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1

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Effects and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some exposure to gamma irradiation. Non-condensable gas formation from radiation may breakdown water over time and render a portion of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature with accelerated gamma irradiation exposures on the same order of magnitude that is expected in eight years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon; evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some non-condensable gas was evident, however thermosyphon performance was not affected because the non-condensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of non-condensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the non-condensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of selected thermosyphons at temperature and in a vacuum chamber revealed that the non-condensable gas likely diffused out of the thermosyphons over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Goodenow, Debra A.

2012-01-01

2

Investigation of the Vibration Effect on the Closed Two-Phase Thermosyphon Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important problems to be solved while designing aircrafts of various purposes is to maintain the necessary temperature inside them. Besides everything it is necessary to equalize the temperature on the surfaces of various aircraft elements for preventing their deformation. The most promising direction when solving the aforementioned problems is the application of heat pipes as an element of the design. Heat pipes are used as highly efficient heat pipe-lines that, being parts of construction elements, permit to equalize the its temperature . As a result of the experiments, it was possible to prove the possibility of using heat pipes as the means for thermostabilization process of the space vehicle. The extension of the areas of application of heat pipes and thermosyphons has resulted in operating in conditions of vibration effects. It is explained to that vibrations are inherent in some units by its nature. Such installations are the space structures, space station, rockets, air and rocket engines, vessels, other transportation facilities. It is considered, that the vibrations improve the heat and mass transfer processes. Therefore it is customary to neglect of vibration actions goes in margin of safety of action of thermal systems. Actually, in accordance with experiences, the vibrations not only improve the heat change, but also degrade it. Therefore knowledge of the impact of vibrations, intrinsic to the installation, on operational modes of used heat pipes and thermosyphons is necessary for preventing breakdown first of all. One of the way of intensification of heat and mass transfer of processes with phase transitions of working fluid is connected with synthetically created vibration actions. In this case also it is necessary to know frequency bands and amplitudes, which one improve or degrade heat and mass transfer. The research of influencing of vibrations on thermal modes with phase changes of working fluids with reference to heat pipes and thermosyphons goes by two paths. One way of research of operational modes is model of heat pipes or thermosyphons in a different variation of frequencies and amplitudes, designs, heat power, working fluid, types of capillary porous structure and so on. Another one is analysis of influencing of vibrations on processes of vaporization, boiling, condensation, flow of two-phase flows in a general formulation regardless to the particular type of a heat pipes. In the report the outcomes of researches of thermal modes of a water thermosyphons in conditions of vibration effects of different frequencies and amplitudes are presented. The boundary frequency bands and amplitude are determined, at which one heat and mass transfer in thermosyphons is improved and is degraded. For an investigated heat pipes of boundary values of frequencies are equal 60 Hz, and amplitudes are equal approximately 3 or 5 mm. The data of other authors are affirmed for another type heat pipes (they received for boundary frequencies 60 and 120-140 Hz). The outcomes of research of influencing of orientation of a heat pipes and thermosyphons on operating of vibrations are submitted. The idealised substantiation's vibration actions on heat and mass transfer of all three zones of thermal tubes - zone of vaporization, condensation and transport are given.

Prisniakov, K.

2002-01-01

3

Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

2011-08-01

4

Axi-symmetric simulation of a two phase vertical thermosyphon using Eulerian two-fluid methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of steady state operation of a vertical two phase closed thermosyphon is performed using the two-fluid methodology within Eulerian multiphase domain. A full scale axi-symmetric model is developed for computational fluid dynamics simulation of thermosyphon using ANSYS/FLUENT 13.0. The effects of evaporation, condensation and interfacial heat and mass transfer are taken into account within the whole domain. Cooling water jacket is also modelled along with the wall of thermosyphon to simulate the effect of conjugate heat transfer between the wall and fluid phase. The results obtained are presented and compared with available experimental investigations for a similar thermosyphon. It is established that two-fluid methodology can be used effectively for the purpose of simulation of two phase system like a typical thermosyphon.

Kafeel, Khurram; Turan, Ali

2013-08-01

5

Reflux condensation heat transfer inside a closed thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a survey on condensation heat transfer inside a two-phase thermosyphon with a detailed description of fluid flow as well as a review of published experimental and theoretical investigations. An evaluation is given of a total of 2889 data points derived from 18 research works covering a wide range of thermal and geometrical parameters: 10 different working fluids, saturation temperature (14-340 C), pressure (0.04-39.5 bar), inside tube diameter (14-66 mm), length of cooling zone (102-2450 mm), and inclination angle (0-85 deg). Correlations for condensation heat transfer inside a two-phase thermosyphon are proposed. The remaining deviations are found to be due to the effects of shear stress at the liquid-vapor interface, the effects of noncondensable gases, and the effects of a partial flooding of the cooling zone in the case of superfilling the thermosyphon.

Gross, U.

1992-02-01

6

Wall shape optimization for a thermosyphon loop featuring corrugated pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we address the problem of optimal wall-shape design of a single phase laminar thermosyphon loop. The model takes the buoyancy forces into account via the Boussinesq approximation. We focus our study on showing the effects of wall shape on the flow and on the temperature inside the thermosyphon. To this extend we determine the dependency of the flow rate and the increase in temperature, on the geometrical characteristics of the loop. The geometry considered is a set of axially symmetric corrugated pipes described by a set of parameters; namely the pipe inner radius, the period of the corrugation, the amplitude of the corrugation, and the ratio of expansion and contraction regions of a period of the pipe. The governing equations are solved using the Finite Element Method, in combination with an adaptive mesh refinement technique in order to capture the effects of wall shape. We characterize the effects of the amplitude and of the ratio of expansion and contraction. In particular we show that for a given fixed amplitude it is possible to find an optimal ratio of expansion and contraction that minimizes the temperature inside the thermosyphon. The results show that by adequately choosing the design parameters, the performance of the thermosyphon loop can be improved.

Rosen Esquivel, Patricio I.; ten Thije Boonkkamp, Jan H. M.; Dam, Jacques A. M.; Mattheij, Robert M. M.

2012-06-01

7

Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative experiment to study the thermosyphon flooding limits was designed and flown on aparabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtainempirical data for analysis. Current correlation models of Faghri and Tien and Chung do not agreewith the data. A new model is presented that predicts the flooding limits for thermosyphons inearths gravity and lunar gravity with a 95 confidence level of +- 5W.

Gibson, Marc Andrew

2013-01-01

8

Thermosyphon reboiler piping designed by computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing or checking natural circulation for a horizontal thermosyphon reboiler circuit and determining the heat pressures required to assure circulation, although not difficult, is time consuming. In this paper, a program written for a Texas Instrument programmable TI 59 calculator is presented to help reduce the time required for this type of calculation. 5 refs.

1982-01-01

9

Thermosyphon reboiler piping designed by computer  

SciTech Connect

Designing or checking natural circulation for a horizontal thermosyphon reboiler circuit and determining the heat pressures required to assure circulation, although not difficult, is time consuming. In this paper, a program written for a Texas Instrument programmable TI 59 calculator is presented to help reduce the time required for this type of calculation. 5 refs.

Abbott, W.F.

1982-03-01

10

Modeling and optimization of hybrid solar thermoelectric systems with thermosyphons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the modeling and optimization of a new hybrid solar thermoelectric (HSTE) system which uses a thermosyphon to passively transfer heat to a bottoming cycle for various applications. A parabolic trough mirror concentrates solar energy onto a selective surface coated thermoelectric to produce electrical power. Meanwhile, a thermosyphon adjacent to the back side of the thermoelectric maintains the temperature

Nenad Miljkovic; Evelyn N. Wang

2011-01-01

11

Heat Transfer Characteristics in Crank-Shape Thermosyphons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-phase closed thermosyphon is applied to gas-to-gas heat exchangers, the cooling of heat generation devices, the melting of snow, the prevention from icing of water on roads and so on. Generally, straight tubes are used as the thermosyphon. However, because of the limited space for the straight thermosyphon to be installed, it is considered that a bent thermosyphon is enforced to employ. In response to this, fundamental experiments are conducted on the heat transfer characteristics in a two-phase crank shape closed thermosyphon, in which an evaporator and a condenser are vertically positioned, and a connecting adiabatic section is horizontal. Ethylene glycol aqueous solutions which have lower freezing points and hydrofluoroether 7100 and 7200 which do not contain chloride are used as the working fluids Heat transfer coefficients and critical heat fluxes in the thermosyphon are measured by changing the amount of charged working fluid (0.30,0.40,0.50 and 0.60 of the evaporator volume),the temperature of the adiabatic section (40,50,60,70 and 80°C) and heat flux (from 4.0 kW /m2 to critical). The experimental results are shown and compared with those taken using water as the working fluid.

Imura, Hedeaki; Koito, Yasushi

12

Development of a naturally aspired thermosyphon for power amplifier cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the early development steps of a two-phase thermosyphon thermal management solution for power amplifiers (PA) in the telecommunication industry. These components, attached to a vertical PCB within an enclosure between the RF filter and a natural or forced convection heat sink, dissipate a large amount of heat with a high heat flux density. Currently cooled by direct contact to a shared heat sink, they tend to spread heat towards other components of their board, affecting their reliability. A thermosyphon thus appear as an ideal thermal management solution to transport the heat from the power amplifiers in order to dissipate it to a remote and dedicated natural convection heat sink. In the present study, the performance and the heat spreading of a forced convection unit is measured. A thermosyphon solution is then designed with a flat vertical evaporator and a radial natural convection heat sink and condenser. The performance of the thermosyphon thermal management solution is measured and compared to the initial solution. The limits and improvement needs of the thermosyphon solution are then discussed.

Siedel, S.; Robinson, A. J.; Kempers, R.; Kerslake, S.

2014-07-01

13

Application of silver nanofluid containing oleic acid surfactant in a thermosyphon economizer  

PubMed Central

This article reports a recent study on the application of a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) in a thermosyphon for economizer (TPEC). The TPEC had three sections of equal size; the evaporator, the adiabatic section, and the condenser, of 250 mm × 250 mm × 250 mm (W × L × H). The TPCT was a steel tube of 12.7-mm ID. The filling ratios chosen to study were 30, 50, and 80% with respect to the evaporator length. The volumetric flow rates for the coolant (in the condenser) were 1, 2.5, and 5 l/min. Five working fluids investigated were: water, water-based silver nanofluid with silver concentration 0.5 w/v%, and the nanofluid (NF) mixed with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 w/v% of oleic acid (OA). The operating temperatures were 60, 70, and 80°C. Experimental data showed that the TPEC gave the highest heat flux of about 25 kW/m2 and the highest effectiveness of about 0.3 at a filling ratio of 50%, with the nanofluid containing 1 w/v% of OA. It was further found that the effectiveness of nanofluid and the OA containing nanofluids were superior in effectiveness over water in all experimental conditions came under this study. Moreover, the presence of OA had clearly contributed to raise the effectiveness of the nanofluid. PMID:21711856

2011-01-01

14

Thermosyphon coil arrangement for heat pump outdoor unit  

DOEpatents

For a heat pump, the outdoor unit is provided with a coil and a refrigerant flow arrangement therefor which is such that in the heating mode of operation of the heat pump they operate in a thermosyphon fashion. The coil 32 has a feed portion 30 and an exit portion 34 leading to a separator drum 36 from which liquid refrigerant is returned through downcomer line 42 for recirculation to the feed portion. The coil is tilted upwardly from entry to exit by the angle alpha to enhance the clearance of the two phases of refrigerant from each other in the heating mode of operation. There is no thermosyphon function in the cooling mode of operation.

Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA)

1984-01-01

15

Study of a Variable Conductance Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon With Two-Component Working Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a numerical investigation is performed on a two-phase closed thermosyphon. Particular attention is given to the condenser section. The working fluid is a binary mixture that consists of two components (R11 + R113) causing a variable conductance behavior in the thermosyphon. The mass, energy, and species conservation equations in conjunction with the overall mass conservation and continuity

S. Moaveninejad; M. M. Heyhat

2010-01-01

16

Heat transfer characteristics of the two-phase closed thermosyphon (wickless heat pipe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady-state heat transfer characteristics and heat transfer limits (dry-out) for a vertical stainless steel tubular two-phase closed thermosyphon with Freon-113 working fluid are reported as a function of certain geometric parameters and liquid fill quantity. Condenser section heat transfer characteristics agreed reasonably well with existing laminar film condensation correlations and were found to be independent of the evaporator section, except for larger liquid fills. Evaporator characteristics were quite complex and appeared, under some conditions, to be coupled to condenser characteristics through effects of system pressure and/or surface wave as present on the descending condensate film. A laminar thin film evaporation model was found to give reasonable agreement with local evaporator temperature measurements in those regions of the evaporator where a continuous film apparently persisted. The measured heat transfer characteristics are interpreted relative to an earlier investigation by the authors in which flow characteristics in a similar device were visually and photographically observed.

Andros, F. E.; Florschuetz, L. W.

17

Analysis of thermosyphoning in a steam generator model  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of thermosyphoning in a stream generator model is presented. The model considers the transient development of buoyancy-driven steam flow in the steam generator tubing, secondary side heat transfer and an inlet plenum mixing model. Numerical solutions are obtained for conditions intended to simulate the natural circulation phenomena in a 3-Loop pressurized water reactor in a loss-of-coolant accident scenario. The relation between the circulation rate and the heating rate is determined. The sensitivity of the model to various key parameters is examined. 16 refs.

Martinez, M.J.; Martinez, G.M.

1991-10-01

18

A parametric study of heat transfer within a planar thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a parametric study for a planar thermosyphon are presented. The thermosyphon consists of a 'U-shaped' geometry, with the center portion of the 'U' being a solid. The outer legs of the 'U' are the flow channels. One of the outer surfaces of a channel is held at a constant temperature. The remaining outer surfaces are considered adiabatic. The configuration described is characteristic of passive systems for radioactive waste storage and reactor safety systems. Parameters which are varied include the channel geometry, the thermal conductivity of the solid, and the Ra number. The average Nu number for the constant temperature surface decreases as the inlet channel width decreases, and as the thermal conductivity of the solid increases. A modified Ra number, defined as the Ra number divided by the length to gap ratio for the outer channel, is used in the paper. At low values of the modified Ra number, there is over an order of magnitude decrease in the average Nu number for a change in the inlet channel width from 1.0 to 0.25. But as the value of the modified Ra number increases for any inlet channel width, the average Nu number results approaches those of vertical parallel plates, independent of the inlet channel width and the thermal conductivity of the solid. The vertical parallel plate data is approached because the boundary layer flow near the heated plate is unaffected by the surface of the intervening solid.

Clarksean, R.; Phillips, G.

19

The measured performance of an air thermosyphon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of performance tests of a solar thermosyphon test cell are reported. The test cell comprised a structure on a concrete slab with fiberglass insulated walls. The north wall consisted of a styrofoam-insulated gravel-filled box, while the south wall featured double glazing over metal solar collectors. The ceiling was ducted to provide air flow from the south collector to the rock storage, and an air channel was built into the floor. A numerical model was developed of the expected performance of the cell, using an Euler technique to solve the transient energy and momentum equations. The temperature was monitored at various points of the structure and flow visualization studies were made with titanium tetrachloride. Heat was found to be stored in the upper portion of the rock box, which because of its size also inhibited circulation. Thermal comfort was determined to be available due to warm surfaces, rather than warm air.

Marshall, L. S.; Burns, P. J.; Winn, C. B.

20

Heat transfer performance of an inclined two-phase closed thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study on the heat transfer performance of an inclined two-phase closed thermosyphon is described. Water and ethanol have been used as the working fluids. The amount of working fluid and the inclination angle have been used as the experimental parameters. A visualization of the movement of liquid with boiling, the scattering of liquid drops and the condensation of vapor has made clear the heat transfer mechanism in the thermosyphon. In addition, the overall heat transfer coefficients and the thermal diode characteristics have been obtained.

Negishi, K.; Sawada, T.

1983-08-01

21

An Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Coefficients of a CO2Filled Thermosyphon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because carbon dioxide is ozone friendly and has negligible global warming potential, it has received renewed interest in recent years as an important alternative refrigerant. In this article, the heat transfer characteristics of a carbon dioxide-filled two-phase closed thermosyphon were investigated experimentally, and the empirical heat transfer correlations are reported. The heat transfer data were analyzed, and heat transfer coefficients

S. J. Jeong

2011-01-01

22

A flow boiling microchannel thermosyphon for fuel cell thermal management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide a high power density thermal management system for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications, a passively driven thermal management system was assembled to operate in a closed loop two-phase thermosyphon. The system has two major components; a microchannel evaporator plate and a condenser. The microchannel evaporator plate was fabricated with 56 square channels that have a 1 mm x 1 mm cross section and are 115 mm long. Experiments were conducted with a liquid cooled condenser with heat flux as the control variable. Measurements of mass flow rate, temperature field, and pressure drop have been made for the thermosyphon loop. A model is developed to predict the system characteristics such as the temperature and pressure fields, flow rate, flow regime, heat transfer coefficient, and maximum heat flux. When the system is subjected to a heat load that exceeds the maximum heat flux, an unstable flow regime is observed that causes flow reversal and eventual dryout near the evaporator plate wall. This undesirable phenomenon is modeled based on a quasi-steady state assumption, and the model is capable of predicting the heat flux at the onset of instability for quasi-steady two-phase flow. Another focus of this work is the performance of the condenser portion of the loop, which will be air cooled in practice. The aim is to reduce air side thermal resistance and increase the condenser performance, which is accomplished with extended surfaces. A testing facility is assembled to observe the air side heat transfer performance of three aluminum foam samples and three modified carbon foam samples, used as extended surfaces. The aluminum foam samples have a bulk density of 216 kilograms per cubic meter with pore sizes of 0.5, 1, and 2 mm. The modified carbon foam samples have bulk densities of 284, 317, and 400 kilograms per cubic meter and machined flow passages of 3.2 mm. in diameter. Each sample is observed under forced convection with air velocity as the control variable. Thermocouples and pressure taps are distributed axially along the test section and measurements of pressure and temperature are recorded for air velocities ranging from 1-6 meters per second. Using the Darcy-Forcheimer equation, the porosity is determined for each sample. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient is extracted by means of solving the coupled energy equations of both the solid and fluid respectively. Nusselt number is correlated with Reynolds number. The optimal foam configuration is explored based on a Coefficient of Performance, (COP), Compactness Factor (CF) and Power Density (PD). The COP is the ratio of total heat removed to electrical heat consumption of the blower, CF is the total heat removed per unit volume, and PD is the total heat removed per unit mass. These performance parameters are computed for a hypothetical heat exchanger using each foam sample at various fluid velocities. They are also compared against those for the hypothetical heat exchanger fitted with conventional louvered fins. Given a proper weighting function based on the importance of CF, COP, and PD in the condenser design, an optimal configuration for an air cooled condenser can be obtained for various operating conditions.

Garrity, Patrick Thomas

23

Thermal Interface Evaluation of Heat Transfer from a Pumped Loop to Titanium-Water Thermosyphons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in the heat rejection system for lunar outpost fission surface power. Key to their use is heat transfer between a closed loop heat source and the heat pipe evaporators. This work describes laboratory testing of several interfaces that were evaluated for their thermal performance characteristics, in the temperature range of 350 to 400 K, utilizing a water closed loop heat source and multiple thermosyphon evaporator geometries. A gas gap calorimeter was used to measure heat flow at steady state. Thermocouples in the closed loop heat source and on the evaporator were used to measure thermal conductance. The interfaces were in two generic categories, those immersed in the water closed loop heat source and those clamped to the water closed loop heat source with differing thermal conductive agents. In general, immersed evaporators showed better overall performance than their clamped counterparts. Selected clamped evaporator geometries offered promise.

Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

2009-01-01

24

Thermal-Hydraulic Mockup Tests with Two-Phase Thermosyphon for Cold Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement and utilization promotion project of the Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR-II) is carrying out at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). The Cold Neutron Source (CNS) with a two-phase thermosyphon will be installed in the heavy water reactor of TRR-II. The hydrogen cold loop of TRR-II CNS consists of a cylindrical moderator cell, a single transfer tube, and

C. H. Lee; Y. K. Chan; D. J. Lee; C. J. Chang; W. T. Hong

2002-01-01

25

Thermosyphon Cooling System for the Siemens 400kW HTS Synchronous Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial GM cryocooler is employed to cool the rotor of the first Siemens 400 kW HTS machine. Excellent thermal connection between cold head and rotor is achieved using a thermosyphon. At the rotor's inner surface the required cooling power is provided by evaporating fluid, that is recondensed at the coldhead. Our configuration allows an easy mechanical decoupling of the stationary cold head and the rotor, using a magnetic liquid rotary seal. In order to shorten cool-down time, a precool to 70 K is done with a thermosyphon filling of nitrogen, while a motor operating temperature of 25 K is reached using neon. Temperature difference between the thermosyphon's cold and warm ends is below 1 K for a heat transfer of 40 W. During operation, a temperature controller stabilizes condenser temperature and hence rotor temperature. The self-regulating cooling system has been operated continuously and without problems since Spring 2001. The machine was also operated with newly developed pulse-tube cryocoolers, that are in development to take benefit of their expected prolonged service intervals.

Frank, M.; Frauenhofer, J.; Gromoll, B.; van Haßelt, P.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumüller, H.-W.; Häfner, H.-U.; Thummes, G.

2004-06-01

26

RELAP5 Model of a Two-phase ThermoSyphon Experimental Facility for Fuels and Materials Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) does not have a separate materials-irradiation flow loop and requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed inside a containment. This is necessary to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. As part of the safety basis justification, HFIR also requires that all experiments be able to withstand various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. As with any parallel flow system, HFIR is vulnerable to flow excursion events when vapor is generated in one of those flow paths. The effects of these requirements are to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant and to reduce experiment heat loads to ensure boiling doesn t occur. A new experimental facility for materials irradiation and testing in the HFIR is currently being developed to overcome these limitations. The new facility is unique in that it will have its own internal cooling flow totally independent of the reactor primary coolant and boiling is permitted. The reactor primary coolant will cool the outside of this facility without contacting the materials inside. The ThermoSyphon Test Loop (TSTL), a full scale prototype of the proposed irradiation facility to be tested outside the reactor, is being designed and fabricated (Ref. 1). The TSTL is a closed system working as a two-phase thermosyphon. A schematic is shown in Fig. 1. The bottom central part is the boiler/evaporator and contains three electric heaters. The vapor generated by the heaters will rise and be condensed in the upper condenser, the condensate will drain down the side walls and be circulated via a downcomer back into the bottom of the boiler. An external flow system provides coolant that simulates the HFIR primary coolant. The two-phase flow code RELAP5-3D (Ref. 2) is the main tool employed in this design. The model has multiple challenges: boiling, condensation and natural convection flows need to be modeled accurately.

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

27

A novel MHD electrical generator using turbulent hydromagnetic flow in a side-heated thermosyphonic loop  

SciTech Connect

A direct energy conversion from thermal to electrical is envisioned in using a thermosyphonic hydromagnetic closed loop flow as an electrical generator. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are typically based on pressure driven electrically conducting liquid flow in a channel passing between poles of a magnet. The suggested generator in this work differs in using thermosyphon driven turbulent motion in a side-heated closed loop, thus combining in a single unit the functions of a turbine and generator and eliminating the use of a pump while permitting operation at very high temperatures. An analytical one-dimensional model is developed to predict the hydrodynamic characteristics of the suggested MHD generator where a steady turbulent thermosyphonic side-heated loop containing an electrically conducting fluid is placed in a transverse magnetic field. The analytical model, which is based on the use of the Branover turbulent hydromagnetic flow solution for estimation of the wall shear stress, correlates the induced flow velocity and induced electrical current by buoyant action in terms of the relevant flow and geometric parameters. The study covers ranges of the Grashof number, Gr, from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 16}, the Hartmann number, Ha, from 0 to 200, and the Prandtl number, Pr, from 0.02 to 7. It is found that the induced electric current increases sharply with increased Hartmann number at low values and then as Ha is increased further, the induced current either decreases or increases at a much lower rate depending on the Grashof number and the Prandtl number. The results are used to find an optimal Hartmann number, i.e. the smallest Hartmann number that gives the maximum induced electric current. The optimal Hartmann number increases with increased Grashof number. The existence of an optimal Hartmann number is significant in optimizing the MHD loop efficiency of conversion from thermal/mechanical to electrical energy.

