/20, 65/35, and 50/50 TPU/PLA. In addition, porous TPU/PLA SMP blends were fabricated with a gas-foaming technique; and the morphology of the porous structure of these SMPs foams were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TPU/PLA bio-compatible SMP blend was fabricated with melt-blending and compression molding. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the SMP blends was determined with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mechanical properties studied were the stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, and elastic modulus; and the thermomechanical (or shape memory) properties studied were the shape fixity rate (Rf), shape recovery rate (Rr), response time, and the effect of recovery temperature on Rr. The porous 80/20 PLA/TPU SMP blend was found to have the highest tensile strength, toughness and percentage extension, as well as the lowest density and uniform pore structure in the micron and submicron scale. The porous 80/20 TPU/PLA SMP blend may be further developed for specific biomedical and clinical applications where a combination of tensile strength, toughness, and low density are required.

Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Kowalski, Jennifer; Naguib, Hani E.

2014-03-01

39

Thermoplastic-carbon fiber hybrid yarn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts were directed to develop processing methods to make carbon fiber/thermoplastic fiber preforms that are easy to handle and drapeable, and to consolidate them into low void content laminates. The objectives were attained with the development of the hybrid yarn concept; whereby, thermoplastic fiber can be intimately intermixed with carbon fiber into a hybrid yarn. This was demonstrated with the intermixing of Celion 3000 with a Celanese liquid crystal polymer fiber, polybutylene terepthalate fiber, or polyetheretherketone fiber. The intermixing of the thermoplastic matrix fiber and the reinforcing carbon fiber gives a preform that can be easily fabricated into laminates with low void content. Mechanical properties of the laminates were not optimized; however, initial results indicated properties typical of a thermoplastic/carbon fiber composites prepared by more conventional methods.

Ketterer, M. E.

1984-01-01

40

A thermoplastic copolyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A copolyimide, STPI/LARC, was prepared from the reaction of 3,3'4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA), equimolar quantities of m-phenylenediamine and 4,4'-oxydianiline, and a small amount of phthalic anhydride to control the molecular weight. The processability and adhesive properties of STPI/LARC were compared to those of a commercially available form of LARC-TPI. LARC-TPI, a thermoplastic polyimide, from the reaction of BTDA and 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone, had previously shown promise as a high temperature structural adhesive. Lap shear specimens were fabricated using adhesive tape prepared from each of the two polymers. Lap shear tests were performed at room temperature, 177 C, and 204 C before and after exposure to a 72-hour water-boil and to aging at 204 C.

Progar, D. J.; St. Clair, T. L.

1985-01-01

41

Feasibility of bloodless liver resection using Lumagel, a reverse thermoplastic polymer, to produce temporary, targeted hepatic blood flow interruption  

PubMed Central

Background Lumagel, a reverse thermosensitive polymer (RTP), provides targeted flow interruption to the kidney by reversibly plugging segmental branches of the renal artery, allowing blood-free partial nephrectomy. Extending this technology to the liver requires the development of techniques for temporary occlusion of the hepatic artery and selected portal vein branches. Methods A three-phased, 15 swine study was performed to determine feasibility, techniques and survival implications of using Lumagel for occlusion of inflow vessels to targeted portions of the liver. Lumagel was delivered using angiographic techniques to sites determined by pre-operative 3-D vascular reconstructions of arterial and venous branches. During resection, the targeted liver mass was resected without vascular clamping. Three survival swine were sacrificed at 3 weeks; the remainder at 6 weeks for pathological studies. Results Six animals (100%) survived, with normal growth, blood tests and no adverse events. Three left lateral lobe resections encountered no bleeding during resection; one right median resection bled; two control animals bled significantly. Pre-terminal angiography and autopsy showed no local pathology and no remote organ damage. Conclusions Targeted flow interruption to the left lateral lobe of the swine liver is feasible and allows resection without bleeding, toxicity or pathological sequelae. Targeting the remaining liver will require more elaborate plug deposition owing to the extensive collateral venous network. PMID:22221572

Pomposelli, James J; Akoad, Mohamed; Flacke, Sebastian; Benn, James J; Solano, Mauricio; Kalra, Aarti; Madras, Peter N

2012-01-01

42

Interface reactions and the reaction processing of engineering thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

As a class of materials engineering thermoplastics have enjoyed phenomenal growth in sales since their introduction and above average growth over the past decades. Much of this growth has been driven by inter-material substitution as polymers have replaced metal, glass, and ceramics. The benefits engineering thermoplastics offer are primarily improved strength/weight ratio, material toughness, improved manufacturing productivity, and increased design flexibility. A striking example is the weight reduction that has been achieved in automobiles. Modern automobiles are both more fuel efficient and safer because of substitution of plastic for metal. Another example is notebook computers. The housings for these devices must be tough, lightweight, and stable to the high temperatures generated by high-performance microprocessors. Advanced polymers have also been integral in the proliferation of optical memory. Engineering thermoplastics have played a key role - sometimes an enabling role - in these, and many other, technology advances. Chemically, most engineering thermoplastics share common characteristics: they are mostly condensation polymers; they contain functional groups which impart a significant polarity to the molecule; and they often contain aromatic rings in the polymer backbone. Introduction of entirely new classes of engineering thermoplastics has slowed significantly. The cost of developing and commercializing a new engineering thermoplastic has been estimated to be $100 million, a daunting investment even for the largest manufacturers. At the same time, however, the price / performance demands of end users and the emergence of attractive niche markets has continued apace.

Kumpf, R.J.; Archey, R.L.; Lau, C.J. [Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jonsson, E.H. [Bayer Ag, Dormagen (Germany)

1996-12-31

43

Novel pulp fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reinforcement potential of pulp fibres is presently not fully explored in thermoplastic composites. One of the reasons is that currently used processing methods comprise several severe thermomechanical steps inducing premature degradation of the fibres. Three pre-forming techniques were developed to prepare pulp fibre reinforced cellulose diacetate (CDA) pre-forms, namely filtration-forming, solvent impregnation, and commingling with polymer fibres. These techniques

L Lundquist; B Marque; P.-O Hagstrand; Y Leterrier; J.-A. E Månson

2003-01-01

44

High performance LDPE\\/thermoplastic starch blends: a sustainable alternative to pure polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic starch (TPS), as opposed to dry starch, is capable of flow and hence when mixed with other synthetic polymers can behave in a manner similar to conventional polymer–polymer blends. This paper presents an approach to preparing polyethylene\\/thermoplastic starch blends with unique properties. A one-step combined twin-screw\\/single screw extrusion setup is used to carry out the melt–melt mixing of the

F. J Rodriguez-Gonzalez; B. A Ramsay; B. D Favis

2003-01-01

45

Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

46

Making Thermoplastics Flame-Resistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inorganic hydrate-salt filler coated with elastomer containing acidic groups imparts flame and smoke retardancy to thermoplastics while preventing degradation of impact resistance that results from high filler loadings in thermoplastic.

Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D.; Reilly, W. W.

1984-01-01

47

Pultrusion process development of a graphite reinforced polyetherimide thermoplastic composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High performance thermoplastic polymers do not contain reactants and solvents able to react with a pultrusion die to yield polymerization; consolidation is therefore performed with a rigid or a boardy prepreg, and consolidation must occur with polymers whose viscosities are of the order of 1 million centipoises or more. Die temperatures are typically above 400 C, by comparison with the 150-200 C encountered in thermosets. A methodical approach is presented here for the development of a pultrusion process suitable for polyetherimide and other engineering thermoplastics, employing SEM, DSC, TGA, and ultrasonic C-scanning.

Wilson, Maywood L.; Buckley, John D.; Dickerson, George E.; Johnson, Gary S.; Taylor, Edward C.; Covington, Edward W.

1989-01-01

48

Morphological, mechanical properties and biodegradability of biocomposite thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone reinforced with sisal fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incorporation of fibers as reinforcements in polymer composites has increased due to their renewability, low cost and biodegradability. In this study, sisal fibers were added to a polymer matrix of thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone, both biodegradable polymers. Sisal fibers (5% and 10%) ...

49

Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules  

SciTech Connect

Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

2011-10-01

50

Thermoplastic Waves in Magnetars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetar activity is generated by shear motions of the neutron star surface, which relieve internal magnetic stresses. An analogy with earthquakes and faults is problematic, as the crust is permeated by strong magnetic fields which greatly constrain crustal displacements. We describe a new deformation mechanism that is specific to strongly magnetized neutron stars. The magnetically stressed crust begins to move because of a thermoplastic instability, which launches a wave that shears the crust and burns its magnetic energy. The propagating wave front resembles the deflagration front in combustion physics. We describe the conditions for the instability, the front structure, and velocity, and discuss implications for observed magnetar activity.

Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Levin, Yuri

2014-10-01

51

The crystallization of tough thermoplastic resins in the presence of carbon fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crystallization kinetics of the thermoplastic resins poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) in the presence and in the abscence of carbon fibers was studied. How carbon fiber surfaces in composites affect the crystallization of tough thermoplastic polymers that may serve as matrix resins were determined. The crystallization kinetics of such substances can provide useful information about the crystallization mechanisms and, thus, indicate if the presence of carbon fibers cause any changes in such mechanisms.

Theil, M. H.

1986-01-01

52

Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

Novak, R. C.

1975-01-01

53

Thermoplastic bonding of microfluidic substrates  

E-print Network

The assembly of microfluidic components for lab on a chip (LOC) applications that are manufactured from commodity thermoplastics is challenging. A survey of plastic welding techniques validates that contour transmission ...

Judge, Benjamin Michael

2012-01-01

54

Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

1990-01-01

55

Strain recovery mechanism of PBT\\/rubber thermoplastic elastomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) prepared by dynamic vulcanization is a two-phase material in which crosslinked rubber particles are densely dispersed in a ductile polymer matrix. The TPE shows an excellent strain recovery, even though the matrix consists of ductile plastics. This behavior was exemplified in a 50\\/50 poly(butylene terephthalate)(PBT)\\/ethylene rubber blend. Finite element method (FEM) analysis revealed that: (1) the

Takashi Aoyama; Hiromu Saito; Takashi Inoue; Yasushi Niitsu

1999-01-01

56

Characterization of thermoplastic polyimide NEW-TPI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal and rheological properties of a commercial thermoplastic polyimide, NEW-TPI, were characterized. The as-received material possesses initially a transient crystallite form with a bimodal distribution in peak melting temperatures. After the meltings of the initial crystallite structures, the sample can be recrystallized by various thermal treatments. A bimodal or single-modal melting peak distribution is formed for annealing temperatures below or above 360 C, respectively. The recrystallized crystallinities are all transient in nature. The polymers are unable to be recrystallized after being subjected to elevated temperature annealing above 450 C. The recrystallization mechanism was postulated, and a simple kinetics model was found to describe the behavior satisfactorily under conditions of prolonged thermal annealing.

Hou, T. H.; Reddy, R. M.

1991-01-01

57

A Study on the Relationships between Network Structure and Mechanical Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks-Part 2: The Comparison of the Theory of Viscoelasticity for Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers with Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the elastic modulus and loss tangent to the compositions for two series of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (ET and ES types) was investigated by the uniaxial extension method and dynamic mechanic analysis. The structure parameters (C100, C020 and C200) were determined by multilinear regression. At the same time, the process of chemical stress relaxation was carried out under

M. S. Song; Y. D. Shen; H. Chen; C. J. Hu

1995-01-01

58

Thermoplastic tape compaction device  

DOEpatents

A device is disclosed for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite. 5 figures.

Campbell, V.W.

1994-12-27

59

Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

1991-01-01

60

Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program designed to optimize the fabrication procedures for graphite thermoplastic composites are described. The properties of the composites as a function of temperature were measured and graphite thermoplastic fan exit guide vanes were fabricated and tested. Three thermoplastics were included in the investigation: polysulfone, polyethersulfone, and polyarylsulfone. Type HMS graphite was used as the reinforcement. Bending fatigue tests of HMS graphite/polyethersulfone demonstrated a gradual shear failure mode which resulted in a loss of stiffness in the specimens. Preliminary curves were generated to show the loss in stiffness as a function of stress and number of cycles. Fan exit guide vanes of HMS graphite polyethersulfone were satisfactorily fabricated in the final phase of the program. These were found to have stiffness and better fatigue behavior than graphite epoxy vanes which were formerly bill of material.

Navak, R. C.

1977-01-01

61

Structure and thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T. (eds.)

2004-07-01

62

Process for Preparing a Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing a tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimide is provided. The process comprises the steps of (a) providing 4.4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride to 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride at a mole ratio ranging from about 25 mole percent to 75 mole percent to 75 mole percent to about 25 mole percent; (b) adding 3,4'-oxydianiline to form a mixture; (c) adding a polar aprotic or polar protic solvent to the mixture to form a solution having a percentage of solids capable of maintaining polymer solubility; (d) stirring the solution to allow it to react; (e) adding an azeotropic solvent to the solution and heating to remove water; (f) cooling the solution of step (e) to room temperature and recovering the tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimide.

Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

63

Dual thermoplastic holography recording system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thermoplastic holography recording system is described. The system records the light intensity pattern of the hologram using only electromechanical forces. The hologram is prepared for exposure, processed, and fixed electronically by a 'dry' process within seconds. Poor recordings may be erased repeatedly until the desired hologram is obtained, and recordings can be inspected immediately. Techniques for controlling the

H. L. Umstatter; J. L. Doty; J. D. Trolinger

1985-01-01

64

Polymers Are Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history of the human understanding of polymers from alchemy to modern times. Discusses renaissance chemistry, polymers in the nineteenth century, synthetic elastomers, thermoplastic elastomers, fibers, coatings, adhesives, derivatives of natural rubber, thermosets, step-reaction, and chain polymerization. (CW)

Seymour, Raymond B.

1988-01-01

65

Characterization of a thermoplastic polyimidesulfone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed characterization of an experimental thermoplastic polyimidesulfone adhesive based on 3,3 prime-diaminodiphenylsulfone and 3,3 prime,4,4 prime-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride was studied. Model compounds were also examined. Thermal cyclization of the amide-acid to the imide was studied by a variety of techniques including DSC, TGA, MS, in situ diffuse reflectance-FTIR, and flow mearsurement. Characterizations were continued during the processing of adhesive tapes and the fabrication, bonding, and testing of lap shear specimens. Results provide fundamental insights into the role of cure chemistry, and the effects of residual solvent and volatile produces on processing and performance. These insights and the resulting chemical models should lead to more efficient processing cycles for these and other related thermoplastic adhesive systems.

Dezern, J. F.; Young, P. R.

1985-01-01

66

Biodegradable Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Incorporating Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane  

E-print Network

Biodegradable Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Incorporating Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane Pamela T polyurethane (TPU) system that incorporates an organic, biodegradable poly(D,L- lactide) soft block with a hard

Mather, Patrick T.

67

Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

1993-01-01

68

Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

69

Thermoplastic adhesives based on 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermoplastic polyimides were prepared and evaluated as adhesives. These materials are based on 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphathalic anhydride (IDAP) and either metaphenylene diamine (MPD) or 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone (DBAP). Both polymers exhibit excellent adhesive properties; however, the IDPA-MPD is the more attractive system because of a combination of high mechanical and physical properties as well as being made from commercially attractive monomers. The IDPA-MPD is an isomeric form of the commercially available adhesive and matrix resin, LARC-TPI and both systems have the same glass transition temperature and exhibit similar adhesive properties.

Progar, Donald J.; Stclair, Terry L.; Pratt, J. Richard

1988-01-01

70

Mesoporous carbon nanofibers with a high surface area electrospun from thermoplastic polyvinylpyrrolidone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized from thermoplastic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using electrospinning in combination with a novel three-step heat treatment process, which successfully stabilizes the fibrous morphology before carbonization that was proven to be difficult for thermoplastic polymers other than polyacrylonitrile (PAN). These CNFs are both mesoporous and microporous with high surface areas without subsequent activation, and thus overcome the limitations of PAN based CNFs, and are processed in an environmentally friendly and more cost effective manner. The effects of heat treatment parameters and precursor concentration on the morphologies and porous properties of CNFs have been investigated, and their application as anodes for lithium ion batteries has also been demonstrated.

Wang, Peiqi; Zhang, Dan; Ma, Feiyue; Ou, Yun; Chen, Qian Nataly; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

2012-10-01

71

Autoclave forming of thermoplastic composite parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic advanced composites are of great interest for meeting the needs of new challenges in the aerospace industry. Thermoplastics offer a number of important advantages over thermosets like better toughness and damage tolerance, rapid fabrication cycle and the possibility of assembling substructures by welding.Progress has been made by INTA in setting up the autoclave forming technologies for the manufacturing of

I. Fernández; F. Blas; M. Frövel

2003-01-01

72

Thermoplastic polymides and composites therefrom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class polyimide and polyimide precursors based on diaryl oxyalkylene diamines, such as 1,3-bis[4-aminophenoxy]-2,2-dimethyl propane, a process for their preparation and their use as the continuous phase for the manufacture of composites and composite laminates reinforced by reinforcing agents such as carbon fibers, Kevlar.TM., and other similar high strength reinforcing agents. The polyimides and molecular composites obtained from the diamines according to the invention show thermoplastic properties, excellent flex fatigue and fracture resistance, and excellent thermal and oxidative stability.

Harris, Frank W. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

73

Dual thermoplastic holography recording system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel thermoplastic holography recording system is described. The system records the light intensity pattern of the hologram using only electromechanical forces. The hologram is prepared for exposure, processed, and fixed electronically by a 'dry' process within seconds. Poor recordings may be erased repeatedly until the desired hologram is obtained, and recordings can be inspected immediately. Techniques for controlling the phase, spacing, and orientation of plate fringes by means of plate manipulation are described, and experimental results on the systems fringe control capability are presented. Photographs of some of the double plate interferograms are provided.

Umstatter, H. L.; Doty, J. L.; Trolinger, J. D.

1985-01-01

74

Improved Thermoplastic/Iron-Particle Transformer Cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating improved transformer cores from composites of thermoplastic matrices and iron-particles has been invented. Relative to commercially available laminated-iron-alloy transformer cores, the cores fabricated by this method weigh less and are less expensive. Relative to prior polymer-matrix/ iron-particle composite-material transformer cores, the cores fabricated by this method can be made mechanically stronger and more magnetically permeable. In addition, whereas some prior cores have exhibited significant eddy-current losses, the cores fabricated by this method exhibit very small eddy-current losses. The cores made by this method can be expected to be attractive for use in diverse applications, including high-signal-to-noise transformers, stepping motors, and high-frequency ignition coils. The present method is a product of an experimental study of the relationships among fabrication conditions, final densities of iron particles, and mechanical and electromagnetic properties of fabricated cores. Among the fabrication conditions investigated were molding pressures (83, 104, and 131 MPa), and molding temperatures (250, 300, and 350 C). Each block of core material was made by uniaxial-compression molding, at the applicable pressure/temperature combination, of a mixture of 2 weight percent of LaRC (or equivalent high-temperature soluble thermoplastic adhesive) with 98 weight percent of approximately spherical iron particles having diameters in the micron range. Each molded block was cut into square cross-section rods that were used as core specimens in mechanical and electromagnetic tests. Some of the core specimens were annealed at 900 C and cooled slowly before testing. For comparison, a low-carbon-steel core was also tested. The results of the tests showed that density, hardness, and rupture strength generally increased with molding pressure and temperature, though the correlation was rather weak. The weakness of the correlation was attributed to the pores in the specimens. The maximum relative permeabilities of cores made without annealing ranged from 30 to 110, while those of cores made with annealing ranged from 900 to 1,400. However, the greater permeabilities of the annealed specimens were not associated with noticeably greater densities. The major practical result of the investigation was the discovery of an optimum distribution of iron-particle sizes: It was found that eddy-current losses in the molded cores were minimized by using 100 mesh (corresponding to particles with diameters less than or equal to 100 m) iron particles. The effect of optimization of particle sizes on eddy-current losses is depicted in the figure.

Wincheski, Russell A.; Bryant, Robert G.; Namkung, Min

2004-01-01

75

Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves  

DOEpatents

A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

76

Interlaminar fracture toughness of thermoplastic composites  

SciTech Connect

Edge delamination tension and double cantilever beam tests were used to characterize the interlaminar fracture toughness of continuous graphite-fiber composites made from experimental thermoplastic polyimides and a model thermoplastic. Residual thermal stresses, known to be significant in materials processed at high temperatures, were included in the edge delamination calculations. In the model thermoplastic system (polycarbonate matrix), surface properties of the graphite fiber were shown to be significant. Critical strain energy release rates for two different fibers having similar nominal tensile properties differed by 30 to 60%. The reason for the difference is not clear. Interlaminar toughness values for the thermoplastic polyimide composites (LARC-TPI and polyimidesulfone) were 3 to 4 in-lb/sq in. Scanning electron micrographs of the EDT fracture surfaces suggest poor fiber/matrix bonding. Residual thermal stresses account for up to 32% of the strain energy release in composites made from these high-temperature resins.

Hinkley, J.A.; Johnston, N.J.; Obrien, T.K.

1988-02-01

77

Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

Hendel, F. J.

1966-01-01

78

Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

1985-01-01

79

Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

80

Polymers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

Tucker, David C.

1986-01-01

81

Multicomponent polymer materials  

SciTech Connect

Interpenetrating polymer networks are discussed, taking into account interpenetrating polymer networks based on polybutadiene and polystyrene, polyurethane-polysiloxane simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks, extraction studies and morphology of physical-chemical interpenetrating polymer networks based on block polymer and polystyrene, twoand three-component interpenetrating polymer networks, and poly(acrylourethane)-polyepoxide semiinterpenetrating networks formed by electron-beam curing. Other topics studied are related to the characterization of polymer blends, the characterization of block copolymers, the mechanical behavior, and rheology and applications. Attention is given to a new silicone flame-retardant system for thermoplastics, recent developments in interpenetrating polymer networks and related materials, miscibility in random copolymer blends, crystallization and melting in compatible polymer blends, and fatigue in rubber-modified epoxies and other polyblends.

Paul, D.R.; Sperling, L.H.

1986-01-01

82

Investigations on laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the plastic industry laser transmission welding ranks among the most important joining techniques and opens up new application areas continuously. So far, a big disadvantage of the process was the fact that the joining partners need different optical properties. Since thermoplastics are transparent for the radiation of conventional beam sources (800- 1100 nm) the absorbance of one of the joining partners has to be enhanced by adding an infrared absorber (IR-absorber). Until recently, welding of absorber-free parts has not been possible. New diode lasers provide a broad variety of wavelengths which allows exploiting intrinsic absorption bands of thermoplastics. The use of a proper wavelength in combination with special optics enables laser welding of two optically identical polymer parts without absorbers which can be utilized in a large number of applications primarily in the medical and food industry, where the use of absorbers usually entails costly and time-consuming authorization processes. In this paper some aspects of the process are considered as the influence of the focal position, which is crucial when both joining partners have equal optical properties. After a theoretical consideration, an evaluation is carried out based on welding trials with polycarbonate (PC). Further aspects such as gap bridging capability and the influence of thickness of the upper joining partner are investigated as well.

Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; Britten, Simon W.; Engelmann, Christoph

2014-03-01

83

Computational modelling of a thermoforming process for thermoplastic starch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastic packaging waste currently forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and as such is causing increasing environmental concerns. Such packaging is largely non-biodegradable and is particularly difficult to recycle or to reuse due to its complex composition. Apart from limited recycling of some easily identifiable packaging wastes, such as bottles, most packaging waste ends up in landfill sites. In recent years, in an attempt to address this problem in the case of plastic packaging, the development of packaging materials from renewable plant resources has received increasing attention and a wide range of bioplastic materials based on starch are now available. Environmentally these bioplastic materials also reduce reliance on oil resources and have the advantage that they are biodegradable and can be composted upon disposal to reduce the environmental impact. Many food packaging containers are produced by thermoforming processes in which thin sheets are inflated under pressure into moulds to produce the required thin wall structures. Hitherto these thin sheets have almost exclusively been made of oil-based polymers and it is for these that computational models of thermoforming processes have been developed. Recently, in the context of bioplastics, commercial thermoplastic starch sheet materials have been developed. The behaviour of such materials is influenced both by temperature and, because of the inherent hydrophilic characteristics of the materials, by moisture content. Both of these aspects affect the behaviour of bioplastic sheets during the thermoforming process. This paper describes experimental work and work on the computational modelling of thermoforming processes for thermoplastic starch sheets in an attempt to address the combined effects of temperature and moisture content. After a discussion of the background of packaging and biomaterials, a mathematical model for the deformation of a membrane into a mould is presented, together with its finite element discretisation. This model depends on material parameters of the thermoplastic and details of tests undertaken to determine these and the results produced are given. Finally the computational model is applied for a thin sheet of commercially available thermoplastic starch material which is thermoformed into a specific mould. Numerical results of thickness and shape for this problem are given.

Szegda, D.; Song, J.; Warby, M. K.; Whiteman, J. R.

2007-05-01

84

Hybrid Joining of Aluminum to Thermoplastics with Friction Stir Welding.  

E-print Network

?? Hybrid structures including aluminum-thermoplastic and aluminum-reinforced thermoplastic composite are increasingly important in the near future innovations due to its lightweight and high strength-to-weight ratio.… (more)

Ratanathavorn, Wallop

2012-01-01

85

Polymer nanocomposites based on transition metal ion modified organoclays  

E-print Network

Polymer nanocomposites based on transition metal ion modified organoclays Pranav Nawani a , Priya: Transition metal ion; Organoclay; Nanocomposite 1. Introduction Thermoplastic nanocomposites with improved; accepted 4 December 2006 Available online 3 January 2007 Abstract A unique class of nanocomposites

Frenkel, Anatoly

86

Characterization of thermoplastic polyimide NEW-TPI reg sign  

SciTech Connect

Thermal and rheological properties of a commercial thermoplastic polyimide, NEW-TPI{reg sign}, were characterized. The as-received material possesses initially a transient crystallite form with a bimodal distribution in peak melting temperatures. After the meltings of the initial crystallite structures, the sample can be recrystallized by various thermal treatments. A bi-modal or single modal melting peak distribution is formed for annealing temperatures below or above 360C respectively. The recrystallized crystallinities are all transient in nature. The polymers are unable to be recrystallized after being subjected to elevated temperature annealing above 450C. The recrystallization mechanism was postulated, and a simple kinetics model was found to describe the behavior rather satisfactorily under the conditions of prolonged thermal annealing.

Hou, T.H. (Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Hampton, VA (United States)); Reddy, R.M. (Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States))

1991-01-01

87

A Study on New Composite Thermoplastic Propellant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts have been paid to realize a new composite propellant using thermoplastics as a fuel binder and lithium as a metallic fuel. Thermoplastics binder makes it possible the storage of solid propellant in small blocks and to provide propellants blocks into rocket motor case at a quantity needed just before use, which enables the production facility of solid propellant at a minimum level, thus, production cost significantly lower. Lithium has been a candidate for a metallic fuel for the ammonium perchlorate based composite propellants owing to its capability to reduce the hydrogen chloride in the exhaust gas, however, never been used because lithium is not stable at room conditions and complex reaction products between oxygen, nitrogen, and water are formed at the surface of particles and even in the core. However, lithium particles whose surface shell structure is well controlled are rather stable and can be stored in thermoplastics for a long period. Evaluation of several organic thermoplastics whose melting temperatures are easily tractable was made from the standpoint of combustion characteristics, and it is shown that thermoplastics propellants can cover wide range of burning rate spectrum. Formation of well-defined surface shell of lithium particles and its kinetics are also discussed.

Kahara, Takehiro; Nakayama, Masanobu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Katoh, Kazushige; Miyazaki, Shigehumi; Maruizumi, Haruki; Hori, Keiichi; Morita, Yasuhiro; Akiba, Ryojiro

88

Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Daniel C [ORNL] [ORNL; Trammell, Neil E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

89

Plastic wastes as modifiers of the thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Plastic waste recycling represents a major challenge in environmental protection with different routes now available for dealing with mechanical, chemical, and energy recycling. New concepts in plastic waste recycling have emerged so that now such wastes can be used to replace fossil fuels, either as an energy source or as a secondary raw material. Our objective is to explore the modification of the thermoplastic properties of coal in order to assess the possibility of adding plastic waste to coal for the production of metallurgical coke. Two bituminous coals of different rank and thermoplastic properties were used as a base component of blends with plastic wastes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrilonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). In all cases, the addition of plastic waste led to a reduction in Gieseler maximum fluidity, the extent of the reduction depending on the fluidity of the base coal, and the amount, the molecular structure, and the thermal behavior of the polymer. As a consequence, the amount of volatile matter released by the plastic waste before, during, and after the maximum fluidity of the coal and the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor capacities of the polymer were concluded to be key factors in influencing the extent of the reduction in fluidity and the development of anisotropic carbons. The incorporation of the plastic to the carbon matrix was clearly established in semicokes produced from blends of a high-fluid coal and the plastic tested by SEM examination. 42 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2005-12-01

90

EXTRUSION OF BASO4 MEDICAL-GRADE THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE  

E-print Network

1 EXTRUSION OF BASO4 FILLED MEDICAL-GRADE THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE Guangyu Lu, Dilhan M. Kalyon% (vol.) BaSO4 filled medical-grade (additive free) thermoplastic polyurethanes was investigated. Filled Radiopaque barium sulfate filled thermoplastic polyurethane is widely used in the medical device industry

91

Flammability Studies of a Novel Class of Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal insulation properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites were characterized at different heat fluxes. Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer was modified with different loadings of montmorillonite nanoclays and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) via twin screw extrusion processing. The addition of nanoparticle into thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer resulted in the formation of a char layer and modified the thermal insulative properties of the material.

Joseph H. Koo; Khiet C. Nguyen; Jason C. Lee; Wai K. Ho; Morgan C. Bruns; Ofodike A. Ezekoye

2010-01-01

92

Multiphase design of autonomic self-healing thermoplastic elastomers.  

PubMed

The development of polymers that can spontaneously repair themselves after mechanical damage would significantly improve the safety, lifetime, energy efficiency and environmental impact of man-made materials. Most approaches to self-healing materials require the input of external energy, healing agents, solvent or plasticizer. Despite intense research in this area, the synthesis of a stiff material with intrinsic self-healing ability remains a key challenge. Here, we show a design of multiphase supramolecular thermoplastic elastomers that combine high modulus and toughness with spontaneous healing capability. The designed hydrogen-bonding brush polymers self-assemble into a hard-soft microphase-separated system, combining the enhanced stiffness and toughness of nanocomposites with the self-healing capability of dynamic supramolecular assemblies. In contrast to previous self-healing polymers, this new system spontaneously self-heals as a single-component solid material at ambient conditions, without the need for any external stimulus, healing agent, plasticizer or solvent. PMID:22614381

Chen, Yulin; Kushner, Aaron M; Williams, Gregory A; Guan, Zhibin

2012-06-01

93

Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

2014-11-11

94

Polymers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains two documents explaining ring and cross link polymers. The topic is covered at an advanced level in relation to nanotechnology and requires background knowledge in eight grade science. A powerpoint with illustrations and instructor guide (available as both a Microsoft Word Document and PDF) containing activities are included to aid in teaching this subject.

95

Biopolymer-based thermoplastic mixture for producing solid biodegradable shaped bodies and its photo degradation stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, biopolymers with controllable lifetimes have become increasingly important for many applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedical implants and drug release, forestry, wild life conservation and waste management. Natural oils are considered to be the most important class of renewable sources. They can be obtained from naturally occurring plants, such as sunflower, cotton, linseed and palm oil. In Malaysia, palm oil is an inexpensive and commodity material. Biopolymer produced from palm oil (Bio-VOP) is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer and readily available from agriculture. For packaging use however, Bio-VOP is not thermoplastic and its granular form is unsuitable for most uses in the plastics industry, mainly due to processing difficulties during extrusion or injection moulding. Thus, research workers have developed several methods to blend Bio-VOP appropriately for industrial uses. In particular, injections moulding processes, graft copolymerisation, and preparation of blends with thermoplastic polymers have been studied to produce solid biodegradable shaped bodies. HDPE was chosen as commercial thermoplastic materials and was added with 10% Bio-VOP for the preparation of solid biodegradable shaped bodies named as HD-VOP. The UV light exposure of HD-VOP at 12 minutes upon gives the highest strength of this material that is 17.6 MPa. The morphological structure of HD-VOP shows dwi structure surface fracture which is brittle and ductile properties.

Sulong, Nurulsaidatulsyida; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.

2013-12-01

96

Electromechanical instabilities of thermoplastics: Theory and in situ observation  

PubMed Central

Thermoplastics under voltages are used in diverse applications ranging from insulating cables to organic capacitors. Electromechanical instabilities have been proposed as a mechanism that causes electrical breakdown of thermoplastics. However, existing experiments cannot provide direct observations of the instability process, and existing theories for the instabilities generally assume thermoplastics are mechanically unconstrained. Here, we report in situ observations of electromechanical instabilities in various thermoplastics. A theory is formulated for electromechanical instabilities of thermoplastics under different mechanical constraints. We find that the instabilities generally occur in thermoplastics when temperature is above their glass transition temperatures and electric field reaches a critical value. The critical electric field for the instabilities scales with square root of yield stress of the thermoplastic and depends on its Young's modulus and hardening property. PMID:23112349

Wang, Qiming; Niu, Xiaofan; Pei, Qibing; Dickey, Michael D.; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-01-01

97

Thermoplastic pultrusion development and characterization of residual in pultruded composites with modeling and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pultrusion processing is a technique to make highly aligned fiber reinforced polymer composites. Thermoset pultrusion is a mature process and well established, while thermoplastic pultrusion in still in its infancy. Thermoplastic pultrusion has not been well established because thermoplastic resins are difficult to process due to their high viscosity. However, thermoplastic resins offer distinct advantages that make thermoplastic pultrusion worth exploring. The present work centers on developing a method to design and validate a die for a thermoplastic pultrusion system. Analytical models and various software tools were used to design a pultrusion die. Experimental measurements have been made to validate the models. One-dimensional transient heat transfer analysis was used to calculate the time required for pre-impregnated E-Glass/Polypropylene tapes to melt and consolidate into profiled shapes. Creo Element/Pro 1.0 was used to design the die, while ANSYS Work Bench 14.0 was used to conduct heat transfer analysis to understand the temperature profile of the pultrusion apparatus. Additionally Star-CCM+ was used to create a three-dimensional fluid flow model to capture the molten polymer flow inside the pultrusion die. The fluid model was used to understand the temperature of the flow and the force required to pull the material at any given temperature and line speed. A complete pultrusion apparatus including the die, heating unit, cooling unit, and the frame has been designed and manufactured as guided by the models, and pultruded profiles have been successfully produced. The results show that the analytical model and the fluid model show excellent correlation. The predicted and measured pulling forces are in agreement and show that the pull force increases as the pull speed increases. Furthermore, process induced residual stress and its influence on dimensional instability, such as bending or bowing, on pultruded composites was analyzed. The study indicated that unbalanced layup can produce asymmetrical residual stress through the thickness and causes the part to bow. Furthermore, the residual stress through the thickness was mapped with excellent accuracy. A design of experiments around the processing parameters indicated that increase in pull speed or decrease in die temperature increased the residual stress within the part.

Jamiyanaa, Khongor

98

Metallic glass mold insert for hot embossing of polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molding of micro components from thermoplastic polymers (TPs) has become a routinely used industrial production process. To find hard, ductile and durable material for mold insert and to fabricate the mold insert are two big challenges for the thermoplastic polymers fabrication techniques. We report that a Pd-based metallic glass (MG) mold insert was readily fabricated in its supercooled liquid region, and the atomic force microscope measurement and time-temperature-transformation analysis show that the metallic glass mold insert has very fine surface quality and long service life. We show that the metallic glasses, which have remarkable mechanical properties and excellent thermoplastic forming ability, are new ideal materials for hot embossing mold insert of thermoplastic polymers.

Ma, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W. H.

2012-07-01

99

New non-covalent strategies for stable surface treatment of thermoplastic chips.  

PubMed

In order to be more extensively used outside of research laboratories, lab-on-chip technologies must be mass-produced using low-cost materials such as thermoplastics. Thermoplastics, however, are generally hydrophobic in their native state, which makes them unsuitable for direct use with biological samples in aqueous solution, and thus require surface coating. This coating should be robust, inexpensive and simple to implement, in order not to hinder the industrial advantage of thermoplastic chips. Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) is a particularly appealing polymer, but it is also difficult to functionalize due to its chemical inertness. Here we introduce and compare the performance of two new approaches for COC coating. One relies on the use of a commercial triblock copolymer, Pluronic® F127. The second approach uses new copolymers synthesized by radical polymerization, and consisting of a dimethylacrylamide (DMA) backbone carrying aliphatic side chains (C22). Two DMA-C22 copolymers were synthesized with various C22/DMA ratios: DMA-S at 0.175% and DMA-M at 0.35%. Different physicochemical properties of the polymers such as critical micellar concentration (CMC), water contact angle, electroosmosis were investigated. Coated COC chips were then tested for their ability to reduce the adsorption of proteins, microparticles, and for protein electrophoresis. For each application we found an optimal treatment protocol to considerably improve the performance of the thermoplastic chip. These treatments use physisorption in situ which requires no photografting or chemical reaction and can be performed by a simple incubation either after chip production, or just prior to use. PMID:24061577

Perez-Toralla, Karla; Champ, Jérôme; Mohamadi, Mohamad Reza; Braun, Olivier; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stéphanie

2013-11-21

100

Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process "hot gas assisted."

Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

2008-08-01

101

Thermoplastic copolyether ester elastomer toughened polycarbonate blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycarbonate (PC) was blended with thermoplastic copolyether ester elastomer (COPE) in different weight percentages in a single screw extruder. Tensile and impact properties were studied. The blends showed higher flexibility than pure PC whereas tensile modulus decreased with the addition of COPE in the blends. Impact resistance of the blends were higher than that of pure PC at room temperature

P Sivaraman; N. R Manoj; S Barman; L Chandrasekhar; V. S Mishra; R Kushwaha; A. B Samui; B. C Chakraborty

2004-01-01

102

Method for reclaiming waste thermoplastic resin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste thermoplastic resin film is cleaned to reclaim raw material for subsequent recycling by crushing a mass of the waste film into pieces and then feeding the pieces onto a moving mesh conveyor immersed in a wash tank which is filled with a cleaning liquid; the liquid being at a temperature sufficient to soften the pieces. Cleaning is promoted by

Kashiwagi

1983-01-01

103

Biodegradation Of thermoplastic polyurethanes from vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermoplastic urethanes based on polyricinoleic acid soft segments and MDI/BD hard segments with varied soft segment concentration were prepared. Soft segment concentration was varied fro, 40 to 70 wt %. Biodegradation was studied by respirometry. Segmented polyurethanes with soft segments based ...

104

Ultrasonic Welding of Graphite/Thermoplastic Composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic welding of graphite/thermoplastic composite materials eliminates need for fasteners (which require drilling or punching, add weight, and degrade stiffness) and can be totally automated in beam fabrication and assembly jigs. Feasibility of technique has been demonstrated in laboratory tests which show that neither angular orientation nor vacuum affect weld quality.

Hardy, S. S.; Page, D. B.

1982-01-01

105

Polymer bonding process for nanolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a lithography process which originates from imprint lithography and offers advantages over it. Unlike imprint lithography, not only the sample but also the mold is covered with a thermoplastic polymer. The mold and sample are brought into contact, pressed together and heated above the glass transition temperature of the thermoplast, causing the two polymer layers to become bonded (glued) together. A special treatment of the mold and sample surface causes the polymer film to stick only to the substrate after cooling. The bonding occurs at pressures and temperatures lower than those usually applied in imprint technology, and eliminates problems in conventional imprint technology that are related to lateral transport of the polymer.

Borzenko, T.; Tormen, M.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Janssen, H.

2001-10-01

106

Thermoplastic shape-memory polyurethanes based on natural oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new family of segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes with thermally activated shape-memory properties was synthesized and characterized. Polyols derived from castor oil with different molecular weights but similar chemical structures and a corn-sugar-based chain extender (propanediol) were used as starting materials in order to maximize the content of carbon from renewable resources in the new materials. The composition was systematically varied to establish a structure-property map and identify compositions with desirable shape-memory properties. The thermal characterization of the new polyurethanes revealed a microphase separated structure, where both the soft (by convention the high molecular weight diol) and the hard phases were highly crystalline. Cyclic thermo-mechanical tensile tests showed that these polymers are excellent candidates for use as thermally activated shape-memory polymers, in which the crystalline soft segments promote high shape fixity values (close to 100%) and the hard segment crystallites ensure high shape recovery values (80-100%, depending on the hard segment content). The high proportion of components from renewable resources used in the polyurethane formulation leads to the synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes with shape-memory properties.

Saralegi, Ainara; Foster, E. Johan; Weder, Christoph; Eceiza, Arantxa; Corcuera, Maria Angeles

2014-02-01

107

Production of continuous fiber thermoplastic composites by in-situ pultrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constructive design in the automotive industry, but also in many other industrial sectors has changed steadily over the past decades. It became much more complex due to e.g. increased use of hybrid materials. Combined with the desire to minimize the weight of vehicles and thus the CO2 emissions, the use of low density materials and especially fiber-reinforced plastics is increasing. E.g. Continuous fiber thermoplastic composites are used to reinforce injection molded parts. Low viscosity monomers like caprolactam, which is used to produce polyamide 6 by anionic polymerization are able to easily impregnate and penetrate the textile reinforcement. After wetting the fibers, the ring-opening polymerization starts and the matrix is becoming a polymer. At IKT, a method based on the RIM process (reaction injection molding) was developed to produce continuous fiber thermoplastic composites with high contents of continuous glass fibers. The anionic polymerization of polyamide 6 was now combined with the pultrusion process. Continuous glass fibers are pulled through a mold and wetted with caprolactam (including activator and catalyst). After the material polymerized in the mould, the finished continuous fiber thermoplastic composites can be pulled out and is finally sawn off.

Epple, S.; Bonten, C.

2014-05-01

108

Synthesis and characterization of highly flexible thermoplastic films from cyanoethylated corn distillers dried grains with solubles.  

PubMed

Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be made into highly flexible thermoplastic films without the need for plasticizers. DDGS is an abundantly available coproduct of ethanol production that is inexpensive ($80-130/ton) compared to most of the polymers used for thermoplastic applications. In this research, oil-and-zein-free DDGS was cyanoethylated using acrylonitrile, and cyanoethylation conditions were optimized to obtain high percent weight gain of up to 42%. Cyanoethylated DDGS was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Cyanoethylated DDGS was compression molded into thermoplastic films, and the tensile properties of the films were studied. It was found that DDGS films with elongation as high as 38% and strength of 14 MPa could be obtained without the use of any plasticizers. Alternatively, films with strength as high as 651 MPa but with relatively low elongation (2.5%) were obtained by varying the extent of cyanoethylation. This research showed that cyanoethylation could be a viable approach to develop biothermoplastics from biopolymers for applications such as packing films, extrudates, and resins for composites. PMID:21288024

Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

2011-03-01

109

Process optimization of a thermoplastic polyimidesulphone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed characterization of an experimental thermoplastic polyimidesulfane adhesive based on 3,3 prime-diaminodiphenylsulfone and 3,3 prime,4,4 prime-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride was studied. Model compounds were also examined. Thermal cyclization of the amide-acid to the imide was studied by a variety of techniques including DSC, TGA, MS, in situ diffuse reflectance-FTIR, and flow measurement. Characterizations were continued during the processing of adhesive tapes and the fabrication, bonding, and testing of lap shear specimens. Results provide fundamental insights into the role of cure chemistry, and the effects of residual solvent and volatile produces on processing and performance. These insights and the resulting chemical models should lead to more efficient processing cycles for these and other related thermoplastic adhesive systems.

Dezern, J. F.; Young, P. R.

1985-01-01

110

Thermoplastic adhesive bonding and its fracture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoplastic adhesive bonding process was developed for galvanized steel to polypropylene (PP) composite using a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) based adhesive with a total process cycle of less than 120 seconds. The processing temperature significantly affected the strength of adhesive bonded lap joints. Cataplasma and cyclic moisture\\/temperature aging tests demonstrated that the hot-dipped galvanized steel with a polyester melamine based

Chongchen Xu

2001-01-01

111

LARC-TPI and new thermoplastic polyimides  

SciTech Connect

The LARC-TPI linear thermoplastic polyimide has been developed by NASA for high temperature adhesive applications in aerospace structures in the forms of varnish, films, powders, and prepregs. LARC-TPI improves adhesive processability and lowers glass transition temperature, while retaining mechanical, thermal and electrical properties inherent in the polyimides. It may be used as a structural adhesive for metals, composites, ceramics, and films. 8 references.

Yamaguchi, A.; Ohta, M.

1987-02-01

112

Quantitative evaluation of fracture, healing and re-healing of a reversibly cross-linked polymer  

E-print Network

recovery. That the healing process is largely independent of time is in contrast to the diffusion-controlled heal- ing observed in the welding of thermoplastic polymers. Rather, it shows that the healing in the 2

Nemat-Nasser, Sia

113

Aminosilane layers on the plasma activated thermoplastics: influence of solvent on its structure and morphology.  

PubMed

The chemistry and the structure of aminosilane layer on the plasma activated thermoplastic substrates, e.g., polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC) were investigated at the molecular level. The nature of the surface functional groups of the silane layers prepared by solution phase deposition in aqueous and anhydrous solvents were studied using various techniques including ellipsometry, goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The XPS analyses revealed the presence of various oxygen functionalities on the plasma activated thermoplastics. Considerable differences were observed for the structure of aminosilane depending on the solvent used for the reaction. Deposition from aqueous solution resulted in relatively flat and smooth surfaces with consistent thickness compared to the anhydrous solution deposition. In the former case, 33% of the total nitrogen accounted for protonated amine and 16% for the free amino groups. In the latter, only 6% accounted for the protonated amine. The point of zero charge (pzc), on the aminosilane modified PC was found to be around 7, indicated that the surface is positively charged below pH 7 and negatively charged above pH 7. The surface analysis data suggested that various interactions are possible between the plasma activated thermoplastic surface and the aminosilane. In general, they are bound to the surface through covalent bond formation between the oxygen functionalities on the thermoplastic surface and the amino or the silanol groups of the aminosilane. PMID:24050640

Sunkara, Vijaya; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

2013-12-01

114

Thermoforming of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding for whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available thermoplastic based composite laminate is investigated followed by post processed part characterization. Key findings include an optimized composite processing window, and the influence of raw material blank forming temperature and mould tool temperature on part crystallinity and flexural strength. This process study forms one element of a major project structure which has been designed to address the gap between design, analysis and manufacturing, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of performance parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite structures.

McCool, Raurí; Murphy, Adrian; Wilson, Ryan; Jiang, Zhenyu; Price, Mark

2011-05-01

115

Rheological and Microstructural Features of Phase Transitions in Composite Polymer Materials Based on Tar and Polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The change in the structure of tar- and polyethylene-based petroleum and polymer systems has been investigated by the methods of viscosity measurement and atomic force scanning microscopy. It has been established that the structural change of a composite petroleum and polymer thermoplastic material in the region of phase transitions of the 2nd kind results from the collapse of polymer coils and the formation of globules that subsequently aggregate. It has been shown using atomic-force-microscopy that a volume superlattice is formed from polymer globules in thermoplastic petroleum polymers in the region of phase transition of the 2nd kind.

Dolomatov, M. Yu.; Dezortsev, S. V.; Bakhtizin, R. Z.; Kharisov, B. R.; Nigmatullina, I. R.

2014-03-01

116

A modeling approach to thermoplastic pultrusion. I - Formulation of models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models to predict temperature and pressure distributions within a thermoplastic composed as it travels through a pultrusion line and a model to predict the pulling resistance of a die are presented and discussed. A set of mathematical models of the thermoplastic pultrusion process comprising temperature, pressure, and pulling force models are discussed and extensively verified with experimental data.

Astrom, B. T.; Pipes, R. B.

1993-06-01

117

Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 {open_quotes}Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,{close_quotes} EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers.

Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Patel, B.R.

1995-12-01

118

Tough poly(arylene ether) thermoplastics as modifiers for bismaleimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aspects of research on thermoplastics as toughness modifiers are discussed, including the contribution of the backbone chemistry and the concentration of the poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic to fracture toughness, influence of the molecular weight of the poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic on neat resin fracture toughness, and the morphology of the thermoplastic modified networks. The results show that fracture toughness of brittle bismaleimide resins can be improved significantly with poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic levels of 20 percent by weight, and that high molecular weight poly(arylene ether) based on bisphenol A provides the highest degree of toughening. Preliminary composite evaluation shows that improvements in neat resin toughness translate into carbon fabric composite.

Stenzenberger, H. D.; Roemer, W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.

1989-01-01

119

High temperature drilling fluids based on sulfonated thermoplastic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil-based drilling mud is described which consists of: (a) a hydrocarbon oil; (b) about 1 to about 10 parts by weight of water per 100 parts by weight of the hydrocarbon oil; (c) about 20 to about 50 lb\\/bbl of at least one emulsifier; (d) weighting material necessary to achieve the desired density; and (e) about 0.25 to about

T. O. Walker; D. G. Peiffer; R. D. Lundberg

1986-01-01

120

Radiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and a newly developed thermoplastic polyimide ``new-TPI`` were applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) as a matrix resin. PEEK and new-TPI showed excellent resistance over 50 MGy to electron irradiation and the crosslinking proceeded predominantly by irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties induced by electron irradiation of the CFRP with the two resins were examined at various temperatures. The flexural strength and modulus measured at {minus}196 and 25{degree}C were scarcely affected up to 120 MGy and both the values measured at high temperature were increased with dose.

Sasuga, Tsuneo; Udagawa, Akira; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gunma (Japan)

1993-12-31

121

Thermochemical characterization of some thermoplastic materials. [flammability and toxicity properties for aircraft interiors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use or being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included thermomechanical properties such as glass-transition and melt temperature, changes in polymer enthalpy, thermogravimetric analysis in anerobic and oxidative environments, oxygen index, smoke evolution, relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and selected physical properties. The generic polymers evaluated included acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene polycarbonate-poly (dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters, including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties are presented. Under these test conditions, some of the advanced polymers evaluated were significantly less flammable and toxic than or equivalent to polymers in current use.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.

1977-01-01

122

Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

Chiasson, Matthew Lee

123

Supportability evaluation of thermoplastic and thermoset composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly 300 advanced composite components manufactured by Northrop Corporation are flying on U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy supersonic aircraft as part of a three-year Air Force/Navy/Northrop supportability evaluation. Both thermoplastic and high-temperature thermoset composites were evaluated for their in-service performance on 48 USAF and Navy F-5E fighter and USAFT-38 trainer aircraft in the first large-scale, long-term maintenance evaluation of these advanced materials. Northrop manufactured four types of doors for the project-avionics bay access, oil fill, inlet duct inspection, and a main landing gear door. The doors are made of PEEK (polyetheretherketone) thermoplastic, which is tougher and potentially less expensive to manufacture than conventional composites; and 5250-3 BMI (bismaleimide) thermoset, which is manufactured like a conventional epoxy composite but can withstand higher service temperatures. Results obtained so far indicate that both the BMI and PEEK are durable with PEEK being somewhat better than BMI.

Chanani, G. R.; Boldi, D.; Cramer, S. G.; Heimerdinger, M. W.

1990-01-01

124

Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.  

PubMed

An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology. PMID:23688473

Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

2013-07-01

125

Optical device based on thermoplastic recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical device based on the thermoplastic recording of information of is intended for the continuous registration of data from radar indicator. This device can be treated as an optical processor due to capacity to produce the summarizing on the photothermoplastic storage medium optical image caused the visual subtraction of the real trajectory of a moving object. The screen with graticule can include trajectory image of normal landing. It allows operator to determine turning out situation, to make corrections in the pilot actions, to make a documentation of the flight data without any equipment. Designed devices have been checked in two versions of using by the oscillograph with discrete manual moving of the light spot and at recording from screen of the CRT indicator of the radar systems (Stavropol airport) worked at the landing at the dispatcher regimes.

Prilepov, Roman S.; Pasechnic, Teodosie I.; Panasiuk, Lev M.

2000-05-01

126

Giant magnetoimpedance effect enhanced by thermoplastic drawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed thermoplastic forming (TPF) on FeCoNbB metallic glass ribbons with a supercooled liquid region exceeding 100 K, and found the sample after TPF is still completely amorphous. More importantly, the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect was improved after the forming process: the maximum GMI ratio and sensitivity increased from 41% to 12.3%/Oe in the case of as-cast sample to 280% and 358.2%/Oe in the case of resulting sample after TPF, respectively. The hysteresis loops and domain patterns were subsequently studied, which revealed that the primary factor leading to the improvement of the GMI effect was the enhanced longitudinal magnetic anisotropy induced by the TPF process. We therefore assume that TPF is an effective way that improves the GMI effect, which differs from conventional annealing methods.

Qiang, Jian; Estevez, Diana; Dong, Yaqiang; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

2014-09-01

127

Effects of laminate sequencing on thermoforming of thermoplastic matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are promising materials for light-weight structural components. Their medium to high processing and temperature-dependent properties, and the complex deformation mechanisms that occur within the composite sheet during the forming, are main problems in the practical production of parts. Thermoforming is an effective fabrication method due to the reversible solid–liquid phase transformation of thermoplastic materials. Deep drawing

M. Sadighi; E. Rabizadeh; F. Kermansaravi

2008-01-01

128

Design implications of fiber orientation in molded thermoplastic composites  

E-print Network

DESIGN IMPLICATIONS OF FIBER ORIENTATION IN MOLDED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES A Thesis by KONSTANTINOS ELEPHTHERIOS BOULIOS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN IMPLICATIONS OF FIBER ORIENTATION IN MOLDED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES A Thesis by KONSTANTINOS ELEPHTHERIOS BOULIOS Approved as to style and content by: Alan...

Boulios, Konstantinos Elephtherios

2012-06-07

129

Controlling the deformation behavior of thermoplastic slips with ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultrasound on the deformation properties of thermoplastic slips was investigated. It was shown that in treatment\\u000a with ultrasound, the change in the plastic strength of beryllium oxide — thermoplastic binder casting system in the process\\u000a temperature range (40–55°C) was due to cavitation and dissipative heat release effects and can be characterized with the equation\\u000a for a thermal

S. A. Shakhov

2007-01-01

130

A thermo-mechanically-coupled large-deformation theory for amorphous polymers in a temperature range which spans their glass transition  

E-print Network

Amorphous thermoplastic polymers are important engineering materials; however, their non-linear, strongly temperature- and rate-dependent elastic-viscoplastic behavior is still not very well understood, and is modeled by ...

Srivastava, Vikas

131

A thermo-mechanical finite deformation theory of plasticity for amorphous polymers : application to micro-hot-embossing of poly(methyl methacrylate)  

E-print Network

Amorphous thermoplastic polymers are important engineering materials; however, their nonlinear, strongly temperature- and rate-dependent elastic-visco-plastic behavior has, until now, not been very well understood. The ...

Ames, Nicoli M. (Nicoli Margret), 1978-

2007-01-01

132

Conducting polymer ultracapacitor  

DOEpatents

A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

Shi, Steven Z. (Latham, NY); Davey, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

133

Effect of thermal history on the rheology of thermoplastic polyurethanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of thermal history on the rheological behavior of ester- and, ether-based commercial thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) was investigated. It was found from 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that the ester-based TPU consisted of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and butane diol (BDO) as hard segments and poly(butylene adipate) as soft segments, and the ether-based TPU consisted of MDT-BDO as hard segments and poly(oxytetramethylene) as soft segments. During isothermal annealing, the dynamic storage and loss moduli (G' and G'' ) of specimens, which had been prepared by injection molding at different temperatures, were monitored at a fixed angular frequency. It was found that thermal history of specimens had a profound influence on the variations of G' and G' ' with time observed during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temperature sweep experiments indicated that the TPUs exhibit hysteresis effect during heating and cooling, very similar to that observed in microphase-separated block polymers and thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers reported in the literature. It was found that time-temperature superposition failed to produce reduced (or master) plots for the TPUs employed. This conclusion was reinforced by the temperature dependence of log G ' versus log G'' plots over the entire range of temperatures (110--190°C) investigated, suggesting that the morphological state of the TPU specimens varied with temperature. Little evidence was found from differential scanning calorimetry that thermal transitions took place in the TPU specimens during isothermal annealing, while values of G' and G' ' were found to vary with time. Measurements were taken of N-H stretching absorption bands in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra during isothermal annealing at 170°C for specimens prepared by injection molding at different temperatures. The analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations of hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing resemble very much variations of G' with time during isothermal annealing. Little evidence was found from 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy that exchange reactions took place in the TPU specimens during isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures. It is concluded from the present study that microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in TPU cannot be determined from oscillatory shear rheometry.

Yoon, Pil Joong

134

Modeling and controlling topographical nonuniformity in thermoplastic micro- and nano-embossing  

E-print Network

The embossing of thermoplastic polymeric plates is valuable for manufacturing micro- and nanofluidic devices and diffractive optics. Meanwhile, the imprinting of sub-micrometer-thickness thermoplastic layers has emerged ...

Taylor, Hayden Kingsley

2009-01-01

135

Electrical Properties of a Thermoplastic Polyurethane Filled with Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

In this study we report a nanodielectric system composed of pre-synthesized nanoparticles embedded in an elastomer. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were synthesized in an aqueous solution of titanium chloride and polyethylene glycol. The nanoparticles were blended in a twin screw extruder with a thermoplastic, polyurethane (Morthane PS455-203), to form nanodielectrics at three different weight fractions of titanium dioxide. Impedance spectroscopy was employed to study polymer dynamics and the influence of nanoparticles on relaxation. The segmental relaxation associated with the glass transition of the polyurethane matrix, and the local relaxations associated with short range motions of polar groups were investigated at wide ranges of frequency (20 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (300-20 K). The dielectric breakdown strength of the nanodielectrics was also measured to characterize their insulating properties and their potential for use in high voltage applications.

Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Koerner, Hilmar [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Vaia, Richard [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL

2010-01-01

136

Highly conductive thermoplastic composites for rapid production of fuel cell bipolar plates  

DOEpatents

A low cost method of fabricating bipolar plates for use in fuel cells utilizes a wet lay process for combining graphite particles, thermoplastic fibers, and reinforcing fibers to produce a plurality of formable sheets. The formable sheets are then molded into a bipolar plates with features impressed therein via the molding process. The bipolar plates formed by the process have conductivity in excess of 150 S/cm and have sufficient mechanical strength to be used in fuel cells. The bipolar plates can be formed as a skin/core laminate where a second polymer material is used on the skin surface which provides for enhanced conductivity, chemical resistance, and resistance to gas permeation.

Huang, Jianhua [Blacksburg, VA; Baird, Donald G [Blacksburg, VA; McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA

2008-04-29

137

A chitosan coated monolith for nucleic acid capture in a thermoplastic microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

A technique for microfluidic, pH modulated DNA capture and purification using chitosan functionalized glycidyl methacrylate monoliths is presented. Highly porous polymer monoliths are formed and subsequently functionalized off-chip in a batch process before insertion into thermoplastic microchannels prior to solvent bonding, simplifying the overall fabrication process by eliminating the need for on-chip surface modifications. The monolith anchoring method allows for the use of large cross-section monoliths enabling high flowrates and high DNA capture capacity with a minimum of added design complexity. Using monolith capture elements requiring less than 1?mm(2) of chip surface area, loading levels above 100?ng are demonstrated, with DNA capture and elution efficiency of 54.2%?±?14.2% achieved. PMID:25379094

Kendall, Eric L; Wienhold, Erik; DeVoe, Don L

2014-07-01

138

Transparent thermoplastics: Replication of diffractive optical elements using micro-injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small plastic components with sub-micron and micron gratings for diffractive optics were prepared by micro-injection molding. The aim of the work was to improve the filling of binary diffractive gratings with high aspect ratio by varying the molding parameters. Tests were made under conventional processing conditions with four transparent thermoplastics: polycarbonate (PC), cyclo-olefin polymer (COP), styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), and hexafluoropropylene-tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene terpolymer (HFP-TFE-Et). Melt and mold temperatures were kept as recommended by the manufacturer. Other molding parameters (injection speed, shot size, vacuum, holding pressure, and injection plunger diameter) were varied, and their effect on the profile of the gratings was measured by atomic force microscopy. The filling of the gratings (500 nm and 1000 nm) was clearly affected by injection speed, shot size, and injection piston diameter, but the most significant factor was the type of material. Replication fidelity was highest with PC and lowest with SAN.

Kalima, V.; Pietarinen, J.; Siitonen, S.; Immonen, J.; Suvanto, M.; Kuittinen, M.; Mönkkönen, K.; Pakkanen, T. T.

2007-10-01

139

Development of thermoplastic composite aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts focused on the use of thermoplastic composite materials in the development of structural details associated with an advanced fighter fuselage section with applicability to transport design. In support of these designs, mechanics developments were conducted in two areas. First, a dissipative strain energy approach to material characterization and failure prediction, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, was evaluated as a design/analysis tool. Second, a finite element formulation for thick composites was developed and incorporated into a lug analysis method which incorporates pin bending effects. Manufacturing concepts were developed for an upper fuel cell cover. A detailed trade study produced two promising concepts: fiber placement and single-step diaphragm forming. Based on the innovative design/manufacturing concepts for the fuselage section primary structure, elements were designed, fabricated, and structurally tested. These elements focused on key issues such as thick composite lugs and low cost forming of fastenerless, stiffener/moldine concepts. Manufacturing techniques included autoclave consolidation, single diaphragm consolidation (SDCC) and roll-forming.

Renieri, Michael P.; Burpo, Steven J.; Roundy, Lance M.; Todd, Stephanie A.; Kim, H. J.

1992-01-01

140

Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

1998-01-01

141

Analytical Prediction of Forming Limits for Thermoplastic Tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commodity thermoplastics such as polypropylene and polyethylene are gaining more attention from the automotive industries for applications requiring weight and cost savings. In order to assess the feasibility of employing thermoplastic tubes for subsequent forming into automotive structural components, first an establishment of the forming limits (or the forming limit diagram) for these materials is required. An analytical model, which is able to predict the forming limits for thermoplastic tubes, is useful from the perspective of examining the effect of material properties on the forming of a given shape without numerous experimental forming trials. Knowledge of the forming limits for these materials is also useful in die design as well as process control. Since thermoplastics such as polypropylene are temperature and strain rate dependent, the proposed analytical model would be able to predict the effect of temperature and strain rate on the resulting forming limits for the tube along various loading paths. Preliminary results from the model indicate that thermoplastic tubes formed at elevated temperature undergo larger strains in both the hoop and axial directions of the tube prior to localized necking.

Azhikannickal, Elizabeth; Jain, Mukesh K.

2005-08-01

142

Materials for Heated Head Automated Thermoplastic Tape Placement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is currently pursuing multiple paths to develop out of autoclave (OOA) polymeric composite materials and processes. Polymeric composite materials development includes the synthesis of new and/or modified thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix resins designed for specific OOA processes. OOA processes currently under investigation include vacuum bag only (VBO) prepreg/composite fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) and heated head automated thermoplastic tape placement (HHATP). This paper will discuss the NASA Langley HHATP facility and capabilities and recent work on characterizing thermoplastic tape quality and requirements for quality part production. Samples of three distinct versions of APC-2 (AS4/PEEK) thermoplastic dry tape were obtained from two materials vendors, TENCATE, Inc. and CYTEC Engineered Materials** (standard grade and an experimental batch). Random specimens were taken from each of these samples and subjected to photo-microscopy and surface profilometry. The CYTEC standard grade of APC-2 tape had the most voids and splits and the highest surface roughness and/or waviness. Since the APC-2 tape is composed of a thermoplastic matrix, it offers the flexibility of reprocessing to improve quality, and thereby improve final quality of HHATP laminates. Discussions will also include potential research areas and future work that is required to advance the state of the art in the HHATP process for composite fabrication.

Jensen, Brian J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Cano, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.

2012-01-01

143

An analytical approach toward monitoring degradation in engineering thermoplastic materials used for electrical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering thermoplastics are being used in a broad array of applications throughout the electrical industry. Polyester thermoplastics offer desirable electrical and mechanical properties; but when used in the wrong environments, they can be susceptible to hydrolysis. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) can be used as an analytical tool for monitoring the degree of hydrolytic degradation occurring to engineering thermoplastic materials. By

Sam J. Ferrito; Thomas A. Edison

1996-01-01

144

Process for preparing solvent resistant, thermoplastic aromatic poly(imidesulfone)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing a thermoplastic poly(midesulfone) is disclosed. This resulting material has thermoplastic properties which are generally associated with polysulfones but not polyimides, and solvent resistant which is generally associated with polyimides but not polysulfones. This system is processable in the 250 to 350 C range for molding, adhesive and laminating applications. This unique thermoplastic poly(imidesulfone) is obtained by incorporating an aromatic sulfone moiety into the backbone of an aromatic linear polyimide by dissolving a quantity of a 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) in a solution of 3,3'-diaminodiphenylsulfone and bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether, precipitating the reactant product in water, filtering and drying the recovered poly(amide-acid sulfone) and converting it to the poly(imidesulfone) by heating.

St.clair, T. L.; Yamaki, D. A. (inventors)

1984-01-01

145

Microstructural Characterization of Polymers with Positrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positrons provide a versatile probe for monitoring microstructural features of molecular solids. In this paper, we report on positron lifetime measurements in two different types of polymers. The first group comprises polyacrylates processed on earth and in space. The second group includes fully-compatible and totally-incompatible Semi-Interpenetrating polymer networks of thermosetting and thermoplastic polyimides. On the basis of lifetime measurements, it is concluded that free volumes are a direct reflection of physical/electromagnetic properties of the host polymers.

Singh, Jag J.

1997-01-01

146

Biodegradable, Elastic Shape-Memory Polymers for Potential Biomedical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of biodegradable implant materials as well as minimally invasive surgical procedures in medicine has substantially improved health care within the past few decades. This report describes a group of degradable thermoplastic polymers that are able to change their shape after an increase in temperature. Their shape-memory capability enables bulky implants to be placed in the body through small

Andreas Lendlein; Robert Langer

2002-01-01

147

Thermoplastic veils as advanced modifiers for multifunctional fiber reinforced composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is focused on the development of a novel technique to obtain multifunctional fiber reinforced composites. The technique is based on the use of thermoplastic veils composed of nano and micro thermoplastic fibers which preferentially dissolve upon curing in the epoxy matrix. The technique allows to control the phase morphology in the inter- and intra-laminar region of the laminates. Moreover, the selective dissolution of the fibers allow to achieve tailored dispersion of different types of nanofillers in the composites to obtain a functional graded material.

Cicala, Gianluca; Latteri, Alberta; Mannino, Salvatore; Cozzo, Giulia; Ognibene, Giulia; Recca, Antonino

2014-05-01

148

LARC-TPI: A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, was characterized and developed for a variety of high temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI was evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100 void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

1982-01-01

149

Continuation of tailored composite structures of ordered staple thermoplastic material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for the cost effective composite structure has motivated the investigation of several approaches to develop composite structure from innovative material forms. Among the promising approaches is the conversion of a planar sheet to components of complex curvature through sheet forming or stretch forming. In both cases, the potential for material stretch in the fiber direction appears to offer a clear advantage in formability over continuous fiber systems. A framework was established which allows the simulation of the anisotropic mechanisms of deformation of long discontinuous fiber laminates wherein the matrix phase is a viscous fluid. Predictions for the effective viscosities of a hyper-anisotropic medium consisting of collimated, discontinuous fibers suspended in viscous matrix were extended to capture the characteristics of typical polymers including non-Newtonian behavior and temperature dependence. In addition, the influence of fiber misorientation was also modeled by compliance averaging to determine ensemble properties for a given orientation distribution. A design tool is presented for predicting the effect of material heterogeneity on the performance of curved composite beams such as those used in aircraft fuselage structures. Material heterogeneity can be induced during manufacturing processes such as sheet forming and stretch forming of thermoplastic composites. This heterogeneity can be introduced in the form of fiber realignment and spreading during the manufacturing process causing radial and tangential gradients in material properties. Two analysis procedures are used to solve the beam problems. The first method uses separate two-dimensional elasticity solutions for the stresses in the flange and web sections of the beam. The separate solutions are coupled by requiring that forces and displacements match section boundaries. The second method uses an approximate Rayleigh-Ritz technique to find the solutions for more complex beams. Analyses are performed for curved beams of various cross-sections loaded in pure bending and with a uniform distributed load. Preliminary results show that the geometry of the beam dictates the effect of heterogeneity on performance. The role of heterogeneity is larger in beams with a small average radius-to-depth ration, R/t, where R is the average radius of the beam and t is the difference between the inside and outside radii. Results of the anlysis are in the form of stresses and displacements and are compared to both mechanics of materials and numerical solutions obtained using finite element analysis.

Santare, Michael H.; Pipes, R. Byron

1992-01-01

150

Hybrid yarn for thermoplastic fibre composites Publications Department  

E-print Network

that the hybrid yarn is a thorough and homogenous mixture (on the fibre level) of the two types of fibres. WhenHybrid yarn for thermoplastic fibre composites Publications Department publications Hybrid yarn Texturing of the Hybrid Yarn Materials and Mechanical Properties Press Consolidation of Hybrid Yarn Fabrics

151

Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

Siemens, W. D.

1973-01-01

152

Qualification testing of engineering thermoplastics for electrical distribution applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering thermoplastic materials are continually being incorporated as a cost competitive alternative for improving the performance characteristics of electrical distribution equipment and their accessories. Proper utilization of any material requires a thorough understanding of not only the inherent properties of the material, but also how it will react under various environments over a prolonged period of time. The material selection

S. J. Ferrito; Thomas A. Edison

2002-01-01

153

Elastic/viscoplastic constitutive model for fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A constitutive model to describe the elastic/viscoplastic behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites under plane stress conditions is presented. Formulations are given for quasi-static plasticity and time-dependent viscoplasticity. Experimental procedures required to generate the necessary material constants are explained, and the experimental data is compared to the predicted behavior.

Gates, T. S.; Sun, C. T.

1991-01-01

154

Processing and characterization of unidirectional thermoplastic nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacture of continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic nanocomposites is discussed for the case of E-Glass reinforced polypropylene (PP) matrix and for E-Glass reinforced Polyamide-6 (Nylon-6), with and without dispersed nanoclay (montmorillonite) platelets. The E-Glass/PP nanocomposite was manufactured using pultrusion, whereas the E-Glass/Nylon-6 nanocomposite was manufactured using compression molding. Mechanical characterization of nanocomposites were performed and compared with traditional microcomposites. Compressive as well as shear strength of nanocomposites was improved by improving the yield strength of the surrounding matrix through the dispersion of nanoclay. Significant improvements were achieved in compressive strength and shear strength with relatively low nanoclay loadings. Initially, polypropylene with and without nanoclay were melt intercalated using a single-screw extruder and the pultruded nanocomposite was fabricated using extruded pre-impregnated (pre-preg) tapes. Compression tests were performed as mandated by ASTM guidelines. SEM and TEM characterization revealed presence of nanoclay in an intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology. Mechanical tests confirmed significant improvements in compressive strength (˜122% at 10% nanoclay loading) and shear strength (˜60% at 3% nanoclay loading) in modified pultruded E-Glass/PP nanocomposites in comparison with baseline properties. Uniaxial tensile tests showed a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.4%) with 3% nanoclay loading. Subsequently, E-Glass/Nylon-6 nanocomposite panels were manufactured by compression molding. Compression tests were performed according to IITRI guidelines, whereas short beam shear and uni-axial tensile tests were performed according to ASTM standards. Mechanical tests confirmed strength enhancement with nanoclay addition, with a significant improvement in compressive strength (50% at 4% nanoclay loading) and shear strength (˜36% at 4% nanoclay loading) when compared with the baseline E-Glass/Nylon-6. Uni-axial tensile tests resulted in a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.2%) with 4% nanoclay loading. Also, hygrothermal aging (50°C and 100% RH) of baseline and nanoclay modified (4%) E-Glass/Nylon-6 was studied. It was observed that the moisture diffusion process followed Fickian diffusion. E-Glass/Nylon-6 modified with 4% nanoclay loading showed improved barrier performance with a significant reduction (˜30%) in moisture uptake compared to baseline E-Glass/Nylon-6 composites. Significant improvement in mechanical properties was also observed in hygrothermally aged nanocomposite specimens when compared with the aged baseline composite.

Narasimhan, Kameshwaran

155

Modification of wood fiber with thermoplastics by reactive steam-explosion processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, a novel processing method of co-refining wood and polyolefin (PO) by steam-explosion was scientifically explored for wood-thermoplastic composites without a coupling agent. Traditional studies have addressed the improvement of adhesion between components of wood thermoplastic composites through the use of coupling agents such as maleated PO. The objective of this study was to increase adhesion between wood and PO through reactive processing conditions of steam-explosion. PO characteristics, such as type (polyethylene or polypropylene), form (pellet, fiber, or powder) and melt viscosity were studied along with oxygen gas content of the steam-explosion reactor vessel. Modification of co-processed wood fiber was characterized in four studies: microscopy analysis of dispersion of PO with wood fiber, sorption properties of co-processed material, chemical analysis of fractionated components, and morphological investigation of co-processed material. Two additional studies are listed in the appendices that relate to adsorption of amphiphilic polymers to the cellulose fiber surface, which is one hypothesis of fiber surface modification by co-steam-explosion. Microscopy studies revealed that PO melt viscosity was found to influence the degree of dispersion and uniformity of the steam-exploded material. The hygroscopic nature of the co-processed fiber declined as shown by sorption isotherm data. Furthermore, a water vapor kinetics study found that all co-refined material had increased initial diffusion coefficients compared to the control fiber. Chemical changes in fractionated components were PO-type dependent. Lignin extracted from co-processed wood and polyethylene showed PO enrichment determined from an increase of methylene stretching in the Fourier Transform infrared subtraction spectra, while lignin from co-processed wood and polypropylene did not. Additionally, extracted PO showed indirect signs of oxidation as reflected by fluorescence studies. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a number of differences in the co-processed materials such as increased cellulose crystallinity, new covalent linkages and an alternative distribution of components on the nanoscale reflected in the T1rho relaxation parameter. Steam-explosion was shown to modify wood fiber through the addition of "non-reactive" polyolefins without the need for coupling agents. In light of these findings, co-refining by steam-explosion should be viewed as a new reactive processing method for wood thermoplastic composites.

Renneckar, Scott H.

