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Sample records for thin film superconductor

  1. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  2. Thermal phenomena in high-Tc thin film superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flik, Markus Ivo

    Thin films of the recently discovered high-T(sub c) superconductors are the basic elements in highly promising hybrid electronic circuits and detector devices. Two heat transfer problems resulting from the application of high-T(sub c) thin films thermal stability, and thermal conduction in these devices are analyzed. The criterion of intrinsic thermal stability of superconductors, which predicts the maximum operating current for which no Joule heating occurs due to a thermal disturbance is introduced. A parametric study concerning a localized thermal disturbance in a thin-film superconductor shows that the maximum stable current decreases with increasing strength of the thermal disturbance, and that it increases for an augmented heat transfer coefficient and for an increasing ratio of the width of the film to its thickness. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) is a powerful technique to characterize the local properties of thin film superconductors. The application of the criterion of intrinsic thermal stability to LTSEM determines the maximum bias current for which no voltage is measured along the film for any beam position. The theoretical predictions are in very good agreement with experimental data for superconducting lead films on sapphire substrates. This study shows that at low temperatures, the phonon mean free path in bulk YBa2Cu3O7 is of the order of the thickness of thin film superconductors. In this case, boundary scattering reduces the thermal conductivity with decreasing film thickness. A simple method, which rests solely on geometric arguments, accounts for the size effect on conduction in thin films. The model is also employed to analyze conduction across the film and the influence of anisotropy.

  3. A different type of reentrant behavior in superconductor/thin graphite film/superconductor Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kanda, A.; Moriki, T.; Goto, H.; Tanaka, S.; Ootuka, Y.; Miyazaki, H.; Odaka, S.; Tsukagoshi, K.; Aoyagi, Y.

    2008-04-01

    We experimentally studied current-voltage characteristics of superconductor/thin graphite film/superconductor Josephson junctions. A reentrant behavior in the differential conductance was observed at low bias voltages just above the structure due to supercurrent. The gate voltage dependence of the conductance peak shows that the origin of the reentrant behavior is different from that for the conventional reentrant behavior seen in a disordered normal metal coupled to a superconductor.

  4. Fate of the Josephson effect in thin-film superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermele, Michael; Refael, Gil; Fisher, Matthew P. A.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    The d.c. Josephson effect refers to the dissipationless electrical current-the supercurrent-that can be sustained across a weak link connecting two bulk superconductors. This effect probes the nature of the superconducting state, which depends crucially on spatial dimensionality. For bulk (that is, three-dimensional) superconductors, the superconductivity is most robust and the Josephson effect is sustained even at non-zero temperature. However, in wires and thin films, thermal and quantum fluctuations play a crucial role. In superconducting wires, these effects qualitatively modify the electrical transport across a weak link. Despite several experiments involving weak links between thin-film superconductors, little theoretical attention has been paid to the electrical conduction in such systems. Here, we analyse the case of two superconducting thin films connected by a point contact. Remarkably, the Josephson effect is absent at non-zero temperature. The point-contact resistance is non-zero and varies with temperature in a nearly activated fashion, with a universal energy barrier set by the superfluid stiffness characterizing the films. This behaviour reflects the subtle nature of thin-film superconductors and should be observable in future experiments.

  5. Multiple routes for vortex depinning in amorphous thin film superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Groenbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A.R.; Dominquez, D.

    1996-07-01

    ffWe present simulations of vortex dynamics in amorphous two-dimensional thin film superconductors, using a new exact method to evaluate long range interactions between vortices. We find that the onset of vortex motion is dominated by filamentary channels of flow. There are multiple patterns of filamentary flow which are stable in a wide range of bias current. As a consequence, there are multiple steps in the differential resistance, each step corresponding to a different pattern of filamentary flow. This results in a strong history dependence of the depinning current and current voltage characteristics. Our results are in agreement with recent experiments on amorphous Mo{sub 77}Ge{sub 23} thin films.

  6. Thin film superconductors and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1988-01-21

    A process for the preparation of oxide superconductors from high-viscosity non-aqueous solution is described. Solutions of lanthanide nitrates, alkaline earth nitrates and copper nitrates in a 1:2:3 stoichiometric ratio, when added to ethylene glycol containing citric acid solutions, have been used to prepare highly viscous non-aqueous solutions of metal mixed nitrates-citrates. Thin films of these compositions are produced when a layer of the viscous solution is formed on a substrate and subjected to thermal decomposition.