Ghaddar, N.

1998-07-01

28

Experimental investigation of a thermoelectric refrigeration system employing a phase change material integrated with thermal diode (thermosyphons)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of phase change materials (PCMs) integrated with thermosyphons in a thermoelectric refrigeration system. The work involved design, fabrication and test of a 150 W thermoelectric refrigeration system. The system was first fabricated and tested using a conventional heat sink system (bonded fin heat sink system) at the

S. A Omer; S. B Riffat; Xiaoli Ma

2001-01-01

29

A Thermosyphon Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Design for a Lunar Surface Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long titanium-water thermosyphon heat pipe was designed and tested in support of NASA's lunar surface power system. With a ?T of 11.6 C, a prototype has been shown to meet the temperature drop specification of 15 C at 400 W and 400 K. The heat pipe is designed to be embedded in a composite radiator panel to spread waste heat delivered by a circulating pumped loop. The major challenge was managing the fluid inventory to balance the conflicting requirements of power capacity and freeze-thaw tolerance. A unique hybrid wick was designed to achieve the required thermal performance and yet store all the working fluid during idle periods in a freeze-thaw tolerant fashion. A non-condensable gas charge was used to boost power capacity at lower operating temperatures. Eighteen prototypes will be built and tested.

Thayer, John; Semenov, Sergey

2009-03-01

30

Non-Isothermal Experimental Study of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical techniques to study non-isothermal transport processes in the constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon (CVBT) were developed using a pentane/quartz system. The transport processes can be evaluated by measuring the liquid film profile, which gives the pressure field, and the temperature field. The axial variation in the capillary pressure was measured using an image-analyzing interferometer that is based on computer-enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. Thermoelectric coolers were used to control the temperature level in the condensation region and, therefore, the length of the approximately 'adiabatic' surface region which is a function of the temperature difference between the CVBT surface and the surroundings. High values for the axial thermal conductance in the 'adiabatic' surface region were demonstrated under certain conditions.

Karthikeyan, Muthu; Huang, Jianming; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter, Jr.

1996-01-01

31

Complete transient two-dimensional analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphons including the falling condensate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient two-dimensional thermosyphon model is presented that accounts for conjugate heat transfer through the wall and the falling condensate film. The complete transient two-dimensional conservation equations are solved for the vapor flow and pipe wall, and the liquid film is modeled using a quasi-steady Nusselt-type solution. The model is verified by comparison with existing experimental data for a low-temperature

C. Harley; A. Faghri

1994-01-01

32

Interfacial Force Field Characterization in a Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in the earth's gravitational field using an image-analyzing interferometer that is based on computer-enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. These profiles are a function of the stress field. Experimentally, the augmented Young-Laplace equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces for heptane and pentane menisci on quartz and tetradecane on SFL6. The effects of refractive indices of the solid and liquid on the measurement techniques were demonstrated. Experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and dispersion constants were compared to those predicted from the Dzyaloshinskii - Lifshitz - Pilaevskii theory for an ideal surface and reasonable agreements were obtained. A parameter introduced gives a quantitative measurement of the closeness of the system to equilibrium. The nonequilibrium behavior of this parameter is also presented

DasGupta, Sunando; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

1995-01-01

33

A Study of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this effort is to better understand the physics of evaporation, condensation, and fluid flow as they affect the heat transfer processes in a constrained vapor bubble heat exchanger (CVBHX). This CVBHX consists of a small enclosed container with a square cross section (inside dimensions. 3 x 3 x 40 mm) partially filled with a liquid. The major portion of the liquid is in the corners, which act as arteries. When a temperature difference is applied to the ends of the CVBHX, evaporation occurs at the hot end and condensation at the cold end resulting in a very effective heat transfer device with great potential in space applications. Liquid is returned by capillary flow in the corners. A complete description of the system and the results obtained to date are given in the papers listed.

Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Plawsky, J. L.

2000-01-01

34

Determination of the dispersion constant in a constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in a gravitational field using an image analyzing interferometer which is based on computer enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. The experimental results for heptane and pentane menisci were analyzed using the extended Young Laplace Equation. These isothermal results characterized the interfacial force field in-siru at the start of the heat transfer experiments by quantifying the dispersion constant, which is a function of the liquid-solid system and cleaning procedures. The experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and the dispersion constants were compared to that predicted from the DLP theory and good agreements were obtained. The measurements are critical to the subsequent non-isothermal experiments because one of the major variables in the heat sink capability of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon, CVBT, is the dispersion constant. In all previous studies of micro heat pipes the value of the dispersion constant has been 'estimated'. One of the major advantages of the current glass cell is the ability to view the extended meniscus at all times. Experimentally, we find that the extended Young-Laplace Equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces.

Dasgupta, Sunando; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

1995-01-01

35

Economical and Technical Viability of a Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater in Cote D` Ivoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a comparative study between solar water heater energy and classical sources of domestic hot water production. This study shows that Solar Water Heater (SWH) could be more competitive if the purchase price was reduced. In order to strengthen local technical capacity, to accelerate dissemination and insure appropriation of SWH technology as well as to stimulate acceptance of other solar technologies in Cote d`Ivoire, we propose an innovated design of a thermosyphon solar water heater, using available local materials in order to reduce cost. A prototype of the study SWH has been built and tested experimentally. The results show that the system is suitable for application in Cote d`Ivoire weather conditions. All those performances, combined with manufacturing simplicity and the absence of moving parts, make the system an interesting technological solution. The results can then be used for the dissemination of the system. The economic study confirms the viability and the real potential market of the locally manufactured SWH. The purchase cost is 2.0 times lower than the imported ones.

Sako, M. K.; N`Guessan, Y.; Andoh, H. Y.; Koffi, P. M. E.; Gbaha, P.; Sangare, M. K.

36

THERMOSYPHON BATCH AND REGENERATIVE TURBINE RECIRCULATING 18 O(P,N) 18 F WATER TARGETS FOR OPERATION AT HIGH BEAM POWER  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: Improved boiling water target designs and body materials for the production of ( 18 F)fluoride ion have evolved steadily over the last two decades (1), and reliable operation at beam power up to one kilowatt has been achieved. Our goal is to extend this beam power limit to two kW for boiling water targets through use of the thermosyphon

BW Wieland; BC Wright; GT Bida; CD Illan; JM Doster; JC Clark; RC Runkle

37

Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of 4W with the moderator temperature reaching a maximum of 44K, which is the critical temperature for the operating fluid neon. The cooling system that was used in the TCNS cooling system was a two-phase closed thermosyphon with a reservoir (TPCTR). The reservoir containing neon gas is kept at room temperature. In this study a detailed thermal analysis of the fundamental operating principles of a TPCTR were carried out. A detailed parametric study of the various geometric and thermo-physical factors that affect the limits of the operational capacity of the TPCTR investigated. A CFD analysis is carried out in order to further refine the heat transfer analysis and understand the flow structure inside the thermosyphon and the two-phase nucleate boiling in the evaporator section of the thermosyphon. In order to help the new design, a variety of ways of increasing the operating range and heat removal capacity of the TPCTR cooling system were analyzed so that it can accommodate the anticipated heat load of 10W or more. It is found, for example, that doubling the pressure of the system will increase the capacity index zeta by 50% for a system with an initial fill ratio FR of 1. A decrease in cryorefrigeration performance angle increases the capacity index. For example taking the current condition of the TCNS system and reducing the angle from the current value of ˜700 by half (˜350) will increase the cooling power 300%. Finally based on detailed analytic and CFD analysis the best operating condition were proposed.

Habte, Melaku

38

Effect of non-condensable gas on vapor flow in the condenser of VCHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental study of the effect of noncondensable gas on a vapor flow in the condenser region of VCHP (variable conductance heat pipe) was conducted experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, a specific thermosyphon or a wickless VCHP model was fabricated which has a condenser of rectangular cross sectional area to realize two-dimensional flow field. Detailed flow field surveys conducted

Yasunori Kobayashi; Akira Okumura; Toshihisa Matsue

1989-01-01

39

14th International Heat Pipe Conference (14th IHPC), Florianpolis, Brazil, April 22-27, 2007. TWO-PHASE CLOSED THERMOSYPHON WITH NANOFLUIDS  

E-print Network

that nanofluids exhibit [2]: (i) Enhanced thermal conductivities as compared to conventional solid-liquid to their better thermal conductivity, increase in single phase heat transfer coefficient and significant increase suspensions (ii) Strongly non-linear temperature dependent effective thermal conductivity (iii) An increase

Khandekar, Sameer

40

Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977 are presented. Three heat exchangers are developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submerged electric water heating element.

1977-01-01

41

Hybrid solar thermoelectric systems utilizing thermosyphons for bottoming cycles  

E-print Network

Efficient renewable energy sources are in significant demand to replace diminishing and environmentally harmful fossil fuels. The combination of commercial and residential buildings as well as the industrial sector currently ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

2011-01-01

42

Determination of the dispersion constant in a constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in a gravitational field using an image analyzing interferometer which is based on computer enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. The experimental results for heptane and pentane menisci were analyzed using the extended Young-Laplace equation. These isothermal results characterized the interfacial force field in-situ at the start of the heat transfer experiments by quantifying the dispersion constant, which is a function of the liquid-solid system and cleaning procedures. The experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and the dispersion constants were compared to that predicted from the DLP theory and good agreements were obtained. The measurements are critical to the subsequent non-isothermal experiments because one of the major variables in the heat sink capability of the CVBT is the dispersion constant. In all previous studies of micro heat pipes the value of the dispersion constant has been 'guesstimated'. One of the major advantages of the current glass cell is the ability to view the extended meniscus at all times. Experimentally. we find that the extended Young-Laplace equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces.

Dasgupta, SUNANDO.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

1993-01-01

43

Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a typical Chemical Plant  

E-print Network

.p.carter@jci.com ESL-IE-14-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Johnson Controls is a globally diversified company in the building and automotive industries Automotive Experience...Building Efficiency Power Solutions • 170,000 Employees • Serving Customers in 150+ Countries • $42.7B in Revenue in 2013 • Headquartered in Milwaukee, WI ESL-IE-14-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01

44

Performance of neon-thermosyphon in the Texas Cold Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) is operated in one of the beam ports of the UT-TRIGA 1-MW research reactor. Beams of cold neutrons are produced by means of a cooled moderator contained in an aluminum chamber (7.5-cm diam x 2 cm thick) located in the graphite reflector close to the reactor core. The moderator, mesitylene, is maintained at cryogenic

C. Rios-Martinez; K. Uenlue; T. L. Bauer; B. W. Wehring

1994-01-01

45

Comparison of six generic solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The cost effectiveness of residential solar water heating is explored by analyzing six different system types. A figure of merit (that considers both performance and cost) is calculated for each system, providing information for both researchers and industry. Thermosyphon water heaters are determined to be the most cost effective option, and their wider application is recommended once a reliable draindown technique is developed.

Farrington, R.B.; Murphy, L.M.; Noreen, D.L.

1980-04-01

46

Budapest, Hungary, 17-19 September 2007 EDA Publishing/THERMINIC 2007 ISBN: 978-2-35500-002-7-1-  

E-print Network

to the use of commercial air conditioners or heat pumps and concepts using thermosyphons and PCMs (Phase to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Engineering Design Elements of a Two-Phase Thermosyphon to Trannsfer NGNP Nuclear Thermal Energy to a Hydrogen Plant  

SciTech Connect

Two hydrogen production processes, both powered by a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), are currently under investigation at Idaho National Laboratory. The first is high-temperature steam electrolysis, which uses both heat and electricity; the second is thermo-chemical production through the sulfur iodine process primarily using heat. Both processes require a high temperature (>850°C) for enhanced efficiency; temperatures indicative of the NGNP. Safety and licensing mandates prudently dictate that the NGNP and the hydrogen production facility be physically isolated, perhaps requiring separation of over 100 m.

Piyush Sabharwal

2009-07-01

48

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, September 15, 1996--November 14, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosyphon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger. The tasks for the project are as follows: (1) Develop a model of the thermal performance of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heating applications. A test protocol will be developed which minimizes the number of tests required to adequately account for mixed convection effects. The TRNSYS component model will be fully integrated in a system component model and will use data acquired with the specified test protocol. (2) Conduct a fundamental study to establish friction and heat transfer correlations for conditions and geometries typical of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar systems. Data will be obtained as a function of a buoyancy parameter based on Grashof and Reynolds numbers. The experimental domain will encompass the ranges expected in solar water heating systems.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01

49

The application of a CFD code (ASTEC) and a network code (PENHEAT) in analyzing the thermosyphonic behavior of argon gas in a long vertical annulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pool design of the fast reactor, the roof structure is penetrated by a number of pumps and heat exchanger units that are cylindrical and differ in size. Between the sodium pool surface and the roof is a layer of hot argon gas that can flow into the small annular gap between these components and the roof containment as

W. U. A Leong; R. P Hornby

1996-01-01

50

Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of

Melaku Habte

2008-01-01

51

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information on the classical doppler effect, the relativistic doppler effect, aberration, and the transverse doppler effect. It also discusses wave fronts, first-order and second order effect, light-time correction, Galilean transformation, and parallax.

Calvert, J. B.

2010-08-19

52

Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

2013-09-26

53

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Clemons, Mrs.

2010-11-10

54

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Brown, Mrs.

2010-10-26

55

Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a greenhouse-effect-in-a-bottle experiment. The lesson includes readings from NEED.org and an inquiry lab measuring the effect of carbon dioxide and temperature change in an enclosed environment.

Connecticut Energy Education

56

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a tuning fork to explore how the Doppler effect works. They strike the tuning fork to produce a sound, then observe as the tone changes as the fork is swung back and forth. Learners also explore applications of the Doppler effect in technology.

Cosi

2009-01-01

57

Gauging Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.

2012-01-01

58

Gravity Scaling of a Power Reactor Water Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water based reactor shielding is being considered as an affordable option for use on initial lunar surface power systems. Heat dissipation in the shield from nuclear sources must be rejected by an auxiliary thermal hydraulic cooling system. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection between the core surface and an array of thermosyphon radiator elements. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design has been previously evaluated at lower power levels (Pearson, 2007). The current baseline assumes that 5.5 kW are dissipated in the water shield, the preponderance on the core surface, but with some volumetric heating in the naturally circulating water as well. This power is rejected by a radiator located above the shield with a surface temperature of 370 K. A similarity analysis on a water-based reactor shield is presented examining the effect of gravity on free convection between a radiation shield inner vessel and a radiation shield outer vessel boundaries. Two approaches established similarity: 1) direct scaling of Rayleigh number equates gravity-surface heat flux products, 2) temperature difference between the wall and thermal boundary layer held constant on Earth and the Moon. Nussult number for natural convection (laminar and turbulent) is assumed of form Nu = CRa(sup n). These combined results estimate similarity conditions under Earth and Lunar gravities. The influence of reduced gravity on the performance of thermosyphon heat pipes is also examined.

Reid, Robert S.; Pearson, J. Boise

2008-01-01

59

Gravity Scaling of a Power Reactor Water Shield  

SciTech Connect

Water based reactor shielding is being considered as an affordable option for potential use on initial lunar surface reactor power systems. Heat dissipation in the shield from nuclear sources must be rejected by an auxillary thermal hydraulic cooling system. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection between the core surface and an array of thermosyphon radiator elements. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design has been previously evaluated at lower power levels (Pearson, 2006). The current baseline assumes that 5.5 kW are dissipated in the water shield, the preponderance on the core surface, but with some volumetric heating in the naturally circulating water as well. This power is rejected by a radiator located above the shield with a surface temperature of 370 K. A similarity analysis on a water-based reactor shield is presented examining the effect of gravity on free convection between a radiation shield inner vessel and a radiation shield outer vessel boundaries. Two approaches established similarity: 1) direct scaling of Rayleigh number equates gravity-surface heat flux products, 2) temperature difference between the wall and thermal boundary layer held constant on Earth and the Moon. Nussult number for natural convection (laminar and turbulent) is assumed of form Nu = CRa{sup n}. These combined results estimate similarity conditions under Earth and Lunar gravities. The influence of reduced gravity on the performance of thermosyphon heat pipes is also examined.

Reid, Robert S.; Pearson, J. Boise [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2008-01-21

60

Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects  

PubMed Central

Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

Kline, Nathan S.

1959-01-01

61

Effective Teachers in Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While effective schools research has inspired new efforts toward improving education for all students, it is flawed by offering simplistic prescriptions based on correlational studies focusing on basic skills achievement. Effective school research and theory can be upgraded by a more careful definition of the goals of learning and a systematic…

Hathaway, Walter E.

62

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

- The Doppler Effect explains why we hear a sonic boom when an airplane flies faster than the speed of sound. - Applying the Doppler Effect is how we have Doppler Radar used to track weather. - The Doppler Effect can be applied to outerspace and it evidence that the universe is expanding. Sound is energy traveling through a medium. A medium can be a gas, liquid, or solid. Therefore sound can not travel in outerspace since it is a vacuum which means there is nothing not even air. Energy traveling through a medium or even a vacuum is considered a wave. ...

Mr. Leet

2008-03-16

63

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Control the velocity of two sound sources in which the wave crests are visually represented. As the sound sources move, interference patterns and evidence of the Doppler effect can be observed and measured.

2007-12-12

64

Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/human-health . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

65

Seismomagnetic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local changes in the earth's magnetic field that are associated with active faults have long been viewed as offering a potential method of analyzing earthquakes. Considerable efforts have been made to determine the effects theoretically and, in the field, to develop a sensitive method of identifying characteristic stress patterns. In particular, if related magnetic changes can be identified before an earthquake, the so-called seismomagnetic effect could be useful in earthquake prediction. After several years of observing magnetic changes whose magnitudes seem to have been constantly reevaluated in the light of more sensitive measurements, Hao, Hastie, and Stacey (Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors, 28, 129, 1982) recently examined the theory and concluded that actual effects are probably a lot weaker than had been previously thought.

Bell, Peter M.

66

Ripple Effects  

E-print Network

policies and practices might have on producers? incomes and water savings, as well as the ripple effects on the regional economy. Drs. Steve Amosson of Texas Cooperative Extension in Amarillo, Lal K. Almas of West Texas A&M University, Jeff Peterson...-region and in particular crop production costs. Finally, they input the initial effects on farmers? incomes gained from the opti- mization models into the socio-economic modeling program. The results give an idea of what specific policies or technological advances...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01

67

Slingshot Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page demonstrates the slingshot effect through a Flash simulation. The user places an object at some distance from Jupiter, sets up its initial velocity, then choose the appropriate time to lunch it. Once the simulation begins, the path of the projectile and its speed are shown.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-09-20

68

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

69

Blazhko Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

Teays, Terry

1996-01-01

70

Compton Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Compton Effect model simulates the the scattering of light off of an electron, the Compton effect. Compton used the idea that light behaves like a particle to explain light-electron (photon-electron) scattering. He used the relation for the energy and momentum of the photon and the relativistic expression for the energy of the electron, and applied relativistic energy and momentum conservation for the collision. The wavelength shift of the light depend on the angle of the scattered photon (and the electron). By changing the scattering angle in the simulation, the angle of the scattered photon changes according to Compton's equation. The panel on the left shows the experimental set up, while the panel on the right shows the resulting photon wavelength from the scattering. In a typical Compton experiment, light is scattered off of the electrons in an atom, and there is little scattering due to the more tightly held electrons while there is more scattering due to the less tightly held electrons. This is what is responsible for the two peak distribution shown. The Compton Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_compton.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.

2010-12-12

71

Piezoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.

2008-10-23

72

Erosion Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

2003-01-01

73

Study effectively.  

PubMed

As a busy healthcare practitioner with a desire to maintain and update professional skills and knowledge, perhaps the study skills you acquired as an undergraduate may need to be updated and refined too. Issues of time management take on a different meaning with the increased pressures of juggling a busy career, home life and continuing professional development. As an undergraduate, your focus was very much on learning the volume of material that was delivered in the medical curriculum but was the idea of learning how to learn ever considered? This article is aimed at identifying some of the strategies that might be helpful in enabling you to make the most effective use of the time available to you for study and thereby ensuring that your learning opportunities are maximised. PMID:19583907

Pugsley, Lesley

2009-05-01

74

Heat transfer performance of axially grooved heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and analysis of the heat transport capability of axially grooved heat pipes are described. The heat pipes were made of aluminum axially grooved extruded pipes and the working fluid was R11. The effects of fluid inventory and inclination angle on the capillary pumping limit were investigated. A theoretical model was developed to predict the temperature rise in the evaporator and the heat transfer capability. In this model, the puddling effect, liquid recession into the groove bottom and the heat conduction in the evaporator were taken into consideration and the prediction agreed well with the experimental data. It was found that the temperature at the evaporator end began to increase just after all the grooves dried out at the evaporator end. The flooding limit and the evaporator and condenser film coefficients in the case of the gravity-supported operation were also investigated and compared with the performance of closed two-phase thermosyphons.

Ogushi, Tetsurou; Yamanaka, Gorou

1987-03-01

75

Effectiveness Update: Academic Programs Transfer Effectiveness Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a compilation of reports that outline various institutional effectiveness measures and present assessment results and data at Austin Community College (ACC) (Texas). The College Effectiveness Update reports include Academic Programs Transfer Effectiveness Measures, Workforce Education Effectiveness Measures, Developmental…

Austin Community Coll., TX.

76

LUX0.1 Prototype Results: Cryogenics and Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUX is a new dark matter direct detection experiment to be carried out at the Sanford Lab, the renewed underground facility at the Homestake mine in Lead, SD. The detector's large size supports effective internal shielding from natural radioactivity of the surrounding materials and environment. The LUX detector consists of a cylindrical vessel containing 350 kg of liquid xenon (LXe) cooled down using a novel cryogenic system. We tested a small-scale four PMT prototype utilizing over 300 gm of active xenon, installed in the full-sized cryostat. We report the efficiency of a unique internal heat exchanger with standard gas phase purification using a heated getter, which allows for very high flow purification without requiring large cooling power, as well as the efficiency of a thermosyphon-based cooling system. Such systems are required for multi-ton scale up. )

Bradley, Adam

2010-02-01

77

LUX Cryogenics and Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUX is a new dark matter direct detection experiment being carried out at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the renewed Homestake mine in Lead, SD. The detector's large size supports effective internal shielding from natural radioactivity of the surrounding materials and environment. The LUX detector consists of a cylindrical vessel containing 350 kg of liquid xenon (LXe) cooled down and maintained at 175-K operating temperature using a novel cryogenic system. We report the efficiency of our thermosyphon-based cooling system, as well as the efficiency of a unique internal heat exchanger with standard gas phase purification using a heated getter, which allows for very high flow purification without requiring large cooling power. Such systems are required for multi-ton scale up.

Bradley, Adam

2012-10-01

78

Efficiency study of oil cooling of a screw compressor  

SciTech Connect

One of the major goals of all compressor manufacturers is to design and build as efficient a compressor as possible. In a screw compressor it appears that the way the compressor is cooled can have an effect on the compressor's efficiency. This paper presents experimental data on three different screw compressor cooling methods: Liquid Refrigerant Injection Cooling System; Thermosyphon Cooling System; and Oil Injection System. All tests were conducted on a hot gas bypass system using refrigerant R-22. The data taken shows that the Oil Injection System is slightly better than the other two. These tests should be repeated with a higher oil flow rate and ammonia as the working fluid. 10 figs.