156

Study on the fabricating process monitoring of thermoplastic based materials packaged OFBG and their sensing properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As common materials or engineering materials, thermoplastic resin based materials can be used not only directly fabricating products but also FRTP(fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymer) materials for other uses. As one kind of FRTP material, GFRPP(glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) has lots of merits, such as: light weight, high strength, high tenacity, high elongation percentage, good durability, reshaping character and no environmental pollution characters. And they also can be conveniently formed hoop rebar in civil engineering. While a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG smart rod which combined GFRPP and OFBG together can be used as not only structure materials but also sensing materials. Meanwhile, PP packaged OFBG strain sensor can be expected for its low modulus, good sensitivity and good durability. Furthermore, it can be used for large strain measuring. In this paper, we have successfully fabricated a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG(Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene-Optic Fiber Bragg Grating) rod by our own thermoplastic pultrusion production line and a new kind of PP packaged OFBG strain sensor by extruding techniques. And we monitored the inner strain and temperature changes with tow OFBG simultaneously of the fabricating process. The results show that: OFBG can truly reflect the strain and temperature changes in both the GFRPP rod and the PP packaged OFBG, these are very useful to modify our processing parameters. And we also find that because of the shrinkage of PP, this new kind of PP packaged OFBG have -13000?? storage, and the strain sensing performance is still very well, so which can be used for large strain measuring. Besides these, GFRPP-OFBG smart rod has good sensing performance in strain sensing just like that of FRSP-OFBG rod, the strain sensitivity coefficient is about1.19pm/??. Besides these, the surface of GFRPP-OFBG rods can be handled just as steel bars and also can be bended and reshaped. These are all very useful and very important for the use of FRP materials in civil engineering structures.

Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Zhichun; Ou, Jinping

2007-04-01

157

Electron Beam Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymers with Tunable Mechanical Properties  

PubMed Central

Novel electron beam crosslinked polyurethane shape memory polymers with advanced processing capabilities and tunable thermomechanical properties have been synthesized and characterized. We demonstrate the ability to manipulate crosslink density in order to finely tune rubbery modulus, strain capacity, ultimate tensile strength, recovery stress, and glass transition temperature. This objective is accomplished for the first time in a low-molecular-weight polymer system through the precise engineering of thermoplastic resin precursors suitable for mass thermoplastic processing. Neurovascular stent prototypes were fabricated by dip-coating and laser machining to demonstrate processability. PMID:25411531

Hearon, Keith; Nash, Landon D.; Volk, Brent L.; Ware, Taylor; Lewicki, James P.; Voit, Walter E.; Wilson, Thomas S.

2014-01-01

158

A computationally simple method for simulating the micro-embossing of thermoplastic layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a highly computationally efficient approach to simulating the embossing of micrometer-scale, feature-rich patterns on to thermoplastic polymeric layers. The method employs a linear viscoelastic model for the embossed layer and computes the distribution of contact pressure between the polymeric layer and a rigid embossing stamp that is consistent with the progression of the polymer deformation. An approximation to the embossed topography of the polymeric layer is thereby generated as a function of the material being embossed, the stamp's design, and the embossing process's temperature, duration and applied load. For a stamp design described with an 800 × 800 matrix of topographical heights, simulation can be completed within 30-100 s using a personal computer with an Intel Pentium 4 processor and 2 GB RAM. Our method is sufficiently fast for it to be employed iteratively for designing a pattern to be embossed or for selecting processing parameters. The viscoelastic properties of three polymeric materials—polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate and Zeonor 1060R, a cyclic olefin polymer—have been experimentally calibrated. For a test pattern having features with diameters of 5 µm to 90 µm, simulated and experimental topographies agree with rms errors of less than 2 µm across all processing conditions tested, with absolute topographical heights ranging up to 30 µm.

Taylor, Hayden; Lam, Yee Cheong; Boning, Duane

2009-07-01

159

Foam injection molding of thermoplastic elastomers: Blowing agents, foaming process and characterization of structural foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer foams play an important role caused by the steadily increasing demand to light weight design. In case of soft polymers, like thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), the haptic feeling of the surface is affected by the inner foam structure. Foam injection molding of TPEs leads to so called structural foam, consisting of two compact skin layers and a cellular core. The properties of soft structural foams like soft-touch, elastic and plastic behavior are affected by the resulting foam structure, e.g. thickness of the compact skins and the foam core or density. This inner structure can considerably be influenced by different processing parameters and the chosen blowing agent. This paper is focused on the selection and characterization of suitable blowing agents for foam injection molding of a TPE-blend. The aim was a high density reduction and a decent inner structure. Therefore DSC and TGA measurements were performed on different blowing agents to find out which one is appropriate for the used TPE. Moreover a new analyzing method for the description of processing characteristics by temperature dependent expansion measurements was developed. After choosing suitable blowing agents structural foams were molded with different types of blowing agents and combinations and with the breathing mold technology in order to get lower densities. The foam structure was analyzed to show the influence of the different blowing agents and combinations. Finally compression tests were performed to estimate the influence of the used blowing agent and the density reduction on the compression modulus.

Ries, S.; Spoerrer, A.; Altstaedt, V.

2014-05-01

160

The crystallization of tough thermoplastic resins in the presence of carbon fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of carbon fibers increased the crystallization rates of both PEEK and PPS thermoplastic polymers. The effect was most pronounced at higher crystallization temperatures. Isothermal crystallization rates were analyzed by applying classical phenomenological nucleation theory. Unusually high values of the so-called Avrami exponent were found for neat PEEK. Isothermal crystallization of PEEK and PPS polymers produced crystalline samples having a wide variety of melting temperatures. The melting as observed by differential scanning calorimetry occurred as dual endotherms which were called primary (higher temperature) and secondary melting peaks. Each primary peak accounted for most of the crystallinity present. The secondary peaks represented the melting of crystallites formed later than those attributable to the primary endotherms. The presence of carbon fibers increased the thermal stability of both PEEK and PPS crystallites as manifested by higher temperatures for the primary melting peaks. This may be attributable to increased crystallite size, greater crystallite perfection, and/or favorable modification of the crystallite interface. Over the range studied, crystallization temperature strongly influenced the positions of the secondary peaks but not the primary peaks.

Theil, Michael H.

1988-01-01

161

Interfacial strength development in thermoplastic resins and fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to develop test methods to be used to characterize interfacial (autohesive) strength development in polysulfone thermoplastic resin and graphite-polysulfone prepreg during processing is reported. Two test methods were used to examine interfacial strength development in neat resin samples. These included an interfacial tension test and a compact tension (CT) fracture toughness test. The interfacial tensile test proved to be very difficult to perform with a considerable amount of data scatter. Thus, the interfacial test was discarded in favor of the fracture toughness test. Interfacial strength development was observed by measuring the refracture toughness of precracked compact tension specimens that were rehealed at a given temperature and contact time. The measured refracture toughness was correlated with temperature and contact time. Interfacial strength development in graphite-polysulfone unidirectional composites was measured using a double cantilever beam (DCB) interlaminar fracture toughness test. The critical strain energy release rate of refractured composite specimens was measured as a function of healing temperature and contact time.

Howes, Jeremy C.; Loos, Alfred C.

1987-01-01

162

A Structural Approach to Establishing a Platform Chemistry for the Tunable, Bulk Electron Beam Cross-Linking of Shape Memory Polymer Systems.  

PubMed

The synthetic design and thermomechanical characterization of shape memory polymers (SMPs) built from a new polyurethane chemistry that enables facile, bulk and tunable cross-linking of low-molecular weight thermoplastics by electron beam irradiation is reported in this study. SMPs exhibit stimuli-induced geometry changes and are being proposed for applications in numerous fields. We have previously reported a polyurethane SMP system that exhibits the complex processing capabilities of thermoplastic polymers and the mechanical robustness and tunability of thermomechanical properties that are often characteristic of thermoset materials. These previously reported polyurethanes suffer practically because the thermoplastic molecular weights needed to achieve target cross-link densities severely limit high-throughput thermoplastic processing and because thermally unstable radiation-sensitizing additives must be used to achieve high enough cross-link densities to enable desired tunable shape memory behavior. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate cross-link density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs (M w as low as ~1.5 kDa) without radiation-sensitizing additives by incorporating specific structural motifs into the thermoplastic polymer side chains that we hypothesized would significantly enhance susceptibility to e-beam cross-linking. A custom diol monomer was first synthesized and then implemented in the synthesis of neat thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs that were irradiated at doses ranging from 1 to 500 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated rubbery moduli to be tailorable between 0.1 and 55 MPa, and both DMA and sol/gel analysis results provided fundamental insight into our hypothesized mechanism of electron beam cross-linking, which enables controllable bulk cross-linking to be achieved in highly processable, low-molecular weight thermoplastic shape memory polymers without sensitizing additives. PMID:25411511

Hearon, Keith; Besset, Celine J; Lonnecker, Alexander T; Ware, Taylor; Voit, Walter E; Wilson, Thomas S; Wooley, Karen L; Maitland, Duncan J

2013-11-26

163

Microwave facilities for welding thermoplastic composites and preliminary results.  

PubMed

The wide range of applications of microwave technology in manufacturing industries has been well documented (NRC, 1994; Thuery, 1992). In this paper, a new way of joining fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites with or without primers is presented. The microwave facility used is also discussed. The effect of power input and cycle time on the heat affected zone (HAZ) is detailed together with the underlying principles of test piece material interactions with the electromagnetic field. The process of autogenous joining of 33% by weight of random glass fibre reinforced Nylon 66, polystyrene (PS) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) as well as 23.3% by weight of carbon fibre reinforced PS thermoplastic composites is discussed together with developments using filler materials, or primers in the heterogenous joining mode. The weldability dependence on the dielectric loss tangent of these materials at elevated temperatures is also described. PMID:10687151

Ku, H S; Siores, E; Ball, J A

1999-01-01

164

Development and application of a process model for thermoplastic pultrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental understanding of the effects of processing parameters and die geometry in a pultrusion process requires a mathematical model in order to minimize the number of necessary experiments. Previous investigators have suggested a variety of models for thermoset pultrusion, while comparatively little effort has been spent modelling its less well-understood thermoplastic counterpart. Herein, models to describe temperature and pressure distributions within a thermoplastic composite as it travels through the pultrusion line, as well as a model to calculate the accumulated pulling resistance from a pultrusion die, are presented. The predictions of the models are compared to experimentally obtained data in terms of composite temperature and pressure and process pulling force; the correlations between predictions and experimental data are found to be good, indicating the soundness of the models. The practical usefulness of the models in terms of die design and the effects of changes in processing parameters is demonstrated with examples.

Astrom, B. T.

165

Pultrusion with thermoplastics for the fabrication of structures in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the pultrusion method to produce structures in space is proposed. This technique is based on transporting materials in coils or bundles and fabricating the structures in space. Two methods for thermoplastic impregnation of advanced composite are described. The properties of three pultruded thermoplastic matrix materials, polyphenylene sulfide, polyetherimide (PEI), and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) are discussed and evaluated. It is observed that the pultrusions containing PEI and PEEK reveal post-fabrication potential of lightweight, high strength advanced composites and this method of fabrication produces strength values comparable to those of conventional techniques. Earth-based and space-based planetary shelter models are developed and compared. It is noted that cargo storage volume is dependent on a combination of profiles, packaging, and manufacturing methods.

Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

1988-01-01

166

Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

1985-01-01

167

Characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) and thermoplastic polyurethane-carbon nanofiber composites produced by chaotic mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaotic mixing is a novel mixing technique offering high mixing efficiency even under mild shearing conditions. In this work, chaotic mixing was used to prepare composites of carbon nanofibers and two thermoplastic polymers---poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU)---and their electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties were evaluated. The TPU systems were based on the reaction products of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, (MDI), soft segment polyol, and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. Soft segment polyols in the form of poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)diol (PCL) were used to obtain respectively amorphous and crystalline soft segments. Of these, the TPU system based on crystalline soft segment exhibited shape memory effects. Both, as-received untreated carbon nanofibers (CNF) with a very low amount of atomic oxygen on the surface, and oxidized carbon nanofibers (CNFOX) were used. CNFOX was also modified by esterifying with PPG to produce a third type of carbon nanofiber named CNFOL. These carbon nanofibers were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the elemental composition of the surface, and by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to determine the surface morphology.

Jiminez, Guillermo A.

168

Mechanical behavior of lightweight thermoplastic fiber–metal laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight thermoplastic-based fiber–metal laminates were developed based on self-reinforced polypropylene and glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene composite materials and an aluminum alloy 2024-T3. The laminates were manufactured using a fast one-step cold press manufacturing procedure. The mechanical behavior of the laminates was then investigated under tensile and fatigue loading conditions. The tensile properties of the plain aluminum, the composite materials and the

G. Reyes; H. Kang

2007-01-01

169

Modeling Fatigue Damage in Long-Fiber Thermoplastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a fatigue damage model recently developed for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to predict the modulus reduction and fatigue lifetime of glass\\/polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) specimens. The fatigue model uses a multiscale mechanistic approach to describe fatigue damage accumulation in these materials subjected to cyclic loading. Micromechanical modeling using a modified Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach combined with averaging techniques for fiber

Ba Nghiep Nguyen; Vlastimil Kunc; Satish K. Bapanapalli

2009-01-01

170

Structural response of bead-stiffened thermoplastic shear webs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental and analytical study of the structural response and failure characteristics of selected bead-stiffened thermoplastic shear-webs are presented. Results are given for specimens with one stiffeneer, with two stiffeners, and different stiffener geometries. Selected analytical results that were obtained with the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed computer code are presented. Analytical results that describe normal and transverse shear stress are also presented.

Rouse, Marshall

1991-01-01

171

Thermoset-thermoplastic aromatic polyamide containing N-propargyl groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compounds of the class of aromatic polyamides useful as matrix resins in the manufacture of composites or laminate fabrication were developed. The process for preparing this thermoplastic-thermoset polyamide system involves incorporating a latent crosslinking moiety along the backbone of the polyamide to improve the temperature range of fabrication thereof wherein the resin softens at a relatively low temperature (approx. 154 C) and subsequently sets-up or undergoes crosslinking when subjected to higher temperature (approx. 280 C).

St.clair, T. L.; Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D. (inventors)

1984-01-01

172

Modified Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Reinforce Thermoplastic Polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic polyimide film was obtained by the addition of noncovalently functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Polyimide films were reinforced using pristine SWNTs and functionalized SWNTs (F-SWNTs). The tensile strengths of the polyimide films containing F-SWNTs were found to be approximately 1.4 times higher than those prepared from pristine SWNTs.

Lebron-COlon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

2006-01-01

173

Evaluation of thermoplastic stiffened panels for application to rotorcraft airframes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental evaluation of thermoplastic skin-stiffener structure was conducted by evaluating the shear strength, impact resistance, and damage tolerance of stiffened panels with thin-gage skins. Seventeen 23.5 x 23.5 inch three-stiffener test panels were manufactured with five skin configurations: 0.020 inch, 0.030 inch, and 0.040 inch thick IM7/APC-2 and 0.030 inch and 0.040 inch thick AS4/APC-2. In low-velocity impact trials, the IM7/APC-2 panels showed much higher impact resistance than the AS4/APC-2 panels, and both thermoplastic configurations showed higher impact resistance than AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy panels tested previously. In picture-frame shear tests, the undamaged thermoplastic shear panels suffered buckling-induced stiffener debonding but had failure loads above AS4/3501-6 panels with the same skin thickness. Residual panel strength after impact varied considerably due to variation in the damage states, but all failure loads were equal to or higher than those of the AS4/3501-6 panels. In tests of both undamaged and impacted panels, the failure stresses of the IM7/APC-2 and AS4/APC-2 panels were similar.

Weems, Douglas B.; Llorente, Steven G.

174

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

175

Laser-generated Macroscopic and Microscopic Surface Structures for the Joining of Aluminum and Thermoplastics using Friction Press Joining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural lightweight construction is increasingly utilized in the aerospace and automotive industry. Hybrid structures have great potential, especially with regard to load-specific component layouts. Usually, a surface pre-treatment is applied prior to joining dissimilar materials to improve bonding mechanisms such as form closure. In previous studies pulsed wave (pw) lasers were used for structuring metals. This paper presents the results of aluminum pre-treatment via a continuous wave (cw) single-mode fiber laser: macroscopic and microscopic structures were generated on the aluminum surface; the samples were joined with glass fiber reinforced polyamide using Friction Press Joining (FPJ), a method for joining metals and thermoplastic polymers in lap joint configuration. Using these new methods for surface structuring, shear strength was increased by 40% compared to previous studies with pw lasers.

Fuchs, Alexander N.; Wirth, Franz X.; Rinck, Philipp; Zaeh, Michael F.

176

Microstructural Characterization of Polymers by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positrons provide a versatile probe for monitoring microstructural features of molecular solids. In this paper, we report on positron lifetime measurements in two different types of polymers. The first group comprises polyacrylates processed on earth and in space. The second group includes fully-compatible and totally-incompatible Semi-Interpenetrating polymer networks of thermosetting and thermoplastic polyimides. On the basis of lifetime measurements, it is concluded that free volumes are a direct reflection of physical/electromagnetic properties of the host polymers.

Singh, Jag J.

1996-01-01

177

Development of fuel cell bipolar plates from graphite filled wet-lay thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method with the potential to produce economical bipolar plates with high electrical conductivity and mechanical properties is described. Thermoplastic composite materials consisting of graphite particles, thermoplastic fibers and glass or carbon fibers are generated by means of a wet-lay (paper-making) process to yield highly formable sheets. The sheets are then stacked and compression molded to form bipolar plates with

Jianhua Huang; Donald G. Baird; James E. McGrath

2005-01-01

178

Ultrasoft Thermoplastic Polyurethanes This work evolved from collaboration between my laboratory and CPT Industries, Inc. I  

E-print Network

Ultrasoft Thermoplastic Polyurethanes This work evolved from collaboration between my laboratory) thermoplastic poly(carbonate urethane)s that do not exhibit surface tackiness. These novel polyurethanes target polyurethane elastomers that are tough, but also stiff; this is caused by the tendency of the soft segment

Harmon, Julie P.

179

Polymer Communication Cryogenic mechanical alloying as an alternative strategy for the  

E-print Network

composed of thermoplastics and tire, thereby providing a potentially new route by which to recycle to recycle expended tires [1±4]. Although these methodologies have enabled re-utilization of numerous waste for a signi®cant fraction of the world-wide polymer consumption [1]. Thus, while we focus on tire recycling

180

WAVELET BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION IN POLYMERS USING LAMB WAVE MODES  

E-print Network

. Acoustical properties like attenuation of propagating ultrasonic waves through polymers vary in a broad of acrylic (PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate), thermoplastic, using guided Lamb wave. Lamb waves are generated. In industrial applications, ultrasonic testing is commonly used on metals, plastics, composites, and ceramics

Boyer, Edmond

181

Polymer composites prepared from heat-treated starch and styrene-butadiene latex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermoplastic starch/latex polymer composites were prepared using styrene–butadiene (SB) latex and heat-treated cornstarch. The composites were prepared in a compression mold at 130 °C, with starch content 20%. An amylose-free cornstarch, waxy maize, was used for this research and the heat treatment...

182

Development of LaRC (TM): IA thermoplastic polyimide coated aerospace wiring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley has invented LaRC(exp TM) IA and IAX which are thermoplastic polyimides with good melting, thermal and chemical resistance properties. It was the objective of this contract to prepare and extrude LaRC (exp TM) polyimide onto aircraft wire and evaluate the polymers performance in this critical application. Based on rheology and chemical resistance studies at Imitec, LaRC (exp TM) IAX melts readily in an extruder, facilitating the manufacture of thin wall coatings. The polyimide does not corode the extruder, develop gel particles nor advance in viscosity. The insulated wire was tested according to MiL-W-22759E test specifications. The resulting wire coated with LaRC (exp TM) IAX displayed exceptional properties: surface resistance, non blocking, non burning, hot fluid resistance, impulse dielectric, insulation resistance, low temperature flexibility, thermal aging, wire weight, dimensions, negligible high temperature shrinkage and stripability. The light weight and other properties merit its application in satellites, missiles and aircraft applications. The extruded IAX results in a polyimide aircraft insulation without seams, outstanding moisture resistance, continuous lengths and abrasion resistance.

Keating, Jack

1995-01-01

183

Study on ternary low density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend films.  

PubMed

In this work, low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/LLDPE/TPS) films are prepared with the aim of obtaining environmentally friendly materials containing high TPS content with required packaging properties. Blending of LDPE/LLDPE (70/30wt/wt) with 5-20wt% of TPS and 3wt% of PE-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) is performed in a twin-screw extruder, followed by the blowing process. Differential scanning calorimetric results indicate starch has more pronounced effect on crystallization of LLDPE than LDPE. Scanning electron micrograph shows a fairly good dispersion of TPS in PE matrices. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirm compatibility between polymers using PE-g-MA as the compatibilizer. Storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity increase with incorporation of starch. Tensile strength and elongation-at-break decrease from 18 to 10.5MPa and 340 to 200%, respectively when TPS increases from 5 to 20%. However, the required mechanical properties for packaging applications are attained when 15wt% starch is added, as specified in ASTM D4635. Finally 12% increase in water uptake is achieved with inclusion of 15wt% starch. PMID:25563952

Sabetzadeh, Maryam; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Masoomi, Mahmood

2015-03-30

184

Effects of Compression and Filler Particle Coating on the Electrical Conductivity of Thermoplastic Elastomer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastomeric polymers can be filled with metallic micro- or nanoparticles to obtain electrical conductivity, in which the conductivity is largely determined by the intrinsic conductivity of and contact resistance between the particles. Electrons will flow through the material effectively when the percolation threshold for near-neighbor contacts is exceeded and sufficiently close contacts between the filler particles are realized for electron tunneling to occur. Silver-coated glass microparticles of two types (fibers and spheres) were used as fillers in a thermoplastic elastomer composite based on styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene copolymer, and the direct-current (DC) resistance and radiofrequency impedance were significantly reduced by coating the filler particles with octadecylmercaptan. Not only was the resistance reduced but also the atypical positive piezoresistivity effect observed in these elastomers was strongly reduced, such that resistivity values below 0.01 ? cm were obtained for compression ratios up to 20%. In the DC measurements, an additional decrease of resistivity was obtained by inclusion of ?-extended aromatic compounds, such as diphenylhexatriene. Some qualitative theories are presented to illuminate the possible mechanisms of action of these surface coatings on the piezoresistivity.

Albers, Willem M.; Karttunen, Mikko; Wikström, Lisa; Vilkman, Taisto

2013-10-01

185

All-thermoplastic nanoplasmonic microfluidic device for transmission SPR biosensing.  

PubMed

Early and accurate disease diagnosis still remains a major challenge in clinical settings. Biomarkers could potentially provide useful tools for the detection and monitoring of disease progression, treatment safety and efficacy. Recent years have witnessed prodigious advancement in biosensor development with research directed towards rapid, real-time, label-free and sensitive biomarker detection. Among emerging techniques, nanoplasmonic biosensors pose tremendous potential to accelerate clinical diagnosis with real-time multiplexed analysis, rapid and miniaturized assays, low sample consumption and high sensitivity. In order to translate these technologies from the proof-of-principle concept level to point of care clinical diagnosis, integrated, portable devices having small footprint cartridges that house low-cost disposable consumables are sought. Towards this goal, we developed an all-polymeric nanoplasmonic microfluidic (NMF) transmission surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. The device was fabricated in thermoplastics using a simple, single step and cost-effective hot embossing technique amenable to mass production. The novel 3D hierarchical mold fabrication process enabled monolithic integration of blazed nanogratings within the detection chambers of a multichannel microfluidic system. Consequently, a single hard thermoplastic bottom substrate comprising plasmonic and fluidic features allowed integration of active fluidic elements, such as pneumatic valves, in the top soft thermoplastic cover, increasing device functionality. A simple and compact transmission-based optical setup was employed with multiplexed end-point or dual-channel kinetic detection capability which did not require stringent angular accuracy. The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the transmission SPR biosensor was demonstrated through label-free immunodetection of soluble cell-surface glycoprotein sCD44 at clinically relevant picomolar to nanomolar concentrations. PMID:23287840

Malic, Lidija; Morton, Keith; Clime, Liviu; Veres, Teodor

2013-03-01

186

ZnO Nanorod Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites: Morphology and Shape Memory Performance  

SciTech Connect

The impact of dispersed alkylthiol-modified ZnO nanorods, as a function of rod aspect ratio and concentration, on the shape memory character of a thermoplastic polyurethane with low hard-segment density (LHS-TPU) is examined relative to the enhanced performance occurring for carbon nanofiber (CNF) dispersion. Solution blending resulted in uniform dispersion within the LHS-TPU of the ZnO nanorods at low volume (weight) fractions (<2.9% v/v (17.75% w/w)). Tensile modulus enhancements were modest though, comparable to values observed for spherical nanofillers. Shape memory characteristics, which in this LHS-TPU result when strain-induced crystallites retard the entropic recovery of the deformed chains, were unchanged for these low volume fraction ZnO nanocomposites. Higher ZnO loadings (12% v/v (50% w/w)) exhibited clustering of ZnO nanorods into a mesh-like structure. Here, tensile modulus and shape recovery characteristics were improved, although not as great as seen for comparable CNF addition. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and NMR revealed that the addition of ZnO nanorods did not impact the inherent strain induced crystallization of the LHS-TPU, which is in contrast to the impact of CNFs and emphasizes the impact of interactions at the polymer-nanoparticle interface. Overall, these findings reinforce the hypothesis that the shape memory properties of polymer nanocomposites are governed by the extent to which nanoparticle addition, via nanoparticle aspect ratio, hierarchical morphology, and interfacial interactions, impacts the molecular mechanism responsible for trapping elastic strain.

Koerner, H.; Kelley, J; George, J; Drummy, L; Mirau, P; Bell, N; Hsu, J; Vaia, R

2009-01-01

187

Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites.  

PubMed

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared using compression molding and chicken eggshell was used as a filler. The effect of the eggshell powder (EP) on the properties of TPS was compared with the effect of commercial calcium carbonate (CC). The organic compound on the surface of the eggshell powder acted as a coupling agent that resulted in a strong adhesion between the eggshell powder and the TPS matrix, as confirmed by SEM micrographs. The biodegradation was determined by the soil burial test. The TPS/EP composites were more rapidly degraded than the TPS/CC composites. In addition, the eggshell powder improved the water resistance and thermal stability of the TPS. PMID:23911451

Bootklad, Munlika; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

2013-09-12

188

Induction Consolidation of Thermoplastic Composites Using Smart Susceptors  

SciTech Connect

This project has focused on the area of energy efficient consolidation and molding of fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite components as an energy efficient alternative to the conventional processing methods such as autoclave processing. The expanding application of composite materials in wind energy, automotive, and aerospace provides an attractive energy efficiency target for process development. The intent is to have this efficient processing along with the recyclable thermoplastic materials ready for large scale application before these high production volume levels are reached. Therefore, the process can be implemented in a timely manner to realize the maximum economic, energy, and environmental efficiencies. Under this project an increased understanding of the use of induction heating with smart susceptors applied to consolidation of thermoplastic has been achieved. This was done by the establishment of processing equipment and tooling and the subsequent demonstration of this fabrication technology by consolidating/molding of entry level components for each of the participating industrial segments, wind energy, aerospace, and automotive. This understanding adds to the nation's capability to affordably manufacture high quality lightweight high performance components from advanced recyclable composite materials in a lean and energy efficient manner. The use of induction heating with smart susceptors is a precisely controlled low energy method for the consolidation and molding of thermoplastic composites. The smart susceptor provides intrinsic thermal control based on the interaction with the magnetic field from the induction coil thereby producing highly repeatable processing. The low energy usage is enabled by the fact that only the smart susceptor surface of the tool is heated, not the entire tool. Therefore much less mass is heated resulting in significantly less required energy to consolidate/mold the desired composite components. This energy efficiency results in potential energy savings of {approx}75% as compared to autoclave processing in aerospace, {approx}63% as compared to compression molding in automotive, and {approx}42% energy savings as compared to convectively heated tools in wind energy. The ability to make parts in a rapid and controlled manner provides significant economic advantages for each of the industrial segments. These attributes were demonstrated during the processing of the demonstration components on this project.

Matsen, Marc R

2012-06-14

189

Use of vacuum bagging for fabricating thermoplastic microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

Cassano, Christopher L; Simon, Andrew J; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Hugh Fan, Z

2014-12-01

190

Electron beam surface modifications in reinforcing and recycling of polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic polymers can be fiber-reinforced in the recycling step through a reactive modification of the interface between the polymer matrix and fiber. Recollected automobile bumpers made of polypropylene copolymers have been reinforced during the reprocessing with eight different types of high-strength fibers, with waste cord-yarns of the tire industry. A thin layer reactive interface of acrylic oligomers has been applied and activated through low energy (175 keV) electron beam (EB). The upcycling (upgrading recycling) resulted in a series of extrudable and injection-mouldable, fiber-reinforced thermoplastic of enhanced bending strength, increased modulus of elasticity and acceptable impact strength. EB treatment has been compared with conventional methods.

Czvikovszky, T.; Hargitai, H.

1997-08-01

191

Strain Rate Dependence of Compressive Stress-Strain Loops of Several Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compressive stress-strain loops of several commercial polymers at strain rates of nearly 700\\/s are determined in the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. Four different polymers or typical thermoplastics: ABS, PA-6, PA-66 and PC are tested at room temperature. Cylindrical specimens with a slenderness ratio (= height l \\/diameter d) of 0.5 are used in the Hopkinson bar tests, and

Kenji Nakai; Takashi Yokoyama

2008-01-01

192

CREEP MODELING FOR INJECTION-MOLDED LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a model to predict the creep response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior described by the Schapery’s model. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber length and orientation distributions were measured and used in the analysis that applies the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method, the Mori-Tanaka assumption (termed as the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach) and the fiber orientation averaging technique to compute the overall strain increment resulting from an overall constant applied stress during a given time increment. The creep model for LFTs has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been validated against the experimental creep data obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens. The effects of fiber orientation and length distributions on the composite creep response are determined and discussed.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

2008-06-30

193

Dielectric Characterization of PCL-Based Thermoplastic Materials for Microwave Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5 – 3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported three-dimensional anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21622068

Aguilar, Suzette M.; Shea, Jacob D.; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

2011-01-01

194

Scratch behaviors in polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a large effort toward the fundamental understanding of scratch behaviors in polymeric materials, studies were carried out on a broad range of polymers, with an emphasis on automotive thermoplastic olefins (TPOs). Two types of scratch tests were performed in this research, i.e., Ford constant load and instrumented progressive load scratch tests. A scratch model proposed by Hamilton and Goodman was applied to understand the fundamental mechanics of the scratch process. Several characterization techniques were used to investigate the scratch damage mechanisms in polymers. Both testing results and the scratch model analysis indicate that certain rigidity in polymers is essential to give good scratch resistance. Fundamental understanding of the scratching process in terms of basic material characteristics such as Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, friction coefficient, scratch hardness, penetration recovery and fracture toughness are discussed. Scratch damage investigation, on both surface and subsurface, shows that shear yielding is the main cause of the plastics flow scratch pattern, while tensile tear on the surface and shear induced fracture on the subsurface are the main damage mechanisms in the fracture scratch pattern. This study explains why automotive TPOs are susceptible to scratch under the current scratch test practiced in automotive industry. Shear deformation and fracture behavior in model TPOs are also studied using the Iosipescu shear test. Iosipescu shear deformation in terms of shear stress-strain curves of model TPOs is obtained experimentally. Shear fracture process and damage mechanisms in TPOs are also demonstrated and revealed. Further studies on the scratch damage in TPOs based on the roles of additives and fillers in the scratch behavior are addressed. The effects of phase morphology and toughening mechanisms on scratch behavior in TPOs are also discussed. This research has resulted in an increased understanding of the fundamental scratch behavior in polymers, especially in TPOs.

Xiang, Chen

2000-10-01

195

Refractive index modification of polymers using nanosized dopants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of nanosized inorganic or organic dopants to polymers allows the modification of the polymers physical properties enabling the realization of functionalized polymers with new application fields e.g. in microoptics. Exemplarily electron rich organic dopants, solved in polymers, cause a pronounced increase of the refractive index. Polymer based reactive resins like PMMA, solved in MMA, or unsaturated polyester, solved in styrene, can be cured to thermoplastic polymers. The resin's low viscous flow behaviour enables an easy composite formation by solving the organic dopants in the liquid up to a dopant content of 50 wt%, followed by solidification to a thermoplastic. The addition of simple organic molecules like phenanthrene or benzochinoline allows a refractive index elevation at 633 nm from 1.56 up to 1.60 retaining the good transmission properties. In comparison the refractive index of PMMA can be increased from the initial value of 1.49 up to values around 1.58 (@633 nm). All composites show an almost linear correlation between dopant content and refractive index. Using these composites devices like 3dB-couplers or an electrooptical modulator applying injection molded or hot embossed substrates have been realized.

Hanemann, Thomas; Boehm, Johannes; Müller, Claas; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Eberhard

2008-04-01

196

Polymer research at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymer synthesis programs involve the development of Novel thermoplastics, pseudothermoplastics, and thermosets. These systems are prepared to elucidate structure-property relationships involving thermal capabilities, toughness, processability and environmental stability. Easily processable polyimides, solvent-resistant polysulfones and polyphenylquinoxalines, and tougher high and intermediate temperature polymers were developed. Characterization efforts included high pressure liquid chromatography methodology, the development of toughness tests for fiber reinforced composites, a study of electrical properties of metal ion filled polyimides, and a study of the mutagenicity of aromatic diamines. Also the mechanism of cure/degradation of experimental polymers was studied by rheology, mechanical behavior, separation techniques and spectroscopy. The degradative crosslinking of alkyl-containing polyimides, the separation and identification of crosslinked phenylquinoxalines, the rheological behavior of hot-melt polyimides, and the elucidation of the cure of norbornene endcapped imides were also studied.

St.clair, T. L.; Johnston, N. J.

1982-01-01

197

Polymer films  

DOEpatents

A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

2008-12-30

198

High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing radiation ( radiation, neutrons), or by chemical crosslinking to form a covalent permanent network. With respect to other shape memory polymers, this invention is novel in that it describes the use of a thermoplastic composition that can be thermally molded or solution-cast into complex "permanent" shapes, and then reheated or redissolved and recast from solution to prepare another shape. It is also unique in that the shape memory behavior is provided by a non-polymer additive.

Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.

2012-01-01

199

Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

Yousefi, Ali Akbar

1999-09-01

200

THERMAL DEGRADATION EFFECTS ON CONSOLIDATION AND BONDING IN THE THERMOPLASTIC FIBER-PLACEMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of elevated temperature exposure during thermoplastic fiber placement on bonding and consolidation are investigated experimentally for AS 4/ polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) composite. Coupons of 24 layers are consolidated on the University of Delaware Center for Composite Ma...

201

SIMULATION OF ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDING OF A HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, SHORT GLASS FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDING OF A HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, SHORT GLASS FIBER approximation for predicting the flow-induced orientation of injection molded composite parts within of the fiber orientation. Introduction Fiber reinforced thermoplastic made by injection molding

Wapperom, Peter

202

Induction bonding procedures for graphite reinforced thermoplastic assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three T650-42/PAS-2 graphite-reinforced thermoplastic (Gr/TP) demonstration components representative of an F-111A horizontal stabilizer leading edge were successfully fabricated and destructively tested. Two of these components were assembled by induction bonding using 3M AF-191 film adhesive and vacuum bag pressure. The third component was joined using the current industry baseline process, autoclave co-consolidation. The three rib components were machined to provide two rib test elements which were tested in four-point beam bending at ambient temperature. Prior to testing, one of the induction-bonded elements was deliberately damaged and then repaired. Structural test results for the Gr/TP components were compared to corresponding data developed for graphite/bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) leading edge test elements fabricated for an earlier Air Force funded program. This comparison and preliminary cost analysis indicated the potential cost effectivity and structural efficiency of induction-bonded Fr/TP hardware.

Mahon, J.; Rutkowski, C.; Oelcher, W.

203

Instability-related delamination growth in thermoset and thermoplastic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixed-mode crack propagation in compressively loaded thermoset and thermoplastic composite columns with an imbedded through-width delamination is investigated. Beam theory is used to analyze the geometrically nonlinear load-deformation relationship of the delaminated subregion. The elastic restraint model (ERM), combined with existing FSM modeling of the crack-tip region, yields expressions for the Mode I and Mode II components of the strain energy release rate G(I) and G(II) to predict the critical load at the onset of delamination growth. Experimental data were generated for geometries yielding a wide range of G(I)/G(II) ratios at the onset of crack growth. A linear mixed-mode crack growth criterion in conjunctuion with the ERM provides good agreement between predicted and measured critical loads for both materials studied.

Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Carlsson, Leif A.; Rothschilds, Robert J.

1988-01-01

204

Modeling Fatigue Damage in Long-Fiber Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

This paper applies a fatigue damage model recently developed for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to predict the modulus reduction and fatigue lifetime of glass/polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) specimens. The fatigue model uses a multiscale mechanistic approach to describe fatigue damage accumulation in these materials subjected to cyclic loading. Micromechanical modeling using a modified Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach combined with averaging techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions is performed to establish the stiffness reduction relation for the composite as a function of the microcrack volume fraction. Next, continuum damage mechanics and a thermodynamic formulation are used to derive the constitutive relations and the damage evolution law. The fatigue damage model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code and has been applied to analyze fatigue of the studied glass/PA6,6 specimens. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

2009-10-30

205

Tape Placement Head for Applying Thermoplastic Tape to an Object  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tape placement head for applying thermoplastic tape to an object includes a heated feeder which guides the tape/tow to a heated zone. The heated zone has a line compactor having a single row of at least one movable heated member. An area compactor is located in the heated zone downstream from the line compactor. The area compactor includes a plurality of rows of movable feet which are extendable toward the tape/tow different distances with respect to each other to conform to the shape of the object. A shim is located between the heated compactors and the tape/tow. A chilled compactor is in a chilled zone downstream from the heated zone. The chilled zone includes a line chilled compactor and an area chilled compactor. A chilled shim is mounted between the chilled compactor and the tape/tow.