  7. Discriminator Stabilized Superconductor/Ferroelectric Thin Film Local Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A tunable local oscillator with a tunable circuit that includes a resonator and a transistor as an active element for oscillation. Tuning of the circuit is achieved with an externally applied dc bias across coupled lines on the resonator. Preferably the resonator is a high temperature superconductor microstrip ring resonator with integral coupled lines formed over a thin film ferroelectric material. A directional coupler samples the output of the oscillator which is fed into a diplexer for determining whether the oscillator is performing at a desired frequency. The high-pass and lowpass outputs of the diplexer are connected to diodes respectively for inputting the sampled signals into a differential operational amplifier. The amplifier compares the sampled signals and emits an output signal if there is a difference between the resonant and crossover frequencies. Based on the sampled signal, a bias supplied to the ring resonator is either increased or decreased for raising or lowering the resonant frequency by decreasing or increasing, respectively, the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric.

  8. Pseudogap in a thin film of a conventional superconductor.

    SciTech Connect

    Sacepe, B.; Chapelier, C.; Baturina, T. I.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baklanov, M. R.; Sanquer, M.

    2010-12-01

    A superconducting state is characterized by the gap in the electronic density of states, which vanishes at the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}. It was discovered that in high-temperature superconductors, a noticeable depression in the density of states, the pseudogap, still remains even at temperatures above T{sub c}. Here, we show that a pseudogap exists in a conventional superconductor, ultrathin titanium nitride films, over a wide range of temperatures above T{sub c}. Our study reveals that this pseudogap state is induced by superconducting fluctuations and favoured by two-dimensionality and by the proximity to the transition to the insulating state. A general character of the observed phenomenon provides a powerful tool to discriminate between fluctuations as the origin of the pseudogap state and other contributions in the layered high-temperature superconductor compounds.

  9. Formation of thin-film high T/sub c/ superconductors by metalorganic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, A.H.; Mantese, J.V.; Micheli, A.L.; Laugal, R.C.O.; Dungan, D.F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Padmanabhan, K.R.

    1987-12-21

    Metalorganic deposition (MOD) is a nonvacuum method of thin-film deposition which allows easy alteration of chemical components and is compatible with thin-film processing. We report the preparation of thin-film superconductors by MOD. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used to determine film compositions and thicknesses. Films, approximately 500 nm thick, of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 4/O/sub z/ (z undetermined) were deposited on <100> single-crystal SrTiO/sub 3/. A superconducting onset temperature of 90 K was measured with 37 K the zero resistance temperature. Scanning electron microscopy revealed grain sizes approximately 250 nm in diameter.

  10. Patterning thin film superconductors using focused beam techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mantese, J.V.; Hamdi, A.H.; Micheli, A.L.; Catalan, A.B.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses a method for producing patterned films of superconductor materials. It comprises preparing a solution from the neodecanoates of yttrium, barium, and copper, the metals form an oxide mixture exhibiting superconductive properties characterized by a ratio of yttrium to barium to copper of approximately 1:2:4. The solution comprising up to approximately 25 volume percent pyridine in xylene; depositing a film of the solution onto a substrate; exposing selective regions of the film to an electron beam in a substantially vacuum environment so that the exposed regions of the film become insoluble in a second organic solvent; immersing the film into the organic solvent so that the insoluble, exposed regions of the film remain on the substrate. The second organic solvent comprising primarily xylene; heating the film to a temperature of approximately 500{degrees}C for a duration of approximately 5 minutes sufficient to thermally decompose the metal neodecanoates into a film containing metal oxides; heating the oxide film at a second temperature ranging between about 850{degrees}C to about 1000{degrees}C for a duration of up to about 60 minutes that is sufficient to promote recrystallization and grain growth of the metal oxides.

  11. Scanned probe microscopy for thin film superconductor development

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, J.

    1996-12-31

    Scanned probe microscopy is a general term encompassing the science of imaging based on piezoelectric driven probes for measuring local changes in nanoscale properties of materials and devices. Techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning potentiometry are becoming common tools in the production and development labs in the semiconductor industry. The author presents several examples of applications specific to the development of high temperature superconducting thin films and thin-film devices.