Tree, D.R.; McKellar, M.G. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Ray W. Herrick Labs.); Fresco, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

79

Efficiency study of oil cooling of a screw compressor  

SciTech Connect

One of the major goals of all compressor manufacturers is to build as efficient a compressor as possible. Over the last several years improvements to the design of screw compressors has made them efficiently competitive with other types of compressors, especially at large loads. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate four different methods of cooling a 250 horsepower compressor and determine their effects on the efficiency of the compressor. Two conventional methods, liquid injection and thermosyphon cooling, and two new methods, V-PLUS and Fresco oil injection, are investigated. The screw compressor used in the tests was a VRS-500 screw compressor made by the Vilter Manufacturing Corporation. 6 figs.

Tree, D.R.; McKellar, M.G.

1989-04-01

80

Fizeau effect for neutrons  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that local-field effects in the neutron optical potential produce a nonvanishing Fizeau effect and that the magnitude of the effect is particularly large for cold neutrons with wavelengths lambda> or approx. =13 A. .AE

Sears, V.F.

1985-10-01

81

Sokolov Effect Conclusions  

E-print Network

Dysprosium Nathan Leefer #12;Background Sokolov Effect Conclusions Outline 1 Background Neutral Hydrogen Stark Effect Hydrogen Atom Interferometer 2 Sokolov Effect Pamir Broken Theories Summary Dysprosium 3 Sokolov Effect Conclusions Pamir Broken Theories Summary Dysprosium Measurement of Lamb Shift Pamir Nathan

Budker, Dmitry

82

On Effect Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension, measure\\/index, and value), outline 10 corollaries that

Ken Kelley; Kristopher J. Preacher

2012-01-01

83

A random effects model for effect sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in quantitative research synthesis has led to the development of rigorous statistical theory for some of the methods used in meta-analysis. Statistical theory proposed previously has stressed the estimation of fixed but unknown population effect sizes (standardized mean differences). Theoretical considerations often suggest that treatment effects are not fixed but vary across different implementations of a treatment. The

Larry V. Hedges

1983-01-01

84

Regulation with placebo effects.  

PubMed

A growing scientific literature supports the existence of placebo effects from a wide range of health interventions and for a range of medical conditions. This Article reviews this literature, examines the implications for law and policy, and suggests future areas for research on placebo effects. In particular, it makes the case for altering the drug approval process to account for, if not credit, placebo effects. It recommends that evidence of placebo effects be permitted as a defense in cases alleging violations of informed consent or false advertising. Finally, it finds that tort law already has doctrines such as joint and several liability to account for placebo effects. Future research on placebo effects should focus on whether awareness of placebo effects can disable these effects and whether subjects can control their own placebo effects. PMID:19353835

Malani, Anup

2008-12-01

85

Kite Pseudo Effect Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a new class of pseudo effect algebras, called kite pseudo effect algebras, which is connected with partially ordered groups not necessarily with strong unit. In such a case, starting even with an Abelian po-group, we can obtain a noncommutative pseudo effect algebra. We show how such kite pseudo effect algebras are tied with different types of the Riesz Decomposition Properties. Kites are so-called perfect pseudo effect algebras, and we define conditions when kite pseudo effect algebras have the least non-trivial normal ideal.

Dvure?enskij, Anatolij

2013-11-01

86

Effective 4-H Meetings  

E-print Network

As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication outlines effective...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

87

Managing Physical Effects  

Cancer.gov

Browse a list of common side effects of cancer or cancer treatment with links to practical information for preventing or relieving these effects. Also find information on maintaining proper nutrition during cancer treatment.

88

Effective College Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)

Caraway, James E.

1978-01-01

89

The Hydrophobic Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

Huque, Entazul M.

1989-01-01

90

Skin Effect in Semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the theory of skin effect in semiconductor materials including the effect of displacement currents, which are generally neglected in the skin-effect theory for metallic conductors. In the case of flat plates, formulas are derived for the field distribution, the impedance and the eddy-current power losses, considering symmetrical electric as well as magnetic fields. Impedance as a

A. H. Frei; M. J. O. Strutt

1960-01-01

91

Mercury: Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... in rats and mice, and methylmercury has caused kidney tumors in male mice. Scientists only observed these health effects at extremely high doses, above levels that produced other effects. When ... may be kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. People concerned about ...

92

Special Effects Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

93

Effective Schools Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies that have focused on identifying the characteristics or correlates of elementary and secondary schools that are unusually effective are reviewed, concentrating on the "effective schools" movement. Research on effective schools supports the conclusion that they rank high on certain characteristics frequently referred to as…

Levine, Daniel U.; Lezotte, Lawrence W.

94

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

95

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

96

A Semi-Passive Containment Cooling System Conceptual Design  

E-print Network

The objective of this project was to investigate a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) for the double concrete containment of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). Two conceptual PCCS designs: the thermosyphon ...

Liu, H.

97

Thermally Driven Josephson Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept is proposed of the thermally driven Josephson effect in superfluid helium. Heretofore, the Josephson effect in a superfluid has been recognized as an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady pressure difference between two superfluid reservoirs separated by an array of submicron-sized orifices, which act in unison as a single Josephson junction. Analogously, the thermally driven Josephson effect is an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady temperature difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect is partly a consequence of a quantum- mechanical effect known as the fountain effect, in which a temperature difference in a superfluid is accompanied by a pressure difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect may have significance for the development of a high-resolution gyroscope based on the Josephson effect in a superfluid: If the pressure-driven Josephson effect were used, then the fluid on the high-pressure side would become depleted, necessitating periodic interruption of operation to reverse the pressure difference. If the thermally driven Josephson effect were used, there would be no net flow and so the oscillatory flow could be maintained indefinitely by maintaining the required slightly different temperatures on both sides of the junction.

Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

2008-01-01

98

Effective Strategies Brief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this research brief the authors detail effective teaching strategies for teaching students with difficulties in math. The brief summarizes the work of over fifty research studies and details the practices that were seen as consistently effective across many of them. The brief details six instructional strategies and presents data describing the effectiveness of each on special education students and low-achieving students. The brief can be viewed on the webpage or downloaded as a PDF.

Gersten, Russell; Clarke, Benjamin S.

2007-01-01

99

Dynamic ground effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

1990-01-01

100

The Atomic Lighthouse Effect  

E-print Network

We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease of the magnetic field efficiency.

Máximo, C E; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

2014-01-01

101

Atomic lighthouse effect.  

PubMed

We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency. PMID:25401364

Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

2014-11-01

102

[Effects and side effects of hormonal contraceptives].  

PubMed

A discussion of the side effects of hormonal oral contraceptive (OC) use is presented. Studies show that the estrogen component of OCs works to suppress the release of GRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), reducing the serum FSH level. The gestagen component desensitizes the frontal lobe of the pituitary gland to the effect of GRH and suppresses the preovulatory LH peak. OCs can cause subjective side effects such as nausea, headache, depression, which can also be observed during placebo use. Breakthrough bleeding, spotting, silent menstruation, and post-pill amenorrhea are menstrual irregularities which can be linked to OC use; 98% of those who discontinue OC use show normal biphasic menstrual cycles 3 cycles after discontinuation. A constant increase in serum triglyceride levels, small increases in cholesterol and phospholipid levels are observed among OC users. Minor cases of hyperinsulinism are observed among OC users with no history of diabetes; glucose tolerance tests should be regularly administered to OC users who have a risk of diabetes or a history of pregnancy diabetes. Serum levels of proteins are affected by OC use, probably due to the effects of OC use on liver function. Studies have shown an increased risk of thromboembolism and circulatory disorders among OC users, especially those who are over 30 years of age or who smoke. OC use has been linked to development of benign tumors of the liver and the cervix. Gestagens appear to reduce the frequency of endometrial mitosis. Other medications, e.g. analgesics, barbituates, can reduce the effectiveness of OCs. For adolescents, sequence preparations are preferred and should be administered only after a 1 year period of regular menstruation. Thorough check-ups should be performed on OC users twice yearly, and contraindications should be scrupulously observed. PMID:7415248

Carol, W; Göretzlehner, G

1980-02-01

103

Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan

1991-01-01

104

The Kaye Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

2009-01-01

105

effectively tax treaty?  

E-print Network

Is income effectively connected to US trade/ business? Is this exempt under the tax treaty? Does- employee comp? Is income "effectively connected"? Is payment subject to a lower tax rate? Is payment for rent or royalty? Individual completes IRS form 1001. Payment will not be taxed. (Code "N") Taxes

Krovi, Venkat

106

Comparative Effectiveness Research  

Cancer.gov

Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.

107

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

108

JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis

2013-01-01

109

On Effective Topological Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with D. Scott's work on the mathematical foundations of programming language semantics, interest in topology has grown up in theoretical computer science, under the slogan `open sets are semidecidable properties'. But whereas on effectively given Scott domains all such properties are also open, this is no longer true in general. In this paper a characterization of effectively given topological

Dieter Spreen

1998-01-01

110

Polaronic Effects in Ferroelectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied polaronic effects due to the interaction of an electron with optical phonons in ferroelectric materials with a layered crystal structure. We evaluated the polaron self-energy part using the effective T-matrix approach. It has been shown that transition from the large radius polaron to the small radius polaron is controlled by the interlayer interaction or interlayer spacing. We have

Y. M. Malozovsky; J. D. Fan; D. Bagayoko; J. T. Wang

2000-01-01

111

The greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect on the Earth is identified by the difference between the effective radiating temperature of the planet and its surface temperature. The difference between the energy emitted by the surface and that emitted upward to space by the upper atmosphere quantifies it; it can therefore be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing

A. Berger; Ch. Tricot

1992-01-01

112

The Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenhouse Effect is getting a lot of publicity as concern grows about trends in weather and pollution. The midwestern states of the US suffered a drought during 1988 coupled with an unsually hot summer throughout the country. Many people attributed this to the Greenhouse Effect. Palmer and Brankovic (Nature, Vol. 338, page 54, March 2, 1989) tied the drought

2009-01-01

113

Effects of Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

Listen to this page Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse hurts the people who take drugs AND the people around them, including families , kids , and babies who ... HIV/AIDS Click here to learn more about effects of specific drugs . VIDEO: Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? ...

114

Photorefractive Effects and Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mentioned in the preface: `This book is a collection of many of the most recent developments in photorefractive effects and materials'. The readers, who, according to the title, would expect to find a broad coverage of the field will be somewhat disappointed. A more appropriate title of this volume would be: `Recent Developments in Photorefractive Effects and Materials'. Within

1996-01-01

115

Generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general relativity, the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes, e.g., a precession of the orbital plane known as the Lense-Thirring effect and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope known as the Schiff effect. Here, we discuss a third effect first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counterrevolving clocks after a revolution of 2?. For two clocks on counterrotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth, the effect is about 10-7 s per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which are crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on nondedicated missions. We also derive the post-Newtonian expansion of the general relativistic expression and calculate the effect for the example of a satellite of a global navigation satellite system compared to a geostationary satellite.

Hackmann, Eva; Lämmerzahl, Claus

2014-08-01

116

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-07-01

117

Side effects from amiodarone.  

PubMed

Amiodarone causes many side effects involving all organ systems. Although most of the side effects are mild and do not limit the use of the drug, there are several that are serious. Since many of these toxic reactions develop only after a prolonged period of therapy, careful follow-up on a regular basis is essential. PMID:1985357

Wilson, J S; Podrid, P J

1991-01-01

118

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

119

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsible for substantial adverse effects on the public welfare. Such effects include: the acidification of lakes and rivers, with resultant damage to fish and other components of aquatic ecosystems; acidification and demineralization of soils; and possible reductions in crop and forest productivity. Affected areas include Canada and the northeastern US.

Norman R. Glass; Gary E. Glass; Peter J. Rennie

1979-01-01

120

Handbook of radiation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book emphasizes radiation effects on solid state devices from exposure to the types of radiation found outside the atmosphere (in space, or in the vicinity of an exploding nuclear device). It contains a basic study of radiation shielding of payload components for payloads in space and specifically covers radiation effects on minority and majority carriers, optical media and organic

A. Holmes-Siedle; L. Adams

1993-01-01

121

Developing Effective Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this introductory work, the main principles on which British companies are basing management development programs are presented, and stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial talent are set forth: stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial t"lent are set forth: program planning based on clear objectives and communication;…

Roberts, T.J.

122

Dimensions of Teacher Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of teacher effectiveness in college departments of sociology, anthropology, and social work. Five types of teacher effectiveness were found to be potentially useful for student, faculty, and administrative purposes. They include teacher task responsiveness, respect for students, teacher capability, student development, and…

Wimberly, Ronald C.; And Others

1978-01-01

123

Generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

E-print Network

In General Relativity, the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes, e.g., a precession of the orbital plane known as the Lense-Thirring effect and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope known as the Schiff effect. Here, we discuss a third effect first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counterrevolving clocks after a revolution of $2\\pi$. For two clocks on counterrotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth, the effect is about $10^{-7}$ seconds per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which are crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on nondedicated missions. We also derive the post-Newtonian expansion of the general relativistic expression and calculate the effect for the example of a satellite of a Global Navigation Satellite System compared to a geostationary satellite.

Eva Hackmann; Claus Lämmerzahl

2014-08-28

124

Electromagnetic field effects and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the following topics: exposure vs. dose; known mechanisms; thermal effects vs. nonthermal effects; membrane excitation; electric fields (charge interactions; permanent dipole interactions; induced dipole interactions); magnetic field effects; free radical effects; human perception of 60 Hz magnetic fields; cyclotron resonance; microwave auditory effect; blood-brain barrier effects

K. R. Foster

1996-01-01

125

Greenhouse effect of NOX.  

PubMed

Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential is estimated as GWP (NOX = 30 - 33 and 7 - 10 for the respective time horizons of 20 and 100 years, and is thereby comparable to that of methane. NOX emissions in rural areas of anthropogenically influenced regions, or those in the vicinity of the txopopause caused by air traffic, cause the greenhouse effectivity to be substantially more intense. We estimate an additional 5-23 % for Germany's contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect as a result of the indirect greenhouse effects stemming from NOX. Furthermore, a small and still inaccurately defined amount of the deposited NOX which has primarily been converted into nitrates is again released from the soil into the atmosphere in the form of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Thus, anthropogenically induced NOX emissions contribute to enhanced greenhouse effect and to stratospheric ozone depletion in the time scale of more than a century. PMID:24234471

Lammel, G; Graßl, H

1995-07-01

126

Bystander effects and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy. PMID:25535579

Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

2015-01-01

127

Finite Temperature Effective Actions  

E-print Network

We present, from first principles, a direct method for evaluating the exact fermion propagator in the presence of a general background field at finite temperature, which can be used to determine the finite temperature effective action for the system. As applications, we determine the complete one loop finite temperature effective actions for 0+1 dimensional QED as well as the Schwinger model. These effective actions, which are derived in the real time (closed time path) formalism, generate systematically all the Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory and also show that the retarded (advanced) amplitudes vanish in these theories.

Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

2009-07-30

128

Measuring Study Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model-eliciting activity challenges students to operationally define a construct (study effectiveness). Students are given a survey to review that rates different aspects of study behaviors. They are then given a set of data for a few students and asked to use their scores to determine an index of study effectiveness. After determining a method, they are then asked to use this index to put five students in rank order according to their scores on study effectiveness. Students write a report explaining the method they used to determine these scores and how they produced their ratings.

This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota, based on an original activity by Richard Lesh at Purdue University.

129

Bustling argon: biological effect.  

PubMed

Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

Ye, Zhouheng; Zhang, Rongjia; Sun, Xuejun

2013-01-01

130

Improving engineering effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

Fiero, J. D.

1985-01-01

131

Effects of ocular decongestants.  

PubMed

Eight widely used commercially available ocular decongestants were compared on the basis of vasoconstrictive effectiveness. The ability of these preparations to counteract histamine-induced erythema and to block its recurrence when rechallenged after one hour was evaluated in six human subjects in seven sessions. All vasoconstrictors tested were effective. No preparation was statistically different from 0.02% naphazoline hydrochloride in vasoconstrictive effect. In fact, this intermediate concentration of naphazoline (0.02%) was found to be significantly better that the other nonprescription decongestant preparations tested as a group and not significantly different from a group of higher concentrations of naphazoline. PMID:7378008

Abelson, M B; Yamamoto, G K; Allansmith, M R

1980-05-01

132

[Reporting a side effect].  

PubMed

Encountering a side-effect when practicing aesthetic dermatology must lead French practitioners to a double report: to VigiDEC medical network, and to the French agency for sanitary security of health products. PMID:19931702

Roos, N; Vigan, M

2009-10-01

133

Chesapeake Bay Impact Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint show depicts the effects (blast, heat, etc.) of the Chesapeake Bay impact. To emphasize the human consequences of asteroid and comet impacts, the slides show what would happen to East Coast communities if an identical object hit the same place today. (The impact actually happened roughly 35 million years ago.) Impact effects were estimated with the Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects/). Effects shown on these slides are at best very approximate, and, consequently, these slides should only be used to stimulate discussions about impact hazards. Satellite images were obtained through the NASA Earth Observing System Higher Education Alliance (GeoBrain) which provided funding for this work. Graphics were created with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) family of geographic information system (GIS) products.

Abolins, Mark; Univiversity, Middle T.

134

[Genetic effects of radiation].  

PubMed

This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

Nakamura, Nori

2012-03-01

135

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

136

Magnetoplastic effects in solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an overview of the studies into the effect of weak magnetic fields on the structure and mechanical properties of nonmagnetic solids of various nature (ionic, covalent, molecular, and metallic crystals, polymers, etc.). The various effects and aftereffects initiated by static, pulsed, and microwave magnetic fields that have been discovered over the past 15 years are classified and critically analyzed. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the magnetic-field sensitivity of real solids with structural defects containing paramagnetic centers (electrons, holes, radicals, excitons, etc.) are discussed. Possible mechanisms for the effect of a weak magnetic field on the defect structure of crystals are considered. Special attention is given to the most developed chemical-physical theory of spin-dependent reactions between mobile particles and unpaired electrons. Interpretation of magnetoplastic effects is proposed in terms of the spin, electron, molecular, and dislocation dynamics of the complex multistage processes initiated by a magnetic field in a system of metastable structural defects.

Golovin, Yu. I.

2004-05-01

137

PATHWAYS TO EFFECTIVE APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective agricultural irrigation involves applying irrigation water efficiently and with water management techniques that insure profitable crop production. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline choices for irrigation application technology and irrigation water management that can lead t...

138

Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.  

PubMed

Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night. PMID:15070533

Basner, M; Samel, A

2004-01-01

139

Effects of periodic discharges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Periodic capacity checks are assessed as well as the effects of periodic discharges on the cycle life and the performance of cells during the cycle life. Topics discussed include the effect of the amount of electrolyte on cell capacity at 35 C; battery design for spacecraft; electrolyte starvation theory; battery separator degradation; negative electrode stability; voltage regulation; operating temperatures; and integration of reconditioning systems using microprocessors.

Ford, F. E.

1977-01-01

140

The Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a simulation of the Doppler effect. The user can change the speed of the wave source and can move a microphone to detect the wave frequency at different points relative to the moving source. The resulting wave pattern can be both observed and heard. Instructional notes outlining the details of the Doppler effect are provided. This material is part of a web site for a second semester physics course for majors covering gravity, fluids, waves, and thermodynamics.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-07-31

141

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

142

Correlational Effect Size Benchmarks.  

PubMed

Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314367

Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

2014-10-13

143

Doppler Effect JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Doppler Effect JS Model shows five different animations with different combinations of moving/stationary sources/detectors. The final animation shows what happens when a source exceeds the speed of sound. The Doppler Effect JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support. It is also distributed as an ePub.

Kennedy, Matt; Dixon, Rachel

2014-07-02

144

Barriers to effective teaching.  

PubMed

Medical school faculty members are charged with the critical responsibility of preparing the future physician and medical scientist workforce. Recent reports suggest that medical school curricula have not kept pace with societal needs and that medical schools are graduating students who lack the knowledge and skills needed to practice effectively in the 21st century. The majority of faculty members want to be effective teachers and graduate well-prepared medical students, but multiple and complex factors-curricular, cultural, environmental, and financial-impede their efforts. Curricular impediments to effective teaching include unclear definitions of and disagreement on learning needs, misunderstood or unstated goals and objectives, and curriculum sequencing challenges. Student and faculty attitudes, too few faculty development opportunities, and the lack of an award system for teaching all are major culture-based barriers. Environmental barriers, such as time limitations, the setting, and the physical space in which medical education takes place, and financial barriers, such as limited education budgets, also pose serious challenges to even the most committed teachers. This article delineates the barriers to effective teaching as noted in the literature and recommends action items, some of which are incremental whereas others represent major change. Physicians-in-training, medical faculty, and society are depending on medical education leaders to address these barriers to effect the changes needed to enhance teaching and learning. PMID:21346500

DaRosa, Debra A; Skeff, Kelley; Friedland, Joan A; Coburn, Michael; Cox, Susan; Pollart, Susan; O'connell, Mark; Smith, Sandy

2011-04-01

145

The real butterfly effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier-Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods.

Palmer, T. N.; Döring, A.; Seregin, G.

2014-09-01

146

Knowledge of Contraceptive Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine women's knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness. Study Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a contraceptive knowledge questionnaire completed by 4,144 women enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project prior to receiving comprehensive contraceptive counseling and choosing their method. For each contraceptive method, women were asked “what percentage would get pregnant in a year: <1%, 1-5%, 6-10%, >10%, don't know.” Results Overall, 86% of subjects knew the annual risk of pregnancy was >10% if no contraception is used. More than 45% of women overestimate the effectiveness of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate, pills, patch, ring, and condoms. After adjusting for age, education and contraceptive history, women who chose the intrauterine device (IUD) [RRadj=6.9, 95% CI: 5.6-8.5] or implant [RRadj = 5.9, 95% CI 4.7-7.3] were significantly more likely to accurately identify the effectiveness of their method compared to women who chose either the pill, patch, or ring. Conclusions This cohort demonstrated significant knowledge gaps regarding contraceptive effectiveness and over-estimated the effectiveness of pills, patch, ring, DMPA, and condoms. PMID:22521458

EISENBERG, David L.; SECURA, Gina M.; MADDEN, Tessa E.; ALLSWORTH, Jenifer E.; ZHAO, Qiuhong; PEIPERT, Jeffrey F.

2014-01-01

147

Effective Documentation Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

Sleboda, Claire

1997-01-01

148

Applications of effective Lagrangians  

SciTech Connect

Effective Lagrangians were originally used only at the tree level as so-called phenomenological Lagrangians since they were in general non-renormalizable. Today they are treated as effective field theories valid below a characteristic energy scale. Quantum corrections can then be calculated in a consistent way as for any renormalizable theory. A few applications of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian for interacting photons at low energies are presented together with recent developments in the use of QED for non-relativistic systems. Finally, the ingredients of an effective theory for the electroweak sector of the Standard Model are discussed in the case of a non-linear realization of the Higgs mechanism using the Stueckelberg formalism.

Ravndal, Finn [Institute of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

1997-06-15

149

Transgenerational genetic effects  

PubMed Central

Since Mendel, studies of phenotypic variation and disease risk have emphasized associations between genotype and phenotype among affected individuals in families and populations. Although this paradigm has led to important insights into the molecular basis for many traits and diseases, most of the genetic variants that control the inheritance of these conditions continue to elude detection. Recent studies suggest an alternative mode of inheritance where genetic variants that are present in one generation affect phenotypes in subsequent generations, thereby decoupling the conventional relations between genotype and phenotype, and perhaps, contributing to ‘missing heritability’. Under some conditions, these transgenerational genetic effects can be as frequent and strong as conventional inheritance, and can persist for multiple generations. Growing evidence suggests that RNA mediates these heritable epigenetic changes. The primary challenge now is to identify the molecular basis for these effects, characterize mechanisms and determine whether transgenerational genetic effects occur in humans. PMID:22122083

Nelson, Vicki R; Nadeau, Joseph H

2012-01-01

150

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

151

Disentangling the EMC effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep inelastic scattering cross section for scattering from bound nucleons differs from that of free nucleons. This phenomena, first discovered 30 years ago, is known as the EMC effect and is still not fully understood. Recent analysis of world data showed that the strength of the EMC effect is linearly correlated with the relative amount of Two-Nucleon Short Range Correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in nuclei. The latter are pairs of nucleons whose wave functions overlap, giving them large relative momentum and low center of mass momentum, where high and low is relative to the Fermi momentum of the nucleus. The observed correlation indicates that the EMC effect, like 2N-SRC pairs, is related to high momentum nucleons in the nucleus. This paper reviews previous studies of the EMC-SRC correlation and studies its robustness. It also presents a planned experiment aimed at studying the origin of this EMC-SRC correlation.