Cope, Ralph D. (Inventor); Funck, Steve B. (Inventor); Gruber, Mark B. (Inventor); Lamontia, Mark A. (Inventor); Johnson, Anthony D. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

206

Starch and cellulose nanocrystals together into thermoplastic starch bionanocomposites.  

PubMed

In the present work, thermoplastic maize starch based bionanocomposites were prepared as transparent films, plasticized with 35% of glycerol and reinforced with both waxy starch (WSNC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), previously extracted by acidic hydrolysis. The influence of the nanofiller content was evaluated at 1 wt.%, 2.5 wt.% and 5 wt.% of WSNC. The effect of adding the two different nanoparticles at 1 wt.% was also investigated. As determined by tensile measurements, mechanical properties were improved at any composition of WSNC. Water vapour permeance values maintained constant, whereas barrier properties to oxygen reduced in a 70%, indicating the effectiveness of hydrogen bonding at the interphase. The use of CNC or CNC and WSNC upgraded mechanical results, but no significant differences in barrier properties were obtained. A homogeneous distribution of the nanofillers was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, and a shift of the two relaxation peaks to higher temperatures was detected by dynamic mechanical analysis. PMID:25498612

González, Kizkitza; Retegi, Aloña; González, Alba; Eceiza, Arantxa; Gabilondo, Nagore

2015-03-01

207

An automated technique for manufacturing thermoplastic stringers in continuous length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work an automated Continuous Compression Moulding Technique for the manufacture of stringers in continuous length is presented. The method combines pultrusion and hot-pressing. The technique is utilized for the production of L-shape stringers which are widely applied in aerospace constructions. The investigation was carried out on carbon reinforced PEEK (C/PEEK), as well as, for comparison, on the thermoplastic composites carbon reinforced polyethersulfon (C/PES), glass and carbon reinforced polyphenylene-sulfide (G/PPS, C/PPS) and Kevlar reinforced Polyamide 6 (K/PA 6). For the materials investigated the optimized process parameters for manufacturing the L-shape stringers were derived experimentally. To achieve this goal, the quality of the produced parts was controlled by using non-destructive testing techniques. Parts providing satisfactory quality were also tested destructively to measure their mechanical properties. The investigation results have shown the suitability of the technique to produce continuous length stringers.

Pantelakis, Sp.; Baxevani, E.; Spelz, U.

208

Multi-objective optimization of laser transmission joining of thermoplastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central composite rotatable experimental design (CCRD) was used to plan the experiment of laser transmission joining of thermoplastic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish the mathematical relationships between the joining process parameters (laser power, joining velocity, clamp pressure, scanning number) and the three responses (the joint strength, joint width and joint cost) and then the optimization capabilities in design-expert software were used to carry out the multi-objective optimization of the joining process. In this paper, the models were tested for adequacy using analysis of variance, the predicted errors were calculated, the effects of joining process parameters were determined, and the optimal conditions were identified. It is demonstrated that the predicted results of the optimization are in good agreement with the experimental results, so this study provides an effective instruction to enhance the joint quality and minimize the joint cost.

Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Li, Pin; Hu, Yang; Wang, Kai; Liu, Huixia

2012-11-01

209

Compression molding and tensile properties of thermoplastic potato starch materials.  

PubMed

The mechanical and melt flow properties of two thermoplastic potato starch materials with different amylose contents were evaluated. The materials were prepared by mixing starch, glycerol, and water, mainly in the weight proportions of 10:3:4.5. Compression molding was used to produce sheets/films with a thickness in the range of 0.3-1 mm. After conditioning at 53% relative humidity (RH) and 23 C, the glycerol-plasticized sheets with a higher amylose content (HAP) were stronger and stiffer than the normal thermoplastic starch (NPS) with an amylose content typical for common potato starch. The tensile modulus at 53% RH was about 160 MPa for the high-amylose material and about 120 MPa for the plasticized NPS. The strain at break was about 50% for both materials. The stress at break was substantially higher for the HAP materials than for the NPS materials, 9.8 and 4.7 MPa, respectively. Capillary viscometry at 140 C showed that the high-amylose material had a higher melt viscosity and was more shear-thinning than the NPS. Dynamic mechanical measurements indicated a broad transition temperature range for both types of starch material. The main transition peaks for glycerol-plasticized starch were located at about room temperature with the transition for the HAP material being at a somewhat higher temperature than that of the NPS material with a lower amylose content. It was also noted that the processing conditions used during the compression molding markedly affected the mechanical properties of the starch material. PMID:16529440

Thunwall, Mats; Boldizar, Antal; Rigdahl, Mikael

2006-03-01

210

LDRD final report on intelligent polymers for nanodevice performance control  

SciTech Connect

A variety of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymer systems were prepared and evaluated for their bulk response to optical, thermal and chemical environmental changes. These included modeling studies of polyene-bridged metal porphyrin systems, metal-mediated oligomerization of phosphaalkynes as heteroatomic analogues to polyacetylene monomers, investigations of chemically amplified degradation of acid- and base-sensitive polymers and thermally responsive thermoplastic thermosets based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition chemistry. The latter class of materials was utilized to initiate work to develop a new technique for rapidly building a library of systems with varying depolymerization temperatures.

JAMISON,GREGORY M.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.; SAUNDERS,RANDALL S.L; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; CARR,MARTIN J.; SHALTOUT,RAAFAT M.

2000-01-01

211

Manufacturing Aspects of Advanced Polymer Composites for Automotive Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials, in most cases fiber reinforced polymers, are nowadays used in many applications in which light weight and high specific modulus and strength are critical issues. The constituents of these materials and their special advantages relative to traditional materials are described in this paper. Further details are outlined regarding the present markets of polymer composites in Europe, and their special application in the automotive industry. In particular, the manufacturing of parts from thermoplastic as well as thermosetting, short and continuous fiber reinforced composites is emphasized.

Friedrich, Klaus; Almajid, Abdulhakim A.

2013-04-01

212

Review on ultrasonic fabrication of polymer micro devices.  

PubMed

Fabrication of micro devices from thermoplastic polymers by ultrasonic processing has become a promising new technology in recent years. Microstructures are generated on polymer surfaces with cycle times of a few seconds and are tightly sealed in even shorter times. Investment costs and energy consumption are comparatively low and processes are very flexible enabling economic fabrication even for small-scale production. For large-scale production role-to-role fabrication has been shown reducing costs even more. A variety of micro devices have been introduced up to now mostly for microfluidic applications. Besides this, electronic circuit boards are fabricated by ultrasonic processing. PMID:25213312

Sackmann, J; Burlage, K; Gerhardy, C; Memering, B; Liao, S; Schomburg, W K

2015-02-01

213

FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT FOR LONG GLASS AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS  

SciTech Connect

Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Frame, Barbara J [ORNL; Nguyen, Ba N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); TuckerIII, Charles L. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

2007-01-01

214

Processing and evaluation of long fiber thermoplastic composite plates for internal fixation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metallic plates used in internal fracture fixation may have up to ten times the elastic modulus of normal bone tissue, causing stress shielding-induced osteopenia in healed bone that can lead to re-fracture after plate removal and prolonged and painful recovery. Thermoplastic polymer matrix composites reinforced with long carbon fiber are promising alternative materials for internal fixation plates because they may be produced with relative ease and be tailored to have specific mechanical properties, alleviating the stress shielding problem. Long carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (LCF PEEK) plates were produced using the extrusion / compression molding process. Static flexural testing determined that LCF PEEK plates with rectangular cross-section had an average flexural modulus of 12 GPa, or 23% of the flexural modulus of a stainless steel plate. The LCF PEEK plates also experienced negligible (14.7%, 14.5%, and 16.7%) reductions in modulus after fatigue testing at applied moments of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 N•m, respectively, over 106 load cycles. Aging the plates in 0.9% NaCl solution for four and eight weeks caused 0.34% and 0.28% increases in plate mass, respectively. No significant decrease of flexural properties due to aging was detected. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed the PEEK matrix of the plates to be 24.5% crystalline, which is lower than typical PEEK crystallinity values of 30-35%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed three times as many fiber pullout areas in LCF PEEK fracture surfaces as in fracture surfaces of long carbon fiber-reinforced polyphenylenesulfide (LCF PPS), another plate material tested. DSC and SEM data suggest that improvements in processing conditions and fiber/matrix bonding, along with higher carbon fiber fractions, would enhance LCF PEEK plate performance. LCF PEEK remains a promising alternative to stainless steel for internal fixation plates.

Warren, Paul B.

215

Electrospinning thermoplastic polyurethane-contained collagen nanofibers for tissue-engineering applications.  

PubMed

Electrospinning is a new method used in tissue engineering. It can spin fibers in nanoscale by electrostatic force. A series of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/collagen blend nanofibrous membranes was prepared with different weight ratios and concentrations via electrospinning. The two biopolymers used 1,1,1,3,3,3,-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFP) as solvent. The electrospun TPU-contained collagen nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, apparent density and porosity measurement, contact-angle measurement, mechanical tensile testing and viability of pig iliac endothelial cells (PIECs) on blended nanofiber mats. Our data indicate that fiber diameter was influenced by both polymer concentration and blend weight ratio of collagen to TPU. The average diameter of nanofibers gradually decreases with increasing collagen content in the blend. XPS analysis indicates that collagen is found to be present at the surface of blended nanofiber. The results of porosity and contact-angle measurement suggest that with the collagen content in the blend system, the porosity and hydrophilicity of the nanofiber mats is greatly improved. We have also characterized the molecular interactions in TPU/collagen complex by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The result could demonstrate that there were no intermolecular bonds between the molecules of TPU and collagen. The ultimate tensile stress and strain were carried out and the data confirmed the FT-IR results. The TPU/collagen blend nanofibrous mats were further investigated as promising scaffold for PIEC culture. The cell proliferation and SEM morphology observations showed that the cells could not only favorably grow well on the surface of blend nanofibrous mats, but also able to migrate inside the scaffold within 24 h of culture. These results suggest that the blend nanofibers of TPU/collagen are designed to mimic the native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering and develop functional biomaterials. PMID:19619394

Chen, Rui; Qiu, Lijun; Ke, Qinfei; He, Chuanglong; Mo, Xiumei

2009-01-01

216

Modelling of the glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution in the compounding of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for the production of highly stressed parts in the plastics processing industry has experienced an enormous boom in the last few years. The reasons for this are primarily the improvements to the stiffness and strength properties brought about by fiber reinforcement. These positive characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced polymers are governed predominantly by the mean glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution. It is not enough to describe the properties of a plastics component solely as a function of the mean glass fiber length [1]. For this reason, a mathematical-physical model has been developed for describing the glass fiber length distribution in compounding. With this model, it is possible on the one hand to optimize processes for the production of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, and, on the other, to obtain information on the final distribution, on the basis of which much more detailed statements can be made about the subsequent properties of the molded part. Based on experimental tests, it was shown that this model is able to accurately describe the change in glass fiber length distribution in compounding.

Kloke, P.; Herken, T.; Schöppner, V.; Rudloff, J.; Kretschmer, K.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Walther, Dridger, A.

2014-05-01

217

Flow properties of a series of experimental thermoplastic polymides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The softening temperature to degradation temperature range of the polymers was about 440 to 650 K. All of the polymers retained small amounts of solvent as indicated by an increase in T(sub g) as the polymers were dried. The flow properties showed that all three polymers had very high apparent viscosities and would require high pressures and/or high temperatures and/or long times to obtain adequate flow in prepregging and molding. Although none was intended for such application, two of the polymers were combined with carbon fibers by solution prepregging. The prepregs were molded into laminates at temperatures and times, the selection of which was guided by the results from the flow measurements. These laminates had room temperature short beam shear strength similar to that of carbon fiber laminates with a thermosetting polyimide matrix. However, the strength had considerable scatter, and given the difficult processing, these polymides probably would not be suitable for continuous fiber composites.

Burks, H. D.; Nelson, J. B.; Price, H. L.

1981-01-01

218

Thermoplastic Polyurethanes as Carbonization Agents in Intumescent Blends. Part 1: Fire Retardancy of Polypropylene\\/Thermoplastic Polyurethane\\/Ammonium Polyphosphate Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the fire retardancy of polypropylene (PP)\\/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)\\/ammonium polyphosphate (APP) intu mescent blends, using TPU with different chemical compositions and struc tures. The influence of the chemical nature of the polyol used in the synthesis of the TPU on the fire resistance of materials is discussed. Moreover, smoke pro duction from combustion of the blend and

Michel Bugajny; Michel Le Bras; Serge Bourbigot; Franck Poutch; Jean-Marc Lefebvre

1999-01-01

219

Glow wire ignition temperature (GWIT) and comparative tracking index (CTI) of glass fibre filled engineering polymers, blends and flame retarded formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering thermoplastic polymers such as polyamides, polycarbonates, semi-crystalline aromatic polyesters and their blends are widely used as insulating materials in electrical and electronic appliances. Flame retardants are often employed in the formulation of these materials, since good performance in terms of ignition and tracking resistance, evaluated by Glow Wire Tests (GWIT) and Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) are required in these

Francesco Acquasanta; Corrado Berti; Martino Colonna; Maurizio Fiorini; Sreepadaraj Karanam

2011-01-01

220

Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. PMID:25607734

Palza, Humberto

2015-01-01

221

Thermoset-thermoplastic aromatic polyamide containing N-propargyl groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composition and method are disclosed for increasing the use temperature of polyamides based on the incorporation of a latent crosslinking agent into the polymer backbone, wherein high temperature performance is achieved without sacrificing solubility or processability.

St.clair, T. L.; Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D. (inventors)

1983-01-01

222

Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

2008-08-01

223

Consolidation of graphite thermoplastic textile preforms for primary aircraft structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of innovative cost effective material forms and processes is being considered for fabrication of future primary aircraft structures. Processes that have been identified as meeting these goals are textile preforms that use resin transfer molding (RTM) and consolidation forming. The Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications (NCWFA) program has as its objective the integration of innovative design concepts with cost effective fabrication processes to develop damage-tolerant structures that can perform at a design ultimate strain level of 6000 micro-inch/inch. In this on-going effort, design trade studies were conducted to arrive at advanced wing designs that integrate new material forms with innovative structural concepts and cost effective fabrication methods. The focus has been on minimizing part count (mechanical fasteners, clips, number of stiffeners, etc.), by using cost effective textile reinforcement concepts that provide improved damage tolerance and out-of-plane load capability, low-cost resin transfer molding processing, and thermoplastic forming concepts. The fabrication of representative Y spars by consolidation methods will be described. The Y spars were fabricated using AS4 (6K)/PEEK 150g commingled angle interlock 0/90-degree woven preforms with +45-degree commingled plies stitched using high strength Toray carbon thread and processed by autoclave consolidation.

Suarez, J.; Mahon, J.

1991-01-01

224

Thermoplastic starch/wood composites: interfacial interactions and functional properties.  

PubMed

Thermoplastic starch (TPS)/wood composites were prepared from starch plasticized with 36 wt% glycerol. The components were homogenized by dry-blending, extruded and injection molded to tensile bars. Tensile properties, structure, deformation, water adsorption and shrinkage were determined as a function of wood content, which changed between 0 and 40 vol% in 7 steps. The modification of TPS with wood particles improves several properties considerably. Stiffness and strength increases, and the effect is stronger for fibers with larger aspect ratio. Wood fibers reinforce TPS considerably due to poor matrix properties and strong interfacial interactions, the latter resulting in the decreased mobility of starch molecules and in the fracture of large wood particles during deformation. Strong interfacial adhesion leads to smaller water absorption than predicted from additivity, but water uptake remains relatively large even in the presence of wood particles. The shrinkage of injection molded TPS parts is very large, around 10%, and dimensional changes occur on a very long timescale of several hundred hours. Shrinkage decreases to a low level already at 15-20 vol% wood content rendering the composites good dimensional stability. PMID:24507352

Müller, Péter; Renner, Károly; Móczó, János; Fekete, Erika; Pukánszky, Béla

2014-02-15

225

Thermal imaging technique to characterize laser light reflection from thermoplastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of laser light reflection during the laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is especially important for applications in which non-zero laser incidence angles are used. At higher laser incidence angles, reflection increases and has the potential to burn surrounding features of the part to be welded. This study presents and validates a technique for laser reflection measurement. Reflected energy is absorbed by a black plastic plate (containing carbon black, which is the absorber of the reflected energy). The surface temperature of the plate is measured by an infrared (IR) camera. The distribution of reflected power required to generate this temperature profile is estimated using a simple heat transfer model. The technique was validated by irradiating the black plate by the laser directly, while observing the time-varying temperature distribution of the plate by the IR camera. In this case, good agreement was observed between the estimated total power and the actual laser input power. Good agreement also existed between the estimated power distribution and that determined experimentally via a knife edge based beam profiling technique. The thermal imaging technique was subsequently used to measure the magnitude and distribution of laser light reflection from unreinforced nylon 6. Abbreviations: LTW—laser transmission welding, CB—carbon black, IR—infrared, NPFD—normalized power flux distribution

Azhikannickal, Elizabeth; Bates, Philip J.; Zak, Gene

2012-07-01

226

Microstructure and thermomechanical properties relationship of segmented thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) are important polymeric materials for seals. In competition with Acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), TPU exhibits higher strength and a considerable better abrasion resistance. The advantage of NBR over TPU is a smaller compression set but however TPU excels in its much shorter processing cycle times. Generally a TPU is a block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments, which plays an important role in determining the material properties. TPU can be processed either to ready moulded parts or can be incorporated by multi component moulding, in both cases it shows decent mechanical properties. In the present work, the relationship between melt-process induced TPU morphology and resultant thermo mechanical properties were examined and determined by means of quasi-static tensile test, creep experiment, tension test and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA). Scanning electron beam microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were used to study the morphology of the samples. A significant mathematical description of the stress-strain behaviour of TPU was found using a 3 term approach. Moreover it became evident that processing conditions such as processing temperature have crucial influence on morphology as well as short and long-term performance. To be more precise, samples processed at higher temperatures showed a lack of large hard segment agglomerates, a smaller strength for strains up to 250% and higher creep compliance.

Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Borm, Michael, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Kaoud, Nouran, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Kolodziej, Jan, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Neudeck, Jens, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), HTW Aalen (Germany)

2014-05-15

227

Microstructure and thermomechanical properties relationship of segmented thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) are important polymeric materials for seals. In competition with Acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), TPU exhibits higher strength and a considerable better abrasion resistance. The advantage of NBR over TPU is a smaller compression set but however TPU excels in its much shorter processing cycle times. Generally a TPU is a block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments, which plays an important role in determining the material properties. TPU can be processed either to ready moulded parts or can be incorporated by multi component moulding, in both cases it shows decent mechanical properties. In the present work, the relationship between melt-process induced TPU morphology and resultant thermo mechanical properties were examined and determined by means of quasi-static tensile test, creep experiment, tension test and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA). Scanning electron beam microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were used to study the morphology of the samples. A significant mathematical description of the stress-strain behaviour of TPU was found using a 3 term approach. Moreover it became evident that processing conditions such as processing temperature have crucial influence on morphology as well as short and long-term performance. To be more precise, samples processed at higher temperatures showed a lack of large hard segment agglomerates, a smaller strength for strains up to 250% and higher creep compliance.

Frick, Achim; Borm, Michael; Kaoud, Nouran; Kolodziej, Jan; Neudeck, Jens

2014-05-01

228

Comparison of Piezoresistive Monofilament Polymer Sensors  

PubMed Central

The development of flexible polymer monofilament fiber strain sensors have many applications in both wearable computing (clothing, gloves, etc.) and robotics design (large deformation control). For example, a high-stretch monofilament sensor could be integrated into robotic arm design, easily stretching over joints or along curved surfaces. As a monofilament, the sensor can be woven into or integrated with textiles for position or physiological monitoring, computer interface control, etc. Commercially available conductive polymer monofilament sensors were tested alongside monofilaments produced from carbon black (CB) mixed with a thermo-plastic elastomer (TPE) and extruded in different diameters. It was found that signal strength, drift, and precision characteristics were better with a 0.3 mm diameter CB/TPE monofilament than thick (?2 mm diameter) based on the same material or commercial monofilaments based on natural rubber or silicone elastomer (SE) matrices. PMID:24419161

Melnykowycz, Mark; Koll, Birgit; Scharf, Dagobert; Clemens, Frank

2014-01-01

229

Comparison of piezoresistive monofilament polymer sensors.  

PubMed

The development of flexible polymer monofilament fiber strain sensors have many applications in both wearable computing (clothing, gloves, etc.) and robotics design (large deformation control). For example, a high-stretch monofilament sensor could be integrated into robotic arm design, easily stretching over joints or along curved surfaces. As a monofilament, the sensor can be woven into or integrated with textiles for position or physiological monitoring, computer interface control, etc. Commercially available conductive polymer monofilament sensors were tested alongside monofilaments produced from carbon black (CB) mixed with a thermo-plastic elastomer (TPE) and extruded in different diameters. It was found that signal strength, drift, and precision characteristics were better with a 0.3 mm diameter CB/TPE monofilament than thick (~2 mm diameter) based on the same material or commercial monofilaments based on natural rubber or silicone elastomer (SE) matrices. PMID:24419161

Melnykowycz, Mark; Koll, Birgit; Scharf, Dagobert; Clemens, Frank

2014-01-01

230

Investigation the degradation and devulcanization reaction of thermoplastic vulcanizate using peroxide compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation the Degradation and Devulcanization Reaction of Thermoplastic Vulcanizate using Peroxide Compound was carried out by means of benzoyl peroxide as a devulcanizing agent. The temperature for the recycling condition was gradually increased from 80°C to 190°C because of the half-life of benzoyl peroxide. Furthermore, the effects of time and concentration of devulcanizing agent on the recycling process were investigated. The extent of devulcanization of thermoplastic vulcanizate was studied by estimation of percent devulcanization, gel fraction of rubber after swelling and crosslink density. According to the results, we found that the crosslink density of devulcanized thermoplastic vulcanizate was 29.37% less than virgin thermoplastic vulcanizate by adding benzoyl peroxide for 1 phr. This result is correspondence to the decreasing in gel fraction of devulcanized thermoplastic vulcanizate. Moreover, the addition of 5 phr and 10 phr to TPVs result to the significant decrement in crosslink density about 64%. The effect of temperature for devulcanization was also investigated to obtain the optimum conditions. The result shows that the percentage of devulcanization was slightly increased as the increasing in the starting temperature from 80°C to 105°C.

Temram, Chokkanit; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn

2012-09-01

231

SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

232

Dispersion and Characterization of Nickel Nanostrands in Thermoset and Thermoplastic Polymers  

E-print Network

and resulted in a well-dispersed nano-composite that showed increases in electrical conductivity and dielectric constant as NiNS concentration increases. Enhancement in storage modulus was observed above the composite's Tg as well. PVDF nano-composites also...

Whalen, Casey Allen

2012-02-14

233

A Non-Isothermal Process Model for Consolidation and Void Reduction during In-Situ Tow Placement of Thermoplastic Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In in-situ composites processing, heat and pressure are applied locally to composite tows to achieve consolidation. During the consolidation of thermoplastic composite tows or plies, a modest amount of flow takes place. Due to the high viscosity of thermoplastics, the fibers and the matrix move together. We propose a novel approach to model this process-approximate the medium as a compressible

Sridhar Ranganathan; Suresh G. Advani; Mark A. Lamontia

1995-01-01

234

The effect of glycerol\\/sugar\\/water and sugar\\/water mixtures on the plasticization of thermoplastic cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 2wt% sugars as co-plasticizer in combination with glycerol was investigated for thermoplastic starch (TPS) from cassava. The results were compared to those for whole cassava root TPS, which naturally contains sugars in the same proportion. The main objective was to investigate the influence of natural sugars present in the cassava root on the properties of thermoplastic starch

E. M. Teixeira; A. L. Da Róz; A. J. F. Carvalho; A. A. S. Curvelo

2007-01-01

235

Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding.  

PubMed

Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold's microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. PMID:24094186

Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R; Crone, Wendy C; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

2013-12-01

236

A new technique to improve adhesion of polyaramid fibers to thermoplastic  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique is developed to increase interfacial adhesion between organic fibers and thermoplastics. The technique consists of exposing the fiber to a radio-frequency plasma discharge and then immediately coating the fiber with thermoplastic while still in the vacuum environment of the plasma reactor. Increased adhesion is shown using a polyaramid fiber (Kevlar 49) and a polycarbonate resin (Lexan 121). An oxygen-plasma exposure of 4.1 seconds at 24 watts increased interfacial shear strength by 18 percent as evaluated using the critical-filament-length technique. The plasma exposure had no measurable effect on the filament tensile strength or the surface roughness. It is thought that the enhanced adhesion is due to the presence of covalent bonds formed at the interface when free radicals on the fiber are quenched by the thermoplastic. 16 refs.

Pitt, W.G.; Lakenan, J.E.; Strong, A.B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA))

1991-07-01

237

One-pot synthesis of thermoplastic mixed paramylon esters using trifluoroacetic anhydride.  

PubMed

Mixed paramylon esters prepared from paramylon (a storage polysaccharide of Euglena), acetic acid, and a long-chain fatty acid by one-pot synthesis using trifluoroacetic anhydride as a promoter and solvent were shown to have thermoplasticity. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the mixed paramylon esters had a weight average molecular weight of approximately 4.9-6.7×10(5). Thermal analysis showed that these esters were stable in terms of the glass transition temperature (>90°C) and 5% weight loss temperature (>320°C). The degree of substitution of the long alkyl chain group, a dominant factor determining thermoplasticity, was controlled by tuning the feed molar ratio of acetic acid and long-chain fatty acid to paramylon. These results implied that the one-pot synthesis is useful for preparing structurally-well defined thermoplastic mixed paramylon esters with high molecular weight. PMID:25563938

Shibakami, Motonari; Tsubouchi, Gen; Sohma, Mitsugu; Hayashi, Masahiro

2015-03-30

238

Microgravity Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

1986-01-01

239

Tailoring the degradation kinetics of poly(ester-carbonate urethane)urea thermoplastic elastomers for tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds are of increasing interest for applications in soft tissue repair and regeneration, particularly in mechanically active settings. The rate at which such a scaffold should degrade for optimal outcomes, however, is not generally known and the ability to select from similar scaffolds that vary in degradation behavior to allow such optimization is limited. Our objective was to synthesize a family of biodegradable polyurethane elastomers where partial substitution of polyester segments with polycarbonate segments in the polymer backbone would lead to slower degradation behavior. Specifically, we synthesized poly(ester carbonate)urethane ureas (PECUUs) using a blended soft segment of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(1,6-hexamethylene carbonate) (PHC), a 1,4-diisocyanatobutane hard segment and chain extension with putrescine. Soft segment PCL/PHC molar ratios of 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 were investigated. Polymer tensile strengths varied from 14-34 MPa with breaking strains of 660-875%, initial moduli of 8-24 MPa and 100% recovery after 10% strain. Increased PHC content was associated with softer, more distensible films. Scaffolds produced by salt leaching supported smooth muscle cell adhesion and growth in vitro. PECUU in aqueous buffer in vitro and subcutaneous implants in rats of PECUU scaffolds showed degradation slower than comparable poly(ester urethane)urea and faster than poly(carbonate urethane)urea. These slower degrading thermoplastic polyurethanes provide opportunities to investigate the role of relative degradation rates for mechanically supportive scaffolds in a variety of soft tissue repair and reconstructive procedures. PMID:20188411

Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Kazuro L.; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Pelinescu, Anca L.; Wagner, William R.

2010-01-01

240

A biomimic shape memory polymer based self-healing particulate composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, a biomimic two-step self-healing scheme (close-then-heal (CTH)) by mimicking human skin has been proposed for self-healing structural-length scale damage [Li and Uppu. Composites Science and Technology 2010; 70: 1419–1427]. The purpose of this study is to validate this idea by fabricating a composite with thermoplastic particles (Copolyster) dispersed in a shape memory polymer matrix (Veriflex Polystyrene).

Jones Nji; Guoqiang Li

2010-01-01

241

Structure and Properties of a New Thermoplastic Semicrystalline Polyimide and its Fiber Reinforced Composite.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research reported here involved a thorough study of polyimide structure-property relationships. It is the first reported comprehensive investigation into the toughness mechanisms of a semicrystalline polyimide, BTDA-DMDA. Additionally, application of BTDA-DMDA as a matrix resin in structural aerospace composites was determined feasible. These objectives were accomplished through investigation of BTDA-DMDA polymer crystal structure, crystallization and morphology, thermal and dynamic relaxation behavior, and mechanical properties. BTDA-DMDA composite properties were then investigated in terms of mechanical behavior, the fiber-matrix interface, and thermal aging behavior. Morphological observations in combination with isothermal crystallization kinetics results have shown randomly-stacked, small lamellar crystals as the primary morphology of BTDA-DMDA. The large number and small size of these crystals and their processing temperature independence is one reason for the high level of toughness exhibited by this polymer. Other thermoplastic materials which contain spherulitic texture have a tendency towards mechanical failure via weak spherulitic boundaries. Since BTDA-DMDA does not grow into mature spherulites, this tendency is lessened and possibly even eliminated. The small size of the BTDA-DMDA crystallites results in a larger crystalline surface area which is tightly linked to the amorphous phase by a large rigid-amorphous fraction. The crystals themselves may then behave as toughening agents in the material. The relaxation processes and molecular motion of BTDA-DMDA were studied using DMA, DEA, and solid state ^{13}rm C CP-MAS NMR techniques. Two subglass relaxation processes ( gamma and beta ) were observed in BTDA-DMDA. The gamma relaxation occurs at -80^ circrm C with an activation energy of 44 kJ/mol. This relaxation was attributed to the oscillation and pi ring flipping motion of phenoxy groups in the DMDA portion. The beta relaxation observed at 100^circrm C with an activation energy of 182 kJ/mol is attributed to molecular motion in the BTDA portion. The alpha relaxation or glass transition at 250 ^circrm C has relaxation behavior that may be described using the WLF equation. BTDA-DMDA has thus been shown to absorb and dissipate thermal and/or mechanical energy over more than eleven decades of frequency (10^{-1} to 10 ^{10} Hz). This ability may be the major cause of the high degree of toughness associated with BTDA-DMDA. Finally, BTDA-DMDA/T650 composites were shown to have comparable and sometimes superior properties to commercially available composites. Aging both composite and polymer resin parts for thirty days at 200 ^circrm C in air did not influence the mechanical properties of the parts. Hence, continuous use at 177^circrm C in aerospace parts may be possible. Longer term studies are necessary to ensure that use at elevated temperatures for longer times and in perhaps harsher environments will not influence the structural integrity of the parts.

Chalmers, Tammy Marie

242

Chemical Modification and Structure-property Relationships of Acrylic and Ionomeric Thermoplastic Elastomer Gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymers (BCs) have remained at the forefront of materials research due to their versatility in applications ranging from hot-melt/pressure-sensitive adhesives and impact modifiers to compatibilizing agents and vibration-dampening/nanotemplating media. Of particular interest are macromolecules composed of two or more chemically dissimilar blocks covalently linked together to form triblock or pentablock copolymers. If the blocks are sufficiently incompatible and the copolymer behaves as a thermoplastic elastomer, the molecules can spontaneously self-assemble to form nanostructured materials that exhibit shape memory due to the formation of a supramolecular network. The BCs of these types are termed as conventional. When BCs contain blocks having ionic moieties such as sulfonic acid groups, they are termed as block ionomers. Designing new systems based on either conventional or ionic BCs, characterizing their structure-property relationships and later using them as electroacive polymers form the essential objectives of this work. Electroactive polymers (EAPs) exhibit electromechanical actuation when stimulated by an external electric field. In the first part of this work, it is shown that BCs resolve some of the outstanding problems presently encountered in the design of two different classes of EAP actuators: dielectric elastomers (DEs) and ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). All-acrylic triblock copolymer gels used as DEs actuate with high efficacy without any requirement of mechanical prestrain and, thus, eliminate the need for bulky and heavy hardware essential with prestrained dielectric actuators, as well as material problems associated with stress relaxation. The dependence of actuation behavior on gel morphology as evaluated from mechanical and microstructure studies is observed. In the case of IPMCs, ionic BCs employed in this study greatly facilitate processing compared to other contenders such as NafionRTM, which is commonly used in this class of EAPs. The unique copolymer investigated here (i) retains its mechanical integrity when highly solvated by polar solvents, (ii) demonstrates a high degree of actuation when tested in a cantilever configuration, and (iii) avoids the shortcomings of back-relaxation/overshoot within the testing conditions when used in combination with an appropriate solvent. In the second part of this work, two chemical strategies to design midblock sulfonated block ionomers are explored. In one case, selective sulfonation of the midblocks in triblock copolymers is achieved via a dioxane:sulfur trioxide chemistry, while in the other acetyl sulfate is used for the same purpose. Excellent control on the degree of sulfonation (DOS) is achieved. The block ionomers swell in different solvents while retaining their mechanical integrity. They show disorder-order, order-order, and order-reduced order morphological transitions as DOS varies. These transitions in morphologies are reflected in their thermal behavior as well. The microstructures show periodicity, which is, again, a function of DOS. The transitions are explained in terms of the molar volume expansion and volume densification of the blocks on sulfonation. The ionic levels, morphology and periodicity in microstructure are important for applications such as actuators, sensors and fuel cell membranes. The ability to tune these aspects in the ionomers designed in this work make them potential candidates for these applications.

Vargantwar, Pruthesh Hariharrao

243

Multiscale modeling of oriented thermoplastic elastomers with lamellar morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are block copolymers made up of "hard" (glassy or crystalline) and "soft" (rubbery) blocks that self-organize into "domain" structures at a length scale of a few tens of nanometers. Under typical processing conditions, TPEs also develop a "polydomain" structure at the micron level that is similar to that of metal polycrystals. Therefore, from a continuum point of view, TPEs may be regarded as materials with heterogeneities at two different length scales. In this work, we propose a constitutive model for highly oriented, near-single-crystal TPEs with lamellar domain morphology. Based on small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, we consider such materials to have a granular microstructure where the grains are made up of the same, perfect, lamellar structure (single crystal) with slightly different lamination directions (crystal orientations). Having identified the underlying morphology, the overall finite-deformation response of these materials is determined by means of a two-scale homogenization procedure. Interestingly, the model predictions indicate that the evolution of microstructure—especially the rotation of the layers—has a very significant, but subtle effect on the overall properties of near-single-crystal TPEs. In particular, for certain loading conditions—namely, for those with sufficiently large compressive deformations applied in the direction of the lamellae within the individual grains—the model becomes macroscopically unstable (i.e., it loses strong ellipticity). By keeping track of the evolution of the underlying microstructure, we find that such instabilities can be related to the development of "chevron" patterns.

Lopez-Pamies, O.; Garcia, R.; Chabert, E.; Cavaillé, J.-Y.; Ponte Castañeda, P.

244

Characterization of glass-filled engineering thermoplastic composites  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of three engineering thermoplastic (TP) materials has been carried out to assess suitability for Mound applications: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), Poly(etherimide) (PEI), and Poly(ethersulfone) (PES). Analyses included: thermogravimetric (TG), thermomechanical (TMA), direct probe/mass spectroscopy (DIP/MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and other chemical analyses. Both neat and glass-filled PEEK and PES were studied; only unfilled PEI was examined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the three TP's in N/sub 2/ showed that all were greater than or equal to 525/sup 0/C in decomposition onset temperature, with PEEK > PEI > PES. Both glass-filled PEEK and PEI showed <1% weight loss in the melt after two hours (N/sub 2/). TMA analyses were used to determine expansion coefficients below T/sub g/ for all three TP's. The glass-filled PEEK exhibited a low temperature (approx. 60 to 70/sup 0/C) transition below T/sub g/ (approx. 150/sup 0/C) on the first TMA runs. This disappeared on subsequent TMA runs and did not reappear on aging/RT. DIP/MS analyses showed both water and phenyl sulfone to be present in PES and PEEK. Water only was observed in PEI. The presence of phenylsulfone in PEEK was confirmed by FT-IR, and sulfur was found to be present in amounts up to 0.23% in 30% glass-filled molding compounds. Residual polymerization solvent is a probable source. Fluoride (from a monomer in the PEEK polymerization) was also detected.

Whitaker, R.B.; Nease, A.B.; Yelton, R.O.

1983-01-01

245

Biodegradable, thermoplastic polyurethane grafts for small diameter vascular replacements.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vascular grafts with sufficient in vivo performance would be more advantageous than permanent non-degradable prostheses. These constructs would be continuously replaced by host tissue, leading to an endogenous functional implant which would adapt to the need of the patient and exhibit only limited risk of microbiological graft contamination. Adequate biomechanical strength and a wall structure which promotes rapid host remodeling are prerequisites for biodegradable approaches. Current approaches often reveal limited tensile strength and therefore require thicker or reinforced graft walls. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of thin host-vessel-matched grafts (n=34) formed from hard-block biodegradable thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduits (n=34) served as control grafts. Grafts were analyzed by various techniques after retrieval at different time points (1week; 1, 6, 12months). TPU grafts showed significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.001). Population by host cells increased significantly in the TPU conduits within 1month of implantation (P=0.01). After long-term implantation, TPU implants showed 100% patency (ePTFE: 93%) with no signs of aneurysmal dilatation. Substantial remodeling of the degradable grafts was observed but varied between subjects. Intimal hyperplasia was limited to ePTFE conduits (29%). Thin-walled TPU grafts offer a new and desirable form of biodegradable vascular implant. Degradable grafts showed equivalent long-term performance characteristics compared to the clinically used, non-degradable material with improvements in intimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of host cells. PMID:25218664

Bergmeister, Helga; Seyidova, Nargiz; Schreiber, Catharina; Strobl, Magdalena; Grasl, Christian; Walter, Ingrid; Messner, Barbara; Baudis, Stefan; Fröhlich, Sophie; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Griesser, Markus; di Franco, Matt; Krssak, Martin; Liska, Robert; Schima, Heinrich

2015-01-01

246

Self-Healing Polymers and Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-healing polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites possess the ability to heal in response to damage wherever and whenever it occurs in the material. This phenomenal material behavior is inspired by biological systems in which self-healing is commonplace. To date, self-healing has been demonstrated by three conceptual approaches: capsule-based healing systems, vascular healing systems, and intrinsic healing polymers. Self-healing can be autonomic—automatic without human intervention—or may require some external energy or pressure. All classes of polymers, from thermosets to thermoplastics to elastomers, have potential for self-healing. The majority of research to date has focused on the recovery of mechanical integrity following quasi-static fracture. This article also reviews self-healing during fatigue and in response to impact damage, puncture, and corrosion. The concepts embodied by current self-healing polymers offer a new route toward safer, longer-lasting, fault-tolerant products and components across a broad cross section of industries including coatings, electronics, transportation, and energy.