  12. Vacuum tunneling spectroscopy of thin film and bulk polycrystalline superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. W.; Khim, Z. G.; Shum, Danny P.; Wolf, E. L.

    1987-03-01

    The "squeezable junction" method of Moreland and Hansma has been applied to study the superconducting energy gap of co-sputtered MoRe films and of arc melted and annealed polycrystals of LiTi 2O 4, with Tc = 11.3 K. The energy gap of LiTi 2O 4 is determined to be 1.95 0.03 mV corresponding to {2?}/{k BT> c} = 4.00 0.06, making this metal a strong coupling superconductor.

  13. Universal self-field critical current for thin-film superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talantsev, E. F.; Tallon, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    For any practical superconductor the magnitude of the critical current density, Jc, is crucially important. It sets the upper limit for current in the conductor. Usually Jc falls rapidly with increasing external magnetic field, but even in zero external field the current flowing in the conductor generates a self-field that limits Jc. Here we show for thin films of thickness less than the London penetration depth, ?, this limiting Jc adopts a universal value for all superconductors--metals, oxides, cuprates, pnictides, borocarbides and heavy Fermions. For type-I superconductors, it is Hc/? where Hc is the thermodynamic critical field. But surprisingly for type-II superconductors, we find the self-field Jc is Hc1/? where Hc1 is the lower critical field. Jc is thus fundamentally determined and this provides a simple means to extract absolute values of ?(T) and, from its temperature dependence, the symmetry and magnitude of the superconducting gap.

  14. Universal self-field critical current for thin-film superconductors.

    PubMed

    Talantsev, E F; Tallon, J L

    2015-01-01

    For any practical superconductor the magnitude of the critical current density, Jc, is crucially important. It sets the upper limit for current in the conductor. Usually Jc falls rapidly with increasing external magnetic field, but even in zero external field the current flowing in the conductor generates a self-field that limits Jc. Here we show for thin films of thickness less than the London penetration depth, ?, this limiting Jc adopts a universal value for all superconductors-metals, oxides, cuprates, pnictides, borocarbides and heavy Fermions. For type-I superconductors, it is Hc/? where Hc is the thermodynamic critical field. But surprisingly for type-II superconductors, we find the self-field Jc is Hc1/? where Hc1 is the lower critical field. Jc is thus fundamentally determined and this provides a simple means to extract absolute values of ?(T) and, from its temperature dependence, the symmetry and magnitude of the superconducting gap. PMID:26240014

  15. Universal self-field critical current for thin-film superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Talantsev, E. F.; Tallon, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    For any practical superconductor the magnitude of the critical current density, Jc, is crucially important. It sets the upper limit for current in the conductor. Usually Jc falls rapidly with increasing external magnetic field, but even in zero external field the current flowing in the conductor generates a self-field that limits Jc. Here we show for thin films of thickness less than the London penetration depth, ?, this limiting Jc adopts a universal value for all superconductorsmetals, oxides, cuprates, pnictides, borocarbides and heavy Fermions. For type-I superconductors, it is Hc/? where Hc is the thermodynamic critical field. But surprisingly for type-II superconductors, we find the self-field Jc is Hc1/? where Hc1 is the lower critical field. Jc is thus fundamentally determined and this provides a simple means to extract absolute values of ?(T) and, from its temperature dependence, the symmetry and magnitude of the superconducting gap. PMID:26240014

  16. Shielding Superconductors with Thin Films as Applied to rf Cavities for Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, Sam; Transtrum, Mark K.; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U.; Sethna, James P.

    2015-10-01

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large-amplitude ac magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radio-frequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting-film-insulating-film-superconductor (SIS' ) structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large ac magnetic fields. After establishing that, for high-frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters, we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  17. Thickness tuned two-dimensional superconductor-insulator transitions for amorphous ultra-thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makise, K.; Mithuishi, K.; Furuya, K.; Hirakawa, A.; Nakanishi, H.; Kawaguti, T.; Shinozaki, B.