Piasetzky, E.; Hen, O.; Weinstein, L. B.

2013-10-01

152

Health Effects of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

153

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ... to evaluate its use in men with advanced prostate cancer. If the approach proves to be as effective ...

154

Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness  

PubMed Central

In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect “accelerated-HRE.” Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

Lloyd, David R.; Medina, Douglas J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Fosco, Whitney D.; Richards, Jerry B.

2014-01-01

155

Quantum Spin Hall Effect  

SciTech Connect

The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2010-01-15

156

Anticancer effects of fucoidan.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan. PMID:25081084

Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-01-01

157

ENVIRONMENTAL RESIDUE EFFECTS DATABASE (ERED)  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Residue Effects Database", a searchable database of adverse biological effects associated with tissue concentrations of various contaminants....

158

Physiological effects of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many studies indicating that sensory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous functions can be altered by means of hypnosis. There also are many studies indicating that similar physiological effects can be produced by symbolic stimulation without hypnosis. The assumption that hypnotic behavior is a function of the trance state is open to question. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3II90B.

Theodore Xenophon Barber

1961-01-01

159

Economic effects of echinococcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a number of important economic effects. The most tangible of these is the cost of expensive medical treatment for human cases. Each confirmed case of CE can cost the health services or individual several thousand dollars. In addition to these costs, the additional cost of loss of edible offal from agricultural animals is well known. This

P. R Torgerson

2003-01-01

160

Towards Hall effect spintronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major efforts in the current exploration of spintronics are focused on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) phenomenon in metallic, semiconducting and tunnel junction magnetic heterostructures. I wish to present a different approach based on the extraordinary Hall effect (EHE). Since its discovery more than a century ago, the EHE was not considered seriously for technological applications because of its relatively small

A. Gerber

2007-01-01

161

Case 26: Somogyi effect  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This individual has a classic manifestation of the Somogyi effect, which is fasting morning hyperglycemia in response to hypoglycemia in the early morning and late night hours. The danger is that if night-time blood glucose levels are not measured, the physician may interpret the patient as having h...

162

FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

163

Cutaneous Effects of Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cigarette smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries and is a significant public health concern. While known to be strongly associated with a number of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and cancers, smoking also leads to a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Objective: This article reviews the effects of cigarette smoking on the skin

Anatoli Freiman; Garrett Bird; Andrei I. Metelitsa; Benjamin Barankin; Gilles J. Lauzon

2004-01-01

164

Effective Thinking Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

Hyde, Rod

1997-01-01

165

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

166

Effects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

von Hippel, F.

1983-01-01

167

Effective Presentations Organization  

E-print Network

· Qualities of great speakers · Other information Content · Be faithful to your audience Organization I1 Pericles Effective Presentations · Content · Organization · Delivery · Visual aids and graphics. Intent E. Payoff Body II. Body A. Points organized as described in "Intent" B. Make transitions clear

Shull, David H.

168

EFFECTS ON SALTWATER ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the e...

169

Effectiveness of Smokeless Ashtrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) issues from the tips of smoldering cigarettes between puffs. Smokeless ashtrays are designed to reduce ETS exposure by removing particulate and\\/or gas-phase contaminants from this plume. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the effectiveness of four smokeless ashtrays: two commercial devices and two prototypes constructed by the authors. In the basic experimental protocol, one

David A. Wampler; Shelly Miller-Leiden; William W. Nazaroff; Ashok J. Gadgil; Andres Litvak; K. R. R. Mahanama; Matty Nematollahi

1995-01-01

170

Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

Wood, B. E.

2007-01-01

171

Designing Effective Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents an online tutorial about creating effective poster presentations. The site guides users through the basics of poster design, which should free the presenter to focus on discussion of essential elements of the work. Decisions about poster format and design which contribute to efficient and accurate transfer of information using this medium are also discussed.

Radel, Jeff; Center, Ku M.

172

Building Effective Afterschool Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

173

Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

1983-01-01

174

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

175

Effects of Induced Astigmatism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

1968-01-01

176

The Effectiveness of DISCOVER.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems have been around for at least the past 20 years in career guidance centers. There are two types of systems: information retrieval and guidance interaction. This study investigated the effectiveness of DISCOVER in facilitating career decisions among college students. DISCOVER is a systematic career…

Engel, Elaine Frances

177

Side Effects of Chemotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

... a way to relax—listening to music, doing yoga or stretching exercises, taking a walk in the woods or on the beach, or watching a movie marathon on television. Effectively relieving stress will help contribute to the ultimate goal of ...

178

Exploring the Lotus Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test and observe the "self-cleaning" lotus effect using a lotus leaf and cloth treated with a synthetic lotus-like superhydrophobic coating. They also observe the Wenzel and Cassie Baxter wetting states by creating and manipulating condensation droplets on the leaf surface. They consider the real-life engineering applications for these amazing water-repellent and self-cleaning properties.

NSF CAREER Award and RET Program, Mechanical Engineering and Material Science,

179

Minnesota Educational Effectiveness Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goals and implementation of the Minnesota Educational Effectiveness Program (MEEP), a school-based improvement program, are presented in this document. The program's mission is to enhance learning and instruction through planned change based upon research facilitated by staff development. The first section examines program components, specifically…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Instructional Design Section.

180

The Anrep Effect Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that the positive inotropic effect after an abrupt increase in systolic pressure (Anrep effect) is the recovery from subendocardial ischemia induced by the increase and subsequently corrected by vascular autoregulation of the coronary bed. Major evidence consists of data obtained from an isolated heart preparation showing that the Anrep effect can be abolished with coronary vasodilation, and that with an abrupt increase in systolic pressure there is a significant reduction in the distribution of coronary flow to subendocardial layers of the ventricle. Furthermore, the intracardiac electrocardiogram shows S-T segment and T wave changes after an abrupt increase in ventricular pressure similar to that noted after coronary constriction. Major implications are that normally there may be ischemia of the subendocardial layers tending to reduce myocardial contractility which may account, in part, for the positive inotropic effect of various coronary vasodilators; that with an abrupt increase in ventricular pressure the subendocardium is rendered temporarily ischemic, placing the heart in jeopardy from arrhythmias until this is corrected; and that end-diastolic pressure and the intracardiac electrocardiogram may provide a means of evaluating the adequacy of circulation to subendocardial layers in diseased ventricles when systolic pressure is abruptly increased. PMID:5056656

Monroe, R. G.; Gamble, W. J.; Lafarge, C. G.; Kumar, A. E.; Stark, J.; Sanders, G. L.; Phornphutkul, C.; Davis, M.

1972-01-01

181

What Effective Schools Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2014-01-01

182

Tacrolimus effect on rosacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients with erythrotelangiectatic or papulopustular rosacea were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus topical ointment in a 12-week open-label trial. Erythema was significantly improved in both rosacea subtypes (P < .05). There was no decrease in the number of papulopustular lesions. Side effects were consistent with those on the tacrolimus topical ointment labeling.

Joel T. M Bamford; Barbara A Elliott; Irina V Haller

2004-01-01

183

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

184

EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

185

Simple Adaptive Mosaic Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm that creates a mosaic effect for an image in an adaptive and automatic fashion. The algo- rithm is automatic because it does not need user interven- tion, except for the choice of a couple of parameters. The algorithm is adaptive because it creates tiles whose sizes are adapted to the features of the image. This is

Geisa Martins Faustino; Luiz Henrique De Figueiredo

2005-01-01

186

Effects of Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

187

Reporting Research Results Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

Volkwein, J. Fredericks

2010-01-01

188

Alcohol's Effects on Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring adolescence, many people begin to experi­ ment with alcohol, yet relatively little is known about alcohol's effects on this critical stage of development. We do know that early initiation of alcohol use remains one of the most powerful predictors of later alcohol abuse (Grant 1998). We also know that during adolescence changes occur in the regions of the brain

Linda Patia Spear

2002-01-01

189

Effective Group Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the essential elements of leading effective groups in group counseling. Chapter 1 concentrates on the rationale behind using groups and their myths, advantages, and limitations. Chapter 2 discusses different types of groups, especially those that are therapeutic and task-oriented, and their theory and ethics. Chapter 3 delves…

Gladding, Samuel T.

190

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.

191

Conditional Effects in Graphplan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphplan has attracted considerable interest because of its extremely high performance, but the algorithm's inability to handle action representations more expressive than STRIPS is a major limitation. In particular, extending Graphplan to handle conditional effects is a surprisingly subtle enterprise. In this paper, we describe the space of possible alternatives, and then concentrate on one particular approach we call factored

Corin R. Anderson; David E. Smith; Daniel S. Weld

1998-01-01

192

Cost Effective Prototyping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

1996-01-01

193

Nitrogen effects on cantaloupes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NO3 levels in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) petioles relate closely to N treatment and reflect the N status of the cantaloupe plant. Suggested levels of petiole NO3 in cantaloupes grown in Arizona are presented. Nitrogen treatment had little effect on melon size, earliness, or most storage quality factors that were evaluated except that deficiencies resulted in lower netting, poor

W. D. Pew; B. R. Gardner

1972-01-01

194

Interactive Pi Bonding Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application demonstrates the effect of pi bonding on the one-electron ligand field splitting in an octahedral. By clicking on the appropriate buttons students can see how D changes when you move from ligands with no pi bonding capability to pi donor and pi acceptor ligands.

195

Unintended Effects of Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unintended effects of evaluation are discussed, with reference to the Hawthorne Effect, where unintended effects overshadow the manipulations controlled by researchers. Unintended effects are categorized as (1) affective reactions; (2) political dimensions; (3) importance of individual differences; and (4) expectations concerning evaluation.…

Welch, Wayne W.; Sternhagen, Fred

1991-01-01

196

Evolution of Earth's Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors contributing to Earth's greenhouse effect are discussed along with various quantitative methods for determining the greenhouse effect. Earth's greenhouse effect has evolved over geologic time scales and continues to evolve. The magnitude of Earth's greenhouse effect is explored for particular time periods of Earth's evolution from the Neoproterozoic to present. Coupled climate model simulations for these various

J. T. Kiehl

2003-01-01

197

SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

198

Calculating and Synthesizing Effect Sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect size is a standardized, scale-free measure of the relative size of the effect of an interven- tion, and it has important and practical implications for clinicians in the speech and hearing field who are interested in estimating the effects of interventions. This article develops a conceptual interpretation of the effect size, makes explicit assumptions for its proper use

Herbert M. Turner; Robert M. Bernard

2006-01-01

199

Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Doppler Effect model demonstrates the shift in frequency of a wave that is produced by the motion of either the wave source or the observer of the wave (or both). In this simulation, you can explore the change in the wave that is produced by source and/or observer motion, and you can even view what the situation looks like from the perspective of the medium (the standard reference frame), the source, or the observer. The Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

200

Fire Effects Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information about fire effects on plants and animals. It was developed at the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The FEIS database contains synoptic descriptions, taken from current English-language literature of almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. The emphasis of each synopsis is fire and how it affects each species. Background information on taxonomy, distribution, basic biology and ecology of each species is also included. Synopses are thoroughly documented, and each contains a complete bibliography. Personnel from several land management agencies (USDA Forest Service, USDI-BIA, NPS, BLM, F&WS) identified the species to be included in the database. Those agencies funded the original work and continue to support maintenance and updating of the database.

1995-12-12

201

Fatigue and Barkhausen effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezomagnetism designates a change in the magnetization of materials induced by mechanical actions such as tension or compression. The type of Barkhausen effect that occurs in this work consists of sudden, discontinuous jumps in a material's magnetization that appear in response to smooth (continuous) stress variations. A series of strain controlled fatigue tests with an alternating sinusoidal waveform were carried out to study the relationship between the endurance limit and the Barkhausen effect. Results of fatigue tests on steel specimens exhibiting Barkhausen pulses at various stages are reported and a threshold-crossing analysis is applied to the test results. These studies show that when the fatigue limit is approached, the Barkhausen pulses become, in general, more intense in amplitude and quantity than at other stress levels. A hypothetical mechanism is proposed that relates the intensity of the Barkhausen response to the inception of micro-cracking and rearrangements of the mechanical lattice at the microscopic level.

Tong, Wei

202

Phytoestrogens and their effects.  

PubMed

The chemical structure, classification, source, metabolism, physiological and health effects of plant phytoestrogens and mechanisms of their action are reviewed. The available knowledge suggests that phytoestrogens can affect a number of physiological and pathological processes related to reproduction, bone remodeling, skin, cardiovascular, nervous, immune systems and metabolism. Due to these effects, phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing diet can be useful for the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms, skin aging, osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, immune and metabolic diseases. Possible problems in understanding and application of phytoestrogens (multiple targets and multiple estrogen receptor -dependent and -independent mechanisms of action, the discrepancy between the results of experimental and clinical studies, adequate source of phytoestrogen) have been discussed. PMID:25160742

Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim

2014-10-15

203

Nanocarpet effect induced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

By coating a fluorocarbon monolayer on a bundled Si nanorod array substrate, a superhydrophobic surface with contact angle approximately 167 degrees and sliding angle approximately 2 degrees is created due to the nanocarpet effect. Without forming the nanocarpet, we can only obtain a moderately hydrophobic surface with contact angle <151 degrees and sliding angle >17 degrees. Comparison between nanocarpets formed from nanorods with low and high densities confirms that the main reason for the superhydrophobicity is the formation of sharp pyramidal bundles, which effectively reduces the area of solid-liquid contact. Video recording and analysis of millimeter-sized water droplets bouncing on the solid surface are used to ascertain the superhydrophobicity, and the energy dissipation during a low speed impact is estimated to be several nanojoules. PMID:20218548

Fan, Jianguo; Zhao, Yiping

2010-06-01

204

Ground Effect in Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper aims to analyze the propulsion of birds and fishes undergoing the ground effect as well as the lift of high-speed ground vehicle. Applying the analytical method which was developed for flutter of a soft plate placed at an arbitrary position in subsonic channel flows, calculations are carried out first for non-oscillatory case in compressible flow and then for oscillating cases of birds and fishes in incompressible flow. The results obtained show that the ground effect acts to increase not only the lift in steady flight but also the thrust and propulsive efficiency in oscillating modes. This method holds not only in the case of very close proximity to the ground but also in compressible flow case, so it would be applicable to the flutter analysis of high-speed ground vehicle with wings.

Tanida, Yoshimichi

205

The Kaye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

2009-11-01

206

Writing Effective TAFs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.

Comet

2003-06-28

207

Mössbauer Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides current and historical information on Rudolf L. Mössbauer and Mössbauer spectroscopy (a type of nuclear gamma resonant spectroscopy). Mössbauer spectroscopy can be used to study a variety of phenomena dealing with shift and splitting of nuclear energy levels. Instruments, labs, and sources for the use and/or study of the Mössbauer effect are provided.

Center, Mã¶ssbauer E.

2008-06-25

208

Magnetic effects on thermocouples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermometers in laboratory environment and industrial applications are often subject to extraneous, usually unwanted and uncontrolled magnetic fields. Magnetic field influence can be minimized, but cannot be fully cancelled out. Even more, in most cases, there is no awareness of the existence of magnetic fields, let alone their effect on measurement instrumentation. In the past, sensitivity to high dc magnetic fields has been investigated in cryogenics and at high temperatures. More recently, the magnetic effect on weak dc magnetic fields was presented. The goal of this paper was to analyse and empirically and experimentally prove the magnetic sensitivity of thermocouples exposed to low magnetic fields: both dc and ac. Precision and uniform alternating and direct magnetic flux densities were generated by means of permanent magnets and power amplifiers with air-cored coils. The magnetic effect on ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic thermocouples at liquid-nitrogen-boiling point (-196 °C), ice point (0 °C), in water (17 °C) and at melting point of gallium fixed point cell (29.7646 °C) was investigated. Magnetic-field-dependent temperature errors of up to 700 mK (at 5.3 mT: dc) and up to 1 °C (at 10 mT: ac 50 Hz magnetic fields) were detected. From the results, it can be concluded that, ideally for temperature measurements of the highest accuracy in the above-cryogenic temperature range, magnetic sensitivity should be estimated and taken into account either as the correction of an error and/or as an additional source of measurement uncertainty. Special consideration should be given to thermocouple orientation relative to the magnetic field direction, influence of metal enclosures and magnetization effects on ferromagnetic components of thermocouples.

Beguš, Samo; Bojkovski, Jovan; Drnovšek, Janko; Geršak, Gregor

2014-03-01

209

Hall Effect Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this Web site is twofold: (1) to describe the Hall measurement technique for determining the carrier density and mobility in semiconductor materials and (2) to initiate an electronic interaction forum where workers interested in the Hall effect can exchange ideas and information. It includes an introductory description of the Hall measurement technique and covers basic principles, equipment, and recommended procedures. Keywords: Conductance, conductivity, resistance, resistivity

2012-07-26

210

Optimizing the boron effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boron content varying from 0.0001 to 0.0110 wt pct were studied to determine the optimum boron range for commercially desirable combinations of hardenability and notch toughness in 11\\/4 in. thick steel plate made from grade ASTM A514-J. Increasing boron content up to 0.0025 pct resulted in a gradually increasing boron hardenability factor which reached a maximum value

G. F. Melloy; P. R. Summon; P. P. Podgursky

1973-01-01

211

Optimizing the boron effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boron content varying from 0.0001 to 0.0110 wt pct were studied to determine the optimum boron range for commercially\\u000a desirable combinations of hardenability and notch toughness in 11\\/4 in. thick steel plate made from grade ASTM A514-J. Increasing\\u000a boron content up to 0.0025 pct resulted in a gradually increasing boron hardenability factor which reached a maximum value

G. F. Melloy; P. R. Summon; P. P. Podgursky

1973-01-01

212

[Therapeutic effectiveness of Crataegus].  

PubMed

Hawthorn (crataegus) has been used since antiquity for medicinal purposes. More recent research suggests it to be useful in congestive heart failure. Rigorous clinical trials show benefit concerning objective signs and subjective symptoms of congestive heart failure stage NYHA-II. No adverse drug reactions have been reported. It is therefore concluded that crataegus is an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for this indication. PMID:8647566

Weihmayr, T; Ernst, E

1996-01-20

213

Doppler-Effect Omnirange  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an omnirange of a new design in which the transmitting antenna is caused either to move, or to appear to move along a circular path to produce low-deviation FM by Doppler effect. The FM envelope phase of the transmitted signal is directionally characterized. Deviation-expansion and selective-degeneration in an AFC circuit are used at the receiver to detect

Paul Hansel

1953-01-01

214

Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal

2011-01-01

215

Extra Housepayments Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How financial institutions use the monthly mortgage payment and mortgage amortization formulas can be a confusing concept to grasp. This lesson asks students to find a current interest mortgage rate for their city and state. This rate is then applied to an Internet based mortgage calculator to discover the effect that paying extra on a monthly house payment has on total interest paid and length of the loan. A student worksheet is included in the document.

2011-01-05

216

Side effects of benoxaprofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of adverse dermatological reactions to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent benoxaprofen. Photosensitivity was seen in several patients, confined to wavelengths less than 340 nm. Other cutaneous side effects were erythema multiforme, the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, milia, and onycholysis. One case of pancytopenia and toxic epidermal necrolysis was reported. patients were not rechallenged with the drug, but these reactions

Brian Diffey; Colin Hindson; F Lawlor

1982-01-01

217

Dark Matter Effective Theory  

E-print Network

We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties.

Eugenio Del Nobile; Francesco Sannino

2012-04-18

218

Botany: floral fluorescence effect.  

PubMed

The way flowers appear to insects is crucial for pollination. Here we describe an internal light-filtering effect in the flowers of Mirabilis jalapa, in which the visible fluorescence emitted by one pigment, a yellow betaxanthin, is absorbed by another, a violet betacyanin, to create a contrasting fluorescent pattern on the flower's petals. This finding opens up new possibilities for pollinator perception as fluorescence has not previously been considered as a potential signal in flowers. PMID:16163341

Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

2005-09-15

219

Ejs Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Doppler Effect model displays the detection of sound waves from a moving source and the change in frequency of the detected wave via the Doppler effect. In addition to the wave fronts from the source a graph depicting the time of emission and time of detection of each of the wave fronts is given. The speed of sound, the velocity of the source and the position and velocity of the detector can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-20

220

SAD effects on grantmanship  

E-print Network

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a state of depression induced by a lack of sufficient sunlight that occurs at high latitudes during the fall and winter. One effect of SAD is that causes people to be more risk-adverse, an effect that should be considered by granting agencies of high latitude countries. Funding agencies often have programmes aimed at high-risk, innovative research. However, the time of the year during which these purposefully high-risk proposals are evaluated usually does not take into consideration the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall might significantly detract from the very purpose of such programmes. At this time of the year, grant evaluators might be in a darkness-induced state of mild depression. As such, evaluators might be more likely to opt for safe investments, more of the same, the well established, which is the antithesis of innovative research.

Lozano, George A

2014-01-01

221

The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x <= 0.5, is associated with a first order magnetic phase transition and it reaches values of 3 to 4 K and 6 to 10 J/kg K per 1 T field change, respectively. The refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 <= x <= 1 allowed us to obtain a qualitative understanding of the basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

1998-03-01

222

Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect  

PubMed Central

Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed to the patient’s expectation. Biomedical research will benefit from abandoning the term placebo effect and focusing instead on a deeper understanding of the expectation variable, including its causes, effects, and effect modifiers. This avenue of research should be pursued by observational cohorts that are nested within clinical trials. PMID:24101881

Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

2013-01-01

223

'The Kesterson effect'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

Presser, T.S.

1994-01-01

224

Quantum Effects in Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Man?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

2014-08-01

225

Effectiveness Review Analysis (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) Root Cause  

E-print Network

Effectiveness Review Analysis ­ (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) 1 of 1 Root Cause: Corrective action address the root cause? 2. Does the corrective action prevent recurrence of similar conditions due

226

On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.

1994-07-01

227

On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.

1994-01-01

228

Earthquake occurrence and effects.  

PubMed

Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

Adams, R D

1990-01-01

229

Effective string theory simplified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we simplify the formulation of the Poincaré-invariant effective string theory in D dimensions by adding an intrinsic metric and embedding its dynamics into the Polyakov formalism. We use this formalism to classify operators order-by-order in the inverse physical length of the string, in a fully gauge-invariant framework. We then use this classification to analyze the universality and nonuniversality of observables, up to and including the second sub-leading order in the long string expansion.

Hellerman, Simeon; Maeda, Shunsuke; Maltz, Jonathan; Swanson, Ian

2014-09-01

230

[Genotoxic effects of tonarol].  

PubMed

Genotoxic effects of 2,6-di-tret-butyl-4-methylphenol (tonarol) were studied using four test systems: the Ames test, the SOS chromotest, the cytogenetic test with rootlets of onion (Allium cepa), and the in vivo micronucleus test. Tonarol did not affect gene mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, the SOS response in the Escherichia coli strain PQ37, chromosomal aberrations in cells of onion (Allium cepa) rootlets, and micronuclei in erythrocytes of peripheral blood of CBA x C5713 L/G mice. Tonarol induced cell division in A. PMID:9445825

Karamova, N S; Il'inskaia, O N; Ivanchenko, O B; Ermolaev, A I; Gil'mutdinov, G Z; Gershanov, F B; Khamitov, B R

1997-09-01

231

Vibration by relativistic effects  

E-print Network

Relativity, time reversal invariance in mechanics and principle of causality can be in the bases of a type of vibration of the extensive objects. It is because, the detailed analysis of the relativistic movement of an extensive body entail that all the objects must have inherent a vibratory movement to their own size. Such effect does not happen when it works with point particles thus is not stranger who happens unnoticed in the traditional studies. Also we can find relation between the form of vibration of the extensive objects and the energy that calculates by quantum considerations.