Blaiszik, B. J.; Kramer, S. L. B.; Olugebefola, S. C.; Moore, J. S.; Sottos, N. R.; White, S. R.

2010-08-01

247

The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink density, cure behavior, dynamic properties and mechanical properties were measured. Good mechanical properties of revulcanized rubber were achieved by blending devulcanized rubber with the carbon black filled virgin butyl rubber. The structural characteristics of devulcanized butyl rubber were simulated using the Dobson-Gordon theory of rubber network statistics. A fairly good agreement between experimental data and theoretical prediction on normalized gel fraction vs. normalized crosslink density was achieved. The simulation of devulcanized butyl rubber indicated that the rate of crosslink rupture is much higher than that of the main chain.

Feng, Wenlai

248

Polymers Presentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 15 page PowerPoint contains the presentation for the polymers module from Nano-Link. This lesson requires a background in eight grade science. Various details of polymers are discussed including molecular structures, cross-linked polymers, and ringed polymers. Lastly, an activity to explore cross-linked polymers is included. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

249

Microstructural Characterization of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides have complementary physical and mechanical properties. Whereas thermoset polyimides are brittle and generally easier to process, thermoplastic polyimides are tough but harder to process. A combination of these two types of polyimides may help produce polymers more suitable for aerospace applications. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (S-IPN) of thermoset LaRC(TM)-RP46 and thermoplastic LaRC(TM)-IA polyimides were prepared in weight percent ratios ranging from 100:0 to 0:100. Positron lifetime measurements were made in these samples to correlate their free volume features with physical and mechanical properties. As expected, positronium atoms are not formed in these samples. The second lifetime component has been used to infer the positron trap dimensions. The 'free volume' goes through a minimum at a ratio of about 50:50, and this suggests that S-IPN samples are not merely solid solutions of the two polymers. These data and related structural properties of the S-IPN samples are discussed.

Singh, Jag J.; Pater, Ruth H.; Eftekhari, Abe

1996-01-01

250

Preparation and characterization of siloxane-containing thermoplastic polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copolyimides and homopolyimides of bis(gamma-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane and 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone have been prepared with benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride. The properties of the copolyimides were compared with those of the homopolyimides to assess the effect of incorporation of siloxane groups in the backbone. Applications of the polymers as adhesives and mouldings are discussed.

Maudgal, S.; St Clair, T. L.

1984-01-01

251

Morphological control of inter-penetrating polymer networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic organic polymer chemistry has been successful in producing composition of matter with thermal oxidation stability and progressively higher glass transition temperatures. In part, this was done by increasing the steric-hindrance of moieties in the chain of a macromolecule. The resulting polymers are usually quite insoluble and produce molten polymers of very high viscosities. These types of polymers are not easily processed into graphite fiber prepregs by melt or solution impregnation methods. Hence, a technological need exists to produce new knowledge of how to produce polymer-fiber composites from this class of polymers. The concept of freeze drying amic-acid prepolymers with reactive thermoplastic was proposed as a research topic for the ASEE/NASA Summer Faculty Program of 1989 as a means of producing polymer-fiber composites. This process scheme has the thermodynamic attribute that the magnitude of phase separation due to differences in solubility of two organic constituents in solution will be greatly reduced by removing a solvent not by evaporation but by sublimation. Progress to date on evaluating this polymer processing concept is briefly outlined.

Hansen, Marion

1989-01-01

252

Functionalization of polymers using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor and the impact on SLM-processes  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve thermoplastics (e.g. Polyamide, Polypropylene and Polyethylene) for Selective Laser Beam Melting (SLM) processes a new approach to functionalize temperature sensitive polymer powders in a large scale is investigated. This is achieved by combining an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a fluidized bed reactor. Using pressurized air as the plasma gas, radicals like OH* are created. The functionalization leads to an increase of the hydrophilicity of the treated polymer powder without changing the bulk properties. Using the polymers in a SLM process to build single layers of melted material leads to an improvement of the melted layers.

Sachs, M., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Schmitt, A., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Schmidt, J., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Peukert, W., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Wirth, K-E, E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de [Institute of Particle Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

2014-05-15

253

Functionalization of polymers using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor and the impact on SLM-processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve thermoplastics (e.g. Polyamide, Polypropylene and Polyethylene) for Selective Laser Beam Melting (SLM) processes a new approach to functionalize temperature sensitive polymer powders in a large scale is investigated. This is achieved by combining an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a fluidized bed reactor. Using pressurized air as the plasma gas, radicals like OH* are created. The functionalization leads to an increase of the hydrophilicity of the treated polymer powder without changing the bulk properties. Using the polymers in a SLM process to build single layers of melted material leads to an improvement of the melted layers.

Sachs, M.; Schmitt, A.; Schmidt, J.; Peukert, W.; Wirth, K.-E.

2014-05-01

254

On the simulation of strain induced anisotropy for polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alignment of polymer chains is a well known microstructural evolution effect due to straining of polymers. This has a drastic influence on the macroscopic properties of the initially isotropic material, such as a pronounced strength in the loading direction of stretched films. For modeling the effect of strain induced anisotropy a macroscopic constitutive model is adopted in this paper. As a key idea, weighting functions are introduced to represent a strain-softening/hardening-effect to account for induced anisotropy. These weighting functions represent the ratio between the total strain rate (representing the actual loading direction) and a structural tensor (representing the stretched polymer chains). In this way, material parameters are used as a sum of weighted direction related quantities. In the finite element examples we simulate the cold-forming of amorphous thermoplastic films below the glass transition temperature subjected to different re-loading directions.

Dammann, C.; Mahnken, R.

2014-05-01

255

Thermoplastic adhesive bonding of galvanized steel to polypropylene composite and its durability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoplastic adhesive bonding process with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-based adhesive has been developed for galvanized steel to polypropylene (PP) composite. The processing temperature significantly affects the strength of the adhesively bonded lap joints. Melting of the surface of the PP composite prior to bonding was found helpful for interdiffusion between adhesive and PP composite during the bonding process. Cataplasma

Chongchen Xu; Karthik Ramani; Ganesan Kumar

2002-01-01

256

A micrographic study of bending failure in five thermoplastic-carbon fibre composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The local deformation and failure sequences of five thermoplastic matrix composites were microscopically observed while bending the samples in a small fixture attached to a microscope stage. The thermoplastics are polycarbonate, polysulfane, polyphenylsulfide, polyethersulfane, and polyetheretherketone. Comparison was made to an epoxy matrix composite, 5208/T-300. Laminates tested are (0/90) sub 2S, with outer ply fibers parallel to the beam axis. Four point bending was used at a typical span-to-thickness ratio of 39:1. It was found that all of the thermoplastic composites failed by abrupt longitudinal compression buckling of the outer ply. Very little precursory damage was observed. Micrographs reveal typical fiber kinking associated with longitudinal compression failure. Curved fracture surfaces on the fibers suggest they failed in bending rather than direct compression. Delamination was suppressed in the thermoplastic composites, and the delamination that did occur was found to be the result of compression buckling, rather than vice-versa. Microbuckling also caused other subsequent damage such as ply splitting, transverse ply shear failure, fiber tensile failure, and transverse ply cracking.

Yurgartis, S. W.; Sternstein, S. S.

1988-01-01

257

Recycling of ligno-cellulosic and polythylene wastes from agricultural operations in thermoplastic composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the US, wood plastic composites (WPC) represent one of the successful markets for natural fiber-filled thermoplastic composites. In the past several years, the availability of good quality wood fiber has been diminishing and prices of wood and plastic have been increasing. Therefore, the vast qua...

258

Chemical-Assisted Bonding of Thermoplastics/Elastomer for Fabricating Microfluidic Valves  

PubMed Central

Thermoplastics such as cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been increasingly used in fabricating microfluidic devices. However, the state-of-the-art microvalve technology is a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based three-layer structure. In order to integrate such a valve with a thermoplastics-based microfluidic device, a bonding method for thermoplastics/PDMS must be developed. We report here a method to bond COC with PDMS through surface activation by corona discharge, surface modification using 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA), and thermal annealing. The method is also applicable to PMMA. The bonding strength between thermoplastics and PDMS was represented by the peeling force, which was measured using a method established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The bonding strength measurement offered an objective and quantitative indicator for protocol optimization, as well as comparison with other PDMS-associated bonding methods. Using optimized bonding conditions, two valve arrays were fabricated in a COC/PDMS/COC device and cyclic operations of valve closing/opening were successfully demonstrated. The valve-containing devices withstood 100 psi (~689 KPa) without delamination. Further, we integrated such valve arrays in a device for protein separation and demonstrated isoelectric focusing in the presence of valves. PMID:21121689

Gu, Pan; Liu, Ke; Chen, Hong; Nishida, Toshikazu; Fan, Z. Hugh

2010-01-01

259

Production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites through the use of polyhydroxybutyrate-rich biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (NFRTCs) utilizing bacterially-derived pure polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) does not yield a product that is cost competitive with synthetic plastic-based NFRTCs. Moreover, the commercial production of pure PHB is not without environmental impacts. To address these issues, we integrated unpurified PHB in NFRTC construction, thereby eliminating a significant energy and

Erik R. Coats; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott; Karl Englund; Armando G. McDonald

2008-01-01

260

IMPROVEMENT IN THE SIMULATION OF INJECTION MOLDED SHORT GLASS FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

are discretized using Galerkin finite element method and the constitutive equation for fiber orientation is discretized using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To simplify the computation of the fourthPage 1 IMPROVEMENT IN THE SIMULATION OF INJECTION MOLDED SHORT GLASS FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

Wapperom, Peter

261

High-temperature thermoplastic strengthening of steels St3sp and 09G2S  

SciTech Connect

One of the promising trends of improving the mechanical properties of rolled metal is its thermoplastic treatment (TPT) at high (HTPT) and low (LTPT) temperatures. The method of TPT suggested by the All-Union Research Institute of Metallurgical Machinery Construction is a technological modification of the thermal-strain methods of strengthening steels and alloys. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Ksenofontov, A.G.; Sinel`nikova, M.Yu.; Kozhevnikov, I.V. [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)] [and others

1992-01-01

262

SOLVENTLESS MANUFACTURE OF ARTILLERY PROPELLANT USING THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER BINDER, PP-867  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-base gun propellant for artillery ammunition creates 0.3 lb of solvent emissions per lb of propellant, and at expected production rates of 3 million lb/yr, this represents the largest source of VOC emissions due to gun propellant production. New thermoplastic elastomer (TP...

263

Thermoplastic rubber comprising ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, asphalt and fluxing oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermoplastic rubber is made from a mixture of between about 10 percent and about 50 percent of asphalt, between about 5 percent and about 30 percent fluxing oil, and between about 35 percent and about 70 percent of a copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate.

Hendel, F. J. (inventor)

1970-01-01

264

Thermoplastic Microfluidic Device for On-Chip Purification of Nucleic Acids for Disposable  

E-print Network

Thermoplastic Microfluidic Device for On-Chip Purification of Nucleic Acids for Disposable)-based isolation of nucleic acids is demonstrated. The plastic chip can function as a disposable sample preparation by this method allowed for successful extraction and elution of nucleic acids in the polymeric microchip

265

Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Laminated Glass Treated by Acid Etching Combined with Cold Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the problem of interlaminar delamination of thermoplastic polyurethane laminated glass, silicate glass was etched with hydrofluoric acid and thermoplastic polyurethane was then treated with cold plasma. Compared with the untreated samples, the interlaminar shear strength of acid etching samples, cold plasma-treated samples and acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples increased by 97%, 84% and 341%, respectively. Acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples exhibited a higher flexural strength and strain as compared with the untreated samples. The impact energy of acid etching samples, cold plasma-treated samples and acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples increased by 8.7%, 8.1% and 11.6%, respectively, in comparison with the untreated samples. FT-IR analysis showed that a large number of –C=O, –CO–N and –CO–O–C– groups appeared on the surface of cold plasma-treated thermoplastic polyurethane, which resulted in the formation of hydrogen bonds. SEM results showed that some pittings formed on the surface of the silicate glass treated by acid etching, which resulted in the formation of a three-dimensional interface structure between the silicate glass and polyurethane. Hydrogen bonds combined with the three-dimensional interface between silicate glass and polyurethanes co-improved the mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes laminated glass.

Li, Xibao; Lu, Jinshan; Luo, Junming; Zhang, Jianjun; Ou, Junfei; Xu, Haitao

2014-10-01

266

Thermally modulated nanostructure of poly(-caprolactone)ePOSS multiblock thermoplastic polyurethanes  

E-print Network

polyurethanes Estefania Huitron-Rattinger a,b , Kazuki Ishida c , Angel Romo-Uribe b,**, Patrick T. Mather c Accepted 8 April 2013 Available online 15 April 2013 Keywords: POSS Thermoplastic polyurethane Competitive crystallization a b s t r a c t A series of multiblock polyurethanes with alternating sequence structures

Mather, Patrick T.

267

Microwave absorption properties of a conductive thermoplastic blend based on polyaniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Conductive thermoplastic blends of polystyrene and polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid, DBSA and polystyrene sulfonic acid were prepared in an internal mixer. We used a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene as compatibilizer. Different formulations were tested according to a statistical response surface method. The electrical conductivity and the microwave radiation absorbing properties of the blends were evaluated.

Cristiane Reis Martins; Roselena Faez; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende; Marco-A. De Paoli

2004-01-01

268

Simulation of Orientation in Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Particle Thermoplastic Composites  

E-print Network

Simulation of Orientation in Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Particle Thermoplastic-induced orientation of high aspect ratio particles in injection molded composite parts is presented. For a highly; Hele-Shaw approximation; DGFEM; Coupling effect; Injection molding; Composites INTRODUCTION High aspect

Wapperom, Peter

269

Synthesis of APA6 thermoplastic matrices for the manufacture of greencomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research work assesses the manufacture of long fiber thermoplastic matrix composite materials (GreenComposites). Thermoplastic matrices are too viscous to be injected into the conventional LCM (Liquid Comopsite Molding) molds, and then epoxy, polyester o vinylester resins are used. Nevertheless, the groundbreaking anionic polymerization of ?-caprolactam allows such a synthesis of a thermoplastic APA6 matrix inside the mold. This matrix is sintered from the starting monomers, and presents high mechanical performance and recyclability. In order to do the reactive injection in a LCM mold, it is necessary to control the polymerization mechanism of such a thermoplastic matrix. Likewise, it puts special emphasis on detecting and solving all problems which arose during synthesis. For instance, moisture values were assessed for all starting reactants, since humidity keeps polymerization from occurring. It is thought that once the synthesis and the resulting material characterization are well controlled, the manufacture of GreenComposites through monomers injection and in situ polymerization, as well as addition of state-of-the-art fabrics such as basalt, can proceed successfully.

Alfonso, A.; Andrés, J.; García-Manrique, J. A.

2012-04-01

270

[Laboratory assessment of deformational features in thermoplastic materials for removable dentures].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of base thermoplastic materials Acry F711 and Flexi N512 in comparison with the traditional acrylic base material Ftoracs to study their deformational properties when loaded by repetitive forces close to the functional chewing loads. PMID:25588331

Poiurovskaia, I Ia; Sutugina, T F; Babaev, S A; Ron, O S

2014-01-01

271

Isotropic magnetorheological elastomers with thermoplastic matrices: structure, damping properties and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a procedure for manufacturing composites, a methodology for testing them and the cyclic properties of isotropic magnetorheological elastomers. The choice of a thermoplastic matrix and magnetically active iron powder as the filling (much larger than the carbonyl iron powder filling used so far) is expounded. A manufacturing technology has been developed. Possibilities for the experimental investigation of

Piotr Zajac; Jerzy Kaleta; Daniel Lewandowski; Aleksandra Gasperowicz

2010-01-01

272

Improvements in the Simulation of Orientation in Injection Molding of Short Fiber Thermoplastic Composites  

E-print Network

Abstract The mechanical properties of injection molded short-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite parts for predicting the flow-induced orientation of glass fibers in injection molded composite parts is presented-performance materials. The lightweight molded composites consist of a polymeric matrix reinforced with fibers because

Wapperom, Peter

273

PROCESSING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WELDED BONDS BETWEEN THERMOSET AND THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES  

EPA Science Inventory

To assemble complex structures with short cycle times, the feasibility of welding thermoplastic (TP) to thermoset (TS) composites is demonstrated using a phenomenological approach. The effect of the thermal degradation of the TS composite (AS4/3501-6) on its shear strength is ass...

274

Vacuum forming of thermoplastic sheet results in low-cost investment casting patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum forming of a sheet of thermoplastic material around a mandrel conforming to the shape of the finished object provides a pattern for an investment mold. The thickness of the metal part is determined by the thickness of the plastic pattern.

Clarke, A. E., Jr.

1964-01-01

275

Development of thermoplastic composite tubes for large deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composites have proved their great potentials for many aerospace applications, where the high performance can justify the high cost. However, the brittleness of the composites has been a main drawback for many applications that require large deformation, high failure strain and extensive energy absorption before final fracture. The objective of this research is to present a solution to the brittleness of the composites in tubular form and to introduce a composite tube that shows the same strength, stiffness and failure strain as its high grade Aluminum 7075-T6 counterpart tube. One application of this research can be in the development of composite landing gear for helicopters. Up to date, almost all helicopter landing gears are made of high strength aluminum, and despite their major issues in maintenance and fabrication, aluminum landing gears have remained the only choice for the helicopter manufacturing industry. Substitution of aluminum landing gear for helicopters with a thermoplastic composite landing gear is really a challenge, but if this can be done, it would be for the first time in the world! Through this research, the mechanical behavior of flat plate Carbon AS4/PEKK is characterized, and the potential mechanisms for large deformation of composite laminates are sought. The outcomes are used to design a composite tube that shows the same strength, stiffness and deformability as its high grade aluminum counterpart. The accuracy of the design is verified through progressive failure by ANSYS analysis and experimental work. Strain Controlled Design is introduced as a new design technique to substitute for the traditional stiffness-controlled techniques whenever large deformation from composite laminates is expected. The analytical techniques for stress analysis of composite tubes are reviewed, and the cumbersomeness of the method is highlighted. Finally, a simplified technique is presented to analyze composite tubes as a sandwich panel model. The results of the analysis are compared with the ANSYS and experimental results. Agreement between three methods is demonstrated. Moreover, guidelines for the design of composite tubes that exhibit large deformation before failure are presented.

Derisi, Bijan

276

Fatigue and environmental behavior of long fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we have characterized the mechanical behavior of long fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites (21% E-glass fiber/polypropylene) under different conditions. We start by comparing the elastic modulus of LFT predicted by a microstructure-based approach called Object Oriented Finite (OOF) element method, and compare the result with prediction from various models commonly used in the literature and the experimental value. The predictions from the models used currently in the literature did not agree well with the experimental value due to the assumptions inherent in the models. The prediction by OOF was the closest to the experimental value because of the microstructure based approach which takes into account the fiber distribution and orientation during the finite element calculation. This was followed by characterization of fatigue behavior of LFT. Samples tested along longitudinal direction showed a higher fatigue life than the transverse samples because of the preferred orientation of the fibers along the longitudinal direction developed during the processing of LFT by extrusion-compression molding process. Fatigue life decreased with increase in frequency. Hysteretic energy loss and temperature rise were measured; they depended on the stress amplitude as well as the cyclic frequency. LFT composite showed a lower temperature rise compared to neat PP because LFT has higher thermal conductivity than neat PP and thus faster heat dissipation to the surroundings occur. The hysteretic heating also led to decrease in the modulus of LFT as a function of number of cycles. The last part of the work was to study the effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the microstructure and mechanical properties of LFT. Microscopic observations revealed that the damage due to UV was confined only to the surface region in the form of surface cracking and exposure of fibers to the surface in the case of LFT. FTIR and nanoindentation results showed that there was a large increase in the crystallinity and local modulus of the surface layer due to UV exposure. The change in crystallinity and modulus of the surface layer occurs by chemicrystallization wherein the broken, smaller chains due to UV radiation rearrange into more crystalline form. This increase in crystallinity causes increase in the modulus of surface layer and results in cracking of the surface because tensile residual stresses are generated in the surface layer due to the change in crystallinity. The overall modulus of the LFT, however, decreased with increasing UV exposure time due to the formation of surface cracks.

Goel, Ashutosh

277

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22

278

Effect of orientation on electrically conducting thermoplastic composite properties  

SciTech Connect

Properties of electrically conducting composites made from low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP) filled with nickel flake are being studied as a function of nickel concentration and draw ratio. The effect on electrical conduction, crystallinity, melt temperature, tensile modulus, and elongation at break are being tested. The melt temperature increases with increasing nickel concentration. The electrical conduction increases slowly with increased nickel concentration to the percolation volume fraction, then increases sharply. Orientation by uniaxial stretching of the films should allow conductive pathways to form throughout the polymer more easily by forcing particles closer together, thus reducing the percolation volume fraction. This process could be caused by both alignment of the polymer chains and by stress induced crystallization that forces the particles into smaller amorphous regions.

Genetti, W.B.; Grady, B.P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1996-10-01

279

Transparent Large Strain Thermoplastic Polyurethane Magneto-Active Nanocomposites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smart adaptive materials are an important class of materials which can be used in space deployable structures, morphing wings, and structural air vehicle components where remote actuation can improve fuel efficiency. Adaptive materials can undergo deformation when exposed to external stimuli such as electric fields, thermal gradients, radiation (IR, UV, etc.), chemical and electrochemical actuation, and magnetic field. Large strain, controlled and repetitive actuation are important characteristics of smart adaptive materials. Polymer nanocomposites can be tailored as shape memory polymers and actuators. Magnetic actuation of polymer nanocomposites using a range of iron, iron cobalt, and iron manganese nanoparticles is presented. The iron-based nanoparticles were synthesized using the soft template (1) and Sun's (2) methods. The nanoparticles shape and size were examined using TEM. The crystalline structure and domain size were evaluated using WAXS. Surface modifications of the nanoparticles were performed to improve dispersion, and were characterized with IR and TGA. TPU nanocomposites exhibited actuation for approximately 2wt% nanoparticle loading in an applied magnetic field. Large deformation and fast recovery were observed. These nanocomposites represent a promising potential for new generation of smart materials.

Yoonessi, Mitra; Carpen, Ileana; Peck, John; Sola, Francisco; Bail, Justin; Lerch, Bradley; Meador, Michael

2010-01-01

280

High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

Wei, Chuang [North Carolina State University; Cai, Lei [ORNL; Sonawane, Bhushan [North Carolina State University; Wang, Shanfeng [ORNL; Dong, Jingyan [North Carolina State University

2012-01-01

281

Tailormade Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national Symposium of the Division of Macromolecular Chemistry of the GDCh (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker) in March 2000 was held in Merseburg with a topic of Tailormade Polymers. The scientific program was divided in two parts: contemporary activities in polymer synthesis and the tailoring of polymer properties by suitable modification steps. An excellent insight into contemporary activities in polymer synthesis, modification and characterization was given. A selection of the contributions is presented in this volume.

Cherdron, Harald; Sandner, Barbara; Schenk, H. U.; Voit, Brigitte; Meisel, I.; Kniep, C. S.; Spiegel, S.

2001-05-01

282

Piezoelectric Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

283

Shape-memory polymers as stimuli-sensitive implant materials.  

PubMed

Shape-memory polymers are stimuli-responsive materials. Upon exposure to an external stimulus, e.g. an increase in temperature, they have the capability of changing their shape. The shape-memory effect results from the polymer's structure and morphology in combination with a certain processing and programming technology. Stimuli-sensitive implant materials have a high potential for applications in minimally invasive surgery. A group of biodegradable implant materials with shape-memory has been developed for applications in biomedicine. These implant materials are not a single polymer but polymer systems that allow the variation of different macroscopic properties over a wide range by only small changes in the chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to implement a variety of different applications with tailor-made polymers of the same family. Two different types of degradable shape-memory polymer systems, covalently cross-linked polymer networks and thermoplastic elastomers, are presented and examples are given for each case. PMID:15764819

Lendlein, A; Kelch, S

2005-01-01

284

Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method.  

PubMed

More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35g /cm(3) and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation. PMID:19155169

Burat, Firat; Güney, Ali; Olgaç Kangal, M

2009-06-01

285

Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis-polyisoprene, natural rubber is no longer needed for the manufacturing of tires, but vulcanization is still utilized.

Laura Ann Salazar

2003-05-31

286

Extrusion foaming of thermoplastic cellulose acetate from renewable resources using a two-component physical blowing agent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic cellulose acetate (CA) is a bio-based polymer with optical, mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those of polystyrene (PS). The substitution of the predominant petrol-based PS in applications like foamed food trays can lead to a more sustainable economic practice. However, CA is also suitable for more durable applications as the biodegradability rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of substitutions. The extrusion foaming of CA still has to overcome certain challenges. CA is highly hydrophilic and can suffer from hydrolytic degradation if not dried properly. Therefore, the influence of residual moisture on the melt viscosity is rather high. Beyond, the surface quality of foam CA sheets is below those of PS due to the particular foaming behaviour. This paper presents results of a recent study on extrusion foamed CA, using a two-component physical blowing agent system compromising HFO 1234ze as blowing agent and organic solvents as co-propellant. Samples with different co-propellants are processed on a laboratory single screw extruder at IKV. Morphology and surface topography are investigated with respect to the blowing agent composition and the die pressure. In addition, relationships between foam density, foam morphology and the propellants are analysed. The choice of the co-propellant has a significant influence on melt-strength, foaming behaviour and the possible blow-up ratio of the sheet. Furthermore, a positive influence of the co-propellant on the surface quality can be observed. In addition, the focus is laid on the effect of external contact cooling of the foamed sheets after the die exit.

Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Hendriks, S.; Zepnik, S.; Wodke, T.

2014-05-01

287

Dependence of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites on Electron Beam Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the restrictions for environmental protection being strengthened, thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibers (NF’s), such as jute, kenaf, flax, etc. have appeared as alternatives to chemical plastics for automobile interior materials. In this study, the thermal conductivity, tensile strength, and deformation of several kinds of thermoplastic composites composed of 50% polypropylene (PP) and 50% natural fiber (NF) irradiated by an electron beam (energy: 0.5 MeV, dose: 0 20 kGy) were measured. The length and thickness of PP and NF are 80 ± 10 mm and 40 120 ?m, respectively. The results show that the thermal conductivity and the tensile strength changed and became minimum, when the dose of the electron beam was 10 kGy. However, the effect of the dose on the deformation was not clear.

Kim, Sok Won; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kang, K. H.

2007-06-01

288

Characterization the effect of disulfide compound on the devulcanization of thermoplastic vulcanizate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of disulfides and the application of mechanical force in rubber devulcanization have been reported in the literatures. In this work, the devulcanization of thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPVs) which is polypropylene/ethylene propylene diene rubber blend, is conducted in a Brabender batch mixer using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanizing agent. Considering the complexity of the compound, the effect of devulcanizing agent concentration, temperature and time were investigated to obtain the optimum condition. The extent of devulcanization of thermoplastic vulcanizate was studied by determination the volume fraction of dried rubber after swelling and crosslink density. The result show that the crosslink density of devulcanized TPVs decreased to 60.33% and 68.24% for 1 phr and 5 phr, respectively, and significantly decreased to 68.94% by adding 10 phr of diphenyl disulfide at 190°C. Moreover, the percent devulcanization of TPVs increased from 68.24% to 72.12% with increased in the reaction temperature up to 230 °C.

Rodsuk, Sikarin; Ritsuar, Suphattarachai; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn

2012-09-01

289

Thermal Joining of Thermoplastic Metal Hybrids by Means Of Mono- and Polychromatic Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, joining of plastics and metals for lightweight constructions has become more and more important for industrial applications. This paper presents a novel approach for thermal joining of thermoplastic metal hybrids by means of a combination of mono- and polychromatic radiation. During this work, hybrid joints of aluminum (EN AW-5182) and technical thermoplastics (PC, PA6, PA66-GF30) are studied. Thereby experiments for transmission and heat-conduction joining are performed. Besides, the influences of laser structuring of the metal surface on the joint connections are investigated. Additionally, climate tests according to BMW PR 308.2 from -30 °C to 90 °C and from -40 °C to 120 °C are performed to analyze the long-term durability of the hybrid joint connections.

Amend, P.; Pfindel, S.; Schmidt, M.

290

Thermoplastic microfluidic devices and their applications in protein and DNA analysis  

PubMed Central

Microfluidics is a platform technology that has been used for genomics, proteomics, chemical synthesis, environment monitoring, cellular studies, and other applications. The fabrication materials of microfluidic devices have traditionally included silicon and glass, but plastics have gained increasing attention in the past few years. We focus this review on thermoplastic microfluidic devices and their applications in protein and DNA analysis. We outline the device design and fabrication methods, followed by discussion on the strategies of surface treatment. We then concentrate on several significant advancements in applying thermoplastic microfluidic devices to protein separation, immunoassays, and DNA analysis. Comparison among numerous efforts, as well as the discussion on the challenges and innovation associated with detection, is presented. PMID:21274478

Liu, Ke; Fan, Z. Hugh

2013-01-01

291

Debinding mechanisms in thermoplastic processing of a Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-?)- stearic acid-polystyrene mixture.  

PubMed

In the present study, we address the interaction between a thermoplastic binder system and Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-?) (BSCF) during thermal treatment of the thermoplastic feedstock. BSCF powder was coated with different amounts of stearic acid (SA) acting as a surfactant. Oxygen release from the uncoated BSCF surface changes the decomposition of polystyrene (PS) in inert atmospheres from a pyrolytic to a thermoxidative mechanism, thereby decreasing the break-down temperature and the activation energy. In mixtures with coated BSCF powder, the decomposition products of SA carbonatize the BSCF surface, which inhibits oxygen release. Mass spectrometry of the breakdown products indicates that the decomposition of SA in the presence of BSCF also modifies the decomposition pathway of PS. The influence of BSCF on the polymer decomposition reaction in air is not as strong. Oxygen diffusion seems to be responsible for the differences to pure PS in reaction rates and the activation energies. PMID:23281298

Salehi, Mehdi; Clemens, Frank; Otal, Eugenio H; Ferri, Davide; Graule, Thomas; Grobéty, Bernard

2013-02-01

292

Synthesis and characterization of aryl phosphine oxide containing thermoplastic polyimides and thermosetting polyimides with controlled reactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus containing monomers, bis(3-aminophenyl)methyl phosphine oxide (m-DAMPO) and bis(3-aminophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide (m-DAPPO), were synthesized and incorporated into a thermoplastic poly(arylene ether imide) based upon 2,2sp'-bis (4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl) propane dianhydride and 1,3-phenylene diamine, in order to study their influence on flame resistance and other properties. DAMPO or DAPPO were quantitatively incorporated in concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mole percent, using the "one pot" ester-acid method. The number average molecular weights of the prepared materials were controlled to 20,000g/mol by off-setting the stoichiometry and endcapping with phthalic anhydride. This strategy enabled one to distinguish the effects of the phosphine oxide incorporation from the influence of molecular weight. The resulting copolymers demonstrated a significant increase in char yield as a function of the phosphine oxide content, thus suggesting improved fire resistance. Glass transition temperatures similar to the control were determined by DSC analysis. Analysis of the mechanical behavior of the DAMPO system at room temperature showed that tensile strength and elongation at failure values were comparable to the control system, while the DAPPO containing copolymers were surprisingly brittle. The influence of the reactive endgroup on the synthesis, cure behavior and network properties of thermosetting polyetherimides was investigated. Reactive phenylacetylene, acetylene and maleimide terminated poly(ether imide) oligomers were prepared and characterized. Optimal reaction conditions were established to produce fully endcapped oligomers with imidized structures and controlled molecular weight. The phenylacetylene endcapped system was synthesized by a conventional ester-acid method. The acetylene endcapped system was prepared via modified ester-acid method and the maleimide endcapped system was fabricated utilizing an amic-acid route. It was determined that phenylethynyl endcapped polymers could be thermally cured at high temperatures (350{-}380sp°C) providing good processibility. The networks exhibited thermal stability, chemical resistance and good adhesion strength, ideal as "primary" bonding adhesives. Acetylene and maleimide endcapped systems were prepared for application as "secondary" bonding materials, meaning that they are cured at a lower temperature than that of the Tg of the primary structure. Lap shear test results indicated good adhesion to titanium when cured at 250sp° C{-}280sp° C. The cured materials showed high glass transition temperatures and good thermal and thermo-oxidative stability as determined by DSC, TGA and DMA. Good chemical resistance was demonstrated via solvent extraction measurements. The influence of molecular weight between crosslinks (/line{M}sb{c}) on thermal and mechanical behavior was also investigated. Lower molecular weight oligomers exhibited lower Tg and cure temperatures, whereas the cured networks resulting from lower molecular weight oligomers afforded higher Tg and higher gel fractions, but reduced toughness.

Zhuang, Hong

1998-11-01

293

Biodegradable thermoplastic composites based on polyvinyl alcohol and algae.  

PubMed

Algae constitute a largely available, low value material from renewable resources of marine origin to be used for the production of eco-compatible composites. Fibers of the green alga Ulva armoricana from the French coast were positively evaluated for the production of composites with a hydrophilic, eco-compatible polymer, such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as continuous matrix by casting of aqueous suspensions and compression molding. PVA, Ulva, and starch were also successfully processed by the melt in the presence of glycerol. Positive results were obtained for film-forming properties and mechanical characteristics also with limited amounts of PVA (40%) attesting for Ulva suitability to be introduced in composites (up to 30%). Degradation in soil of Ulva and an Ulva-based composites outlined a rapid mineralization of Ulva in the selected medium (over 80% in 100 days) while the composite samples underwent a mineralization rate affected by the different component propensity to degradation. PMID:18257530

Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Ilieva, Vassilka I; Martera, Martina

2008-03-01

294

DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber\\/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it

Ba Nghiep Nguyen; Vlastimil Kunc; Satish K. Bapanapalli; Jay Phelps; Charles L. Tucker

2009-01-01

295

Orthotropic structural analysis of short fiber filled thermoplastics: Abaqus - Moldflow interface, Experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber-filled injection-molded parts contain complex fiber orientation patterns depending on the flow kinetics and the molding parameters. This fiber orientation state affects material properties including elastic modulus and strength and part properties including shrinkage and warpage. This requires anisotropic\\/orthotropic structural analysis, as isotropic analysis for these fiber-filled thermoplastics would generally yield inaccurate results. In this work, we report a problem

Ashok K Kancharla; Harindranath Sharma K; Paul Nugent

296

Parametric wear tests for drilling in thermoplastic fiber composites/metal stacks  

E-print Network

of the study traditional tool wear tests were conducted on stacks of thermoplastic composite (APC2/PEEK) over aluminum and titanium backup re- spectively. The variables measured were thrust force, torque, tool wear, hole diameter variation, and burr height.... Another conclusion is that the level of thrust force can possibly predict the drill bit wear in the case of composite/titanium stack. The results of the wear tests were applied in a machining optimization program by Hough and Chang (1990). Overall...