    2009-03-01

    We have carried out experiments of the thickness-tuned Superconductor-insulator (S-I) transition for amorphous ultra-thin films of various materials. The S-I transition in two-dimensional homogeneous systems has been studied using a wide variety of amorphous films, such as films quench-condensed onto cryogenic substrates and composite material films. The values of critical sheet resistance Rc obtained by many groups for homogeneous films of various materials do not indicate a universal value. Our results indicate that the Rc of Bi, MoRu and AuGe on SiO underlayers have approximately 5.2, 6.7 and 4.9 k Ω respectively. The difference among the values of Rc of the present three films is small in comparison with previous reports of other groups. The decrease in superconducting transition temperature of Bi, MoRu and AuGe films showed similar dependence of normal state sheet resistance below 2kΩ. This behavior can be theoretically explained by the electron-electron effect due to the enhanced Coulomb interactions in a disordered superconductor. On the insulating side, the conductance of the films exhibits temperature dependence as R = Ro exp[(T0/T)x]. The factor x of Bi films have ~ 1 and that of MoRu and AuGe films are ~ 0.5 near the S-I transition. This results may reflect the difference of films structure.

  18. Raman microprobe analysis of patterned high Tc superconductor (YBCO) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, J.; Martin, E.; Martin, P.; Torres, A.; Belouet, C.; Chambonnet, D.

    1995-06-01

    MicroRaman spectroscopy is used for studying patterning induced structural damage in PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition) YBaCuO High T{sub c} superconductor thin films. The study was focused on the oxygen sublattice vibrations, which give information about different structural aspects of the films. A significant oxygen loss and the presence of residual stresses for laser ablation and ion etching patterning procedures were found. No appreciable consequences at the microRaman resolution scale were detected when patterning was done by wet etching with EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid).

  19. Quantum Griffiths singularity of superconductor-metal transition in Ga thin films.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Min; Fu, Hai-Long; Liu, Haiwen; Sun, Yi; Peng, Jun-Ping; Wang, Fa; Lin, Xi; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Jian; Xie, X C

    2015-10-30

    The Griffiths singularity in a phase transition, caused by disorder effects, was predicted more than 40 years ago. Its signature, the divergence of the dynamical critical exponent, is challenging to observe experimentally. We report the experimental observation of the quantum Griffiths singularity in a two-dimensional superconducting system. We measured the transport properties of atomically thin gallium films and found that the films undergo superconductor-metal transitions with increasing magnetic field. Approaching the zero-temperature quantum critical point, we observed divergence of the dynamical critical exponent, which is consistent with the Griffiths singularity behavior. We interpret the observed superconductor-metal quantum phase transition as the infinite-randomness critical point, where the properties of the system are controlled by rare large superconducting regions. PMID:26472763

  20. A Novel Method for Characterization of Superconductors: Physical Measurements and Modeling of Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, B. F.; Moorjani, K.; Phillips, T. E.; Adrian, F. J.; Bohandy, J.; Dolecek, Q. E.

    1993-01-01

    A method for characterization of granular superconducting thin films has been developed which encompasses both the morphological state of the sample and its fabrication process parameters. The broad scope of this technique is due to the synergism between experimental measurements and their interpretation using numerical simulation. Two novel technologies form the substance of this system: the magnetically modulated resistance method for characterizing superconductors; and a powerful new computer peripheral, the Parallel Information Processor card, which provides enhanced computing capability for PC computers. This enhancement allows PC computers to operate at speeds approaching that of supercomputers. This makes atomic scale simulations possible on low cost machines. The present development of this system involves the integration of these two technologies using mesoscale simulations of thin film growth. A future stage of development will incorporate atomic scale modeling.

  1. Thin film growth of the 2122-phase of BCSCO superconductor with high degree of crystalline perfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Narayanan, S.; Pandey, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    Thin films of the 80 K-phase of BiCaSrCu-oxide superconductor having the composition of Bi2Ca1.05Sr2.1Cu2.19O(x) and high degree of crystalline perfection have been grown on c-axis oriented twin free single crystal substrates of NdGaO3. This has been achieved by carefully establishing the growth conditions of the LPE experiments. The temperature regime of 850 to 830 C and quenching of the specimens on the termination of the growth period are found to be pertinent for the growth of quasi-single crystalline superconducting BCSCO films on NdGaO3 substrates. The TEM analysis reveals a single crystalline nature of these films which exhibit 100 percent reflectivity in infrared regions at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  2. Superconductor-Metal-Insulator transition in two dimensional Ta thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sun-Gyu; Kim, Eunseong