Enrique Oradaz Romay

2005-12-23

232

Greenhouse Effect Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simple lab, students collect data to demonstrate basic atmospheric science concepts. Groups of students measure the effect of carbon dioxide on temperature using soda bottles with thermometers inserted. One bottle is filled with air and capped. The second bottle is filled with carbon dioxide using a specific procedure. To conduct the experiment, both bottles are placed under a lamp while students record the increase in temperature over five minutes. The bottle containing carbon dioxide has a greater increase in temperature than the bottle containing air. This lab demonstrates the fundamental concept that underlies climate change science by providing data that are easy for students to interpret.

Krista Larsen

233

Assessments of astronaut effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

1993-01-01

234

Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

1983-01-01

235

Effectiveness of vasectomy techniques.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of various vasectomy techniques is reviewed, with a focus on methods used for vas occlusion. Spontaneous recanalization of the vas is more common than generally recognized and is often transient. Simple ligation and excision has an unacceptably high risk for failure. Techniques that include cautery seem to have a lower risk for failure than techniques that do not include cautery. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a particular standardized cautery technique, but adding fascial interposition to cautery seems to be associated with the lowest risk for failure. PMID:19643234

Sokal, David C; Labrecque, Michel

2009-08-01

236

Direct effects protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protection of an aircraft and each of its various systems against the direct effects of lightning were analyzed. Components located in different sections of the aircraft were individually examined since they are likely to experience different degrees of susceptibility to lightning, and may be vulnerable to different components of the lightning flash. The basic steps to be followed in establishing lightning protection were presented by discussing the varieties of arc entry and current flow-through damage. The lightning-strike zones and lightning current environments are established, since environmental conditions in the zones are those under which specific protective measures must perform. Airworthiness regulations which apply to lightning protection are cited.

1977-01-01

237

Genotoxic effect of alkaloids.  

PubMed

Because of the increased use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotoxicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated from the leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine) was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion) in yeast diploid strain XS2316. PMID:1842017

Henriques, J A; Moreno, P R; Von Poser, G L; Querol, C C; Henriques, A T

1991-01-01

238

Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

Thompson, Bruce

2007-01-01

239

Biological effects of heat  

SciTech Connect

The biological effects of heat appear to be favorable for its use to treat cancer. Heat kills cells in a predictable and repeatable way. The age response function complements X-rays in that S-phase cells are most sensitive, and at the same time cells that are at low pH or are nutritionally deprived are also more sensitive. This offers the possibility that cycling tumor cells and quiescent cells that have respired to hypoxia may be more sensitive to heat than are the slowly turning over cells of the normal tissues responsible for late effects. Thermotolerance, in general, represents a problem and a complication in clinical practice but may be exploited to advantage. The interaction of heat with ionizing radiation has been studied extensively and is complex; in general, heat inhibits the repair of both sublethal and potentially lethal X-ray damage, but it is not obvious how to exploit this to advantage. By contrast, the potentiation by heat of the action of chemotherapy agents has been relatively neglected. This is a promising area, since local hyperthermia can ''target'' drug action in a way not otherwise possible. Heat is a weak mutagen and has not been shown to be a carcinogen; this is a most desirable property at a time of increasing concern for the oncogenic potential of agents used to treat cancer.

Hall, E.J.; Roizin-Towle, L.

1984-10-01

240

Lake Effect Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

241

Antidepressant effect of Stillen™  

PubMed

Stillen™ has been used to treat patients with gastric mucosal ulcers and has an anti-inflammatory effect. It is well-known that neuro-inflammatory reactions are related to depression. Here we evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of Stillen™ on mice subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Stillen™ and eupatilin (a major component of Stillen™) significantly decreased immobility times compared with the FST control group. In the Stillen™-administered group, increased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein were observed in the hippocampus. Nissl bodies also increased in the hippocampus neuronal cytoplasm of the Stillen™-administered group. Stillen™ decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (at the mRNA and protein levels) in the hippocampus and serum, compared with the control group. In addition, the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-? increased after Stillen™ administration in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that Stillen™ should be viewed as a candidate antidepressant. PMID:25163682

Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Na-Rae; Yoou, Myoung-Schook; Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Kyu-Youb; Choi, Youngjin; Jang, Jae-Bum; Kang, In-Cheol; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Hyung-Min

2014-08-28

242

Health effects of hawthorn.  

PubMed

Hawthorn medicinal extract has long been a favored herbal remedy in Europe. The active components of this slow-acting cardiotonic agent are thought to be flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins. The most studied hawthorn extracts are WS 1442 and LI 132. Reviews of placebo- controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I through III). Other studies of hawthorn in patients with heart failure have revealed improvement in clinical symptoms, pressure-heart rate product, left ventricular ejection fraction, and patients' subjective sense of well-being. However, there is no evidence of a notable reduction in mortality or sudden death. Hawthorn is well tolerated; the most common adverse effects are vertigo and dizziness. Theoretic interactions exist with antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, digoxin, and antihyperlipidemic agents. Proven conventional therapies for heart failure are still recommended until the safety and effectiveness of hawthorn has been proven in long-term studies. PMID:20148500

Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie

2010-02-15

243

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases result in the loss of functional neurons and synapses. Although future stem cell therapies offer some hope, current treatments for most of these diseases are less than adequate and our best hope is to prevent these devastating diseases. Neuroprotective approaches work best prior to the initiation of damage, suggesting that some safe and effective prophylaxis would be highly desirable. Curcumin has an outstanding safety profile and a number of pleiotropic actions with potential for neuroprotective efficacy, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-protein-aggregate activities. These can be achieved at sub-micromolar levels. Curcumin’s dose–response curves are strongly dose dependent and often biphasic so that in vitro data need to be cautiously interpreted; many effects might not be achievable in target tissues in vivo with oral dosing. However, despite concerns about poor oral bioavailability, curcumin has at least 10 known neuroprotective actions and many of these might be realized in vivo. Indeed, accumulating cell culture and animal model data show that dietary curcumin is a strong candidate for use in the prevention or treatment of major disabling age-related neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and stroke. Promising results have already led to ongoing pilot clinical trials. PMID:17569212

Cole, Greg M.; Teter, Bruce; Frautschy, Sally A.

2008-01-01

244

IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

245

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on  

E-print Network

1 Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Iain S. Walker ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor-generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only

246

Biological effects of ozone reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of increased UV radiation on the biosphere are described with ongoing research, and research areas that should be investigated. Some mention is also made of the potential climatic effects of ozone reduction on agriculture and the biosphere.

1975-01-01

247

Optical Kerr effect in polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the temperature dependence of optical Kerr effect in butanediol-1,4 dimethacrylate has been performed. The obtained results indicate the presence of a phase transition near 298 K with temperature hysteresis of Kerr effect.

Zdzislaw Blaszczak; M. Farhoud

1995-01-01

248

Antiaggregant effects of biogenic chloramines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alanine and taurine sharply potentiate antiaggregant effects of hypochlorite on platelets in platelet-rich plasma. This effect\\u000a is determined by more pronounced action of chloramine derivatives, products of interaction of added amino acids with hypochlorite.\\u000a Platelets are more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of amino acid chloramine derivatives (biogenic chloramines) compared\\u000a to erythrocytes and neutrophils. The antiaggregant effects of biobenic amines,

M. A. Murina; D. I. Roshchupkin; N. N. Kravchenko; A. O. Petrova; V. I. Sergienko

2007-01-01

249

Circuit hot electron effect simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot electron effects resulting from high electric fields in submicron devices can severely degrade device characteristics. As a result, severe performance degradation can occur at the circuit level. No simulator exists to predict this effect. The purpose of this paper is to present circuit hot electron effect simulation using our recently developed simulator. As a result, a circuit performance degradation

S. Aur; D. E. Hocevar; Ping Yang

1987-01-01

250

Greenhouse effect of NO X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse\\u000a effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential

Gerhard Lammel; Hartmut Grafll

1995-01-01

251

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-print Network

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

252

2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect  

E-print Network

effect dependence on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse substances and the nature of climate water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content by the values and temperature-dependent behaviour of the planetary albedo and atmospheric greenhouse effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Effective Programs for Latino Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention…

Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

254

Safety and effectiveness of vasectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To recommend further research on vasectomy based on a systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of vasectomy. Design: A systematic MEDLINE review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of vasectomy between 1964 and 1998. Main Outcome Measure(s): Early failure rates are ,1%; however, effectiveness and complications vary with experience of surgeons and surgical technique. Early complications,

Pamela J. Schwingl; Harry A. Guess

2000-01-01

255

Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

256

Orbital magnetic ratchet effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic ratchets—two-dimensional systems with superimposed noncentrosymmetric ferromagnetic gratings—are considered theoretically. It is demonstrated that excitation by radiation results in a directed motion of two-dimensional carriers due to the pure orbital effect of the periodic magnetic field. Magnetic ratchets based on various two-dimensional systems such as topological insulators, graphene, and semiconductor heterostructures are investigated. The mechanisms of the electric current generation caused by both radiation-induced heating of carriers and by acceleration in the radiation electric field in the presence of a space-oscillating Lorentz force are studied in detail. The electric currents sensitive to the linear polarization plane orientation as well as to the radiation helicity are calculated. It is demonstrated that the frequency dependence of the magnetic ratchet currents is determined by the dominant elastic-scattering mechanism of two-dimensional carriers and differs for the systems with linear and parabolic energy dispersions.

Budkin, G. V.; Golub, L. E.

2014-09-01

257

The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama. The goal of the site is to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit students learn about what the greenhouse effect is and what causes it. By looking at greenhouse gas rates and amounts, students can propose reasons for trends and solutions to global warming. Parts of the unit include gathering information from other websites, applying the data gathered, and performing enrichment exercises. This site contains a downloadable teachers guide, student guide, and all activity sheets to make the unit complete.

258

The hot chocolate effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, Frank S.

1982-05-01

259

Effective leadership in competition  

E-print Network

Among natural biological flocks/swarms or even mass social activities, when the collective behaviors of the followers has been dominated by the moving direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems very difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This Letter reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the late-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern which enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible in a given time and to accumulate enough power to govern these followers. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leadership, which helps to design an economic way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their distribution pattern. Our investigation provides new insights into the effective leadership in biological systems, with mea...

Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Michael Z Q; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Changsong

2009-01-01

260

Radiation Effects In Space  

SciTech Connect

Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

Tripathi, Ram K. [NASA Langley Research Center, MS - 188 E, Hampton VA 23681 (United States)

2011-06-01

261

Topological magnetoelectric effect decay.  

PubMed

We address the influence of realistic disorder and finite doping on the effective magnetic monopole induced near the surface of an ideal topological insulator (TI) by currents that flow in response to a suddenly introduced external electric charge. We show that when the longitudinal conductivity ?(xx)=g(e(2)/h)?0, the apparent position of a magnetic monopole initially retreats from the TI surface at speed v(M)=?cg, where ? is the fine structure constant and c is the speed of light. For the particular case of TI surface states described by a massive Dirac model, we further find that the temperature T=0 Hall currents vanish when the external potential is screened. PMID:23863019

Pesin, D A; MacDonald, A H

2013-07-01

262

Action languages: Dimensions, effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

1989-01-01

263

Anthropogenic Effects on Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise focuses on anthropogenic effects on erosion. It could be run as a single lab or as a series of in-class exercises or problem sets. We discussed an article by Hooke and used it as a launching pad for a discussion of back of the envelope calculations. Students then estimate the volume moved by mountain-top removal and how long it might take a river to mobilize that sediment. They estimate the cost for beach nourishment along Florida beaches. They estimate the contribution of local construction projects and road gravel to stream sediment loads. This activity gives students a chance to formulate a problem, make simple measurements, estimate unknowns, and calculate volumes, rates, and costs of various human earth-moving activities. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Uses geomorphology to solve problems in other fields

Karen Gran

264

THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, Frank S.

1980-12-01

265

The Energy Diameter Effect  

SciTech Connect

Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

2007-04-20

266

The Energy Diameter Effect  

SciTech Connect

We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A; Souers, P C

2007-07-10

267

Radiation Effects in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2012-01-01

268

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

269

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (GEO) makes it their mission to promote the strategies and practices that contribute to grantee success. To this end, the GEO website contains information about its outreach efforts, peer learning opportunities, conferences, and upcoming events. Within GEO Priorities visitors can learn about the organization's own development plan and long-term goals, while the GEO Publications area contains a raft of useful publications for policy types and others. Noteworthy publications, here, include "Many Hands, More Impact: Philanthropy's Role in Supporting Movements" and "Cracking the Network Code: Four Principles for Grantmakers." The Peer Learning Opportunities section is another great installment, containing links to helpful webinars, speaking engagement possibilities, and other useful resources.

270

Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity  

E-print Network

Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, second, the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler's third law.

Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb

2014-01-01

271

Matrix effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present understanding of nonperturbative ground states in the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on effective theories of the Jain 'composite fermion' excitations. We review the approach based on matrix variables, i.e. D0 branes, originally introduced by Susskind and Polychronakos. We show that the Maxwell-Chern-Simons matrix gauge theory provides a matrix generalization of the quantum Hall effect, where the

Andrea Cappelli; Ivan D. Rodriguez

2009-01-01

272

Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review  

PubMed Central

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

2013-01-01

273

Melatonin anticancer effects: review.  

PubMed

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

2013-01-01

274

Unruh Effect and Holography  

E-print Network

We study the Unruh effect on the dynamics of quarks and mesons in the context of AdS$_5$/CFT$_4$ correspondence. We adopt an AdS$_5$ metric with the boundary Rindler horizon extending into a bulk Rindler-like horizon, which yields the thermodynamics with Unruh temperature verified by computing the boundary stress tensor. We then embed in it a probe fundamental string and a $D7$ brane in such a way that they become the dual of an accelerated quark and a meson in Minkowski space, respectively. Using the standard procedure of holographic renormalization, we calculate the chiral condensate, and also the spectral functions for both the accelerated quark and meson. Especially, we extract the corresponding strength of random force of the Langevin dynamics and observe that it can characterize the phase transition of meson melting. This result raises an issue toward a formulation of complementarity principle for the Rindler horizon. We find most of the dynamical features are qualitatively similar to the ones in the thermal bath dual to the AdS black hole background, though they could be quite different quantitatively.

Takayuki Hirayama; Pei-Wen Kao; Shoichi Kawamoto; Feng-Li Lin

2010-01-08

275

The photorefractive effect  

SciTech Connect

When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

Pepper, D.M. (Pepperdine Univ., CA (USA)); Kukhtarev, N.V. (Institute of Physics, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))

1990-10-01

276

A clear catalyst effect.  

PubMed

A member of the International Council on Management of Population Programs (ICOMP) says that training women to manage and harbor employable skills has a very large multiplier effect. An international nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Kuala Lumpur and established in 1973 to improve the performance of family planning programs in Asian developing countries through better management techniques, ICOMP boasts 35 developing countries as members. The organization's mandate has expanded over the years such that they now provide management and skills training programs through local NGOs in developing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been assisting ICOMP's training programs in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, and the Philippines since 1989 with two technical assistance grants totalling $681,000. This is the first time that the Bank has supported training exclusively for women. Although the ADB planned to reach only 940 women under the first technical assistance, it eventually helped train more than 1200; an additional 1300 women have attended the courses offered under the Bank's second grant. Training courses are aimed at disadvantaged women who need training in employment skills, women engaged in community development or income-generating projects who need to develop basic management skills, and officials of the participating women NGOs who need training in organizing, developing, and implementing income-generating projects. The author discusses other elements of training aimed at improving the social and economic status of women, along with experiences of the Bangladesh Association for Community Education and the MELATI Foundation of Jakarta, Indonesia. PMID:12345682

Molitor, C

1994-06-01

277

Perfusion effects and hydrodynamics.  

PubMed

Biological processes within living systems are significantly influenced by the motion of the liquids and gases to which those tissues are exposed. Accordingly, tissue engineers must not only understand hydrodynamic phenomena, but also appreciate the vital role of those phenomena in cellular and physiologic processes both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, understanding the fundamental principles of fluid flow underlying perfusion effects in the organ-level internal environment and their relation to the cellular microenvironment is essential to successfully mimicking tissue behavior. In this work, the major principles of hemodynamic flow and transport are summarized, to provide readers with a physical understanding of these important issues. In particular, since quantifying hemodynamic events through experiments can require expensive and invasive techniques, the benefits that can be derived from the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) packages and neural networking (NN) models are stressed. A capstone illustration based on analysis of the hemodynamics of aortic aneurysms is presented as a representative example of this approach, to stress the importance of tissue responses to flow-induced events. PMID:17195462

Peattie, Robert A; Fisher, Robert J

2007-01-01

278

The BOLD effect.  

PubMed

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the novice NMR imager to blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast as well as remind the seasoned veteran of its beauty. Introduction to many of the factors that influence the BOLD signal is given higher priority than pursuing any subset in exquisite detail. Instead, references are given for readers seeking intense investigations into a given aspect. The hope is that this overview inspires the reader with the elegant simplicity of BOLD contrast while not, at first, intimidating too much with the underlying complexity. As one's knowledge of NMR matures so too will one's understanding, appreciation, and application of BOLD MRI. BOLD contrast derives from variations in the magnetic susceptibility of blood due to variations in the concentration of deoxyhemoglobin. These magnetic susceptibility effects produce local magnetic fields around blood vessels that can result in phase dispersion of nearby spins and, therefore, changes in signal intensity in NMR images. After providing brief historical context for BOLD, this chapter will follow the trail of magnetic susceptibility through definition, its source and location in vivo, and how the source and location in vivo interact with anatomical (e.g., blood vessel size) and imaging considerations (e.g., pulse sequence) to influence the BOLD signal. We will conclude by briefly highlighting clinical and preclinical applications using BOLD contrast. PMID:21874477

Greve, Joan M

2011-01-01

279

Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.

2011-12-01

280

Electron Effective Mass in Graphene  

E-print Network

The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

2012-06-26

281

GENETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic effects of electromagnetic waves can be detected by different test-systems. The mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation\\u000a can be developed on the levels of DNA and\\/or chromosomes. In numerous researches efficiency of micronucleus assay, alkaline\\u000a single-cell gel electrophoresis, chromosomal aberrations test and FISH-technique and their different combinations for the\\u000a detection of ionizing radiation-induced genotoxic effects are discussed. Also some

Rouben Aroutiounian; Galina Hovhannisyan; Gennady Gasparian

282

Effectiveness of multiple decoupling capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of using the parallel combination of large-value and small-value capacitors to increase the frequency coverage of either one and overcome the effect of lead inductance is examined. Computed and experimental results are given that show this scheme is not significantly effective. The improvement at high frequencies is at most 6 dB over the use of only the large-value

Clayton R. Paul

1992-01-01

283

Twisted Mass Finite Volume Effects  

E-print Network

We calculate finite volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD (tmLQCD) at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in tmLQCD gives rise to finite volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavour twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite volume corrections are taken into account.

Gilberto Colangelo; Urs Wenger; Jackson M. S. Wu

2010-03-03

284

(Theory of relative biological effectiveness)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on relative biological effectiveness, in the following areas: radial distribution of dose about the path of an energetic heavy ion; the response of E. Coli mutants to ionizing radiations; the application of a fragmentation model to to the calculation of cell survival and mutation with heavy ion beams; biological radiation effects from gamma radiation and heavy ion beams on organisms; cancer induction in the Harderian Gland by HZE particles; and effects of low dose radiations. (CBS)

Katz, R.

1992-06-15

285

Representable Effect Algebras and Observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a class of monotone ?-complete effect algebras, called representable, which are ?-homomorphic images of a class of monotone ?-complete effect algebras of functions taking values in the interval [0, 1] and with effect algebra operations defined by points. We exhibit different types of compatibilities and show their connection to representability. Finally, we study observables and show situations when information of an observable on all intervals of the form (-?, t) gives full information about the observable.

Dvure?enskij, Anatolij

2014-08-01

286

Semiotics and the placebo effect.  

PubMed

Despite substantial progress in elucidating its neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical understanding of the placebo effect is poorly developed. Application of the semiotic theory developed by the American philosopher Charles Peirce offers a promising account of placebo effects as involving the apprehension and response to signs. The semiotic approach dovetails with the various psychological mechanisms invoked to account for placebo effects, such as conditioning and expectation, and bridges the biological and cultural dimensions of this fascinating phenomenon. PMID:21037405

Miller, Franklin G; Colloca, Luana

2010-01-01

287

Biomedical effects of laser application  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews the authors experimental and clinical use of lasers over a 20-year period, during which laser effects on 15 biological systems were studied. Low-energy laser radiation was found to have a stimulating effect on cells, and high-energy radiation had an inhibiting effect. The application of lasers to stimulate wound healing in cases of nonhealing ulcers is recommended.

Mester, E.; Mester, A.F.; Mester, A.

1985-01-01

288

The Effect of Negation on Sentiment Analysis and Retrieval Effectiveness  

E-print Network

The Effect of Negation on Sentiment Analysis and Retrieval Effectiveness Lifeng Jia Department@cs.binghamton.edu ABSTRACT We investigate the problem of determining the polarity of sentiments when one or more occurrences that the identification of the scope of negation improves both the accuracy of sentiment analysis and the retrieval

Meng, Weiyi

289

Reconsidering the Effect of Market Experience on the "Endowment Effect"  

E-print Network

Reconsidering the Effect of Market Experience on the "Endowment Effect" Dirk Engelmann their endow- ment less frequently than standard demand theory would predict. List (2003a) finds that the most conjecture, we find that "forcing" subjects to give away their endowment in a series of exchanges eliminates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT  

SciTech Connect

The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

Flach, G.

2012-02-27

291

Analogue of the Fizeau effect in an effective optical medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new approach, we propose an analogue of the Fizeau effect for massive and massless particles in an effective optical medium derived from the static, spherically symmetric gravitational field. The medium is naturally perceived as a dispersive medium by matter de Broglie waves. Several Fresnel drag coefficients are worked out, with appropriate interpretations of the wavelengths used. In two

K. K. Nandi; Yuan-Zhong Zhang; P. M. Alsing; J. C. Evans; A. Bhadra

2003-01-01

292

Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions  

E-print Network

-analysis with an overall combined Tau-U ES of .78 of data showing improvement between phase A and B with CI90 [.72, .83]. Tau-U effect sizes ranged from .35 to 1.0. TE is effective with all ages evaluated (ages 3 - 15); however, statistically significant results...

Soares, Denise

2012-02-14

293

Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. METHODS: Members of a state branch of

Sandra G Leggat

2007-01-01

294

Congruity Effect and Bizarreness Effect on Incidental Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether or not the image determined the occurrence of congruity effect and bizarreness effect on incidental memory. The subjects performed an ori? enting task involving two conditons followed by unexpected free recall and cued recall tests. In a choosing condition the subjects in congruity group were asked to choose one of the two sentence frames into

Hiroshi TOYOTA

295

A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs  

PubMed Central

The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de. PMID:20087340

Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

2010-01-01

296

Effect of orientation anisotropy on calculating effective electrical conductivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops an analytical effective medium theory (EMT) equation for calculating the effective conductivity of a mixture based on Maxwell's and Maxwell-Garnett's theories, extended to higher volume fractions using Bruggeman's unsymmetrical treatment (BUT), with a long term goal of extending the treatment to mixtures more representative of real materials in order to calculate their effective electrical conductivity. The development accounts for spheroid shaped inclusions of varying degrees of anisotropic orientation. The orientation is described by the introduction of a distribution function. Two methodologies valid for the inclusion dilute limit were used to evaluate the effective conductivity: one based on Maxwell's far field approach, and the other based on the Maxwell-Garnett in the matrix approach. It was found that while the dilute limit equations for the effective conductivity were different, the final EMT equations derived by applying BUT collapsed to the same formula which was generalized for anisotropic orientation based on the distribution function presented.