Hriscu, Iosif

2012-06-07

297

LDPE-based thermoplastic elastomers containing ground tire rubber with and without dynamic curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to use a ground tire rubber (GTR) fraction (particle size: 0.4–0.7 mm) to produce thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) composed of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), fresh rubber and GTR with and without dynamic curing. GTR has been thermomechanically decomposed in the presence (GTRPM) and absence of processing oil (GTRM) and its decomposition was followed by the increase in the acetone-soluble

C. Radhesh Kumar; I Fuhrmann; J Karger-Kocsis

2002-01-01

298

Interfaces in thermoplastic composites probed by laser-induced acoustic emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

lts (9,10)indicate that they differ in their affinities for thermoplastic resins.An unfocused 6 watt Argon Ion laser beam was trained on a specimen for 10 seconds. Acoustic emission(AE) was detected by a 150 kHz resonant AE sensor (Physical Acoustics Corporation model R15).The signals were amplified 40 dB by a preamplifier (Physical Acoustics Corporation model 1220A) whichhad a bandpass filter of

W. H. Prosser; J. A. Hinkley

1994-01-01

299

Mechanical and Magnetic Properties of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Filled with Barium Ferrit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) filled with barium ferrite BaFe12O19 nanoparticle. The nanocompasites were prepared via melt blending method using the Haake 600 p internal mixer. The content of the filler is varied from 2–10% by volume fraction. TPNR is a blend of polypropylene (PP), liquid natural rubber (LNR)

Mohamed M. M. Milad; Sahrim Hj. Ahmad; S. Y. Yahya; Mou’ad. A. Tarawneh

2009-01-01

300

Mechanical and Magnetic Properties of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Filled with Barium Ferrit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) filled with barium ferrite BaFe12O19 nanoparticle. The nanocompasites were prepared via melt blending method using the Haake 600 p internal mixer. The content of the filler is varied from 2-10% by volume fraction. TPNR is a blend of polypropylene (PP), liquid natural rubber (LNR)

Mohamed M. M. Milad; Sahrim Hj. Ahmad; S. Y. Yahya; Mou'ad. A. Tarawneh

2009-01-01

301

Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS), styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber\\/polyvinyl chloride (NBR\\/PVC) blend system were used

Mohsen Masoomi; Ali Asghar Katbab; Hossein Nazockdast

2006-01-01

302

Ultrasonic Attenuation Results of Thermoplastic Resin Composites Undergoing Thermal and Fatigue Loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an effort to obtain the required information about new composites for aviation use, materials and NDE researchers at NASA are jointly performing mechanical and NDE measurements on new composite materials. The materials testing laboratory at NASA is equipped with environmental chambers mounted on load frames that can expose composite materials to thermal and loading cycles representative of flight protocols. Applying both temperature and load simultaneously will help to highlight temperature and load interactions during the aging of these composite materials. This report highlights our initial ultrasonic attenuation results from thermoplastic composite samples that have undergone over 4000 flight cycles to date. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements are a standard method used to assess the effects of material degradation. Recently, researchers have shown that they could obtain adequate contrast in the evaluation of thermal degradation in thermoplastic composites by using frequencies of ultrasound on the order of 24 MHz. In this study, we address the relationship of attenuation measured at lower frequencies in thermoplastic composites undergoing both thermal and mechanical loading. We also compare these thermoplastic results with some data from thermoset composites undergoing similar protocols. The composite s attenuation is reported as the slope of attenuation with respect to frequency, defined as b = Da(f)/Df. The slope of attenuation is an attractive parameter since it is quantitative, yet does not require interface corrections like conventional quantitative attenuation measurements. This latter feature is a consequence of the assumption that interface correction terms are frequency independent. Uncertainty in those correction terms can compromise the value of conventional quantitative attenuation data. Furthermore, the slope of the attenuation more directly utilizes the bandwidth information and in addition, the bandwidth can be adjusted in the post processing stage to compensate for the loss of dynamic range of the signal as the composites age.

Madaras, Eric I.

1998-01-01

303

Electrospinning Thermoplastic Polyurethane-Contained Collagen Nanofibers for Tissue-Engineering Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrospinning is a new method used in tissue engineering. It can spin fibers in nanoscale by electrostatic force. A series of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)\\/collagen blend nanofibrous membranes was prepared with different weight ratios and concentrations via electrospinning. The two biopolymers used 1,1,1,3,3,3,-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFP) as solvent. The electrospun TPU-contained collagen nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XPS spectroscopy, atomic

Rui Chen; Lijun Qiu; Qinfei Ke; Chuanglong He; Xiumei Mo

2009-01-01

304

Advanced thermoplastic composites: An attractive new material for usage in highly loaded vehicle components  

SciTech Connect

Beside the lightweight potential and further well known advantages of advanced composite materials, continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics employed in vehicle structural parts especially offer short manufacturing cycle times and an additional economically viable manufacturing process. Presenting a frame structure concept for two highly loaded vehicle parts, a safety seat and a side door, numerous features concerning the choice of suitable composite materials, design aspects, investigations to develop a thermoforming technique, mature for a series production of vehicle parts, are discussed.

Mehn, R.; Seidl, F.; Peis, R.; Heinzmann, D.; Frei, P. [BMW AG Muenchen (Germany)

1995-10-01

305

The structure and properties of weld lines in injection molded thermoplastics  

E-print Network

THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF WELD LINES IN INJECTION MOLDED THEBMOPLAST1CS A Thesis by ALI IHSAN MANISALI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP... SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTZES OF WELD LINES IN INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS A Thesis by ALI IHSAN MANISALI Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (H of Department...

Manisali, Ali Ihsan

1980-01-01

306

Thermoplastics from acetylated zein-and-oil-free corn distillers dried grains with solubles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of green thermoplastics from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using a novel method of simultaneous acetylation of the carbohydrates and proteins in oil-and-zein-free DDGS. DDGS is an inexpensive and abundant co-product of ethanol production with limited industrial applications. However, DDGS is a mixture of carbohydrates and proteins and current methods of acetylating carbohydrates

Chunyan Hu; Narendra Reddy; Yan Luo; Kelu Yan; Yiqi Yang

2011-01-01

307

Natural Polymers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Polymers that exist in nature, called biopolymers , include a large and diverse range of compounds. This chapter discusses the most important types of natural polymers--their chemical makeup, key properties, and where they are found. The focus will be more on the chemical and physical properties of natural polymers and less on their biological synthesis or physiological function. The references at the end of the chapter provide additional information.

David Teegarden

2004-01-01

308

Injection molded polymer optics in the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision polymer optics, manufactured by injection molding techniques, has been a key enabling technology for several decades now. The technology, which can be thought of as a subset of the wider field of precision optics manufacturing, was pioneered in the United States by companies such as Eastman Kodak, US Precision Lens, and Polaroid. In addition to suppliers in the U.S. there are several companies worldwide that design and manufacture precision polymer optics, for example Philips High Tech Plastics in Europe and Fujinon in Japan. Designers who are considering using polymer optics need a fundamental understanding of exactly how the optics are created. This paper will survey the technology and processes that are employed in the successful implementation of a polymer optic solution from a manufacturer's perspective. Special emphasis will be paid to the unique relationship between the molds and the optics that they produce. We will discuss the key elements of production: molding resins, molds and molding equipment, and metrology. Finally we will offer a case study to illustrate just how the optics designer carries a design concept through to production. The underlying theme throughout the discussion of polymer optics is the need for the design team to work closely with an experienced polymer optics manufacturer with a solid track record of success in molded optics. As will be seen shortly, the complex interaction between thermoplastics, molds, and molding machines dictates the need for working closely with a supplier who has the critical knowledge needed to manage all aspects of the program.

Beich, William S.

2005-08-01

309

Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers  

PubMed Central

Novel urethane shape-memory polymers (SMPs) of significant industrial relevance have been synthesized and characterized. Chemically crosslinked SMPs have traditionally been made in a one-step polymerization of monomers and crosslinking agents. However, these new post-polymerization crosslinked SMPs can be processed into complex shapes by thermoplastic manufacturing methods and later crosslinked by heat exposure or by electron beam irradiation. Several series of linear, olefinic urethane polymers were made from 2-butene-1,4-diol, other saturated diols, and various aliphatic diisocyanates. These thermoplastics were melt-processed into desired geometries and thermally crosslinked at 200°C or radiation crosslinked at 50 kGy. The SMPs were characterized by solvent swelling and extraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile testing, and qualitative shape-recovery analysis. Swelling and DMA results provided concrete evidence of chemical crosslinking, and further characterization revealed that the urethanes had outstanding mechanical properties. Key properties include tailorable transitions between 25 and 80°C, tailorable rubbery moduli between 0.2 and 4.2 MPa, recoverable strains approaching 100%, failure strains of over 500% at Tg, and qualitative shape-recovery times of less than 12 seconds at body temperature (37°C). Because of its outstanding thermo-mechanical properties, one polyurethane was selected for implementation in the design of a complex medical device. These post-polymerization crosslinked urethane SMPs are an industrially relevant class of highly processable shape-memory materials. PMID:21572577

Hearon, K.; Gall, K.; Ware, T.; Maitland, D. J.; Bearinger, J. P.; Wilson, T. S.

2011-01-01

310

Effect of silica nanoparticles on reinforcement of poly(phenylene ether) based thermoplastic elastomer.  

PubMed

Reinforcement of a novel poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), i.e., styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PPE-polystyrene (PS), was studied to develop a reinforced thermoplastic elastomer or thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV). An effort was made to reinforce selectively the elastomeric dispersed phase of EVA by silica nanoparticles and silica sol-gel precursors, like alkoxy orthosilanes, using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding processes. Improvement of tensile strength and percent elongation at break was observed both with silica nanoparticles and tetraethoxy orthosilane (TEOS). Addition of TEOS transformed the dispersed EVA lamellar morphology into semispherical domains as a consequence of possible crosslinking. Soxhlet extraction was done on the silica and TEOS reinforced materials. The insoluble residues collected from both the silica and TEOS reinforced samples were analyzed in detail using both morphological and spectroscopic studies. This extensive study also provided an in-depth conceptual understanding of the PPE based TPE behavior upon reinforcement with silica nanoparticles and silica sol-gel precursors and the effect of reinforcement on recycling behavior. PMID:18572622

Gupta, Samik; Maiti, Parnasree; Krishnamoorthy, Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Raja; Menon, Ashok; Bhowmick, Anil K

2008-04-01

311

Multiple-objective optimization in precision laser cutting of different thermoplastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastics are increasingly being used in biomedical, automotive and electronics industries due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. Due to the localized and non-contact process, use of lasers for cutting could result in precise cut with small heat-affected zone (HAZ). Precision laser cutting involving various materials is important in high-volume manufacturing processes to minimize operational cost, error reduction and improve product quality. This study uses grey relational analysis to determine a single optimized set of cutting parameters for three different thermoplastics. The set of the optimized processing parameters is determined based on the highest relational grade and was found at low laser power (200 W), high cutting speed (0.4 m/min) and low compressed air pressure (2.5 bar). The result matches with the objective set in the present study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is then carried out to ascertain the relative influence of process parameters on the cutting characteristics. It was found that the laser power has dominant effect on HAZ for all thermoplastics.

Tamrin, K. F.; Nukman, Y.; Choudhury, I. A.; Shirley, S.

2015-04-01

312

A micrographic study of bending failure in five thermoplastic/carbon fiber composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The local deformation and failure sequences of five thermoplastic matrix composites were microscopically observed while bending the samples in a small fixture attached to a microscope stage. The themoplastics are polycarbonate, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfide, polyethersulfone, and polyetheretherketone. Comparison was made to an epoxy matrix composite, 5208/T-300. Laminates tested are (0/90) sub 2S, with outer ply fibers parallel to the beam axis. Four point bending was used at a typical span-to-thickness ratio of 39:1. It was found that all of the thermoplastic composites failed by abrupt longitudinal compression buckling of the outer ply. Very little precursory damage was observed. Micrographs reveal typical fiber kinking associated with longitudinal compression failure. Curved fracture surfaces on the fibers suggest they failed in bending rather than direct compression. Delamination was suppressed in the thermoplastic composites, and the delamination that did occur was found to be the result of compression buckling, rather than visa-versa. Microbuckling also caused other subsequent damage such as ply splitting, transverse ply shear failure, fiber tensile failure, and transverse ply cracking.

Yurgartis, S. W.; Sternstein, S. S.

1987-01-01

313

Polymer Electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

2013-07-01

314

Polymers All Around You!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information on natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and the properties of polymers is presented as an introduction to this curriculum guide. Details are provided on the use of polymer products in consumer goods, polymer recycling, polymer densities, the making of a polymer such as GLUEP, polyvinyl alcohol, dissolving plastics, polymers

Gertz, Susan

315

Tough, processable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks from monomer reactants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) was developed which had significantly improved processability, damage tolerance, and mechanical performance, when compared to the commercial Thermid materials. This simultaneous semi-IPN was prepared by mixing the monomer precursors of Thermid AL-600 (a thermoset) and NR-150B2 (a thermoplastic) and allowing the monomers to react randomly upon heating. This reaction occurs at a rate which decreases the flow and broadens the processing window. Upon heating at a higher temperature, there is an increase in flow. Because of the improved flow properties, broadened processing window and enhanced toughness, high strength polymer matrix composites, adhesives and molded articles can now be prepared from the acetylene end-capped polyimides which were previously inherently brittle and difficult to process.

Pater, Ruth H. (inventor)

1994-01-01

316

Polymers Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 21 page document contains an instructor guide for the polymers module from Nano-Link. The activity requires a background in eight grade science. The document includes background information on polymers, a hands-on learning activity, questions to check understanding, links to multimedia resources, and further readings. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

317

High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

1991-01-01

318

Compression behavior of graphite-epoxy and graphite-thermoplastic panels with circular holes or impact damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the compression behavior of laminated specimens made from graphite-epoxy tape (AS4-3502), graphite-thermoplastic tape (AS4-PEEK), and graphite-thermoplastic fabric (AS4-PEEK) was conducted. Specimens with five different stacking sequences were loaded to failure in uniaxial compression. Some of the specimens had central circular holes with diameters up to 65 percent of the specimen width. Other specimens were subjected to low speed impact with impact energy up to 30 J prior to compressive loading. This investigation indicates that graphite-thermoplastic specimens with holes have up to 15 percent lower failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and hole size. However, graphite-thermoplastic specimens subjected to low speed impact have up to 15 percent higher failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and impact energy. Compression tests of graphite-thermoplastic specimens constructed of unidirectional tape and of fabric indicate that the material form has little effect on failure strains in specimens with holes or low speed impact damage.

Jegley, Dawn C.

1990-01-01

319

Compression behavior of graphite-thermoplastic and graphite-epoxy panels with circular holes or impact damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the compression behavior of laminated specimens made from graphite-epoxy tape, graphite-thermoplastic tape and graphite-thermoplastic fabric was conducted. Specimens with five different stacking sequences were loaded to failure in uniaxial compression. Some of the specimens had central circular holes with diameters up to 65 percent of the specimen width. Other specimens were subjected to low speed impact with impact energies up to 35 J prior to compressive loading. This investigation indicates that graphite-thermoplastic specimens with holes have up to 15 percent lower failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and hole size. However, graphite-thermoplastic specimens subjected to low speed impact have up to 15 percent higher failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and impact energy. Compression tests of graphite-thermoplastic specimens constructed of unidirectional tape and fabric indicate that the material form has little effect on failure strains in specimens with holes or low speed impact damage.

Jegley, Dawn C.

1991-01-01

320

Multiscale simulation of polymer nano-composites (PNC) using molecular dynamics (MD) and generalized interpolation material point method (GIMP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent mechanical characterization experiments with pultruded E-Glass / polypropylene (PP) and compression molded E-Glass/Nylon-6 composite samples with 3-4 weight% nanoclay and baseline polymer (polymer without nanoclay) confirmed significant improvements in compressive strength (˜122%) and shear strength (˜60%) in the nanoclay modified nanocomposites, in comparison with baseline properties. Uniaxial tensile tests showed a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.4%) with 3 wt % nanoclay loading. While the synergistic reinforcing influence of nanoparticle reinforcement is obvious, a simple rule-of-mixtures approach fails to quantify the dramatic increase in mechanical properties. Consequently, there is an immediate need to investigate and understand the mechanisms at the nanoscale that are responsible for such unprecedented strength enhancements. In this work, an innovative and effective method to model nano-structured components in a thermoplastic polymer matrix is proposed. Effort will be directed towards finding fundamental answers to the reasons for significant changes in mechanical properties of nanoparticle-reinforced thermoplastic composites. This research ensues a multiscale modeling approach in which (a) a concurrent simulations scheme is developed to visualize atomistic behavior of polymer molecules as a function of continuum scale loading conditions and (b) a novel nanoscale damage mechanics model is proposed to capture the constitutive behavior of polymer nano composites (PNC). The proposed research will contribute towards the understanding of advanced nanostructured composite materials, which should subsequently benefit the composites manufacturing industry.

Nair, Abilash R.

321

Interferometric measurement of the transverse strain response of electroactive polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some electroactive polymers produce large electric-field-induced strains that can be used for electromechanical actuation. The measurement of the strain response, especially the dynamic response under high driving fields, is difficult. We have developed a transverse strain measurement system based on the Zygo laser Doppler interferometer. The system can measure transverse strain responses of polymer samples of different sizes over a wide displacement range and a frequency range from DC up to 100 Hz. We have used this interferometric system to investigate the strain response of Maxwell stress actuators fabricated from silicone (Dow Corning HS III RTV) and thermoplastic polyurethane (Dow Pellethane 2103) films. The static and dynamic strain responses of the materials to a variety of driving electric fields such as step fields, AC fields and DC bias fields have been measured as functions of amplitude and frequency. The strain response has a quadratic relationship with the driving field and shows a strong dependence on the frequency of the applied field. Of the two kinds of polymers investigated, HS III silicone polymer shows higher strain and breakdown fields. High transverse strains of 3.25 % (static) and 2.08 % (dynamic at 1 Hz) for HS III silicone polymers have been obtained. In addition, the effect of mechanical tensile load on the transverse strain has also been studied. The experimental data are interpreted in terms of measured material properties and small strain models for dielectric film actuators.

Ren, Wei; Yang, Guomao; Mukherjee, Binu K.; Szabo, Jeffrey P.

2004-07-01

322

Polymer nanolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanolithography involves making patterns of materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Surprisingly, writable CDs can provide polymer nanostructures for pennies a piece. Building on work previously done in the Drain lab, with an inherited home-built oven press, this research will explore the relationships between polymer chemical reactivity, polymer printing, and material surface energies. In addition, a relatively inexpensive entry point into high school and undergraduate education in nanolithography is presented. The ability to pattern cheaply at the nanoscale and microscale is necessary and attractive for many technologies towards biosensors, organic light emitting diodes, identification tags, layered devices, and transistors.

Vance, Jennifer M.

323

Organometallic Polymers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

1981-01-01

324

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B; Microstructural Characterization of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides have complementary physical/mechanical properties. Whereas thermoset polyimides are brittle and generally easier to process, thermoplastic polyimides are tough but harder to process. It is expected that a combination of these two types of polyimides may help produce polymers more suitable for aerospace applications. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (S-IPNs) of thermoset LaRC(Trademark)-RP46 and thermoplastic LARC(Trademark)-IA polyimides were prepared in weight percent ratios ranging from 100:0 to 0: 100. Positron lifetime measurements were made in these samples to correlate their free volume features with physical/mechanical properties. As expected, positronium atoms are not formed in these samples. The second life time component has been used to infer the positron trap dimensions. The "free volume" goes through a minimum at about 50:50 ratio, suggesting that S-IPN samples are not merely solid solutions of the two polymers. These data and related structural properties of the S-IPN samples have been discussed in this paper.

Singh, Jag J.; Pater, Ruth H.; Eftekhari, Abe

1998-01-01

325

Production and characterization of thermoplastic cassava starch, functionalized poly(lactic acid), and their reactive compatibilized blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassava starch was blended with glycerol using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE). Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) at a ratio of 70/30 by weight of cassava/glycerol was selected and further blended with other polymers. TPCS sheets made from compression molding had low tensile strength (0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa) and Young's modulus (1.24 +/- 0.58 MPa), but moderate elongation at break (83.0 +/- 0.18.6%), medium level of oxygen permeability, and high water vapor permeability with a very high rate of water absorption. TPCS was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at various ratios by using a TSE. The blend resins exhibited good properties such as increased thermal stability (Tmax) and crystallinity of PLA, and improved water sensitivity and processability of TPCS. PLA and TPCS exhibited a high interfacial tension between the two phases of 7.9 mJ·m -2, indicating the formation of an incompatible, immiscible blend. SEM micrographs showed a non-homogeneous distribution of TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase. TEM micrographs of the blend films made by cast-film extrusion showed coalescence of the TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase of the blend, indicating that the compatibility between the polymer pair needs to be improved. A response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to analyze the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox or L101) contents, and TSE screw speed on the degree of grafted MA and number average molecular weight (Mn) of functionalized PLA (PLA-g-MA), a reactive compatibilizer. PLA-g- MA made by reactive extrusion had an array of colors depending on the content of L101 and MA used. New FTIR peaks suggested that MA was grafted onto the PLA backbone and oligomeric MA may occur. Increasing L101 increased the degree of grafting and decreased Mn, but the Mn of the PLA-g-MA's produced with a high amount of L101 was stable during storage. MA exhibited an optimum concentration for maximizing the degree of grafted MA, and increasing MA content retarded the reduction of Mn during processing. However, the Mn of PLA-g-MA during storage decreased more rapidly with a high content of MA. TSE screw speed had an impact on the Mn with the maximum value predicted at 20 rpm. PLA-g-MA compounds differing in Mn and/or grafted MA content were used as reactive polymers with TPCS (to produce binary blends) and as reactive compatibilizers (to produce ternary blends of PLA/TPCS/PLA-g-MA) with TPCS content of 30 wt% using a TSE. As a result of maleation, PLA-g-MA had a higher grafted MA content with a lower Mn, and higher PI. The interaction of anhydride groups from PLA-g-MA and hydroxyl groups from TPCS was found by FTIR. The reactive binary blends exhibited a change in thermal stability, decrease of Tcc, the presence of double melting peaks, and an increase of the Tgs of glycerol and starch. The higher the grafted MA content and/or the higher Mn of the PLA- g-MA used, the better were the distribution and smaller the TPCS domains obtained in the blends. The highest elongation at break was achieved when 30 wt% TPCS was blended with 70 wt% of PLA having 0.1 wt% of grafted MA and Mn of PLA-g-MA with a 45 kDa. Finally, the optimum PLA-g-MA was determined by using the results from PLA-g-MA RSM design and the reactive blending.

Detyothin, Sukeewan

326

Dissipation of mechanical work and temperature rise in AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dissipated mechanical work per cycle of sinusoidal stress in the thermoplastic composite material AS4/PEEK was measured as a function of stress amplitude for fixed frequency and fiber orientation. The experimental result shows that the dissipated work per cycle is proportional to the square of the stress amplitude. Using the concept of the equivalent isotropic material, it is shown that the relaxation modulus satisfies a proportionality condition. Also, the rate of temperature rise due to sinusoidal stresses has been measured as a function of stress amplitude. The result shows that the rate of temperature rise is not proportional to the square of the stress amplitude.

Georgiou, I.; Sun, C. T.

1990-01-01

327

LaRC-I-TPI - A status report on a new high performance, thermoplastic polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new thermoplastic polyimide designated LaRC-I-TPI has been prepared from 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA) and 1,3-phenylenediamine (m-PDA), phthalic anhydride endcapped or unendcapped. It is closely related to the well-known commercial LaRC-TPI. A survey of the synthesis and some thermal, film, adhesive, fracture toughness, and composite properties of this new polyimide is presented. While both materials have similar properties at comparable stages of development, LaRC-I-TPI should be less expensive to manufacture as a result of the use of lower cost readily available monomers.

Pratt, J. Richard; Saint Clair, Terry L.

1990-01-01

328

Orthotropic elasto-plastic behavior of AS4/APC-2 thermoplastic composite in compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniaxial compression tests were performed on off-axis coupon specimens of unidirectional AS4/APC-2 thermoplastic composite at various temperatures. The elasto-plastic and strength properties of AS4/APC-2 composite were characterized with respect to temperature variation by using a one-parameter orthotropic plasticity model and a one-parameter failure criterion. Experimental results show that the orthotropic plastic behavior can be characterized quite well using the plasticity model, and the matrix-dominant compressive strengths can be predicted very accurately by the one-parameter failure criterion.

Sun, C. T.; Rui, Y.

1989-01-01

329

Versatile graphene nanocomposite microheater patterning for various thermoplastic substrates based on capillary filling and transfer molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a fabrication method of graphene nanocomposite patterns on a thermoplastic substrate using capillary filling and transfer molding techniques. As a proof of concept, we produced microheaters using a low-viscosity graphene nanocomposite solution. After filling a microchannel on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp with graphene solution, the solution solvent was evaporated, leaving behind the graphene nanocomposite pattern. Subsequent embossing of the graphene nanocomposite patterns on the PDMS stamp onto a polymethylmethacrylate substrate allowed the transfer of the microheater pattern. Capillary filling was characterized analytically and experimentally. The performance and thermal response of the fabricated microheater were very promising.

Woo Kim, Hyung; Jea Park, Sung; Lee, Bong-Kee; Sung Kim, Dong

2013-03-01

330

Understanding corrosion protection and failure through model polymers in thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When developing a model polymeric system to facilitate in the detection of molecular and microscopic events that preface macroscopic corrosive failure; a better understanding of how polymers can indicate corrosion was accomplished. Initially, the thought that molecular chain scission as a necessity for corrosion to occur had to be tested. Through the utilization of high molecular weight thermoplastic (HMWTP) model polymers, it was found that corrosion protection did not correlate to the quantity of weak bonds within an epoxy-amine polymer matrix. Therefore more sensitive methods of detecting corrosion had to be developed since changes within the polymer matrix did not provide thorough data for pre-failure events. Incorporating small molecules that indicate corrosion events into organic polymer coatings, however, did provide sufficient data into when steel substrates were about to fail. It was determined that these molecules, whether colorimetric or fluorescent, were able to capture events at the metal-polymer interface that would directly lead to rust formation. To further the understanding of predicting corrosion, fluorescent molecules were attached to polymer covalently and were able to quantify corrosion events at the highest confidence that no small molecules were moving and providing false results. The development of this corrosion characterization technique should provide plentiful insight into how polymers and metals fail in a real-time nondestructive manner that is realistic to real-world testing protocols.

Hanna, Joshua Smith

331

Novel layer-by-layer procedure for making nylon-6 nanofiber reinforced high strength, tough, and transparent thermoplastic polyurethane composites.  

PubMed

We highlight a novel composite fabrication method based on solution casting, electrospinning, and film stacking for preparing highly transparent nylon-6 nanofiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite films. The procedure is simple and can be extended to the other thermoplastics. The morphology of fiber/matrix interface and the properties of composite films were also investigated. The method led to a significant reinforcement in mechanical properties of TPU like tensile strength, E modulus, strain, and toughness just using very small amounts of nylon fibers (about 0.4-1.7 wt %; 150-300 nm diameter). The enhanced mechanical properties were achieved without sacrificing optical properties like transparency of TPU. PMID:22817392

Jiang, Shaohua; Duan, Gaigai; Hou, Haoqing; Greiner, Andreas; Agarwal, Seema

2012-08-01

332

Composites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with polypropylene and thermoplastic olefin blends prepared by melt compounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polypropylene (PP) and thermoplastic olefins (TPOs) were prepared by melt compounding. Two non-covalent functionalization methods were employed to improve nanotube dispersion and the resulting composite properties are reported. The first functionalization approach involved partial coating of the surface of the nanotubes with a hyperbranched polyethylene (HBPE). MWCNT functionalization with HBPE was only moderately successful in breaking up the large aggregates that formed upon melt mixing with PP. In spite of the formation of large aggregates, the samples were conductive above a percolation threshold of 7.3 wt%. MWCNT functionalization did not disrupt the electrical conductivity of the nanotubes. The composite strength was improved with addition of nanotubes, but ductility was severely compromised because of the existence of aggregates. The second method involved PP matrix functionalization with aromatic moieties capable of pi-pi interaction with MWCNT sidewalls. Various microscopy techniques revealed the addition of only 25 wt% of PP-g-pyridine (Py) to the neat PP was capable of drastically reducing nanotube aggregate size and amount. Raman spectroscopy confirmed improved polymer/nanotube interaction with the PP-g-Py matrix. Electrical percolation threshold was obtained at a MWCNT loading of approximately 1.2 wt%. Electrical conductivity on the order of 10 -2 S/m was achieved, suggesting possible use in semi-conducting applications. Composite strength was improved upon addition of MWCNTs. The matrix functionalization with Py resulted in a significant improvement in composite ductility when filled with MWCNTs in comparison to its maleic anhydride (MA) counterpart. Preliminary investigations suggest that the use of alternating current (AC) electric fields may be effective in aligning nanotubes in PP to reduce the filler loading required for electrical percolation. Composites containing MWCNT within PP/ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) blends were prepared. Microscopy revealed that MWCNTs localized preferentially in the EOC phase. This was explained by the tendency of the system to minimize interfacial energy when the MWCNTs reside in the thermodynamically preferential phase. A kinetic approach, which involved pre-mixing the MWCNTs with PP and adding the EOC phase subsequently was attempted to monitor the migration of MWCNTs. MWCNTs began to migrate after two minutes of melt mixing with the EOC. The PP-g-Py matrix functionalization appears to slightly delay the migration. A reduction in electrical percolation threshold to 0.5 wt% MWCNTs was achieved with a co-continuous blend morphology, consisting of a 50/50 by weight ratio of PP and EOC.

Petrie, Kyle G.

333

Fabrication of 200-nm Dot Pattern on 15-m-Long Polymer Sheet Using Sheet Nanoimprint Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoimprint technology is one of the more promising methods for nano-fabrication. The thermal nanoimprint method can fabricate various kinds of thermoplastic materials and its process consists of heating, pressing, cooling, and separation and a lot of research was reported. We proposed and developed a sheet nanoimprint system that enables for continuous treatment of these four basic steps by introducing a belt-shaped nano-mold. We tried to fabricate dot patterns on polymer films by using a sheet nanoimprint method in this work. A 200 nm in diameter and 240 nm tall dots (aspect ratio 1.4) were formed directly onto a 15-m-long polystyrene film. It is important in the field of industrial applications to fabricate nano-scale patterns over a large area with a high throughput. We demonstrated that the sheet nanoimprint is an attractive method for the direct patterning of nano-scale patterns on thermo-plastic films.

Ogino, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Sakaue, Keiji; Nagai, Shuuichi; Miyauchi, Akihiro

2013-03-01

334

USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.

LAGERRAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.

1997-11-01

335

Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

2014-05-01

336

The effect of free radical inhibitor on the sensitized radiation crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of polyurethane shape memory polymers  

PubMed Central

The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities—that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150°C for up to five hours or to 125°C for up to 24 hours if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125°C for up to 5 hours if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal stabilization of radiation sensitizers, thereby facilitating further development of radiation crosslinkable thermoplastic SMPs. PMID:23226930

Hearon, Keith; Smith, Sarah E.; Maher, Cameron A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

2012-01-01

337

The effect of free radical inhibitor on the sensitized radiation crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of polyurethane shape memory polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities—that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because the thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150 °C for up to 5 h or to 125 °C for up to 24 h if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125 °C for up to 5 h if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal stabilization of radiation sensitizers, thereby facilitating further development of radiation crosslinkable thermoplastic SMPs.

Hearon, Keith; Smith, Sarah E.; Maher, Cameron A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

2013-02-01

338

Analysis of pultrusion processing for long fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pultrusion is one of the composite processing technology, commonly recognized as a simple and cost-effective means for the manufacturing of fiber-reinforced, resin matrix composite parts with different regular geometries. Previously, because the majority of the pultruded composite parts were made of thermosetting resin matrix, emphasis of the analysis on the process has been on the conservation of energy from various sources, such as heat conduction and the curing kinetics of the resin system. Analysis on the flow aspect of the process was almost absent in the literature for thermosetting process. With the increasing uses of thermoplastic materials, it is desirable to obtain the detailed velocity and pressure profiles inside the pultrusion die. Using a modified Darcy's law for flow through porous media, closed form analytical solutions for the velocity and pressure distributions inside the pultrusion die are obtained for the first time. This enables us to estimate the magnitude of viscous dissipation and it's effects on the pultruded parts. Pulling forces refined in the pultrusion processing are also analyzed. The analytical model derived in this study can be used to advance our knowledge and control of the pultrusion process for fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite parts.

Tso, W.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

1993-01-01

339

A Complex Shaped Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Part Made of Commingled Yarns With Integrated Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the design and one shot manufacturing process of complex shaped composite parts based on the overbraiding of commingled yarns. The commingled yarns contain thermoplastic fibres used as the matrix and glass fibres as the reinforcement material. This technology reduces the flow path length for the melted thermoplastic and aims to improve the impregnation of materials with high viscosity. The tensile strength behaviour of the material was firstly investigated in order to evaluate the influence of the manufacturing parameters on flat structured braids that have been consolidated on a heating press. A good compatibility between the required geometry and the braiding process was observed. Additionally, piezo-resistive sensor yarns, based on glass yarns coated with PEDOT: PSS, have been successfully integrated within the composite structure. The sensor yarns have been inserted into the braided fabric, before consolidation. The inserted sensors provide the ability to monitor the structural health of the composite part in a real time. The design and manufacture of the complete complex shaped part has then been successfully achieved.

Risicato, Jean-Vincent; Kelly, Fern; Soulat, Damien; Legrand, Xavier; Trümper, Wolfgang; Cochrane, Cedric; Koncar, Vladan

2014-05-01

340

An Elastic-Plastic and Strength Prediction Model for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

This paper applies a recently developed model to predict the elastic-plastic stress/strain response and strength of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model combines a micro-macro constitutive modeling approach with experimental characterization and modeling of the composite microstructure to determine the composite stress/strain response and strength. Specifically, it accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length, orientation and volume fraction distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Injection-molded-long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens were prepared for mechanical characterization and testing. Fiber length, orientation, and volume fraction distributions were then measured at some selected locations for use in the computation. Fiber orientations in these specimens were also predicted using an anisotropic rotary diffusion model developed for LFTs. The stress-strain response of the as-formed composite was computed by an incremental procedure that uses the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method, the Mori-Tanaka assumption and a fiber orientation averaging technique. The model has been validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for these long-glass-fiber/PP specimens.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

2008-09-01

341

Field Evaluation of the Potential for Creep in Thermoplastic Encapsulant Materials: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

There has been recent interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; use materials with better corrosion characteristics or with improved electrical resistance. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85 degrees C, though fielded modules may experience temperatures above 100 degrees C. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements (+/- 20 um) and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state during outdoor deployment, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants as they aged. In the case of the crystalline silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced the creep further.

Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.; Samuels, S. L.; Vanderpan, C. E.

2012-06-01

342

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15

343

Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge  

PubMed Central

The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~105?K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the “crystallization nose” were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a “critical heating rate” for the metallic glass of ~1000?K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 100–104?Pa·s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

2014-01-01

344

An Elastic-Plastic Damage Model for Long-Fiber Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes an elastic-plastic damage model that combines micromechanical modeling with continuum damage mechanics to predict the stress-strain response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics. The model accounts for distributions of orientation and length of elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic matrix whose behavior is elastic-plastic and damageable. The elastic-plastic damage behavior of the matrix is described by the modified Ramberg-Osgood relation and the three-dimensional damage model in deformation assuming isotropic hardening. Fiber/matrix debonding is accounted for using a parameter that governs the fiber/matrix interface compliance. A linear relationship between this parameter and the matrix damage variable is assumed. First, the elastic-plastic damage behavior of the reference aligned-fiber composite containing the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite is computed using an incremental Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka mean field approach. The incremental response of the latter is then obtained from the solution for the aligned-fiber composite by averaging over all fiber orientations. The model is validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil

2009-08-11

345

Rheological properties and tunable thermoplasticity of phenolic rich fraction of pyrolysis bio-oil.  

PubMed

In this work we report on the preparation, characterization, and properties of a thermally treated lignin-derived, phenolic-rich fraction (PRF) of wood pyrolysis bio-oil obtained by ethyl acetate extraction. The PRF was characterized for viscoelastic and rheological behavior using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and cone and plate rheology. A unique thermoplastic behavior was evidenced. Heat-treated PRFs acquire high modulus but show low temperatures of thermal flow which can be systematically manipulated through the thermal pretreatment. Loss of volatiles, changes in molecular weight, and glass transition temperature (Tg) were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mass spectrometry (MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Underlying mechanisms for the thermal and rheological behavior are discussed with regard to interactions between pyrolytic lignin nanoparticles present in the system and the role of volatile materials on determining the properties of the material resembling in several aspects to colloidal suspension systems. Low thermal flow temperatures and reversible thermal effects can be attributed to association of pyrolytic lignin particles due to intermolecular interactions that are easily ruptured at higher temperatures. The thermoplastic behavior of PRF and its low Tg is of particular interest, as it gives opportunities for application of this fraction in several melt processing and adhesive technologies. PMID:23424996

Sahaf, Amir; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G; Englund, Karl; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G

2013-04-01

346

Method and apparatus for producing composites of materials exhibiting thermoplastic properties  

DOEpatents

A mobile device for the complete consolidation of layers of material which exhibit thermoplastic properties for the formation of a composite of the layers upon a complex contoured substrate. The principal of the device is to provide heating into the molten temperature range of the thermoplastic material, applying sufficient pressure to the layers to cause flow of the plastic for a time sufficient to achieve full consolidation of the layers, and quickly cooling the structure to prevent delamination or other non-consolidation action. In the preferred form, there is an element to deposit a layer of the mateiral against another layer in close proximity. The two layers are pre-heated to near the melting temperature, and then further heated into the melting temperature range as they are brought into intimate contact with sufficient pressure to cause flow of the plastic for a time sufficient to achieve the full consolidation. The structure is then cooled. The mechanism for the application of pressure is selected such that the layers can be deformed to conform to a complex contour. In the preferred form, this pressurization is produced using a compliant hood that supplies both the pressure and at least a portion of the melting temperature, as well as the cooling. The apparatus, and method of operation, are described relative to the use of fiber-reinforced PEEK in the making of fully-consolidated composites. Other applications are discussed.

Garvey, Raymond E. (Knoxville, TN); Grostick, Edmund T. (Faragut, TN)

1992-01-01

347

Rapid Processing of Net-Shape Thermoplastic Planar-Random Composite Preforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel thermoplastic composite preforming and moulding process is investigated to target cost issues in textile composite processing associated with trim waste, and the limited mechanical properties of current bulk flow-moulding composites. The thermoplastic programmable powdered preforming process (TP-P4) uses commingled glass and polypropylene yarns, which are cut to length before air assisted deposition onto a vacuum screen, enabling local preform areal weight tailoring. The as-placed fibres are heat-set for improved handling before an optional preconsolidation stage. The preforms are then preheated and press formed to obtain the final part. The process stages are examined to optimize part quality and throughput versus processing parameters. A viable processing route is proposed with typical cycle times below 40 s (for a plate 0.5 × 0.5 m2, weighing 2 kg), enabling high production capacity from one line. The mechanical performance is shown to surpass that of 40 wt.% GMT and has properties equivalent to those of 40 wt.% GMTex at both 20°C and 80°C.