Myles, Timothy D.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

2014-05-01

297

Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.

1999-01-01

298

How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed too…

Gallagher, Michael

2012-01-01

299

Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

300

The Effectiveness of Behavior Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of psychotherapeutic methodologies has proliferated as a consequence of rapid growth in the need for mental health services. The effectiveness of many of these methods is questionable. Although each psychotherapeutic technique advances claims for its continued use based on clinical effectiveness, few offer adequate scientific evidence to…

Puretz, Susan L.

301

Size effect in concrete beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will report on an experimental investigation into the size effect in the strength of hardened cement paste (nominal compressive strength 40 MPa) and high strength concrete (nominal compressive strength 110 MPa) as measured in three point bending. The aim of the investigation is to judge the range of applicability of the various size effect formulae available in the

B. L Karihaloo; H. M Abdalla; Q. Z Xiao

2003-01-01

302

Biological effects of ²²Cf neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

From second meeting on fundamental and practical aspects of the ; application of fast neutrons in clinical radiotherapy; The Hague, Netherlands (3 ; Oct 1973). The biological effects of ²²Cf neutrons were studied with ; cultured cells, and with intact tissues. Measurements available to date, of the ; relative biological effect (RBE) and of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), are

R. G. Fairchild; H. L. Atkins; R. M. Drew; J. S. Robertson

1973-01-01

303

What Is Effectiveness? Panel Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two papers are presented from a panel discussion moderated by Naomi Zigmond, who introduces the papers with a note on definitions and measures of intervention effectiveness. "Some Thoughts on Effective Intervention for Handicapped Preschoolers," by Phillip Strain, notes that special education researchers attempt to be efficient, economical,…

Zigmond, Naomi

304

Characteristics of Effective Instructional Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective technology empowers learners and helps them assume responsibility for their own learning. Characteristics of effective instructional technology should guide the development of computer software and other types of technology. Software should provide for interaction since adults learn through active engagement. Feedback should be…

Bixler, Brett; Askov, Eunice N.

1994-01-01

305

Thermal effects in doped fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the pump-induced temperature change and associated thermal phase shift occurring in a pumped doped fiber is presented. Although the primary devices targeted are all-optical switches based on doped fibers, where such effects can be detrimental, this analysis is also applicable to lasers, amplifiers, and other doped fiber devices. The effects of a single pump pulse, multiple

M. K. Davis; M. J. F. Digonnet; Richard H. Pantell

1998-01-01

306

Torsional Vibration Effects in Grinding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of models of vibration in grinding assume that there are no torsional vibration effects. In a recent doctoral study, it was found possible to eliminate grinding chatter by changing the torsional stiffness of the workpiece drive. In that study, a frequency domain model for the grinding process was developed that included torsional effects. It was concluded that

M. A. Mannan; S. J. Drew; B. J. Stone; J. G. Wager

2000-01-01

307

The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!  

Microsoft Academic Search

In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper

Jochen Ebel

2009-01-01

308

Animation About the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a basic animation/simulation with background information about the greenhouse effect by DAMOCLES. The animation has several layers to it that allow users to drill into more detail about the natural greenhouse effect and different aspects of it, including volcanic aerosols and human impacts from burning fossil fuels.

DAMOCLES

309

Effect Sizes in Qualitative Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Psychological Association Task Force recommended that researchers always report and interpret effect sizes for quantitative data. However, no such recommendation was made for qualitative data. The first objective of this paper is to provide a rationale for reporting and interpreting effect sizes in qualitative research. Arguments are…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

310

Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

2005-01-01

311

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

312

Antiarthritic effect of bee venom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee venom, administered subcutaneously, suppressed the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema and adjuvant arthritis in the rat in a dose-related manner. A single dose of bee venom administered subcutaneously the day before or on the day of injection of complte Freund's adjuvant (CFA) effectively suppressed the development of polyarthritis. This suppressive effect decreased progressively as dosing was delayed. Bee venom

Yi-Han Chang; Marcia L. Bliven

1979-01-01

313

Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

314

Effectiveness of vasectomy using cautery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little evidence supports the use of any one vas occlusion method. Data from a number of studies now suggest that there are differences in effectiveness among different occlusion methods. The main objectives of this study were to estimate the effectiveness of vasectomy by cautery and to describe the trends in sperm counts after cautery vasectomy. Other objectives were to

Mark A Barone; Belinda Irsula; Mario Chen-Mok; David C Sokal

2004-01-01

315

Cost-Effective National Schemes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facilities and schemes for training and retraining vocational education teachers are needed in developed and developing countries, but such training must be cost-effective. Some characteristics of cost-effective schemes include the following: adaptability, coordination between various providers, good planning, and adequate financial support.…

Lacson, Jose D.

316

Air pollution effects on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial expansion and increasing urbanization have caused the spread of phytotoxic air pollutants to agricultural production areas especially in Eastern United States and Southern California. Needed are (a) better data to quantify the effects of pollutants on the yield and quality of crops as well as their effects on animals; (b) better dose-response information for single pollutants and pollutant mixtures

Heggestad

1977-01-01

317

Pharmacological effects on sexual function.  

PubMed

Many drugs may have effects on sexual function. Sexual function is complex and psychological and relationship issues are likely to have greater impacts on sexual function in women than drugs. Although it is important to understand the effects of drugs on sexual function, physicians should use caution in "medicalization" of sexual function in women [106]. PMID:17116504

Carey, J Chris

2006-12-01

318

Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

Tomlinson, Tommy M.

1981-01-01

319

Space environment effects (M0006)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of long term exposure to the near Earth space environment on advanced electrooptical and radiation sensor components were examined. The effect of long duration spaceflight on the germination rate of selected terrestrial plant seeds is observed in exobiological experiments.

Angelo, J. A., Jr.; Madonna, R. G.; Altadonna, L. P.; Dagostino, M. D.; Chang, J. Y.; Alfano, R. R.; Caplan, V. L.

1984-01-01

320

Aesthetic law and ‘equivalent effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no translation of Chinese classics has really achieved an ‘equivalent effect’ as proposed by some translation theorists, this article explores the limitations of the ‘equivalent effect’ theory. This is done by means of a dynamic analysis of the generation of artistic charm, i.e. the interaction of the text's aesthetic elements with the reader's active reproduction and appreciation of them

Cheng Mei

1996-01-01

321

Effects of World War I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine the effects of World War I on countries involved in the war. In this activity, read the links and use the information given to determine the effects of World War I on the major players in the war. Fill out the graphic organizer with the information you find. Organizer Casualties - Use this site to determine how many soldiers each country lost in ...

Kilpatrick, Mr.

2012-04-10

322

Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

Nielsen, Lance D.

2014-01-01

323

Optical Kerr effect in liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was undertaken to measure the optical Kerr effect (OKE) in liquids induced by picosecond laser pulses. The effects of different parameters on the dynamics of the OKE are described. The following parameters were investigated: the spatial and temporal profiles of the laser pulses, the intensity of the exciting laser pulse, the length of the Kerr gate, the

P. P. Ho; R. R. Alfano

1979-01-01

324

The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

325

Practice Effects in Backward Masking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments we demonstrate that much larger practice effects occur in a backward masking paradigm where patterned masks are used than in similar visual processing paradigms, such as lateral masking and whole report. In additional experiments we examine four possible explanations for the large practice effects: increased familiarity with the paradigm in general, learning about the targets, learning about

George Wolford; Frank Marchak; Howard Hughes

1988-01-01

326

In Vitro Antiviral Effect of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered

Soleimani Estyar R

2009-01-01

327

Nonlinear effects of transition broadening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear broadening of closely spaced transitions has been studied using micromagnetics simulations. Results show a large increase in the width of a transition due to the demagnetizing field effect of earlier transitions. Based on this observation, a simple recording channel model is developed to investigate the effects of nonlinear transition broadening on detection performance. This analysis shows that the conventional

Jaekyun Moon; Jian-Gang Zhu

1991-01-01

328

Switchgrass biochar effects two aridisols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of biochar has received growing attention with regards to improving the physico-chemical properties of highly weathered Ultisols and Oxisols, yet very little research has focused on effects in Aridisols. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of either low or high tempera...

329

Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.  

PubMed

A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most comprehensive federal legislation which includes a mandatory standard of 1 microg L-(1) for microcystins, and also recommendations for saxitoxins (3 microg L(-1)) and for cylindrospermopsin (15 microg L(-1)). Although guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacterial cell numbers for recreational waters are in place in a number of countries, it is consid ered that there is currently insufficient information to derive sound guidelines for the use of water contaminated by cyanobacteria or toxins for agricultural production, fisheries and ecosystem protection. In relation to the need for specific regulations for toxins for the US, the surveys that have been carried out to date would indicate that the priority compounds for regulation, based upon their incidence and distribution, are microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a. Additional research is required to support guideline development, including whole-of-life animal studies with each of the known cyanotoxins. In view of the animal studies that indicate that microcystins may act as tumor promoters, and also some evidence of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for cylindrospermopsin, it may be appropriate to carry out whole-of-life animal studies with both toxicity and carcinogenicity as end-points. In relation to microcystins, it is known that there a large number of congeners, and the toxico-dynamics and kinetics of these variants are not well understood. Further research is needed to consider the approach to take in formulating health advisories or regulations for toxin mixtures, i.e. multiple microcystins, or mixtures of toxin types. An important requirement for regulation is the availability of robust monitoring and analytical protocols for toxins. Currently rapid and economical screening or quantitative analytical methods are not available to the water industry or natural resource managers, and this is a priority before the release of guidelines and regulations. There is insufficient information available in a range of the categories usually required to satisfy comprehensive risk assessment process for the major tox

Burch, Michael D

2008-01-01

330

EFFECT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC SUBSTANCES ON OYSTERS  

E-print Network

_____________________________________________________ 168 Effects of filtering and centrifuging'______________________________ 168 Variations______________________________________ 183 Description of sampling device ~ ______________________________ 183 #12;EFFECT OF DISSOLVED

331

Modulation of effective damping constant using spin Hall effect  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated modulation of the effective damping constant ?{sub eff} via spin currents through the spin Hall effect for Permalloy/Pt bilayer films with various thicknesses. The observed linear and sinusoidal dependences of current density and field direction on ?{sub eff} are in agreement with the analytical model. By comparing the thickness dependence of spin Hall angle obtained from the damping modulation with that previously obtained by spin-torque-induced ferromagnetic resonance, we show that there is no clear extrinsic contribution in the present method. We also show the large modulation of the effective damping constant (down to ?20%) in the high-current-density region.

Kasai, Shinya, E-mail: KASAI.Shinya@nims.go.jp; Kondou, Kouta [Magnetic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Mitani, Seiji [Magnetic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Otani, Yoshichika [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)

2014-03-03

332

Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis with two measures of effectiveness: the cost-effectiveness acceptability plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) compares the costs and outcomes of two or more technologies. However, there is no consensus about which measure of effectiveness should be used in each analysis. Clinical researchers have to select an appropriate outcome for their purpose, and this choice can have dramatic consequences on the conclusions of their analysis. In this paper we present a Bayesian

Miguel A. Negrín; Francisco J. Vázquez-Polo

2006-01-01

333

Effect of time horizon on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios  

E-print Network

Background: Estimation of cost-effectiveness of a therapy as compared with another, in healthcare, is often based on a single perspective and a single time horizon. In this thesis, I explored methods of extrapolating the ...

Sondhi, Manu

2005-01-01

334

Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

Atwell, William

2012-02-01

335

Late effects from hadron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

2004-06-01

336

Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena  

PubMed Central

Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

2011-01-01

337

Canonical derivation of effective potentials  

E-print Network

A canonical formulation of effective equations describes quantum corrections by the back-reaction of moments on the dynamics of expectation values of a state. As a first step toward an extension to quantum-field theory, these methods are applied here to the derivation of effective potentials around a homogeneous vacuum expectation value of scalar fields. A comparison with the standard Coleman-Weinberg potential shows that the new methods correctly include all relevant quantum corrections. At the same time, the effective potential is shown to be correct also for non-Fock and mixed states. Several explicit results are derived in models of interacting scalars and fermions.

Martin Bojowald; Suddhasattwa Brahma

2014-11-13

338

Canonical derivation of effective potentials  

E-print Network

A canonical formulation of effective equations describes quantum corrections by the back-reaction of moments on the dynamics of expectation values of a state. As a first step toward an extension to quantum-field theory, these methods are applied here to the derivation of effective potentials around a homogeneous vacuum expectation value of scalar fields. A comparison with the standard Coleman-Weinberg potential shows that the new methods correctly include all relevant quantum corrections. At the same time, the effective potential is shown to be correct also for non-Fock and mixed states. Several explicit results are derived in models of interacting scalars and fermions.

Bojowald, Martin

2014-01-01

339

Effective Theories of Quantum Cosmology  

E-print Network

We introduce two possible ways of defining effective constraints of quantum systems and applied this effective constraint method to models of WDW Quantum Cosmology and Loop Quantum Cosmology. We analyze effective Hamiltonian constraint on both second and third order and calculate Hubble parameter as well as modified Friedmann equation of each model. Then we compare with a special case using coherent state. It shows that this method is reasonable and as before the classical Big Bang singularity is replaced by a quantum bounce in Loop Quantum Cosmology.

Xinquan Wu; Yongge Ma

2012-12-24

340

Depolarization Effects At The ILC  

SciTech Connect

Spin polarization will play an important role in the International Linear Collider (ILC) physics program. The 'heLiCal' collaboration aims to provide a foil analysis of all depolarization effects at the ILC. As expected intuitively, the depolarization in damping rings with carefully corrected orbits is shown to be negligible. No noticeable depolarization is observed in the beam delivery system. The major depolarization effects are expected from the beam-beam interaction. These effects have been evaluated by the 'heLiCal' collaboration for a range of ILC parameter sets.

Malysheva, L. I.; Bailey, I. R.; Cooke, P.; Dainton, J. B.; Jenner, L. J. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool, L69 6ZE, U.K (United Kingdom); Barber, D. P. [DESY, Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22606 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool, L69 6ZE, U.K (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brummitt, A.; Carr, S.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Lintern, A.; Rochford, J. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Birch, A.; Malyshev, O. B. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); CCLRC ASTeC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clarke, J. A.; Scott, D. J. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool, L69 6ZE, U.K (United Kingdom); CCLRC ASTeC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Moortgat-Pick, G. A. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute of Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schmid, P. [DESY, Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22606 Hamburg (Germany)

2007-06-13

341

Casimir effect: Edges and diffraction  

E-print Network

The Casimir effect refers to the existence of a macroscopic force between conducting plates in vacuum due to quantum fluctuations of fields. These forces play an important role, among other things, in the design of nano-scale mechanical devices. Accurate experimental observations of this phenomenon have motivated the development of new theoretical approaches in dealing with the effects of different geometries, temperature etc. In this talk, I will focus on a new method we have developed in calculating the contribution to the Casimir effect due to diffraction from edges and holes in different geometries, at zero and at finite temperature.

Dimitra Karabali

2011-11-03

342

Alcohol's Effects on the Body  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults Minority Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single ...

343

Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... Surgeon Generalâ??s Report 4 Â Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and can cause coronary heart disease and stroke. 2,4,5 Secondhand smoke causes ...

344

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... Side Effects Infection ? Check with your doctor or nurse before you take any medicine. This includes aspirin, ... such as Advil®). ? Check with your doctor or nurse before you get any shot or vaccine. Call ...

345

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Anemia Call your doctor or nurse if you feel: ? ... tired ? Your heart beating very fast What is anemia? Anemia is when your body doesn’t have ...

346

Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

347

Effective Control of Household Pests  

MedlinePLUS

... read facts sheets and brochures . Environmental hazards of pesticides : Exposure to high levels of pesticides may lead to ... twitching, and nausea. Long-term and/or excessive exposure to some pesticides has been linked to cancer, reproductive effects, and ...

348

Anisotropic hole-effect modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regionalization of tungsten grades at the deposit represents an ideal case for anisotropic hole-effect variogram modeling. The modeling technique is presented step by step and the consequences of the model on block kriging are indicated.

A. G. Journel; R. Froidevaux

1982-01-01

349

Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

Shapiro, Charles S.

1988-01-01

350

CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

NHEERL's research in this area focuses on ecological effects of bioaccumulative chemicals, such as PCBs. The research is designed with recognition that sites of different size and complexity require bioaccumulation models with correspondingly complex and/or extensive data requir...

351

NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington, DC) The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

352

Effective diffusivity in transient state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective diffusivity in a polymer matrix modified with inclusions is usually calculated based on Kalnin-Kotomin's model [J. R. Kalnin, E. A. Kotomin, and J. Maier, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 449-456 (2002)], 10.1016/S0022-3697(01)00159-7, which extends the well known Maxwell-Garnett formula. Kalnin-Kotomin's model correctly predicts effective diffusivity for stationary diffusion or for infinite media. In the present paper diffusion in composite media is studied for finite systems under transient conditions. The process of diffusion is modeled numerically and effective diffusion coefficient in the transient state is estimated, which, under certain conditions, is different from the predictions of the Kalnin-Kotomin's model. An analytical model is proposed to explain deviations of the transient effective coefficient of diffusion from the stationary case.

Tabor, Zbis?aw; Nowak, Pawe?; Krzak, Ma?gorzata; Warszy?ski, Piotr

2013-08-01

353

Wall effects in wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

1986-01-01

354

Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997  

E-print Network

with secondary education programs: Art Education, English Education, Foreign Language Education, MathematicsGovernance & Policies Effective: October 1997 University Governance TEACHER EDUCATION COUNCIL Approved: October 1997 Revised: November 28, 2006, Dean, School of Education February 1, 2006, Teacher

Hardy, Christopher R.

355

Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2014-01-01

356

Improving Rainfall Effectiveness on Rangeland  

E-print Network

Effectiveness On Rangeland Allan McGinty, Thomas L. Thurow and Charles A. Taylor, Jr.* *Respectively, Extension Range Specialist, Ft. Stockton, Assistant Professor, Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station...

McGinty, Allan; Thurow, Thomas L.; Taylor Jr., Charles A.

2000-01-11

357

Health effects of smokeless tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

Not Available

1986-02-28

358

Effective toughness of heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a versatile approach to computing the effective toughness of heterogeneous media. This approach focusses on the material property independent of the details of the boundary condition. The key idea is what we call a surfing boundary condition, where a steadily propagating crack opening displacement is applied as a boundary condition to a large domain while the crack set is allowed to evolve as it chooses. The approach is verified and used to study examples in brittle fracture. We demonstrate that effective toughness is different from effective or weighted surface area of the crack set. Furthermore, we demonstrate that elastic heterogeneity can have a profound effect on fracture toughness: it can be a significant toughening mechanism and it can lead to toughness asymmetry wherein the toughness depends not only on the direction but also on the sense of propagation. The role of length-scale is also discussed.

Hossain, M. Z.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Bourdin, B.; Bhattacharya, K.

2014-11-01

359

Antiaggregant effects of biogenic chloramines.  

PubMed

Alanine and taurine sharply potentiate antiaggregant effects of hypochlorite on platelets in platelet-rich plasma. This effect is determined by more pronounced action of chloramine derivatives, products of interaction of added amino acids with hypochlorite. Platelets are more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of amino acid chloramine derivatives (biogenic chloramines) compared to erythrocytes and neutrophils. The antiaggregant effects of biobenic amines, as covalent platelet inhibitors, in platelet-rich plasma are characterized by their increased reaction capacity with molecular targets in cells. Quantitative parameter of this initial selectivity (ratio of rate constant of inactivation of platelet receptors to rate constant of side reaction with plasma proteins) far surpasses 1. N,N-Dichlorotaurine is a perspective antiaggreant among the studied biogenic chloramines. This agent is stable and exhibits specific pharmacological activity in all test systems, including animal model of thrombosis. PMID:18457056

Murina, M A; Roshchupkin, D I; Kravchenko, N N; Petrova, A O; Sergienko, V I

2007-09-01

360

Possible Side Effects of Streptozocin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Streptozocin (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Streptozocin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Confusion, depression Nausea, vomiting Tiredness OCCASIONAL, SOME

361

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Government Performance Results Act (GPRA, goal number four for Safe Communities), constitute the statutory authority and strategic framework respectively, for Agency research on non-target effects of pestici...

362

Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from

H Reichenbach; P Neuwald; A L Kuhl

2010-01-01

363

Casting Alloys: Side-Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-effects from dental materials are a minor problem, but should be recognized. In recent questionnaire surveys about side-effects, the incidence was estimated to be 1:300 in periodontics and 1:2600 in pedodontics. None of these reactions was related to dental casting alloys. In prosthodontics, the incidence was calculated to be about 1:400, and about 27% were related to base-metal alloys forremovable

Arne Hensten-Pettersen

1992-01-01

364

Dember effect: Problems and solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the existing theory of Dember effect research community understands that the photo-electromotive force is the voltage difference arising between the illuminated and dark surfaces of a semiconductor. In this work it is shown that the latter is incorrect. A new formulation of the linear theory of Dember effect is presented. Conclusions of this new theory are essentially different from the ones of conventional theory. Proposed theory is applied to both open- and closed-circuit conditions.

Gurevich, Yu. G.; Meriuts, A. V.

2013-11-01

365

Overview of global greenhouse effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that COâ, Oâ, NâO, CHâ, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much

Reck

1993-01-01

366

[Delayed effects of oncological therapy].  

PubMed

Due to therapy-associated improvements in survival rates, delayed effects of cancer are a rapidly increasing but as yet only poorly recognized problem. These delayed sequelae, which by definition occur years after the primary disease, include secondary tumors and many non-oncological internal medical problems. Little attention has so far been paid to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal and endocrinal delayed side effects and must be specifically addressed due to the often slowly progressing symptoms. PMID:24062025

Biersack, H; Brabant, G

2013-10-01

367

Biological Effects of Directed Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Final Report summarizes the biological effects research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological effects research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR)

Thomas Dayton; Charles Beason; M. K. Hitt; Walter Rogers; Michael Cook

2002-01-01

368

Effective theory of color superconductivity  

E-print Network

We briefly review an effective theory of QCD at high baryon density, describing the relevant modes near the Fermi surface. The high density effective theory has properties of reparametrization invariance and gauge invariance, maintained in a subtle way. It also has a positive measure, allowing lattice simulations at high baryon density. We then apply it to gapless superconductors and discuss recent proposals to resolve the magnetic instability of gapless superconductivity.

Deog Ki Hong

2007-07-17

369

Space environmental effects on materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

Schwinghmaer, R. J.

1980-01-01

370

Workshop summary: Space environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop on Space Environmental Effects is summarized. The underlying concern of the group was related to the question of how well laboratory tests correlate with actual experience in space. The discussion ranged over topics pertaining to tests involving radiation, atomic oxygen, high voltage plasmas, contamination in low earth orbit, and new environmental effects that may have to be considered on arrays used for planetary surface power systems.

Meulenberg, A.; Anspaugh, B. E.

1991-01-01

371

Cell growth-stimulating effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrated that aloesin, a chromone derivative, is the ingredient responsible for the cell growth stimulating effect\\u000a of aloe vera, which has been used for several thousand years as a folk medicine for wound healing and skin regeneration. Moreover,\\u000a the cell-growth stimulatory effect of aloesin and its derivative is associated with the inductions of cyclin E-dependent kinase\\u000a components and

Seung Lee

372

Polyurethanes having shape memory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmented polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared from polycaprolactone diols (PCLs), 4,4?-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol, and tested for shape memory effects. Effects of soft segment molecular weight (Mn = 2000, 4000 and 8000), soft segment content (50–90%), and maximum strain (?m = 100, 200, and 600%) on the cyclic tensile properties as well as the dynamic mechanical, and mechanical properties below (25°C)

Mao Xu

1996-01-01

373

Mechanisms of the Bystander Effect  

SciTech Connect

Generations of students in radiation biology have been taught that heritable biological damage requires direct damage to DNA. We now know that this is not true. The Bystander Effect is the name given to the phenomenon whereby biological effects are observed in cells that are not themselves traversed by a charged particle, but are in close proximity to cells that are. Several research groups have convincingly demonstrated a bystander effect for alpha particle, which are heavy and high LET, because charged particles can be focused into a tiny beam that can be directed onto individual cells. The biological effects seen in adjacent non-hit cells clearly represents a bystander effect. It is not so easy to demonstrate a similar effect for x-rays or for the electrons set in motion by the absorption of x-rays. In this project we used two types of cell that could be recognized one from the other. One cell type was fed radioactive tritiated thymidine, which is incorporated into the DNA, . The tritium emits electrons which have a very short range so that they do not even get out of the cell. These cells were then mixed with a different type of cell which are routinely used to assess mutations. The mixed cells formed a cluster, where the two types of cells were in close contact, and left for some hours. Subsequently, the two types of cells were separated and studied. A substantial fraction of the cells that had incorporated the tritiated thymidine were killed by the radiation. The interesting finding is that the cells that had not incorporated tritiated thymidine, but had been in close contact with cells that had, exhibited a significant incidence of mutations. These experiments clearly demonstrated a bystander effect for low LET electrons. In further experiments, it was possible to show that the bystander effect was greatest when the two cell types were in gap junction communication.

Hall, Eric J.

2008-07-15

374

Four versions of double effect.  

PubMed

Recent discussions of the doctrine of double effect have contained improved versions of the doctrine not subject to some of the difficulties of earlier versions. There is no longer one doctrine of double effect. This essay evaluates four versions of the doctrine: two formulations of the traditional Catholic doctrine, Joseph Boyle's revision of that doctrine, and Warren Quinn's version of the doctrine. I conclude that all of these versions are flawed. PMID:1779210

Marquis, D B

1991-10-01

375

Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets.  

PubMed

Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon. PMID:12570256

van der Werf, Siebren Y; Können, Gunther P; Lehn, Waldemar H

2003-01-20

376

Computing and Interpreting Effect Sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect sizes will be routinely reported only once editors promulgate policies that make these practices normatively expected.\\u000a As Sedlmeier and Gigerenzer (1989) argued, “there is only one force that can effect a change, and that is the same force that\\u000a helped institutionalize null hypothesis testing as the sine qua non for publication, namely, the editors of the major journals” (p.

Crystal Reneé Hill; Bruce Thompson

377

Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

2010-01-01

378

Emotional effects of dynamic textures.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

379

An Introduction to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cost-effectiveness analysis is now widely used to evaluate whether the effect of a healthcare intervention justifies additional\\u000a expenditure. In this chapter, we outline the principles of cost-effectiveness analysis and compare different types of cost-effectiveness\\u000a analysis. We discuss interpretation of cost-effectiveness analyses, graphical representations of the results of cost-effectiveness\\u000a data, the benefits and limitations of cost-effectiveness analysis.

Christopher Rao; Kathie A. Wong; Thanos Athanasiou

380

Dissipative effects in the effective field theory of inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the effective field theory of single clock inflation to include dissipative effects. Working in unitary gauge we couple a set of composite operators, {mathcal{O}_{{? ? }}}_{ ldots } , in the effective action which is constrained solely by invariance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We restrict ourselves to situations where the degrees of freedom responsible for dissipation do not contribute to the density perturbations at late time. The dynamics of the perturbations is then modified by the appearance of `friction' and noise terms, and assuming certain locality properties for the Green's functions of these composite operators, we show that there is a regime characterized by a large friction term ? ? H in which the ?-correlators are dominated by the noise and the power spectrum can be significantly enhanced. We also compute the three point function for a wide class of models and discuss under which circumstances large friction leads to an increased level of non-Gaussianities. In particular, under our assumptions, we show that strong dissipation together with the required non-linear realization of the symmetries implies left| {{f_{text{NL}}}} right|˜ ? /{c_s^2H} ? 1 . As a paradigmatic example we work out a variation of the `trapped inflation' scenario with local response functions and perform the matching with our effective theory. A detection of the generic type of signatures that result from incorporating dissipative effects during inflation, as we describe here, would teach us about the dynamics of the early universe and also extend the parameter space of inflationary models.

Nacir, Diana López; Porto, Rafael A.; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

2012-01-01

381

The effect of gender and remainder on effective dose equivalent  

SciTech Connect

Effective dose equivalent methodology, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP-26, may be implemented for routine evaluation of occupational exposures to external sources of penetrating radiation, such as neutrons and photons. The calculational techniques for determining effective dose equivalent are being developed and evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratories. These studies show that the estimated effective dose equivalent is strongly influenced by several factors, including the source energy, source geometry, phantom gender type, and remainder scheme used. Since the concept of effective dose equivalent relies on determining organ doses, the organ doses for these studies were calculated using the MIRD-V mathematical phantom and MCNP, a general-purpose Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code. Calculations of organ doses were performed for several irradiation geometries at a series of energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV. The geometries were the anterior-posterior (AP) parallel beam, the posterior-anterior parallel beam, the lateral parallel beam, and an isotropic field. These calculations were performed for both the male and female phantoms. For whole-body irradiations, the use of sex-specific weighting factors instead of the average values can result in large differences in the effective dose equivalent. The largest differences were found for the case of the male phantom in an AP beam.

Tanner, J.E.

1988-01-01

382

A fan effect in anaphor processing: effects of multiple distractors  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the presence of a non-referent from the same category as the referent interferes with anaphor resolution. In five experiments, the hypothesis that multiple non-referents would produce a cumulative interference effect (i.e., a fan effect) was examined. This hypothesis was supported in Experiments 1A and 1B, with subjects being less accurate and slower to recognize referents (1A) and non-referents (1B) as the number of potential referents increased from two to five. Surprisingly, the number of potential referents led to a decrease in anaphor reading times. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B replicated the probe-recognition results in a completely within-subjects design and ruled out the possibility that a speeded-reading strategy led to the fan-effect findings. The results of Experiment 3 provided evidence that subjects were resolving the anaphors. These results suggest that multiple non-referents do produce a cumulative interference effect; however, additional research is necessary to explore the effect on anaphor reading times. PMID:25120519

Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

2014-01-01

383

Shaped hole effects on film cooling effectiveness and a comparison of multiple effectiveness measurement techniques  

E-print Network

This experimental study consists of two parts. For the first part, the film cooling effectiveness for a single row of seven cylindrical holes with a compound angle is measured on a flat surface using five different measurement techniques: steady...

Varvel, Trent Alan

2005-02-17

384

Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap  

PubMed Central

Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

2015-01-01

385

Vacuum effects in a vibrating cavity: time refraction, dynamical Casimir effect, and effective Unruh acceleration  

E-print Network

Two different quantum processes are considered in a perturbed vacuum cavity: time refraction and dynamical Casimir effect. They are shown to be physically equivalent, and are predicted to be unstable, leading to an exponential growth in the number of photons created in the cavity. The concept of an effective Unruh acceleration for these processes is also introduced, in order to make a comparison in terms of radiation efficiency, with the Unruh radiation associated with an accelerated frame in unbounded vacuum.

J. T. Mendonca; G. Brodin; M. Marklund

2008-06-04

386

Relationships between direct predation and risk effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

predation? Second, how are direct effects and risk effects correlated? If riskeffects aresmalland positively relatedto direct effects, then measurements of direct predation rates should provide a good estimate of the total effect of pre- dators on prey. This is the assumption implicit in many studies of predation in natural systems. However, if risk effects are large and negatively related to

Scott Creel; David Christianson

2008-01-01

387

Domain effects in Faraday effect sensors based on iron garnets.  

PubMed

Domain-induced diffraction effects produced by two iron garnet thick films and two bulk crystals are compared. The thick films, characterized by a serpentine magnetic domain structure, produced nonlinear response functions; this is in qualitative agreement with a one-dimensional diffraction model. Bulk iron garnet crystals, which exhibited a complex three-dimensional domain structure, produced qualitatively similar effects that diminished with increasing crystal length. Differential signal processing resulted in a linear signal for the thick films and a primarily sinusoidal response for the bulk crystals. PMID:20963165

Deeter, M N

1995-02-01

388

Compensation Effect in Electrical Conduction Process: Effect of Substituent Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiconductive properties of Vitamin A acid (Retinoic Acid), a long chain conjugated polyene, were studied as a function of the adsorption of different vapours. A compensation effect was observed in the electrical conduction process; unlike that in Vitamin A alcohol and Vitamin A acetate the compensation temperature was observed on the lower side of the experimental temperature (T0?285 K). It is concluded that the terminal \\diagdown\\diagupC=0 group conjugated to the polyene chain plays an important role in the manifestation of the compensation effect. Various conduction parameters have been evaluated.

Mitra, Bani; Misra, T. N.

1987-05-01

389

Memory effects in turbulent transport  

E-print Network

In the mean-field theory of magnetic fields, turbulent transport, i.e. the turbulent electromotive force, is described by a combination of the alpha effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion, which are usually assumed to be proportional respectively to the mean field and its spatial derivatives. For a passive scalar there is just turbulent diffusion, where the mean flux of concentration depends on the gradient of the mean concentration. However, these proportionalities are approximations that are valid only if the mean field or the mean concentration vary slowly in time. Examples are presented where turbulent transport possesses memory, i.e. where it depends crucially on the past history of the mean field. Such effects are captured by replacing turbulent transport coefficients with time integral kernels, resulting in transport coefficients that depend effectively on the frequency or the growth rate of the mean field itself. In this paper we perform numerical experiments to find the characteristic timescale (or memory length) of this effect as well as simple analytical models of the integral kernels in the case of passive scalar concentrations and kinematic dynamos. The integral kernels can then be used to find self-consistent growth or decay rates of the mean fields. In mean-field dynamos the growth rates and cycle periods based on steady state values of alpha effect and turbulent diffusivity can be quite different from the actual values.

Alexander Hubbard; Axel Brandenburg

2009-11-13

390

Safety and effectiveness of vasectomy.  

PubMed

Vasectomy has been recognized as a simple and highly effective contraceptive method. In order to recommend further research on vasectomy, researchers conducted a systematic review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of vasectomy between 1964 and 1998. Early failure rates are 1%; however, effectiveness and complications vary with experience of surgeons and surgical technique. Early complications, which include hematoma, infection, sperm granulomas, epididymitis-orchitis, and congestive epididymitis, occur in 1-6% of men undergoing vasectomy. Incidence of epididymal pain is poorly documented. Animal and human data suggest that vasectomy does not increase atherosclerosis and that increases in circulating immune complexes following vasectomy are transient. The weight of the evidence regarding prostate and testicular cancer suggests that men with vasectomy are not at increased risk of these diseases. The findings indicate that publications to date continue to support the conclusion that vasectomy is a highly effective form of contraception. Future research should include evaluations of the long-term effectiveness of this method, evaluating criteria for post-vasectomy discontinuation of alternative contraception for use in settings where semen analysis is not practical, and characterizing complications including chronic epididymal pain. PMID:10785217

Schwingl, P J; Guess, H A

2000-05-01

391

Quantum Effects in Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

Roy, Sisir

2014-07-01

392

Coherent effects in crystal collimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present theory for coherent effects observed in crystal collimation experiments that is in good quantitative agreement with the RHIC and Tevatron data. We show that these effects are caused by a coherent scattering on the field of bent crystal atomic planes, which amplifies beam diffusion in accelerator by orders of magnitude compared to the scattering in amorphous material. This coherent scattering could replace the traditional amorphous scattering in accelerator collimation systems. We predict that for negative particles this effect is as strong as for positive ones, opening a principle way for efficient crystal steering of negative particles at accelerators. Predictions are made for high energy accelerators where crystal collimation is seen as an interesting application.

Biryukov, V. M.

2007-02-01

393

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

394

Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

2011-01-01

395

Observing neighborhood effects without neighbors.  

PubMed

With a new metric called phonological Levenshtein distance (PLD20), the present study explores the effects of phonological similarity and word frequency on spoken word recognition, using polysyllabic words that have neither phonological nor orthographic neighbors, as defined by neighborhood density (the N-metric). Inhibitory effects of PLD20 were observed for these lexical hermits: Close-PLD20 words were recognized more slowly than distant PLD20 words, indicating lexical competition. Importantly, these inhibitory effects were found only for low- (not high-) frequency words, in line with previous findings that phonetically related primes inhibit recognition of low-frequency words. These results indicate that the properties of PLD20--a continuous measure of word-form similarity--make it a promising new metric for quantifying phonological distinctiveness in spoken word recognition research. PMID:21380585

Suárez, Lidia; Tan, Seok Hui; Yap, Melvin J; Goh, Winston D

2011-06-01

396

Estimation of effective wind speed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind speed has a huge impact on the dynamic response of wind turbine. Because of this, many control algorithms use a measure of the wind speed to increase performance, e.g. by gain scheduling and feed forward. Unfortunately, no accurate measurement of the effective wind speed is online available from direct measurements, which means that it must be estimated in order to make such control methods applicable in practice. In this paper a new method is presented for the estimation of the effective wind speed. First, the rotor speed and aerodynamic torque are estimated by a combined state and input observer. These two variables combined with the measured pitch angle is then used to calculate the effective wind speed by an inversion of a static aerodynamic model.

Østergaard, K. Z.; Brath, P.; Stoustrup, J.

2007-07-01

397

Overview of global greenhouse effects  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

Reck, R.A.

1993-09-01

398

Mirage effects on the brane  

E-print Network

We discuss features of the brane cosmological evolution that arise through the presence of matter in the bulk. As these deviations from the conventional evolution are not associated with some observable matter component on the brane, we characterize them as mirage effects. We review an example of expansion that can be attributed to mirage non-relativistic matter (mirage cold dark matter) on the brane. The real source of the evolution is an anisotropic bulk fluid with negative pressure along the extra dimension. We also study the general problem of exchange of real non-relativistic matter between the brane and the bulk, and discuss the related mirage effects. Finally, we derive the brane cosmological evolution within a bulk that contains a global monopole (hedgehog) configuration. This background induces a mirage curvature term in the effective Friedmann equation, which can cause a brane Universe with positive spatial curvature to expand forever.

Pantelis S. Apostolopoulos; Nikolaos Brouzakis; Emmanuel N. Saridakis; Nikolaos Tetradis

2005-02-12

399

Mirage effects on the brane  

SciTech Connect

We discuss features of the brane cosmological evolution that arise through the presence of matter in the bulk. As these deviations from the conventional evolution are not associated with some observable matter component on the brane, we characterize them as mirage effects. We review an example of expansion that can be attributed to mirage nonrelativistic matter (mirage cold dark matter) on the brane. The real source of the evolution is an anisotropic bulk fluid with negative pressure along the extra dimension. We also study the general problem of exchange of real nonrelativistic matter between the brane and the bulk, and discuss the related mirage effects. Finally, we derive the brane cosmological evolution within a bulk that contains a global monopole (hedgehog) configuration. This background induces a mirage curvature term in the effective Friedmann equation, which can cause a brane universe with positive spatial curvature to expand forever.

Apostolopoulos, P.S.; Brouzakis, N.; Saridakis, E.N.; Tetradis, N. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 15771, Athens (Greece)

2005-08-15

400

Space environmental effects on materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research efforts at NASA-Langley to characterize the durability of composite materials which are candidates for use as components on various space hardware systems are reviewed. The material applications include large space structures, antennas, cables, thermal control coatings, solar reflectors, and satellite power systems. Simulation facilities have been built to study radiation effects on polymer matrix composites, and the dimensional stability of the matrix composites and tension stabilized cables. Numerical models are being developed for radiation effects on the mechanical, physical, and optical properties. Additionally, chemical and microstructural analyses are performed to identify damage mechanisms and the limits of effectiveness of accelerating life tests. It is noted that no residual strength reduction has been detected in polymer films after dosages of 5 billion rads of electron radiation.

Tenney, D. R.; Sykes, G. F.; Bowles, D. E.

1982-01-01

401

RAND Corporation: Measuring Teacher Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RAND Corporation provides research on a range of topics, and has long been interested in public school reform and related matters. This website provides access to papers and commentaries produced as part of RAND's initiative on measuring teacher effectiveness. The site is designed for teachers, administrators, policymakers, and anyone else "seeking objective, nonpartisan information on measuring teaching effectiveness." First-time visitors can get started by looking over the fact sheets, which include "Multiple Choices: Options for Measuring Teaching Effectiveness" and "Teachers Matter: Understanding Teachers' Impact on Student Achievement." After considering these items, visitors can move on to click on the "Research & Commentary" area to read the site's blog, take a look at the multimedia section, or consider the available full reports, which include "Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems."

2013-01-15

402

Sudden death of effective entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyze the effective entanglement (i.e., entanglement minimized over the output data). We show that in the well-defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single-electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as estimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

Roszak, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Horodecki, P. [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Horodecki, R. [National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2010-04-15

403

Sudden death of effective entanglement  

E-print Network

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyse the effective entanglement, i.e. entanglement minimized over the output data. We show that in the well defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as etimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

K. Roszak; P. Horodecki; R. Horodecki

2009-12-07

404

Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.

Thumm, Manfred

2014-12-01

405

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

406

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

407

Proportion Congruent Effects in the Absence of Sequential Congruent Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A debated question in the cognitive control field is whether cognitive control is best conceptualized as a collection of distinct control mechanisms or a single general purpose mechanism. In an attempt to answer this question, previous studies have dissociated two well-known effects related to cognitive control: sequential congruence and…

Torres-Quesada, Maryem; Milliken, Bruce; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús

2014-01-01

408

New effect in ionic polymeric gels: the ionic flexogelectric effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported are a number of quantitative observations and analytical modeling of a new effect in ionic polymeric gels such as poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) or PAMPS, polyacrylic acid plus sodium acrylate cross-linked with bisacrylamide (PAAM), or various chemically doped combinations of polyacrylic acid plus polyvinyl alcohol (PAA-PVA). This new effect, hereafter, referred to as `flexogelectric effect' is basically the inverse of the effect originally reported in 1965 by three GE researchers, namely, Hamlen, Kent, and Shafer in which the imposition of an electric field on an ionic polymeric gel fiber produced extension or contraction. Here it is shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that mechanically induced nonhomogeneous deformations, and in particular bending of strips of such ionic gels, can produce an electric field and the associated voltage. For typical samples of such gels (4 X 4 X 40 mm) with copper or platinum foil electrodes snugly contacting a pair of opposite sides (4 X 40 mm) of the strip, the difference in voltage measured between the electrodes for extreme bending configurations of the gel is typically in the 10s of millivolts range. This voltage difference which is quite significant for many engineering applications, such as large strain and deformation sensing, is still an order of magnitude smaller than the voltage necessary to induce similar deformations in the gel itself. A plausible explanation is also presented for such discrepancies.

Shahinpoor, Mohsen

1995-05-01

409

Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

2010-01-01

410

Assessing Teacher, Classroom, and School Effects, Including Fiscal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we argue that too much previous research has tended to assess the effects of student, classroom, and school variables in isolation from other variables and has often used statistical techniques that ignored the nested na- ture of the 3 classes of factors. We then argue that a more educationally ori- ented framework should be used to assess

Allan Odden; Geoffrey Borman; Mark Fermanich

2004-01-01

411

Tutoring Center Effectiveness: The Effect of Drop-In Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While tutoring as a whole has been demonstrated to improve student learning across a variety of subjects and age groups, there is little published evidence for the effectiveness of drop-in tutoring at the undergraduate level. This type of tutoring can be derided as homework help; however, it is clear from this study that students who made use of…

Cooper, Erik

2010-01-01

412

Effectiveness of Blog Response Strategies to Minimize Crisis Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of four post-crisis responses on five different variables using a blog tool. The four post-crisis responses are information only, compensation, apology, and sympathy. The five dependent variables are reputation, anger (negative emotion), negative word-of-mouth, account acceptance and state of the publics based on…

Tomsic, Louis P.

2010-01-01

413

7 CFR 958.70 - Effective time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 958.70 Section 958.70 Agriculture...OREGON Order Regulating Handling Effective Time and Termination § 958.70 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, or...

2010-01-01

414

Effects of pollution on freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

This review includes subjects in last year's reviews on effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates and effects of pollution on freshwater fish and amphibians. This review also includes information on the effects of pollution on freshwater plants. 625 references.

Phipps, G.L.; Harden, M.J.; Leonard, E.N.; Roush, T.H; Spehar, D.L.; Stephan, C.E.; Pickering, Q.H.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.

1984-06-01

415

40 CFR 62.9171 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Oklahoma Effective Date. § 62.9171 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to...

2014-07-01

416

40 CFR 62.9171 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Oklahoma Effective Date. § 62.9171 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to...

2011-07-01

417

Biodiversity Effects on Plant Stoichiometry  

PubMed Central

In the course of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate, the issue of multifunctionality of species communities has recently become a major focus. Elemental stoichiometry is related to a variety of processes reflecting multiple plant responses to the biotic and abiotic environment. It can thus be expected that the diversity of a plant assemblage alters community level plant tissue chemistry. We explored elemental stoichiometry in aboveground plant tissue (ratios of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and its relationship to plant diversity in a 5-year study in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). Species richness and functional group richness affected community stoichiometry, especially by increasing C:P and N:P ratios. The primacy of either species or functional group richness effects depended on the sequence of testing these terms, indicating that both aspects of richness were congruent and complementary to expected strong effects of legume presence and grass presence on plant chemical composition. Legumes and grasses had antagonistic effects on C:N (?27.7% in the presence of legumes, +32.7% in the presence of grasses). In addition to diversity effects on mean ratios, higher species richness consistently decreased the variance of chemical composition for all elemental ratios. The diversity effects on plant stoichiometry has several non-exclusive explanations: The reduction in variance can reflect a statistical averaging effect of species with different chemical composition or a optimization of nutrient uptake at high diversity, leading to converging ratios at high diversity. The shifts in mean ratios potentially reflect higher allocation to stem tissue as plants grew taller at higher richness. By showing a first link between plant diversity and stoichiometry in a multiyear experiment, our results indicate that losing plant species from grassland ecosystems will lead to less reliable chemical composition of forage for herbivorous consumers and belowground litter input. PMID:23483990

Abbas, Maike; Ebeling, Anne; Oelmann, Yvonne; Ptacnik, Robert; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Hillebrand, Helmut

2013-01-01

418

Overhauser effects in insulating solids.  

PubMed

We report magic angle spinning, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at magnetic fields of 9.4 T, 14.1?T, and 18.8 T using the narrow line polarizing agents 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) dispersed in polystyrene, and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) and trityl OX063 in glassy glycerol/water matrices. The (1)H DNP enhancement field profiles of the BDPA radicals exhibit a significant DNP Overhauser effect (OE) as well as a solid effect (SE) despite the fact that these samples are insulating solids. In contrast, trityl exhibits only a SE enhancement. Data suggest that the appearance of the OE is due to rather strong electron-nuclear hyperfine couplings present in BDPA and SA-BDPA, which are absent in trityl and perdeuterated BDPA (d21-BDPA). In addition, and in contrast to other DNP mechanisms such as the solid effect or cross effect, the experimental data suggest that the OE in non-conducting solids scales favorably with magnetic field, increasing in magnitude in going from 5 T, to 9.4 T, to 14.1?T, and to 18.8 T. Simulations using a model two spin system consisting of an electron hyperfine coupled to a (1)H reproduce the essential features of the field profiles and indicate that the OE in these samples originates from the zero and double quantum cross relaxation induced by fluctuating hyperfine interactions between the intramolecular delocalized unpaired electrons and their neighboring nuclei, and that the size of these hyperfine couplings is crucial to the magnitude of the enhancements. Microwave power dependent studies show that the OE saturates at considerably lower power levels than the solid effect in the same samples. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of the Overhauser effect, and also provide a new approach to perform DNP experiments in chemical, biophysical, and physical systems at high magnetic fields. PMID:25134564

Can, T V; Caporini, M A; Mentink-Vigier, F; Corzilius, B; Walish, J J; Rosay, M; Maas, W E; Baldus, M; Vega, S; Swager, T M; Griffin, R G

2014-08-14

419

Space Physics and Terrestrial Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum guide is intended for high school teachers who are teaching solar physics, especially the effects of solar activity on terrestrial planets. The chapters discuss stellar evolution, the structure of the sun, studying the sun, and solar and terrestrial interactions. Lab activities provided include: building a spectroscope, energy transport within the sun, measuring the solar constant, luminosity of the sun and stars, seeing different wavelengths, the Earth-Sun orientation, the effect of the solar wind on the geomagnetic field, determining the rotation period of the sun, and radiation hazards in space.