Jespersen, S. T.; Baudry, F.; Schmäh, D.; Wakeman, M. D.; Michaud, V.; Blanchard, P.; Norris, R. E.; Månson, J.-A. E.

2009-02-01

348

Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge.  

PubMed

The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~10(5) K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the "crystallization nose" were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a "critical heating rate" for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 10(0)-10(4) Pa · s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

2014-01-01

349

Antimocrobial Polymer  

DOEpatents

A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

2005-09-06

350

Nanomechanics of cellulose crystals and cellulose-based polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose-polymer composites have potential applications in aerospace and transportation areas where lightweight materials with high mechanical properties are needed. In addition, these economical and biodegradable composites have been shown to be useful as polymer electrolytes, packaging structures, optoelectronic devices, and medical implants such as wound dressing and bone scaffolds. In spite of the above mentioned advantages and potential applications, due to the difficulties associated with synthesis and processing techniques, application of cellulose crystals (micro and nano sized) for preparation of new composite systems is limited. Cellulose is hydrophilic and polar as opposed to most of common thermoplastics, which are non-polar. This results in complications in addition of cellulose crystals to polymer matrices, and as a result in achieving sufficient dispersion levels, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the composites. As in other composite materials, the properties of cellulose-polymer composites depend on the volume fraction and the properties of individual phases (the reinforcement and the polymer matrix), the dispersion quality of the reinforcement through the matrix and the interaction between CNCs themselves and CNC and the matrix (interphase). In order to develop economical cellulose-polymer composites with superior qualities, the properties of individual cellulose crystals, as well as the effect of dispersion of reinforcements and the interphase on the properties of the final composites should be understood. In this research, the mechanical properties of CNC polymer composites were characterized at the macro and nano scales. A direct correlation was made between: - Dispersion quality and macro-mechanical properties - Nanomechanical properties at the surface and tensile properties - CNC diameter and interphase thickness. Lastly, individual CNCs from different sources were characterized and for the first time size-scale effect on their nanomechanical properties were reported. Then the effect of CNC surface modification on the mechanical properties was studied and correlated to the crystalline structure of these materials.

Pakzad, Anahita

351

Polymer-based lab-on-a-chip lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of optical transducers is generally considered a key issue in the further development of lab-on-a-chip Microsystems. We present a technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks. The lasers rely on the commercial laser dye Rhodamine 6G as active medium, and the laser resonator is defined in a thin film of polymer on a low refractive index substrate. Two types of devices are demonstrated: solid and microfluidic polymer based dye lasers. In the microfluidic dye lasers, the laser dye is dissolved in a suitable solvent and flushed though a microfluidic channel, which has the laser resonator embedded. For solid state dye lasers, the laser dye is dissolved in the polymer forming the laser resonator. The miniaturized dye lasers are optically pumped by a frequency doubled, pulsed Nd:YAG laser (at 532 nm), and emit at wavelengths between 560 nm and 590 nm. The lasers emit in the plane of the chip, and the emitted light is coupled into planar polymer waveguides on the chip. The feasibility of three types of polymers is demonstrated: SU-8, PMMA and a cyclo-olefin co-polymer (COC) - Topas. SU-8 is a negative tone photoresist, allowing patterning with conventional UV lithography. PMMA and Topas are thermoplasts, which are patterned by nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The lasing wavelength of the microfluidic dye lasers can be coarse tuned over 30 nm by varying the concentration of laser dye, and fine tuned by varying the refractive index of the solvent. This is utilized to realize a tunable laser, by on-chip mixing of dye, and two solvents of different index of refraction. The lasers were also integrated with waveguides and microfluidic networks.

Kristensen, A.; Balslev, S.; Bilenberg, B.; Gersborg-Hansen, M.; Nilsson, D.

2004-12-01

352

Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

2014-01-01

353

Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch and its blends with poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene: influence of morphology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The room temperature mineralization of thermoplastic starch (TPS) with a high glycerol content and its blends with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) are examined under controlled degradation conditions. These results are correlated with the morphologies and continuity behavio...

354

A model for thermoplastic melt impregnation of fiber bundles during consolidation of powder-impregnated continuous fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous fiber thermoplastic matrix composites were fabricated using a novel powder-impregnation process that combined vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) with compression molding. The resulting composite has an average fiber volume fraction of 65%. A model has been developed for the consolidation phase to predict the void fraction of the resulting composite. This model takes into account the fabric unit

Claire Steggall-Murphy; Pavel Simacek; Suresh G. Advani; Shridhar Yarlagadda; Shawn Walsh

2010-01-01

355

2-D Simulations of Orientation in Highly Concentrated Short Glass Fiber Thermoplastic Composites Made by Injection Molding  

E-print Network

Made by Injection Molding Gregorio M. Vélez-Garcíaa , Kevin C. Ortmanb , Aaron P.R. Eberleb , Peter fiber composites is required in order to optimize the mold design of injection molding composites microscopy. Introduction Injection molded, short-glass fiber thermoplastic composites are an attractive

Wapperom, Peter

356

40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production...Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production...Thermoplastic product/Subcategory Organic HAP/chemical name(CAS No...PET using a batch terephthalic acid process ? ? ?...

2011-07-01

357

Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

358

Polymer solutions  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich (Bremen, DE); Miller, Kevin Michael (West Dundee, IL)

2011-07-26

359

High Pressure Gas Permeation and Liquid Diffusion Studies of Coflon and Tefzel Thermoplastics. Revision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life of fluid-carrying flexible or umbilical pipes during service at elevated temperatures and pressures depends inter alia on their resistance to attack by the fluids present and the rate at which these fluids are absorbed by the pipe lining materials. The consequences of fluid ingress into the thermoplastic lining could mean a) a reduction in its mechanical strength, to increase chances of crack formation and growth and thus a loss of integrity, b) the occurrence of permeation right through the lining material, with pressure build- up in the outer pipe wall construction (of flexible pipes) or chemical attack (from a hostile permeant) on outer layers of reinforcements. Therefore it is important within this project to have relevant permeation data for Coflon and Tefzel thermoplastics: the former is plasticised, the latter is not. A previous report (CAPP/M.2) described experimental equipment and techniques used by MERL when measuring high pressure (up to 5000 psi) gas permeation and liquid diffusion through thermoplastic samples cut from extruded bar or pipe, and provided the basic theory involved. Norsk Hydro are also performing gas permeation tests on pipe sections, at up to 100 bars (1450 psi) pressure or so, and reporting separately. Some comparisons between data from Norsk Hydro and MERL have been made herein. The tests should be considered as complementary, as the Norsk Hydro test has the obvious benefit of using complete pipe sections, whilst MERL can test at much higher pressures, up to 1000 bar if necessary. The sophisticated analytical measuring equipment of Norsk Hydro can distinguish the individual components of mixed gases and hence the various permeation-linked coefficients whereas MERL, in using pressure increase at constant volume to determine permeation rate, is limited to obtaining single gas data, or apparent (or representative) coefficients for a mixed gas as a whole. Except for the initial fluid diffusion data for Tefzel described in CAPP/M.2, the present report covers all aspects of fluid permeation and diffusion for Coflon and Tefzel, including all the pen-neation data accumulated in the project to date. Test gases have mainly been methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). More high pressure (HP) gas permeation tests have been performed since the last issue of this report, most being concerned with changes in permeation characteristics brought about by ageing in various relevant fluids. This revision supersedes previous issues.

Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

1997-01-01

360

Applications of polymer extrusion technology to coal processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upon heating, many of the middle-aged bituminous coals exhibit a plasticity very similar to polyethylene for a few minutes. Plastic coal can be extruded, pelletized or molded using common plastics technology and equipment. Investigations concerning the plastic state of coals are conducted with the objective to develop techniques which will make useful commercial applications of this property possible. Experiments which show the characteristics of plastic-state coal are discussed, and problems related to a continuous extrusion of coal are considered. Probably the most significant difference between the continuous extrusion of coal and the extrusion of a thermoplastic polymer is that volatiles are continuously being released from the coal. Attention is given to aspects of dragflow, solids feeding, and melt pumping. Application potentials for plastic coal extrusion might be related to coal gasification, direct liquefaction, and coal combustion.

Lewis, D. W.

1981-01-01

361

High friction from a stiff polymer using microfiber arrays.  

PubMed

High dry friction requires intimate contact between two surfaces and is generally obtained using soft materials with an elastic modulus less than 10 MPa. We demonstrate that high-friction properties similar to rubberlike materials can also be obtained using microfiber arrays constructed from a stiff thermoplastic (polypropylene, 1 GPa). The fiber arrays have a smaller true area of contact than a rubberlike material, but polypropylene's higher interfacial shear strength provides an effective friction coefficient of greater than 5 at normal loads of 8 kPa. At the pressures tested, the fiber arrays showed more than an order of magnitude increase in shear resistance compared to the bulk material. Unlike softer materials, vertical fiber arrays of stiff polymer demonstrate no measurable adhesion on smooth surfaces due to high tensile stiffness. PMID:17026251

Majidi, C; Groff, R E; Maeno, Y; Schubert, B; Baek, S; Bush, B; Maboudian, R; Gravish, N; Wilkinson, M; Autumn, K; Fearing, R S

2006-08-18

362

Laser Surface Pre-treatment of Aluminium for Hybrid Joints with Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightweight construction is a major trend in the automotive industry. Theconnection of fibre reinforced plastics with aluminium is consequently seen as promising prospect. In this regard, thermal joining can be applied for bonding of such hybrid joints. But in order to create a load bearing metal plastic joint, the surface of the metal has to be pre-treated. Recent research has shown that with laser surface pre-treatment high joint strengths are obtained. Yet there are a variety of laser sources and manufacturable surface topographies with structure sizes ranging from macroscopic to nanoscopic profiles. Within this work,macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscopic laser processed structures are created on aluminium and consequently joined to glass fibre reinforced thermoplastics of different fibre length and fibre content. High shear tensile strengths of up to 42 N/mm2 were obtained depending on the allocated material and the surface pre-treatment.

Heckert, André; Zaeh, Michael F.

363

Manufacturing and Process-based Property Analysis of Textile-Reinforced Thermoplastic Spacer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel woven spacer fabrics based on hybrid yarns are suitable for an efficient fabrication of three-dimensional composite structures in high volume production. In this paper, an innovative manufacturing process with short cycle times and high automatisation is introduced for textile-reinforced thermoplastic spacer structures suited for bending load cases. The different process steps hybrid yarn fabrication, weaving technology for three-dimensional textile preforms and consolidation with unique kinematics and hot pressing technology are described in detail. The bending properties of the manufactured spacer structures are evaluated by means of experiments as well as finite element simulations. Numerical parametric studies are performed in order to validate the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the bending stiffness of the spacer structures.

Hufenbach, Werner; Adam, Frank; Füßel, René; Krahl, Michael; Weck, Daniel

2012-12-01

364

Fibre-reinforced composite structures based on thermoplastic matrices with embedded piezoceramic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents recent developments for the integration of piezoceramic modules into fibre-reinforced composite structures based on thermoplastic matrices. An adapted hot pressing technology is conceptualized that allows for material homogeneous integration of the active modules. The main focus of this contribution is on the development of a robust and continuous manufacturing process of such novel active composites as well as on the operational testing of the produced samples. Therefore, selected specimens are manufactured as bending beams and investigated by means of electrical impedance measurements, modal analysis and structural excitation tests. In particular, the functionality of representative specimens is characterized based on frequency as well as spatially resolved deflection measurements. Moreover, the mentioned samples are compared to non-integrated piezoceramic modules and to equivalent passive reinforced composite structures.

Hufenbach, Werner A.; Modler, Niels; Winkler, Anja; Ilg, Juergen; Rupitsch, Stefan J.

2014-02-01

365

Development of an impact- and solvent-resistant thermoplastic composite matrix, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polyimide from BTDA 1,6-hexanediamine and m-phenylenediamine was selected from a prior study for the present study. Methods to prepare prepreg which would provide low void composites at low molding pressures from the thermoplastic polyimide were studied. Cresol solutions of the polyimide were applied to a balanced weave carbon fabric and the cresol removed prior to composite molding. Low void composites were prepared from smoothed prepregs at high pressures (34.5 MPa) and temperatures as low as 260 C. Lower molding pressures lead to higher void composites. Need for a lower melt viscosity in the neat resin is suggested as a requirement to achieve low void composites at low pressures. Some mechanical properties are included.

Delano, C. B.; Kiskiras, C. J.

1985-01-01

366

Bonding and nondestructive evaluation of graphite/PEEK composite and titanium adherends with thermoplastic adhesives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonded single overlap shear specimens were fabricated from Graphite/PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) composite adherends and titanium adherends. Six advanced thermoplastic adhesives were used for the bonding. The specimens were bonded by an electromagnetic induction technique producing high heating rates and high-strength bonds in a few minutes. This contrasts with conventionally heated presses or autoclaves that take hours to process comparable quality bonds. The Graphite/PEEK composites were highly resistant to delamination during the testing. This allowed the specimen to fail exclusively through the bondline, even at very high shear loads. Nondestructive evaluation of bonded specimens was performed ultrasonically by energizing the entire thickness of the material through the bondline and measuring acoustic impedance parameters. Destructive testing confirmed the unique ultrasonic profiles of strong and weak bonds, establishing a standard for predicting relative bond strength in subsequent specimens.

Hodges, W. T.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Berry, M.

1985-01-01

367

Impact-damaged graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a study of the effects of impact damage on compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich graphite-thermoplastic panels are presented. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them, and semi-sandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered in this study. Panels were designed, fabricated and tested. The panels were made using the manufacturing process of thermoforming, a less-commonly used technique for fabricating composite parts. Experimental results for unimpacted control panels and panels subjected to impact damage prior to loading are presented. Little work can be found in the literature about these configurations of thermoformed panels.

Jegley, D.

1993-01-01

368

Thermoplastic deformation of silicon surfaces induced by ultrashort pulsed lasers in submelting conditions  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid theoretical model is presented to describe thermoplastic deformation effects on silicon surfaces induced by single and multiple ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation in submelting conditions. An approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation is adopted to describe the laser irradiation process. The evolution of the induced deformation field is described initially by adopting the differential equations of dynamic thermoelasticity while the onset of plastic yielding is described by the von Mises stress. Details of the resulting picometre sized crater, produced by irradiation with a single pulse, are discussed as a function of the imposed conditions and thresholds for the onset of plasticity are computed. Irradiation with multiple pulses leads to ripple formation of nanometre size that originates from the interference of the incident and a surface scattered wave. It is suggested that ultrafast laser induced surface modification in semiconductors is feasible in submelting conditions, and it may act as a precursor of the incubation effects observed at multiple pulse irradiation of materials surfaces.

Tsibidis, G. D. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH), N. Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton, 70013, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Stratakis, E. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH), N. Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton, 70013, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Aifantis, K. E. [Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2012-03-01

369

Isosorbide, a green plasticizer for thermoplastic starch that does not retrogradate.  

PubMed

Isosorbide is a non-toxic biodegradable diol derived from bio-based feedstock. It can be used for preparing thermoplastic starch through a semi-industrial process of extrusion. Isosorbide allows some technological advantages with respect to classical plasticizers: namely, direct mixing with starch, energy savings for the low processing temperature required and lower water uptake. Indeed, maize starch was directly mixed with the solid plasticizer and direct fed in the main hopper of a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Starch plasticization was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMTA). Oxygen permeability, water uptake and mechanical properties were measured at different relative humidity (R.H.) values. These three properties turned out to be highly depending on the R.H. No retrogradation and changing of the material properties were occurred from XRD and DMTA after 9 months. PMID:25563947

Battegazzore, Daniele; Bocchini, Sergio; Nicola, Gabriele; Martini, Eligio; Frache, Alberto

2015-03-30

370

Treatment of an intraoral bleeding in hemophilic patient with a thermoplastic palatal stent – A novel approach  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of a 13-year old child diagnosed with hemophilia A. He reported with a bleeding wound in the middle part of the hard palate, due to trauma from a lead pencil. An intraoral palatal stent was planned to provide continuous pressure, stabilize the clot and allow local delivery of hemostatic agent. The stent was fabricated with a thermoplastic silicone rubber (biostar) under vacuum. The hemostatic agent used was one 500 mg capsule of tranxemic acid that was crushed and applied as a paste every 6 hourly. The patient was admitted under supervision for 3 days, where Recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) intravenous infusion of 15-25 U/kg twice a day was given. Complete healing was observed in the traumatized area within 10 days. This article emphasizes on prenatal diagnosis, carrier screening and counseling of parents born with hemophilic children. PMID:22096778

Madan, Nidhi; Rathnam, Arun; Bajaj, Neeti

2011-01-01

371

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.  

PubMed

Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 ?m, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

2014-11-01

372

From Process Modeling to Elastic Property Prediction for Long-Fiber Injection-Molded Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental-modeling approach to predict the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). The approach accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in LFTs. LFT samples were injection-molded for the study, and fiber length and orientation distributions were measured at different locations for use in the computation of the composite properties. The current fiber orientation model was assessed to determine its capability to predict fiber orientation in LFTs. Predicted fiber orientations for the studied LFT samples were also used in the calculation of the elastic properties of these samples, and the predicted overall moduli were then compared with the experimental results. The elastic property prediction was based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka method combined with the orientation averaging technique. The predictions reasonably agree with the experimental LFT data

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Holbery, James D.; Smith, Mark T.

2007-09-13

373

Thermal Behaviour of Nanocomposites based on Glycerol Plasticized Thermoplastic Starch and Cellulose Nanocrystallites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to study the thermal behaviour of cellulose nanocrystals/TPS based nanocomposites. Nanocrystalline cellulose was isolated from cotton linters using sonochemical method and characterized through WAXRD & TEM. These nanocrystals were then dispersed in glycerol plasticized starch in varying proportions and films were cast. The thermal degradation of thermoplastic starch/cellulose nanocrystallite nanocomposites was studied using TGA under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermal degradation was carried out for nanocomposites at a rate of 10 °C/min and at different rates under nitrogen atmosphere namely 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 °C/min for nanocomposites containing 10% cellulose nanocrystals. Ozawa and Flynn and Kissinger methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy of these nanocomposites. The addition of cellulose nanocrystallites produced a significant effect on the activation energy for thermal degradation of the composites materials in comparison with the matrix alone. These nanocomposites are potential applicant for food packaging applications.

Kaushik, Anupama; Kaur, Ramanpreet

2011-12-01

374

Influence of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Performance of a Thermoplastic Glassy Polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical Testing of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-TM-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength were all determined as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight (Mc) was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approx. 22000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Furthermore, inelastic analysis showed that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microstructural images supported these findings.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

375

Development of a two-dimensional thermal model for the steady state thermoplastic pultrusion process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional steady state heat transfer model is developed in this report for the thermoplastic pultrusion process. In this model, the finite element method with a stream line diffusion approach is used. The stream line diffusion method will minimize the numerical oscillations when the pulling speed is high and the finite element mesh is coarse. The crystallization kinetics reported by Ozawa is employed to calculate the relative crystallinity and the heat released due to the crystallization process during cooling. It is assumed the taper angle of the consolidation die is small so that the pultrusion can be approximated as an orthotropic material. The volume fractions of void, matrix, and fiber are defined based on material densities and consolidation strains. Examples for pultrusion of APC-2 are studied using this finite element model.

Ruan, Yimin; Liu, Joshua C.; Chesonis, D. C.; Carvell, Lee A.

376

Measurement of internal die pressure distributions during pultrusion of thermoplastic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and use of a thin, disposable pressure sensor designed specifically for monitoring pointwise through-the-thickness consolidation forces developed during composite processing. The unique postage stamp-sized sensor (11.1 mm diameter active gage area and 0.31 mm thickness) can be placed directly at points in or on a laminate where pressure data is desired. The sonsor's small dimensions and low cost permit it to be treated as a disposable item in aerospace and other composite fabrication applications. This paper will illustrate the use of the sensor as a means of measuring the pressures developed inside a die during the pultrusion of a graphite/ULTEM thermoplastic structure, as well as with other pultrusion processing examples.

Fanucci, Jerome P.; Nolet, Stephen C.; Koppernaes, Christian; Kim, Young R.

377

UV-Absorbent Lignin-Based Multi-Arm Star Thermoplastic Elastomers.  

PubMed

Lignin-grafted copolymers, namely lignin-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (lignin-g-P(MMA-co-BA)), are synthesized via "grafting from" atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with the aid of lignin-based macroinitiators. By manipulating the monomer feed ratios of MMA/BA, grafted copolymers with tunable glass transition temperatures (-10-40 °C) are obtained. These copolymers are evaluated as sustainable thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). The results suggest that the mechanical properties of these TPEs lignin-g-P(MMA-co-BA) copolymers are improved significantly by comparing with those of linear P(MMA-co-BA) copolymer counterparts, and the elastic strain recovery is nearly 70%. Lignin-g-P(MMA-co-BA) copolymers exhibit high absorption in the range of the UV spectrum, which might allow for applications in UV-blocking coatings. PMID:25545630

Yu, Juan; Wang, Jifu; Wang, Chunpeng; Liu, Yupeng; Xu, Yuzhi; Tang, Chuanbing; Chu, Fuxiang

2015-02-01

378

Assessment of interfractional prostate motion in patients immobilized in the prone position using a thermoplastic shell  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfractional prostate motion of patients immobilized in the prone position using a thermoplastic shell. A total of 24 patients with prostate calcifications detectable using a kilo-voltage X-ray image-guidance system (ExacTrac X-ray system) were examined. Daily displacements of the calcification within the prostate relative to pelvic bony structures were calculated by the ExacTrac X-ray system. The average displacement and standard deviation (SD) in each of the left–right (LR), anterior–posterior (AP), and superior–inferior (SI) directions were calculated for each patient. Based on the results of interfractional prostate motion, we also calculated planning target volume (PTV) margins using the van Herk formula and examined the validity of the PTV margin of our institute (a 9-mm margin everywhere except posteriorly, where a 6-mm margin was applied). In total, 899 data measurements from 24 patients were obtained. The average prostate displacements ± SD relative to bony structures were 2.8 ± 3.3, ?2.0 ± 2.0 and 0.2 ± 0.4 mm, in the SI, AP and LR directions, respectively. The required PTV margins were 9.7, 6.1 and 1.4 mm in the SI, AP and LR directions, respectively. The clinical target volumes of 21 patients (87.5%) were located within the PTV for 90% or more of all treatment sessions. Interfractional prostate motion in the prone position with a thermoplastic shell was equivalent to that reported for the supine position. The PTV margin of our institute is considered appropriate for alignment, based on bony structures. PMID:23860549

Ikeda, Itaru; Mizowaki, Takashi; Sawada, Yohei; Nakata, Manabu; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Ogura, Masakazu; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

379

Mechanical and structural investigation of isotropic and anisotropic thermoplastic magnetorheological elastomer composites based on poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) (SEBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel smart thermoplastic magnetorheological elastomer composites containing micron-sized magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) particles\\u000a were prepared with a poly(styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) (SEBS) triblock copolymer utilized as the thermoplastic matrix\\u000a rubber, and the structures and properties of the CI-SEBS composites were examined. The CI particles were uniformly dispersed\\u000a in the composites prepared in the absence of the magnetic field at high temperatures T (>T,

Xiushou Lu; Xiuying Qiao; Hiroshi Watanabe; Xinglong Gong; Tao Yang; Wei Li; Kang Sun; Meng Li; Kang Yang; Hongen Xie; Qi Yin; Dong Wang; Xiaodong Chen

380

Polymer Coats Leads on Implantable Medical Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Research Center s Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI) was discovered by accident. While researching resins and adhesives for advanced composites for high-speed aircraft, Robert Bryant, a Langley engineer, noticed that one of the polymers he was working with did not behave as predicted. After putting the compound through a two-stage controlled chemical reaction, expecting it to precipitate as a powder after the second stage, he was surprised to see that the compound remained soluble. This novel characteristic ended up making this polymer a very significant finding, eventually leading Bryant and his team to win several NASA technology awards, and an "R&D 100" award. The unique feature of this compound is the way that it lends itself to easy processing. Most polyimides (members of a group of remarkably strong and incredibly heat- and chemical-resistant polymers) require complex curing cycles before they are usable. LaRC-SI remains soluble in its final form, so no further chemical processing is required to produce final materials, like thin films and varnishes. Since producing LaRC-SI does not require complex manufacturing techniques, it has been processed into useful forms for a variety of applications, including mechanical parts, magnetic components, ceramics, adhesives, composites, flexible circuits, multilayer printed circuits, and coatings on fiber optics, wires, and metals. Bryant s team was, at the time, heavily involved with the aircraft polymer project and could not afford to further develop the polymer resin. Believing it was worth further exploration, though, he developed a plan for funding development and submitted it to Langley s chief scientist, who endorsed the experimentation. Bryant then left the high-speed civil transport project to develop LaRC-SI. The result is an extremely tough, lightweight thermoplastic that is not only solvent-resistant, but also has the ability to withstand temperature ranges from cryogenic levels to above 200 C. The thermoplastic s unique characteristics lend it to many commercial applications; uses that Bryant believed would ultimately benefit industry and the Nation. "LaRC-SI," he explains, "is a product created in a government laboratory, funded with money from the tax-paying public. What we discovered helps further the economic competitiveness of the United States, and it was our goal to initiate the technology transfer process to ensure that our work benefited the widest range of people." Several NASA centers, including Langley, have explored methods for using LaRC-SI in a number of applications from radiation shielding and as an adhesive to uses involving replacement of conventional rigid circuit boards. In the commercial realm, LaRC-SI can now be found in several commercial products, including the thin-layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor (THUNDER) piezoelectric actuator, another "R&D 100" award winner (Spinoff 2005).

2008-01-01

381

High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

1998-01-01

382

Reversible shape memory of nanoscale deformations in inherently conducting polymers without reprogramming.  

PubMed

By using inherently conducting polymers, we introduce new shape memory functionality for stimuli-responsive polymers. The shape memory process is unique in that it utilizes electrochemical control of the polymer redox state to conceal, and temporarily store, preformed nanoscale surface patterns, which can later be recalled. Unlike classical thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polymers, the electrochemical control does not completely perturb the low entropy state of the deformed polymer chains, thus enabling the concept of reversible transition between the permanent and temporary shapes. This is demonstrated using electrochemical-atomic force microscopy/quartz crystal microbalance to characterize the modulation of nanoscale deformations in electroactive polybithiophene films. Experimental results reveal that cation/solvent exchange with the electrolyte and its effect on reconfiguration of the film structure is the mechanism behind the process. In addition to incorporating conductive properties into shape-memory polymers, the ability to reversibly modulate surface nanopatterns in a liquid environment is also of significant interest in tribology and biointerface applications. PMID:21401135

Higgins, Michael J; Grosse, Willo; Wagner, Klaudia; Molino, Paul J; Wallace, Gordon G

2011-04-01

383

A large area nano-gap interdigitated electrode array on a polymer substrate as a disposable nano-biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost nano-gap interdigitated electrode array (IDA) on a polymer substrate has been developed to realize a disposable nano-biosensor for biochemical clinical analysis. Utilizing the common instruments for optical lithography, nano-scale features were fabricated on a thermoplastic polymer to produce an electrochemical nano-biosensor in a disposable format. The IDA was realized on a 3-inch cyclo-olefin copolymer wafer, which illustrates the utility of our fabrication technique as a large-area nanofabrication process for a polymer using low temperature processes. In order to demonstrate the use of the sensor for lab-on-a-chip applications, the developed IDA was integrated with a microfluidic channel and applied for the electrochemical detection of poly-aminophenol with 10-8 M detection limit. The results indicate the developed fabrication technique is suitable for the inexpensive mass fabrication of highly sensitive nano-biosensors for disposable applications.

Shim, Joon S.; Rust, Michael J.; Ahn, Chong H.

2013-03-01

384

High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-performance polymers that have improved processing characteristics, and a method of making them, have been invented. One of the improved characteristics is low (relative to corresponding prior polymers) melt viscosities at given temperatures. This characteristic makes it possible to utilize such processes as resin-transfer molding and resin-film infusion and to perform autoclave processing at lower temperatures and/or pressures. Another improved characteristic is larger processing windows that is, longer times at low viscosities. Other improved characteristics include increased solubility of uncured polymer precursors that contain reactive groups, greater densities of cross-links in cured polymers, improved mechanical properties of the cured polymers, and greater resistance of the cured polymers to chemical attack. The invention is particularly applicable to poly(arylene ether)s [PAEs] and polyimides [PIs] that are useful as adhesives, matrices of composite materials, moldings, films, and coatings. PAEs and PIs synthesized according to the invention comprise mixtures of branched, linear, and star-shaped molecules. The monomers of these polymers can be capped with either reactive end groups to obtain thermosets or nonreactive end groups to obtain thermoplastics. The synthesis of a polymeric mixture according to the invention involves the use of a small amount of a trifunctional monomer. In the case of a PAE, the trifunctional monomer is a trihydroxy- containing compound for example, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). In the case of a PI, the trifunctional monomer is a triamine for example, triamino pyrimidine or melamine. In addition to the aforementioned trifunctional monomer, one uses the difunctional monomers of the conventional formulation of the polymer in question (see figure). In cases of nonreactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have melt viscosities and melting temperatures lower than those of the corresponding linear polymers of equal molecular weights. The lower melting temperatures and melt viscosities provide larger processing windows. In cases of reactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have lower melt viscosities before curing and the higher cross-link densities after curing (where branching in the uncured systems would become cross-links in the cured systems), relative to the corresponding linear polymers of equal molecular weights. The greater cross-link densities afford increased resistance to chemical attack and improved mechanical properties.

Jensen, Brian J.

2005-01-01

385

Polymer/clay/wood nanocomposites: The effect of incorporation of nanoclay into the wood/polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites play an important role in our society. The uses of these composites range from cookware to components for the space shuttle. In recent years, researchers at Toyota developed numerous methods of preparation for composites made from olefins and inorganic fillers such as clay and calcium carbonate. Wood fibers have been used as reinforcing filler in polymer matrices for the past several decades. The advantages of using wood fibers as reinforcing fillers are: the low cost of the fibers (or flour), low density, and resistance to breakage. The disadvantage of using wood as a filler is the thermal instability of wood above 200 °C. The majority of thermoplastics exhibit melting points between 160 and 220 °C, which is in the range of thermal decomposition of wood. Nanoclay was first successfully used as a filler in polyolefin materials by the Toyota research team in early 90s. It was found that the addition of a small amount (< 5 wt.%) of nanoclay increased the mechanical properties of a Nylon-6 matrix dramatically. Since Nylon-6 is a hydrophilic material no compatibilizer was necessary to exfoliate the nanoclay. The use of compatibilizers such as maleic modified polyethylenes (MAPEs) is necessary upon addition of nanoclay to a hydrophobic polyolefin systems such polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP). Few researchers have attempted to reinforce the polymer matrix via the use of the nanoclay for use as a matrix in wood/polymer composites. High molecular weight and low molecular weight MAPEs have been used to enhance the bonding between the nanoclay and the polymer matrix as well as between the wood flour and the polymer matrix. The effects of combinations of the high and low molecular weight MAPEs on the mechanical and thermal properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites (PCNs) and of wood/polymer/clay composites (WPCs) were investigated. The effects of adding nanoclay to wood/polymer systems on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were also investigated. A model based on the Halpin-Tsai model was developed that predicts the (Young's) modulus-temperature relationship of the composites based on discontinuous fillers. It was found that the molecular weight of the compatibilizer significantly affects the exfoliation/dispersion of the nanoclay within the polymer matrix. A compatibilizer containing a high Mw fraction based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and a low Mw fraction based on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was found to be the most effective at enhancing the thermal and mechanical properties of PCNs and WPCs. A compatibilizer containing greater than 60 wt.% high Mw fraction resulted in a 30% increase of the modulus and a 15°C increase of the heat deflection temperature (HDT). The addition of the nanoclay had a detrimental effect on the moduli of PCNs and WPCs when a low Mw compatibilizer based on LLDPE was used. The moduli of these composites increased with increasing high Mw content of the compatibilizer and increasing nanoclay content. The addition of the nanoclay to wood/polymer composites resulted in an increased modulus of elasticity and HDT of these composites. The developed model quantitatively predicts the modulus-temperature relationship of the fiber containing composites. It was found that the modulus of the composites varies linearly with temperature and was highly dependent on the exfoliation of the nanoclay within the polymer matrix.

Hetzer, Max E.

386

Dielectric Actuation of Polymers  

E-print Network

cross-linked polymer networks II. Swelling, The Journal ofswelling ratio is determined by the chemical crosslinking density of the polymer andinto the polymer network. Overall, the swelling ratio with

Niu, Xiaofan

2013-01-01

387

Mechanisms of shark skin suppression by novel polymer processing aids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extrusion rate of polyethylene (PE) with narrow molar weight distribution, as e.g. metallocen catalysed polyethylene (m-PE), is limited by melt fracture. The first level of fracture is a surface defect called sharkskin. Common polymer processing aids based on fluorinated polymers shift the onset of sharkskin to higher extrusion rates by creating a "low energy surface" at the die wall and promoting wall slip. Alternatively, Kulikov et al. [1, 2] suggested thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) for sharkskin suppression, and Müller [3] showed the suitability of some TPEs as polymer processing aids. We investigated the slip velocity of several TPEs against steel, and the slip velocity in a polymeric interface between polyethylene (PE) and TPE by rotational plate-plate rheometry in the Newtonian flow regime. TPEs with lower viscosities showed higher slip velocities against steel. However, the interfacial slip velocities between PE and TPE were found to be viscosity independent. In both cases, the slip velocity was found to be proportional to the applied shear stress.

Wagner, M. H.; Himmel, T.; Kulikov, O.; Hornung, K.

2014-05-01

388

Metal-polymer and polymer-polymer interfaces: Application to conjugated polymer electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of metal-polymer and polymer-polymer interfaces is applied to conjugated polymer electronic devices. Conjugated polymers are a class of organic materials which have metallic or semiconducting properties which are being investigated as alternatives to traditional semiconducting materials. When conjugated polymers are used in devices, the interfaces are found to be critical to device performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and

Julie Anne Osladil Smallfield

2002-01-01

389

Shrinking polymer lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconducting polymers are a rapidly advancing class of optoelectronic materials. They give efficient light emission under optical or electrical stimulation, and offer promise as compact, lightweight and simple to fabricate lasers. The development of such active polymer components complements developments in polymer fibre and planar lightwave circuits opening new directions in polymer integrated optics. In this article progress towards making compact practical polymer lasers is described. The potential for polymer lasers to operate in the space radiation environment is also discussed.

Samuel, I. D. W.; Vasdekis, A. E.; Tsiminis, G.; Turnbull, G. A.; Taylor, E. W.

2007-09-01

390

Application of a purge and trap TDS-GC/MS procedure for the determination of emissions from flame retarded polymers.  

PubMed

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from different thermoplastic polymers used in electrotechnical applications were investigated using a purge and trap procedure that involved adsorption on Tenax GR. Results were compared to those for an operating TV set monitored in a test chamber. The analyses were in both cases carried out using thermodesorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (TDS-GC/MS). Substances identified were monomers, volatile additives, or related compounds. Special attention was given to the detection of halogenated compounds. Their origin was studied using reference samples and synthetic standards. PMID:10834369

Wolf, M; Riess, M; Heitmann, D; Schreiner, M; Thoma, H; Vierle, O; van Eldik, R

2000-09-01

391

New thermoplastic polyolefins elastomers from the novel Multicatalysts Reactor Granule Technology: their relevant physical-mechanical properties after crosslinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new process for the sequential copolymerization of olefins has been devised (Multicatalysts Reactor Granule Technology);\\u000a it allows the synthesis of thermoplastic polyolefin elastomers having polypropylene from Ti-based catalysts and ethylenepropylene\\u000a rubbers from metallocenes. Such new materials have been cured with peroxides an the relevant mechanical properties measured\\u000a in comparison with those of heterophasic copolymers synthesized with traditional catalysts. It

G. Collina; V. Braga; F. Sartori

1997-01-01

392

Laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) by single-mode fiber laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) with a cw IR fiber laser (single-mode fiber laser, average power: 350 W). CFRTP is a high strength composite material with a lightweight, and is increasingly being used various applications. A well-defined cutting of CFRTP which were free of debris and thermal-damages around the grooves, were performed by the laser irradiation with a fast beam galvanometer scanning on a multiple-scanpass method.