2005-05-23

420

Ground Effect - Theory and Practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

Pistolesi, E

1937-01-01

421

Solar Wind's Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sun produces 'solar wind', a continuous flow of charged particles that can affect us on Earth. It may also release huge storms of charged particles, called coronal mass ejections, that can disrupt communications, navigation systems, and satellites; and cause power outages, such as the extensive Canadian blackout in 1989. This video segment introduces viewers to coronal mass ejections, their effects on Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their potentially damaging effects on satellites, power grids, and other human infrastructure. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length.

2011-05-05

422

Offering effective feedback to trainees.  

PubMed

Abstract Effective feedback on performance is an integral part of clinical training. It allows the trainee to critically reflect on their development, as well as enable the teacher to chart progress and detect areas for development. In order to provide effective feedback, we need to take into account the performance itself, but also the setting where feedback is offered, and the expected outcomes of the encounter. As ever, negative feedback remains more difficult to give and receive, and as such requires a greater degree of delicacy to produce a positive result. PMID:24846339

Iskander, Morkos

2015-01-01

423

The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!  

E-print Network

In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tscheuschner called for this discussion in their paper.

Ebel, Jochen

2009-01-01

424

Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Kreytsberg, G. N.; Gracheva, I. E.; Kibrik, B. S.; Golikov, I. V.

2011-04-01

425

Solar Wind's Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sun produces 'solar wind', a continuous flow of charged particles that can affect us on Earth. It may also release huge storms of charged particles, called coronal mass ejections, that can disrupt communications, navigation systems, and satellites; and cause power outages, such as the extensive Canadian blackout in 1989. This video segment introduces viewers to coronal mass ejections, their effects on Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their potentially damaging effects on satellites, power grids, and other human infrastructure. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length.

426

Integrated efficacy to effectiveness trials.  

PubMed

Experts in clinical research, therapeutic development, and comparative effectiveness are continually frustrated in their attempts to fit the square peg of therapeutic development into the round hole of clinical trials. Trials can be optimized to provide signals in highly controlled experiments or to estimate an intervention's effect in poorly controlled real-world settings, but not both simultaneously. Selker and colleagues propose a continuum that creates a smooth transition from controlled experiments to real-world, real-time studies within a single mechanism. PMID:24448458

Califf, R M

2014-02-01

427

Plasma effects on subcellular structures  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-08

428

Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P., E-mail: lokhtin@mail.cern.ch; Managadze, A. K., E-mail: akmanag48@mail.ru; Snigirev, A. M., E-mail: snigirev@lav01.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15

429

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-print Network

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23

430

Protonation effect on drug affinity.  

PubMed

Pharmacologic ligand-macromolecule interactions are commonly characterized by affinity (dissociation) constants such as K(d) or K(i) without regard to the protonation effect of the buffer used in the measurement. The protonation effect is demonstrated here using isothermal titration microcalorimetry measurements of the competitive inhibitor binding of cytidine 2'-monophosphate (2'-CMP) to RNase-A as a model system in buffers of different ionization Delta H(buffer). The results demonstrate the importance of protonation in measures of affinity. PMID:14729124

Raffa, Robert B; Stagliano, Gregory W; Spencer, Shawn D

2004-01-12

431

Magnetooptic effects in antiferromagnetic chromium  

SciTech Connect

Transverse and polar Kerr effects and quadratic magnetooptical effect in reflected light have been discovered and studied in antiferromagnetic chromium. Measurements have been performed in IR, visible, and UV ranges of spectrum in a magnetic field H = 10 kOe. The frequency dispersion of the off-diagonal component of the dielectric constant tensor of chromium has been determined for the first time. An analysis of the magnetooptical data obtained is carried out on the basis of available data on the electronic structure of chromium.

Lobov, I. D., E-mail: i_lobov@imp.uran.ru; Kirillova, M. M.; Maevskii, V. M.; Romashev, L. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15

432

Large magnetorefractive effect in magnetite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a magneto-optical spectroscopic study of magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films and single crystals at optical wavelengths. We observed a relevant quadratic magneto-optic contribution that can be notably larger than first-order linear magneto-optics at some range of wavelengths in the visible region. These unusual quadratic effects are particularly strong at the Verwey temperature (100-120 K) and decay slowly away from this transition temperature. We attribute this remarkable magneto-optical response to a magnetorefractive effect associated with the field-dependent polaronic conductivity at optical frequencies, which interestingly enough is already noticeable at room temperature.

Caicedo, J. M.; Arora, S. K.; Ramos, R.; Shvets, I. V.; Fontcuberta, J.; Herranz, G.

2010-10-01

433

Effective Theory of the Triton  

E-print Network

We apply the effective field theory approach to the three-nucleon system. In particular, we consider S=1/2 neutron-deuteron scattering and the triton. We show that in this channel a unique nonperturbative renormalization takes place which requires the introduction of a single three-body force at leading order. With one fitted parameter we find a good description of low-energy data. Invariance under the renormalization group explains some universal features of the three-nucleon system ---such as the Thomas and Efimov effects and the Phillips line--- and the origin of SU(4) symmetry in nuclei.

P. F. Bedaque; H. -W. Hammer; U. van Kolck

1999-06-14

434

16 CFR 1302.6 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.6 Effective date. This rule becomes effective January 18,...

2011-01-01

435

16 CFR 1302.6 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.6 Effective date. This rule becomes effective January 18,...

2010-01-01

436

16 CFR 1302.6 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.6 Effective date. This rule becomes effective January 18,...

2013-01-01

437

16 CFR 1302.6 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.6 Effective date. This rule becomes effective January 18,...

2012-01-01

438

16 CFR 1302.6 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.6 Effective date. This rule becomes effective January 18,...

2014-01-01

439

Abuse and Its Effect on Women  

E-print Network

Substance Abuse and Its Effect on Women #12;#12;Substance Abuse and Its Effect on Women Contents................................................................................................................................................9 Substance Abuse and Women: An Overview

Neimark, Alexander V.

440

Possible Side Effects of Goserelin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Goserelin (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Goserelin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Swelling of arms, legs Headache Change in sexual desire Depression,

441

Possible Side Effects of Fulvestrant  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Fulvestrant (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Fulvestrant, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Pain Tiredness Increased sweating Hot flashes, flushing Swelling and

442

[The cognitive effects of ecstasy].  

PubMed

The recreational drug ecstasy is widely used among dance clubbers for its acute euphoric and entactogenic effects. Ecstasy exerts its acute effects by increasing the extracellular concentration of monoamines in the brain by reversing the functions of reuptake mechanisms. These elevations in extracellular monoamine concentrations result in wake promoting effects, body hyperthermia and reductions in local cerebral blood flow. However, on the long-run, ecstasy reduces serotonin concentration and density of serotonergic markers in several brain areas. Functional deficits, like sleep disturbances, anxiogenic- and aggressive behavioral responses and mood disorders also may occur. However, one of the most prominent adverse effects is related to the cognitive functions. Following ecstasy use attenuated retro- and prospective memory and defective higher order cognitive functions can be observed, especially in heavy users. Several studies indicated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system, the sleep regulating centers and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis based on or parallel to serotonergic damage in these processes. Recent evidence, however, also showed that changes in one of the latter systems can influence the functions of each other. In this review we summarize the related literature, and propose a complex mechanism for the long-lasting cognitive deficits following heavy ecstasy use. PMID:24380962

Pázmány, Péter; Petschner, Péter; Ádori, Csaba; Kirilly, Eszter; Andó, Dénes Rómeó; Balogh, Brigitta; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Bagdy, György

2013-12-01

443

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BARIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

444

Neighborhood Effects on Felony Sentencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relatively high imprisonment rates of African American men from poor neighborhoods raise a question of whether felony sentences are influenced by ecological factors, separately from or in conjunction with a defendant's race. To provide insight on the topic, both legal and extralegal effects on imprisonment and sentence length were modeled for…

Wooldredge, John

2007-01-01

445

Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for

Norton W. Milgram; Christina T. Siwak-Tapp; Joseph Araujo; Elizabeth Head

2006-01-01

446

Reflections on the Hawthorne Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When researchers carry out an experiment, they do so in a systematic and regulated manner, attempting to note all of the circumstances and outcomes very carefully, so that they can come to some firm conclusions about causes and effects. Sometimes, however, unaccountable outcomes do occur. Researchers are clearly very interested in such events and…

Merrett, Frank

2006-01-01

447

TV's Effect on American Voters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Television's only effect on the American voter is to cheapen his conception of the campaign process and to stuff his head full of nonsense and trivia", Thomas E. Patterson and Robert D. McClure, two Syracuse University political scientists, have concluded in a major study of television's role in the 1972 presidential campaign. (Editor)

Intellect, 1977

1977-01-01

448

Possible Side Effects of Dacarbazine  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Dacarbazine (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Dacarbazine, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite Flu-like symptoms including fever,

449

Possible Side Effects of Trastuzumab  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Trastuzumab (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Trastuzumab, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Heart failure which may cause shortness of breath, swelling of

450

Possible Side Effects of Gemcitabine  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Gemcitabine (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Gemcitabine, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Flu-like symptoms of muscle pain, fever, headache, chills and fatigue Nausea,

451

Are heat warning systems effective?  

PubMed

Heatwaves are associated with significant health risks particularly among vulnerable groups. To minimize these risks, heat warning systems have been implemented. The question therefore is how effective these systems are in saving lives and reducing heat-related harm. We systematically searched and reviewed 15 studies which examined this. Six studies asserted that fewer people died of excessive heat after the implementation of heat warning systems. Demand for ambulance decreased following the implementation of these systems. One study also estimated the costs of running heat warning systems at US$210,000 compared to the US$468 million benefits of saving 117 lives. The remaining eight studies investigated people's response to heat warning systems and taking appropriate actions against heat harms. Perceived threat of heat dangers emerged as the main factor related to heeding the warnings and taking proper actions. However, barriers, such as costs of running air-conditioners, were of significant concern, particularly to the poor. The weight of the evidence suggests that heat warning systems are effective in reducing mortality and, potentially, morbidity. However, their effectiveness may be mediated by cognitive, emotive and socio-demographic characteristics. More research is urgently required into the cost-effectiveness of heat warning systems' measures and improving the utilization of the services. PMID:23561265

Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Fitzgerald, Gerard; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Kenneth; Tong, Shilu

2013-01-01

452

Human Resources Guide to Effective  

E-print Network

Human Resources Guide to Effective Management Personnel Plan (MPP) Performance Evaluations March of the completed evaluation to Human Resources to be placed in the employee's official personnel file. #12;Page 5 of contributions during the evaluation period. Successful Performance Management Is an ongoing and continuous

de Lijser, Peter

453

Pricing computer services: queueing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the effects of queueing delays, and users' related costs, on the management and control of computing resources. It offers a methodology for setting price, utilization, and capacity, taking into account the value of users' time, and it examines the implications of alternative control structures, determined by the financial responsibility assigned to the data processing manager.

Haim Mendelson; HAM MENDELSON

1985-01-01

454

Aerodynamic effects of Nacelle position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineer in the PRT test the aerodynamic effects of nacelle position with respect to the wing, May 1930. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 132.

1932-01-01

455

Longitudinal health effects of disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch government attempts to prevent longterm public health damage by means of a pro-active public health response;

C. J. Yzermans

2004-01-01

456

Possible Side Effects of Ifosfamide  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Ifosfamide (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Ifosfamide, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may require transfusion Nausea, vomiting Infection, especially

457

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE EFFECTIVENESS BY STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstate differences in welfare program effectiveness are a function of policy and attiude variables, fiscal effort, and state and local willingness to assume welfare burdens. Not all states receive a “fair share'’of their expenditures from federal sources. Some states earn greater federal participation than they receive. One way to improve the existing system is for the federal government to reward

ERNEST H. WOHLENBERG

1976-01-01

458

Strain Effects on Granular Impact  

E-print Network

Strain Effects on Granular Impact Emily Lim, Kerstin Nordstrom, Matt Harrington, Steven Slotterback, Wolfgang Losert #12;Impacts into Granular Materials Tunguska Crater June 1908 - Leveled more than 2,000 sq km Foot-Ground Interaction How does preparation of the granular material affect impact dynamics

Anlage, Steven

459

Antihyperalgesic effects of spinal cannabinoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabinoids have been widely reported to produce antinociception in models such as tail flick and hot plate. However, their role in modulating thermal hyperalgesia is unknown. The potency of some drugs, such as the opioids, increases during hyperalgesia. Thus, we evaluated whether there is a change in the effectiveness of intrathecal cannabinoids with hyperalgesia. Additionally, we evaluated whether cannabinoids could

Jennelle Durnett Richardson; Lin Aanonsen; Kenneth M Hargreaves

1998-01-01

460

Institutional Effectiveness Summary Report, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses institutional effectiveness at Florence-Darlington Technical College (FDTC) (South Carolina) for the 2000-2001 academic year. Full and/or interim report summaries are provided for advising procedures, library resources, and for the following departments: Accounting, Automated Office, Office Systems Technology, Health Care…

Burless, Bridget

461

Systems Competition and Network Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses firm behavior, market performance, and the public and private institutions that arise in systems markets, i.e., markets where consumers use compatible components together to generate benefits. In such markets, which include communications networks and 'hardware\\/software' networks, popular products are inherently more valuable. These 'network effects' can drive corporate strategies and are critical in understanding innovation in many

Michael L Katz; Carl Shapiro

1994-01-01

462

Possible Side Effects of Pegfilgrastim  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Pegfilgrastim (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Pegfilgrastim, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Pain in bone OCCASIONAL, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people

463

Five Standards of Effective Pedagogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article espouses five approaches for effective teaching which are independent of any specific curriculum. It advocates for joint productive activity (JPA) among the students and the teacher(s) in a classroom, the development of language competence in all subjects, and the delivery of relevant lessons and challenging tasks. Links to background information and supportive research are provided.

Tharp, Roland G.

2002-01-01

464

Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

465

What is the Greenhouse Effect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this activity, students will read and discuss information on the greenhouse effect and list important points about global warming. Tables are provided to show the most important greenhouse gases and how much their concentrations have increased since the pre-industrial era.

Rosenberg, David

466

Possible Side Effects of Oxaliplatin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 2Possible Side Effects of Oxaliplatin (Table Version Date: October 8, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Oxaliplatin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may require blood transfusion Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,

467

EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL TERATOGENIC EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The evaluation of behavioral teratogenic effects in animal studies is discussed in light of the results of the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study (CBTS) and the U.S. EPA's guidelines for the risk assessment of suspect developmental toxicants. Although behavioral teratology...

468

Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

Pereus, Steven C.

2012-01-01

469

Possible Side Effects of Tacrolimus  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Tacrolimus (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Tacrolimus, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may cause tiredness, or may require blood transfusions Constipation,

470

Possible Side Effects of Isotretinoin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Isotretinoin (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Isotretinoin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may cause tiredness, or may require blood transfusions Dry

471

Possible Side Effects of Cisplatin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cisplatin (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cisplatin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Nausea, vomiting Infection, especially when white blood cell count is low Anemia

472

Renal Protective Effects of Resveratrol  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol (3,5,4?-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine, is reported to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including renal diseases. These beneficial effects are thought to be due to this compound's antioxidative properties: resveratrol is known to be a robust scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition to scavenging ROS, resveratrol may have numerous protective effects against age-related disorders, including renal diseases, through the activation of SIRT1. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, was identified as one of the molecules through which calorie restriction extends the lifespan or delays age-related diseases, and this protein may regulate multiple cellular functions, including apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, glucose/lipid metabolism, autophagy, and adaptations to cellular stress, through the deacetylation of target proteins. Previous reports have shown that resveratrol can ameliorate several types of renal injury, such as diabetic nephropathy, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and unilateral ureteral obstruction, in animal models through its antioxidant effect or SIRT1 activation. Therefore, resveratrol may be a useful supplemental treatment for preventing renal injury. PMID:24379901

Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke

2013-01-01

473

The surface effect of dentifrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically three commercially available dentifrices and to determine any surface effects on tooth or gingival surfaces. Sixty-four participants were included in this study and were allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups by an independent person to ensure the investigators were unaware of the brushing material used. All toothbrushes and dentifrices

I. A. Meyers; M. J. McQueen; D. Harbrow; G. J. Seymour

2000-01-01

474

MEASURING ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTIVENESS IN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the major factors affecting the activity of antioxidants that scavenge free radicals in foods is their partitioning behavior in lipids and water. For example, hydrophilic antioxidants are often less effective in oil-in-water emulsions than lipophilic antioxidants, whereas lipophilic antioxid...

475

The BOHR Effect before Perutz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before the outbreak of World War II, Jeffries Wyman postulated that the "Bohr effect" in hemoglobin demanded the oxygen linked dissociation of the imidazole of two histidines of the polypeptide. This proposal emerged from a rigorous analysis of the acid-base titration curves of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, at a time when the information on the…

Brunori, Maurizio

2012-01-01

476

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACENAPHTHENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the lack of data for the carcinogenicity and threshold toxicity of acenaphthene risk assessment values cannot be derived. The ambient water quality criterion of 0.2 mg/l is based on organoleptic data, which has no known relationship to potential human health effects. A...

477

Possible Side Effects of Busulfan  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Busulfan (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Busulfan, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may require blood transfusions Abnormal heartbeat Constipation,

478

Possible Side Effects of Mitoxantrone  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Mitoxantrone (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Mitoxantrone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting Infection, especially when white blood

479

Possible Side Effects of Procarbazine  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Procarbazine (Table Version Date: October 8, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Procarbazine, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Nausea, vomiting OCCASIONAL, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people

480

Unruh effect without Rindler horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the Unruh effect for a massless scalar field in the two-dimensional Minkowski space in the presence of a uniformly accelerated perfect mirror, with the trajectory of the mirror chosen in such a way that the mirror completely masks the Rindler horizon from the space–time region of interest. We find that the characteristic thermodynamical properties of the effect remain unchanged, i.e. the response of a uniformly co-accelerated Unruh detector and the distribution of the Rindler particles retain their thermal form. However, since in this setup there are no unobserved degrees of freedom of the field, the thermal statistics of the Rindler particles are inconsistent with an initial pure vacuum, which leads us to reconsider the problem for the more physical case when the mirror is inertial in the past. In these conditions we find that the distribution of the Rindler particles is non-thermal even in the limit of infinite acceleration times, but effective thermal statistics can be recovered provided that one is restricted to the expectation values of smeared operators associated with finite norm Rindler states. We explain how the thermal statistics in our problem can be understood in analogy with those in the conventional version of the effect.

Nicolaevici, Nistor

2015-02-01

481

The Effectiveness of Cohesive Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research findings concerning leadership and management of (Dutch) secondary schools, using configuration theory. Distinguishes among three different management styles (two nonparticipative and one participative) that make use of six coordinating mechanisms. The participatory style was more effective and conducive to higher student math…

Hofman, Roelande; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Guldemond, Henk

2001-01-01

482

Possible Side Effects of Prednisone  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Prednisone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Prednisone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: In children and adolescents: decreased height Loss of bone tissue Mood

483

Possible Side Effects of Dexamethasone  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Dexamethasone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Dexamethasone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: High blood pressure which may cause headaches, dizziness Skin

484

Possible Side Effects of Hydrocortisone  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Hydrocortisone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Hydrocortisone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Infection, especially when white blood cell count is low In

485

Possible Side Effects of Methylprednisolone  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Methylprednisolone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Methylprednisolone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: In children and adolescents: decreased height Loss of

486

Effective School Management. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

2004-01-01

487

Possible Side Effects of Metformin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Metformin (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Metformin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting OCCASIONAL, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people

488

Possible Side Effects of Leuprolide  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Leuprolide (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Leuprolide, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Nausea, vomiting Pain Redness or swelling at the site of injection Tiredness Depression,

489

Possible Side Effects of Triptorelin  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Triptorelin (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Triptorelin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Hot flashes OCCASIONAL, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving

490

Possible Side Effects of Ofatumumab  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Ofatumumab (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Ofatumumab, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Infection, especially when white blood cell count is low Fever Reaction

491

Possible Side Effects of Rituximab  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Rituximab (Table Version Date: June 16, 2014) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Rituximab, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Nausea Chills, fever Reaction during or following infusion of the drug Infection,

492

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: An Effectiveness Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Both the National Institute of Mental Health and the American Psychological Association have called upon psychodynamic practitioners to start demonstrating their outcomes. This effectiveness study attempted to begin to answer these calls. Method: The study was a secondary analysis of data from a multidisciplinary, psychodynamic mental health clinic. It used a single-group, within-subjects longitudinal design. The psychometrically validated Out-

David J. Roseborough

2006-01-01

493

Greenhouse effect and nature reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming would diminish biological diversity by causing extinctions among reserve species. Patterns of climatic change are discussed, including global patterns of surface temperature increase, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and global changes in moisture patterns. The concept of biological reserves (essentially the same concept as biological refugia) is discussed, and the effect of climatic changes

Robert L. Peters; Joan D. S. Darling

1985-01-01

494

UD Research into the effects  

E-print Network

UD Research into the effects of non-native plant species on native insect populations could protect to be a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university. These designations mean that UD has a long history Foundation, Delaware is one of five states leading the United States' transformation into a global, entrepre

Firestone, Jeremy

495

Possible Side Effects of Celecoxib  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Celecoxib (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Celecoxib, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: None OCCASIONAL, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Celecoxib,

496

Possible Side Effects of Erlotinib  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Erlotinib (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Erlotinib, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Rash Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea Weight loss, loss of appetite Tiredness Infection Cough,

497

Greenhouse Effect in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build your own miniature "greenhouse" out of a plastic container and plastic wrap, and fill it with different things such as dirt and sand to observe the effect this has on temperature. Monitor the temperature using temperature probes and digitally plot the data on the graphs provided in the activity.

2012-07-19

498

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The document presents a critical review of the available literature on the biological effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. The objective was to summarize and evaluate the existing database for use in developing RF-radiation exposure guidance for the general public. The frequ...

499

Electrophoretically Assessing Polyelectrolyte Effective Charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary electrophoresis revealed how polyelectrolyte effective charge density varies with backbone charge spacing and solvent dielectric constant. The study focused on ionenes, polyelectrolytes that possess regularly spaced quaternary ammonium groups in the backbone. Complete ionization of functional units and good solvency in water and mixtures of water with methanol or acetonitrile enabled measurements of ionene effective charge density as solvent dielectric constant continuously varied. Ionenes with aliphatic and oxyethylene spacers in the backbone were examined. As expected, effective charge density rose linearly with fixed charge density to a critical value, above which effective charge was nearly constant. Deviating from expectation, the onset of condensation did not occur at a critical fixed charge density predicted by Manning theory. Instead, condensation initiated at the constant critical Bjerrum length. The same onset condition was found for quaternized poly(vinyl pyridine). These results suggest a new type of condensation, one driven by ion-pairing. In support of the ion-pairing hypothesis, the onset of condensation correlates with counterion size.

Popov, Alexey; Hoagland, David

2006-03-01

500

Environmental Effects of Industrial Farming  

E-print Network

;Animal welfare ·Less density ·Less pollution #12;Animal welfare ·Less density ·Less pollution ·Soil, airEnvironmental Effects of Industrial Farming Dmitri Gaskin #12;Agenda ·Background ·Air contamination ·Water contamination ·Soil contamination ·Solutions #12;US Meat Industry Animals (2009) kg produced (2009

Budker, Dmitry