Niino, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sato, Tadatake; Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo; Muramatsu, Mayu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Anzai, Kenji; Aoyama, Mitsuaki; Matsushita, Masafumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Nishino, Michiteru; Fujisaki, Akira; Miyato, Taizo; Kayahara, Takashi

2014-03-01

393

Influence of the styrene content of thermoplastic styrene–butadiene rubbers in the effectiveness of the treatment with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three thermoplastic block styrene–butadiene–styrene (TR) rubbers were treated with sulfuric acid to improve their adhesion to polyurethane adhesives. T-peel test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle measurements (water, ethane diol), infra red spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and stress–strain experiments were used to analyze the nature of surface modifications produced in the rubber. The length of the treatment and the neutralization procedure (with and

Carmen M Cepeda-Jiménez; M Mercedes Pastor-Blas; T. P Ferrándiz-Gómez; J. M Mart??n-Mart??nez

2001-01-01

394

Nanostructure Evolution of SIS Thermoplastic Elastomers During Straining as Revealed by USAXS and Two-Dimensional Chord Distribution Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full Paper: A new method for the analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of anisotropic samples is intro- duced in the field of thermoplastic elastomers. It results in a detailed picture of the complex two-phase nanostructure and its range of order as a function of strain. A linear tri- block copolymer from polystyrene and polyisoprene (SIS) and a brominated sample

Norbert Stribeck; Emil Buzdugan; Paul Ghioca; Rainer Gehrke

2002-01-01

395

Interpretations of Polymer-Polymer Miscibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects of polymeric mixtures, mixtures of structurally different homopolymers, copolymers, terpolymers, and the like. Defines concepts of polymer-polymer miscibility from practical and theoretical viewpoints, and ways of predicting such miscibility. (JN)

Olabisi, Olagoke

1981-01-01

396

Variation of mechanical and thermal properties of the thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibers by electron beam processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With restrictions for environmental protection being strengthened, the thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibers (NFs) such as jute, kenaf, flax, etc., appeared as an automobile interior material instead of the chemical plastics. Regardless of many advantages, one shortcoming is the deformation after being formed in high temperature of about 200 °C, caused by the poor adhesion between the natural fibers and thermoplastics. Also, the energy saving in connection with car air-conditioning becomes very important. In this study, the thermal conductivity, tensile strength, and deformation of several kinds of thermoplastic composites composing of 50% polypropylene (PP) and 50% natural fiber irradiated by the electron beam (energy: 0.5 MeV, dose: 0-20 kGy) were measured. The length and thickness of PP and NF are 80±10 mm and 40-120 ?m, respectively. The results show that the thermal conductivity and the tensile strength changed and became minimum when the dose of electron beam is 10 kGy, and the deformation after the thermal cycle were reduced by the electron beam.

Kim, Sok Won; Oh, Seungmin; Lee, Kyuse

2007-11-01

397

Tuning the mechanical properties of composites from elastomeric to rigid thermoplastic by controlled addition of carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

A commercial thermoplastic polyurethane is identified for which the addition of nanotubes dramatically improves its mechanical properties. Increasing the nanotube content from 0% to 40% results in an increase in modulus, Y, (0.4-2.2 GPa) and stress at 3% strain, ?(? = 3%) , (10-50 MPa), no significant change in ultimate tensile strength, ?(B) , (?50 MPa) and decreases in strain at break, ?(B) , (555-3%) and toughness, T, (177-1 MJ m(-3) ). This variation in properties spans the range from compliant and ductile, like an elastomer, at low mass fractions to stiff and brittle, like a rigid thermoplastic, at high nanotube content. For mid-range nanotube contents (?15%) the material behaves like a rigid thermoplastic with large ductility: Y = 1.5 GPa, ?(? = 3%) = 36 MPa, ?(B) = 55 MPa, ?(B) = 100% and T = 50 MJ m(-3) . Analysis suggests that soft polyurethane segments are immobilized by adsorption onto the nanotubes, resulting in large changes in mechanical properties. PMID:21538861

Khan, Umar; May, Peter; O'Neill, Arlene; Vilatela, Juan J; Windle, Alan H; Coleman, Jonathan N

2011-06-01

398

From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers  

PubMed Central

Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications. PMID:24710333

Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

2014-01-01

399

Scattering from Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and understanding from scattering provides a scientific basis of control of polymer properties. This understanding has fueled technological advances in synthetic polymers that have revolutionized our daily lives. This issue of Polymer Reviews focuses on recent advances in scattering instrumentation, data analysis and modeling, and its application to the structure-property characterization of polymers. We highlight research directions where the

Yvonne A. Akpalu

2010-01-01

400

Effects of fiber pre-strain on the healing efficiency of thermoset polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major challenge that has been facing material self healing is how to heal bigger macroscopic or structural scale damage autonomously, repeatedly, efficiently and at molecular length scale. Different approaches have been used to heal materials. However, none of them can heal macroscopic cracks. Our research group has proposed a novel shape-memory polymer (SMP) based, bio-inspired Close-Then-Heal (CTH) scheme to heal macroscopic cracks in SMP matrix. The most recent development in our group is to use SMP fibers to heal conventional thermosetting polymers according to the CTH scheme. The aim of this study is to further investigate the effect of pre-tension of SMP fibers during the cold-drawing programming on the self-healing efficiency of the conventional thermosetting polymer composites. This was done by fabricating a composite with thermoplastic particles (polycaprolactone) dispersed in a thermosetting polymer matrix (Epon 828). Shape memory fiber pre-tensioned into 3 different groups of 0%, 50% and 100% prestrain, was also embedded into the composite in the longitudinal direction. In this composite, the shape memory effect of the shape memory fibers is utilized for sealing (closing) the cracks and the thermoplastic particles are used for molecular-length scale healing. In this study, 7% by volume of thermoplastic particles was used. Beam specimens were prepared and controlled structural length scale damage was created prior to curing by inserting an aluminum foil of designed thickness in a perpendicular direction to the shape memory fibers before the matrix was allowed to cure. The aluminum sheet was removed post cure to leave a controlled damage. The specimen was healed by fixing the two ends of the beam and heating the sample above the Tg of the shape memory fiber. The recovery force of the sample was recorded and then the beam was tested again to fracture. This fracture healing cycle lasted 7 times. The healing efficiency was evaluated per the peak-tensile load. The Ultrasonic C-scan and SEM were used to examine the healed cracks. It was found that the beams with 100% pre-strained fiber were able to recover repeatedly about 50% of its peak tensile strength; the beams with 50% pre-strained fiber, 43%; and the beams with un-stretched fibers were able to recover about 21% of its original peak tensile strength. Also it was found that the higher the pre-tension the higher the recovery stress seen during the healing cycle.

Ajisafe, Oludayo

401

Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.  

PubMed

Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite. PMID:24516593

Kanyas, Selin; Ayd?n, Derya; Kizilel, Riza; Demirel, A Levent; Kizilel, Seda

2014-01-01

402

Nanoparticle and Gelation Stabilized Functional Composites of an Ionic Salt in a Hydrophobic Polymer Matrix  

PubMed Central

Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite. PMID:24516593

Kanyas, Selin; Ayd?n, Derya; Kizilel, Riza; Demirel, A. Levent; Kizilel, Seda

2014-01-01

403

Electrospinning thermoplastic polyurethane/graphene oxide scaffolds for small diameter vascular graft applications.  

PubMed

Fabrication of small diameter vascular grafts plays an important role in vascular tissue engineering. In this study, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/graphene oxide (GO) scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning at different GO contents as potential candidates for small diameter vascular grafts. In terms of mechanical and surface properties, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and hydrophilicity of the scaffolds increased with an increase of GO content while plasma treatment dramatically improved the scaffold hydrophilicity. Mouse fibroblast (3T3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on the scaffolds separately to study their biocompatibility and potential to be used as vascular grafts. It was found that cell viability for both types of cells, fibroblast proliferation, and HUVEC attachment were the highest at a 0.5wt.% GO loading whereas oxygen plasma treatment also enhanced HUVEC viability and attachment significantly. In addition, the suture retention strength and burst pressure of tubular TPU/GO scaffolds containing 0.5wt.% GO were found to meet the requirements of human blood vessels, and endothelial cells were able to attach to the inner surface of the tubular scaffolds. Platelet adhesion tests using mice blood indicated that vascular scaffolds containing 0.5% GO had low platelet adhesion and activation. Therefore, the electrospun TPU/GO tubular scaffolds have the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering. PMID:25686925

Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Cordie, Travis M; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

2015-04-01

404

Large space structures fabrication experiment. [on-orbit fabrication of graphite/thermoplastic beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication machine used for the rolltrusion and on-orbit forming of graphite thermoplastic (CTP) strip material into structural sections is described. The basic process was analytically developed parallel with, and integrated into the conceptual design of, a flight experiment machine for producing a continuous triangular cross section truss. The machine and its associated ancillary equipment are mounted on a Space Lab pallet. Power, thermal control, and instrumentation connections are made during ground installation. Observation, monitoring, caution and warning, and control panels and displays are installed at the payload specialist station in the orbiter. The machine is primed before flight by initiation of beam forming, to include attachment of the first set of cross members and anchoring of the diagonal cords. Control of the experiment will be from the orbiter mission specialist station. Normal operation is by automatic processing control software. Machine operating data are displayed and recorded on the ground. Data is processed and formatted to show progress of the major experiment parameters including stable operation, physical symmetry, joint integrity, and structural properties.

1978-01-01

405

Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins  

SciTech Connect

A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which affects progressively the overall stiffness and strength up to total failure. Each pseudograin is a two-phase composite with aligned inclusions having same aspect ratio. A two-step mean-field homogenization procedure is adopted. In the first step, the pseudograins are homogenized individually according to the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The second step consists in a self-consistent homogenization of homogenized pseudograins. An isotropic damage model is applied at the pseudograin level. The model is implemented as a UMAT in the finite element code ABAQUS. Model is shown to reproduce the strength and the anisotropy (Lankford coefficient) during uniaxial tensile tests on samples cut under different directions relative to the injection flow direction.

Kammoun, S.; Brassart, L.; Doghri, I.; Delannay, L. [Universite catholique de Louvain, institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), 4, av. G. Lemaitre, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Robert, G. [Rhodia Engineering Plastics, Avenue Ramboz, B.P. 64, 69192 Saint-FONS Cedex (France)

2011-05-04

406

Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (NBR/PVC) blend system were used as TPE materials. In order to evaluate the viscoelastic parameters such as loss factor (tan ?) and storage modulus (E?) for the friction material, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were used. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of friction material and brake disc were determined by modal analysis. However, NBR/PVC and SEBS were found to be much more effective in damping behavior. The results from this comparative study suggest that the damping characteristics of commercial friction materials can be strongly affected by the TPE ingredients. This investigation also confirmed that the specimens with high TPE content had low noise propensity.

Masoomi, Mohsen; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Nazockdast, Hossein

2006-09-01

407

DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS  

SciTech Connect

This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

2009-10-30

408

Establishing the relationship between manufacturing and component performance in stretch formed thermoplastic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible manufacturing methods are needed to reduce the cost of using advanced composites in structural applications. One method that allows for this is the stretch forming of long discontinuous fiber materials with thermoplastic matrices. In order to exploit this flexibility in an economical way, a thorough understanding of the relationship between manufacturing and component performance must be developed. This paper reviews some of the recent work geared toward establishing this understanding. Micromechanics models have been developed to predict the formability of the material during processing. The latest improvement of these models includes the viscoelastic nature of the matrix and comparison with experimental data. A finite element scheme is described which can be used to model the forming process. This model uses equivalent anisotropic viscosities from the micromechanics models and predicts the microstructure in the formed part. In addition, structural models have been built to account for the material property gradients that can result from the manufacturing procedures. Recent developments in this area include the analysis of stress concentrations and a failure model each accounting for the heterogeneous material fields.

Santare, Michael H.; Pipes, R. Byron; Beaussart, A. J.; Coffin, D. W.; Otoole, B. J.; Shuler, S. F.

1993-01-01

409

Mechanical and Magnetic Properties of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Filled with Barium Ferrit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) filled with barium ferrite BaFe12O19 nanoparticle. The nanocompasites were prepared via melt blending method using the Haake 600 p internal mixer. The content of the filler is varied from 2-10% by volume fraction. TPNR is a blend of polypropylene (PP), liquid natural rubber (LNR) and natural rubber (NR) at the percentage of volume ratio 70:10:20. The nanocomposites were prepared at 180° C with mixing speed 110 and 13 min mixing time. Tensile properties of the samples were measured using a universal machine, Tensometric 500. The results show that TPNR nanocomposites with only 4% nanoparticles exhibited good mechanical properties. The improvements were about 23.7% for tensile strength 20.1% for Young's modulus and 11.16% for strain respectively. The magnetic properties of TPNR filled nanoparticles was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature and it was found that magnetization (Ms), and remanent magnetization (Mr) increased with increasing ferrite content.

Milad, Mohamed M. M.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.; Yahya, S. Y.; Tarawneh, Mou'ad. A.

2009-06-01

410

Structure and properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on poly(dimethylsiloxane): assessment of biocompatibility.  

PubMed

Properties and biocompatibility of a series of thermoplastic poly(urethane-siloxane)s (TPUSs) based on ?,?-dihydroxy ethoxy propyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for potential biomedical application were studied. Thin films of TPUSs with a different PDMS soft segment content were characterized by (1) H NMR, quantitative (13) C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle, and water absorption measurements. Different techniques (FTIR, AFM, and DMA) showed that decrease of PDMS content promotes microphase separation in TPUSs. Samples with a higher PDMS content have more hydrophobic surface and better waterproof performances, but lower degree of crystallinity. Biocompatibility of TPUSs was examined after attachment of endothelial cells to the untreated copolymer surface or surface pretreated with multicomponent protein mixture, and by using competitive protein adsorption assay. TPUSs did not exhibit any cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. The untreated and proteins preadsorbed TPUS samples favored endothelial cells adhesion and growth, indicating good biocompatibility. All TPUSs adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen in competitive protein adsorption experiment, which is feature regarded as beneficial for biocompatibility. The results indicate that TPUSs have good surface, thermo-mechanical, and biocompatible properties, which can be tailored for biomedical application requirements by adequate selection of the soft/hard segments ratio of the copolymers. PMID:24376027

Pergal, Marija V; Nestorov, Jelena; Tovilovi?, Gordana; Ostoji?, Sanja; Go?evac, Dejan; Vasiljevi?-Radovi?, Dana; Djonlagi?, Jasna

2014-11-01

411

Fibroblastic response and surface characterization of O(2)-plasma-treated thermoplastic polyetherurethane.  

PubMed

Injection-molded samples of thermoplastic polyetherurethane (TPU) were treated with low-temperature oxygen plasma for different processing times in order to enhance cellular attachment for a gastric implant. Its effects were investigated by contact angle measurement, surface topography, cytotoxicity and cell colonization tests. No significant changes were found in the surface roughness of plasma treatment with plasma treatment time of less than 5 min. Longer treatment showed significantly higher surface roughness. It seems that there was a link between the changes in contact angle and enhanced cell growth on the treated surface, although only for the range up to plasma treatment times of 3 min. Prolonged treatment times did not cause any major changes in the water contact angle, but strongly improved the number of growing cells on the surface. Plasma treatment for 3-7 min led to a twofold increase in the number of cells compared to untreated samples and did not significantly alter the WST-1 nor worsened the lactate dehydrogenase activity compared to the control. Thus, it appears that O(2) plasma treatment is a suitable surface modification method for a gastric implant made of TPU in order to improve surface cell attachment where 3-7 min is the recommended treatment time. PMID:20208128

Schlicht, Henning; Haugen, Håvard J; Sabetrasekh, Roya; Wintermantel, Erich

2010-04-01

412

Compatible blends of thermoplastic starch and hydrolyzed ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.  

PubMed

Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with 19% of vinyl acetate and its derivatives modified by hydrolysis of 50 and 100% of the initial vinyl acetate groups were used to produce blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with 30 wt% glycerol. The blends were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, water absorption, stress-strain mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. In contrast to the blends with unmodified EVA, those made with hydrolyzed EVA were compatible, as demonstrated by the brittle fracture surface analysis and the results of thermal and mechanical tests. The mechanical characteristics and water absorption of the TPS were improved even with a small addition (2.5 wt%) of hydrolyzed EVA. The glass transition temperature rose with the degree of hydrolysis of EVA by 40 and 50°, for the EVA with 50 and 100% hydrolysis, respectively. The addition of hydrolyzed EVA proved to be an interesting approach to improving TPS properties, even when very small quantities were used, such as 2.5 wt%. PMID:24751007

Da Róz, A L; Ferreira, A M; Yamaji, F M; Carvalho, A J F

2012-09-01

413

Electroactive behavior of nanostructured polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroactive polymers (EAPs) offer a new class of actuator materials, which display physical response to electrical excitation. EAPs can be classified into two groups based on their response mechanism: electronic EAPs and ionic EAPs. Electronic EAPs respond due to electrostatic or Coulomb forces developed on application of an electric field, whereas ionic EAPs are driven by mobility or diffusion of ions. Electronic EAPs display better properties than ionic EAPs in terms of their high actuation strain, reliability and durability, efficiency, and response time. Dielectric electroactive polymers or D-EAPs produce large actuation strain on application of an electric field due to Maxwell stress effect. D-EAPs have superior performance than other EAPs, which is ascribed to their high actuation strain, fast response time, high energy density, and high efficiency. Acrylic elastomer is known to be superior amongst electric EAPs due to its highest areal actuation strain (˜160 %), highest elastic energy density (3.4 MJ/m3), and highest pressure (7 MPa). Generally, all the D-EAPs require very high electric field for actuation. In this work, we demonstrate that incorporation of a low-volatility, aliphatic-rich solvent (mineral oil) into a nanostructured poly [styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] (SEBS) triblock copolymer yields physically cross-linked micellar networks, known as thermoplastic elastomer gels (TPEG). This nanostructured material exhibits excellent displacement under an external electric field, therefore refers as electroactive nanostructured polymers (ENP). Comparison of the ENPs investigated here with EAPs previously reported, confirms that the ENP217 system with 5 wt% copolymer yields the highest areal actuation amongst all D-EAPs currently known. Dielectric strength of both ENPs (ENP of 217kDa and 161kDa molecular weights) increases with increasing copolymer fraction. The ENPs introduced here exhibit coupling efficiencies that are comparable, if not superior, to existing EAPs. The mechanical hysteresis behavior of the ENPs reveals that under cyclic loading/unloading at constant strain (100 cycles at 400% strain) these materials exhibit far less nonrecoverable strain unlike acrylic elastomers, which suffer from high viscoelastic losses. In fact, ENPs with 5 wt% copolymer do not posses nonrecoverable strain. Comparison of ENPs with homopolymer based EAPs demonstrates that these ENPs exhibit a broad range of composition-tunable electromechanical behavior. An increase in copolymer molecular weight (i.e., the population of polarizable phenyl rings within each micelle and correspondingly the length of the swollen EB midblock) or, conversely, a reduction in copolymer concentration significantly improves actuation strain at low electric field in both ENP series. ENPs investigated in the present work exhibit highly tunable alternatives to conventional homopolymer-based dielectric elastomers. However, these polymeric actuators currently require mechanical prestrain prior to actuation, which restricts their practical application. In this work, we demonstrate that ENPs of a relatively low-molecular-weight SEBS75 triblock copolymer, swollen in the presence of a primarily aliphatic mineral oil, are energy-efficient materials with no (0%) mechanical prestrain. This ENP converts a large fraction of input energy into useful mechanical work more effectively than either (i) ENPs containing high-molecular-weight copolymers of comparable composition; or (ii) EAPs based on acrylic dielectric elastomers under no mechanical pre-strain condition. One such ENP exhibits a high elastic energy density (26 kJ/m3) at 0% prestrain relative to other dielectric EAPs identified so far. Under these conditions, the ENPs afford higher electromechanical coupling efficiencies than the benchmark acrylic elastomers. Mechanical and actuation response of these ENP systems is determined under quasi-static, dynamic and electromechanical loading conditions. Quasi-static properties under tensile and compressive loading, which yield similar results also d

Shankar, Ravi

414

Fabrication, Modelling and Application of Conductive Polymer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging branch of smart materials that possess the capability to change shape in the presence of an electric field. Opportunities for the advancement of knowledge were identified in the branch of EAP consisting of inherently electrically conductive polymers. This dissertation explores methods by which the unique properties of composite materials having conductive polymers as a constituent may be exploited. Chapter 3 describes the blending of polyaniline with conventional thermoplastics. Processing these polyblends into foams yielded a porous conductive material. The effect of blend composition and processing parameters on the resulting porous morphology and electrical conductivity was investigated. These findings represent the first systematic study of porous conductive polymer blends. In Chapter 4, multilayer electroactive polymer actuators consisting of polypyrrole films electropolymerized on a passive polymer membrane core were harnessed as actuators. The membrane is vital in the transport of ionic species and largely dictates the stiffness of the layered configuration. The impact of the mechanical properties of the membrane on the actuation response of polypyrrole-based trilayer bending actuators was investigated. Candidate materials with distinct morphologies were identified and their mechanical properties were evaluated. These results indicated that polyvinylidene difluoride membranes were superior to the other candidates. An electrochemical synthesis procedure was proposed, and the design of a novel polymerization vessel was reported. These facilities were utilized to prepare actuators under a variety of synthesis conditions to investigate the impact of conductive polymer morphology on the electromechanical response. Characterization techniques were implemented to quantitatively assess physical and electrochemical properties of the layered composite. Chapter 5 proposes a new unified multiphysics model that captures the electroactive actuation response inherent to conductive polymer trilayer actuators. The main contribution of this investigation was the proposal and development of a new hybrid model that unifies concepts from charge transport and electrochemomechanical models. The output of the proposed model was compared with published data and shown to be accurate to within 10%. Finally, Chapter 6 demonstrated the application of these materials for use as precision mirror positioners in adaptive optical systems.

Price, Aaron David

415

Effect of high pressure on acoustic properties of several polymers: Use of impulsive stimulated light scattering method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic properties of four polymers compressed to high pressures in a diamond anvil cell were determined using the impulsive stimulated light scattering (ISLS) method. Despite the weak scattering efficiency of these polymers, good signal quality was obtained by using a continuous wave probe and an optical heterodyne detection. We provide, for the first time, longitudinal acoustic velocities up to 5 GPa for two thermoplasts: poly(methyl-methacrylate) and poly(styrene), and two elastomers: poly(butadiene) and triblock copolymer of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene. The longitudinal acoustic velocities for all of these polymers displayed nonlinear pressure dependence. Despite the significant differences in the initial acoustic velocities these velocities converged above 2.5 GPa. This convergence is associated with the ultimate reduction of free volume in the studied polymers. We explored the possibility of measuring shear acoustic waves in these polymers using ISLS in a depolarized geometry. The data obtained here are important for modeling the response of polymers at extreme conditions.

Dreger, Z. A.; Zhou, J.; Dang, N. C.; Gupta, Y. M.

2011-04-01

416

Polymer composites in 2000: structure, performance, cost and compromise.  

PubMed

Polymer matrix composites are based on the combination of stiff, strong reinforcing fibres with either thermosetting or thermoplastic polymer matrices. Since their introduction in the early 1940s, the world market has increased to some 5 million tonnes per annum, and some composites may now be considered commodity materials. The spectrum of fibre-reinforced plastics ranges from very high-performance speciality materials costing more than $1000/kg to these commodity composites, with more modest properties, at less than $10/kg. The performance of composites is determined by the properties of the fibre, the fraction of fibre in the composite and the structure, or fibre architecture. Processing technologies have been developed which maximise fibre content and precisely control the fibre architecture allowing for the manufacture of components with mechanical properties tailored to service requirements. Many composites offer significant advantages in specific stiffness and/or specific strength over metals. This makes them attractive for applications where high mechanical performance and minimum weight are important. However, the wider acceptance of composites is based on their ability to offer a more cost-effective alternative. In particular, composites also allow a dramatic reduction in the parts count in many applications, which leads to significant manufacturing advantages and greater economy. PMID:11207913

Bader, M. G.

2001-02-01

417

Healable thermoset polymer composite embedded with stimuli-responsive fibres  

PubMed Central

Severe wounds in biological systems such as human skin cannot heal themselves, unless they are first stitched together. Healing of macroscopic damage in thermoset polymer composites faces a similar challenge. Stimuli-responsive shape-changing polymeric fibres with outstanding mechanical properties embedded in polymers may be able to close macro-cracks automatically upon stimulation such as heating. Here, a stimuli-responsive fibre (SRF) with outstanding mechanical properties and supercontraction capability was fabricated for the purpose of healing macroscopic damage. The SRFs and thermoplastic particles (TPs) were incorporated into regular thermosetting epoxy for repeatedly healing macroscopic damages. The system works by mimicking self-healing of biological systems such as human skin, close (stitch) then heal, i.e. close the macroscopic crack through the thermal-induced supercontraction of the SRFs, and bond the closed crack through melting and diffusing of TPs at the crack interface. The healing efficiency determined using tapered double-cantilever beam specimens was 94 per cent. The self-healing process was reasonably repeatable. PMID:22896563

Li, Guoqiang; Meng, Harper; Hu, Jinlian

2012-01-01

418

Lipid-absorbing Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

1973-01-01

419

Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Metal/Polymer Composite Filaments and Printing Parameter Study for Fused Deposition Modeling in the 3D Printing Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes were developed in order to observe the thermo-mechanical properties of the new filaments. The acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic was mixed with copper and iron particles. The percent loading of the metal powder was varied to confirm the effects of metal particles on the thermo-mechanical properties of the filament, such as tensile strength and thermal conductivity. The printing parameters such as temperature and fill density were also varied to see the effects of the parameters on the tensile strength of the final product which was made with the FDM process. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the tensile strength of the composites is decreased by increasing the loading of metal particles. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of the metal/polymer composite filament was improved by increasing the metal content. It is believed that the metal/polymer filament could be used to print metal and large-scale 3-dimensional (3D) structures without any distortion by the thermal expansion of thermoplastics. The material could also be used in 3D printed circuits and electromagnetic structures for shielding and other applications.

Hwang, Seyeon; Reyes, Edgar I.; Moon, Kyoung-sik; Rumpf, Raymond C.; Kim, Nam Soo

2014-10-01

420

Processing-microstructure models for short- and long-fiber thermoplastic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research for this thesis has explored the important microstructural variables for injection-molded thermoplastic composites with discontinuous fiber reinforcement. Two variables, the distributions of fiber orientation and fiber length after processing, have proven to be not only important for correct material property prediction but also difficult to predict using currently available modeling and simulation techniques. In this work, we develop new models for the prediction of these two microstructural variables. Previously, the Folgar-Tucker model has been widely used to predict fiber orientation in injection molded SFT composites. This model accounts for the effects of both hydrodynamics and fiber-fiber interactions in order to give a prediction for a tensorial measure of fiber orientation. However, when applied to at least some classes of LFTs, this model does not match all components of experimental fiber orientation tensor data. In order to address this shortcoming of the model, we hypothesize that Folgar and Tucker's phenomenological treatment of the effects of fiber-fiber interactions with an isotropic rotary diffusion contribution to the rate of change of orientation is insufficient for materials with longer fibers. Instead, this work develops a fiber orientation model that incorporates anisotropic rotary diffusion (ARD). From kinetic theory we derive a general family of evolution equations for the second-order orientation tensor, correcting errors in earlier treatments, and identify a specific equation that is useful for predicting orientation in LFTs. The amount of diffusivity in this model used to approximate the effect of fiber-fiber interactions in each direction is assumed to depend on a second-order space tensor, which is taken to be a function of the orientation state and the rate of deformation. Also, concentrated fiber suspensions align more slowly with respect to strain than the Folgar-Tucker model predicts. Here, we borrow the technique of Wang et al. (2008) to incorporate this behavior in an objective fashion in this new model. Model parameters are selected by matching the experimental steady-state orientation in simple shear flow, and by requiring stable steady states and physically realizable solutions. Utilizing two separate techniques, we identify model parameters for three different materials. We then show that once a set of parameters that meets all previously established criteria has been identified, the differences in model behavior are negligible within that set of parameters. The final model with the proper parameter set is suitable for use in mold filling and other flow simulations, and does give improved predictions of fiber orientation for injection molded LFTs. Although significant fiber length degradation in LFTs has been observed both in literature and in this work, there are no quantitative fiber breakage models to predict either fiber length distributions or average fiber length measures. This work reviews the suspected causes of fiber breakage during the processing of discontinuously-reinforced thermoplastics, specifically LFTs, and introduces a phenomenological fiber breakage model based on the buckling force in a hydrodynamically loaded fiber. This breakage model is incorporated into a conservation equation for total fiber length, and a phenomenological model for the evolution of the fiber length distribution is developed. From this model, we also develop separate, approximate models for the evolution of both the number-average and weight-average fiber length measures. By applying these models to both a simple numerical example and a more complex mold-filling simulation, a qualitative agreement between experiment and prediction is observed. Although these results are promising, the breakage models have only been applied to the mold cavity in injection molding simulation. Both a literature review and our experimental data strongly suggest that the majority of fiber length degradation occurs in the earlier stages of injection molding, in the screw nozzle, runners, and gate. A be

Phelps, Jay H.

421

Influence of Structuring by Laser and Plasma Torch on the Adhesion of Metallic Films on Thermoplastic Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study three different types of thermoplastics haven been investigated: polypropylene (PP, used in automotive industry), poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK, used in aerospace applications) and polyethylene (PE, used in medical applications). Surface preparation prior to thin film coating was realized using industrial plasma torch and ultra-short pulse laser. Whereas the plasma torch is a very cost efficient tool the laser light allows precise and localized surface modification. The adhesion measurements of an Al-film deposited on the substrate show that laser structuring can yield in a cohesive rupture. Adhesion can be increased by a factor of 4 to 7 with regard to conventional joining techniques.

Knapp, W.; Djomani, D.; Coulon, J. F.; Grunchec, R.

422

Supramolecular thermoplastic with 0.5 Pa·s melt viscosity.  

PubMed

Design of materials with polymer-like properties at service temperature but able to flow like simple liquids when heated remains one of the important challenges of supramolecular chemistry. Combining these antagonistic properties is highly desirable to provide durability, processability, and recyclability of materials. Here, we explore a new strategy based on polycondensation reactions to design supramolecular polymer materials with stress at break above 10 MPa and melt viscosity lower than 1 Pa·s. We report the synthesis and rheological and mechanical properties (uniaxial tensile tests) of supramolecular polymers based on a multiblock polyamide architecture. The flexibility of polycondensation reactions made it possible to control the molecular size distribution, the strength of hydrogen bonds, and the crystallization of middle and end groups and to achieve targeted properties. PMID:25072654

Agnaou, Réda; Capelot, Mathieu; Tencé-Girault, Sylvie; Tournilhac, François; Leibler, Ludwik

2014-08-13

423

Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

424

Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly ?-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

2013-03-01

425

Transient Microstructure of Low Hard Segment Thermoplastic Polyurethane under Uniaxial Deformation  

SciTech Connect

Microstructure evolution of a low hard segment (<10 mol %) thermoplastic polyurethane (LHS-TPU) has been followed by in-situ wide-angle X-ray (WAX) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAX) with a focus on elucidating peculiar microstructural changes during uniaxial deformation ({gamma} = 1-3.5). For the LHS-TPU, the hard segments, due to their low content and chemical structure, do not crystallize but form glassy regions that act as physical cross-links. Two types of soft segment crystallites are resolved upon elongation via DSC, SAX, and WAX experiments. Phase I consists of a small amount of initial crystallites (<2%) that function similar to conventional PU hard segment domains, deforming at small uniaxial strains ({gamma} = 1-2) to a chevron-type morphology, which exhibit equatorial 4-point patterns in SAX. Phase II evolves at higher deformations ({gamma} > 2) due to strain-induced crystallization. Phase II exhibits a conventional meridional 2-point pattern along the deformation direction with lamellar crystallites aligning in the plane normal to the deformation. WAX, SAX, and DSC confirm that both phases coexist over a small strain window ({gamma} = 1.9-2.5), demonstrating the independent nature of the two crystalline phases. These findings indicate that the LHS-TPU in this study is similar to poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) in its morphological and structural behavior. This is further substantiated by NMR, which reveals that the LHS-TPU consists of 90% soft segments, which are identified as PBA via crystal structure analysis of a highly aligned fiber. The soft segments in the LHS-TPU dominate the morphology and the X-ray patterns upon deformation.

Koerner,H.; Kelley, J.; Vaia, R.

2008-01-01

426

Influence of carbon nanotubes on the properties of epoxy based composites reinforced with a semicrystalline thermoplastic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel ternary nanocomposites based on a thermoset (TS) system composed of triglycidyl p-aminophenol (TGAP) epoxy resin and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) curing agent incorporating 5 wt% of a semicrystalline thermoplastic (TP), an ethylene/1-octene copolymer, and 0.5 or 1.0 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been prepared via physical blending and curing. The influence of the TP and the MWCNTs on the curing process, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid nanocomposites has been analyzed. Different morphologies evolved depending on the CNT content: the material with 0.5 wt% MWCNTs showed a matrix-dispersed droplet-like morphology with well-dispersed nanofiller that selectively located at the TS/TP interphase, while that with 1.0 wt% MWCNTs exhibited coarse dendritic TP areas containing agglomerated MWCNTs. Although the cure reaction was accelerated in its early stage by the nanofillers, curing occurred at a lower rate since these obstructed chain crosslinking. The nanocomposite with lower nanotube content displayed two crystallization peaks at lower temperature than that of pure TP, while a single peak appearing at similar temperature to that of TP was observed for the blend with higher nanotube loading. The highest thermal stability was found for TS/TP (5.0 wt%)/MWCNTs (0.5 wt%), due to a synergistic barrier effect of both TP and the nanofiller. Moreover, this nanocomposite displayed the best mechanical properties, with an optimal combination of stiffness, strength and toughness. However, poorer performance was found for TS/TP (5.0 wt%)/MWCNTs (1.0 wt%) due to the less effective reinforcement of the agglomerated nanotubes and the coalescence of the TP particles into large areas. Therefore, finely tuned morphologies and properties can be obtained by adjusting the nanotube content in the TS/TP blends, leading to high-performance hybrid nanocomposites suitable for structural and high-temperature applications.

Díez-Pascual, A.; Shuttleworth, P.; Gónzalez-Castillo, E.; Marco, C.; Gómez-Fatou, M.; Ellis, G.

2014-08-01

427

Development of an impact- and solvent-resistant thermoplastic composite matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis, moldability and chloroform, acetone and tricresyl phosphate resistance of 16 polymer compositions are described. These aliphatic heterocyclic polymers include polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and N-arylenepolybenzimidazoles. A solution condensation (cresol) method to prepare imidized aliphaic polyimides is described. Two polyimides and one polybenzimidazole demonstrate no crazing or cracking during 500 hr exposure to the cited solvents under stress. Modification of one aliphatic polyimide with several aromatic amines suggests that m-phenylenediamine is singular in its behavior to improve the chloroform resistance of that class of polyimides.

Delano, C. B.; Kiskiras, C. J.

1984-01-01

428

Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates  

SciTech Connect

Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

Schuetz, K., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Hoerber, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Franke, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

2014-05-15

429

Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

Schuetz, K.; Hoerber, J.; Franke, J.

2014-05-01

430

Introduction to Polymer Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the physical and chemical properties of polymers and the two major methods of polymer synthesis: addition (chain, chain-growth, or chain-reaction), and condensation (step-growth or step-reaction) polymerization. (JN)

Harris, Frank W.

1981-01-01

431

Mechanical Properties of Polymers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

Aklonis, J. J.

1981-01-01

432

Dendritic Polyurea Polymers.  

PubMed

Dendritic polymers, subsuming dendrimers as well as hyperbranched or highly branched polymers are well established in the field of polymer chemistry. This review article focuses on urea based dendritic polymers and summarizes their synthetic routes through both isocyanate and isocyanate-free processes. Furthermore, this article highlights applications where dendritic polyureas show their specific chemical and physical potential. For these purposes scientific publications as well as patent literature are investigated to generate a comprehensive overview on this topic. PMID:25475145

Tuerp, David; Bruchmann, Bernd

2014-12-01

433

Effects of programming and healing temperatures on the healing efficiency of a confined healable polymer composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, a biomimetic close-then-heal (CTH) healing mechanism was proposed and validated to repeatedly heal wide-open cracks in load carrying engineering structures by using constrained expansion of compression programmed thermoset shape memory polymers (SMPs). In this study, the effects on healing efficiencies of variation of temperature during both thermomechanical programming and shape recovery (healing) under three-dimensional (3D) confinement are evaluated. The polymer considered is a polystyrene shape memory polymer with 6% by volume of thermoplastic particle additives (copolyester) dispersed in the matrix. In addition to the programming and healing temperatures, some of the parameters investigated include the flexural strength, crack width and elemental composition at the crack interface. It is observed that while increase of the programming temperature is slightly beneficial to strength recovery, most of the strength recovered and damage repair are strongly dependent on the healing temperature. The best healing efficiency (63%) is achieved by a combination of a programming temperature above the glass transition temperature of the polymer and a healing temperature above the bonding point of the copolyester.

Yougoubare, Y. Quentin; Pang, Su-Seng

2014-02-01

434

Ionic liquids as lubricants of metal-polymer contacts. Preparation and properties of the first dispersions of ionic liquids and nanoparticles in polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are high performance fluids that stand out because of a wide range of functional properties and exhibit a great potential for engineering applications. Although they have been employed as lubricants in metal-metal, metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic contacts, in this thesis we present the first study about the use of ILs as pure lubricants in polymer/steel contacts. The tests have established the efficacy of the ILs to reduce friction coefficient and wear rates in a variety of kinds of contacts, and criogenic to high temperature performance. Novel dispersions of ILs in polymers have been obtained with epoxy resin and thermoplastics as matrix. Therefore, the thermal, mechanical and tribological properties of the materials have studied and are discussed in the present thesis. Furthermore, the contents of ILs in the polymer matrix have been studied in relation to the tribological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS), the wear mechanisms that operated in the contacts were established. The novel dispersions showed a reduction in the friction coefficient and wear in comparison with neat polymers, reaching in some cases a decrease of 79%. In the case of thermoplastics such as polystyrene and polyamide 6, the new dispersions showed a reduction in friction coefficient and wear in the same range as that of the ILs when used as external lubricants in the steel/polymer contact. In addition nanoparticles of zinc oxide were used to obtain polycarbonate based nanohybrids with the purpose of improving the tribological properties. Novel nanohybrids of zinc oxide and modified zinc oxide were obtained. The mechanical, thermal and tribological properties were studied. The results of experiments clearly demonstrated that the use of ILs modifies the shape and size of the ZnO nanoparticles, increasing the tribological properties of the novel nanohybrids. Different techniques such as EDS, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS) were used to examine and establish the surface interactions and mechanism that operated between ILs and ZnO. In summary, the results reveal the importance of the processing parameters on the stability of the nature of th