    2013-03-01

    Superconductor-insulator transition has been induced by tuning film thickness or magnetic field. Recent electrical transport measurements of MoGe, Bi, Ta thin films revealed an interesting intermediate metallic phase which intervened superconducting and insulating phases at certain range of magnetic field. Especially, Ta thin films show the characteristic IV behavior at each phase and the disorder tuned intermediate metallic phase [Y. Li, C. L. Vicente, and J. Yoon, Physical Review B 81, 020505 (2010)]. This unexpected metallic phase can be interpreted as a consequence of vortex motion or contribution of fermionic quasiparticles. In this presentation, we report the scaling behavior during the transitions in Ta thin film as well as the transport measurements in various phases. Critical exponents v and z are obtained in samples with wide ranges of disorder. These results reveal new universality class appears when disorder exceeds a critical value. Dynamical exponent z of Superconducting sample is found to be 1, which is consistent with theoretical prediction of unity. z in a metallic sample is suddenly increased to be approximately 2.5. This critical exponent is much larger than the value found in other system and theoretical prediction. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  3. Processing And Patterning Of Thin Film Superconductors Formed By Metallo-Organic Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Adolph L.; Mantese, Joseph V.; Hamdi, Aboud H.

    1990-04-01

    Thin film superconductors of Y-Ba-Cu and Yb-Ba-Cu were formed by the pyrolysis of neodecanoate solutions of Y, Yb, Ba and Cu which had been deposited onto <100> SrTiO3 substrates [1]. Rapid thermal annealing, in oxygen, of the as-deposited films produced high T films having superconducting onset temperatures above 90 K and zero resistance at 8g K. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed enhancements in grain growth, compared to furnace annealed films, by a factor of 4. X-ray diffraction analysis showed preferred epitaxial grain growth with the c-axis of the films oriented both perpendicular and parallel to the substrate surface. Separate Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) channeling experiments confirmed the formation of preferred epitaxial grain growth. Film composition was determined by RBS and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry (ICPES). Selective patterning was accomplished by focused beam exposure of the metal neodecanoate films [2-4]. The exposure rendered the neodecanoate film locally insoluble in xylene, thus permitting selective area patterning prior to pyrolysis. Electron, ion and laser beams were used to pattern films on <100> SrTiO3. The finest lines, approximately 5 #m in width and 26 nm thick, were patterned using electron beams whose lines had superconducting onsets above 90 K and zero resistance at 69 K after rapid thermal annealing. Both ion beam and laser patterning had similar superconducting onsets and zero resistance. Neodecanoates of Y, Yb, Ba, and Cu were formed, as previously described [5], by reacting the metal acetates of these materials with either ammonium neodecanoate or tetramethyl ammonium neodecanoate. The carboxylates formed from these reactions were then dissolved in a solution of xylene and pyridine. The individual chemical constituents were combined to produce solutions, Ln:Ba:Cu, in the ratio 1:2:4. Here, Ln is a rare-earth element. Details of the preparation of the metal carboxylates may be found elsewhere [6]. Thin films of Y-Ba-Cu and Yb-Ba-Cu were deposited onto <100> SrTiO by flooding the substrates with the appropriate neodecanoate solutions, then spin drying them at 2000 rpm for 30 s. The substrates were heated rapidly to 500?C for 5 min in an air oven to pyrolize the metallo organics to their oxides. This process produces thin films about 200 nm thick. The spin coating process was repeated 3-6 times if thicker films were desired. X-ray diffraction analysis of films pyrolized at 500?C shoed the presence of only microcrystallites. Room temperature resistivities of lx10 0-cm were measured for these films. No superconducting behavior was observed. After the 500?C pyrolysis the films were further processed by RTA in flowing oxygen. The substrates were placed upon oxidized silicon wafers, rapidly heated to 850?C for 60 s using infrared radiation produced by a bank of quartz lamps then allowed to cool to room temperature. A second rapid annealing was then performed at 920?C for 30 s in oxygen. Thin film superconductors formed in the manner described above were very uniform in structure and thickness across the surface of the film. The grains are approximately 1 #m wide and 2 #m long, a factor of 4 larger than the grains found in furnace annealed films formed by MOD [5].

  4. Optical properties of TiN thin films close to the superconductor-insulator transition.

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuner, F.; Degiorgi, L.; Baturina, T. I.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baklanov, M. R.; Materials Science Division; ETH Zurich; Inst. Semiconductor Physics; IMEC Kapeldreef

    2009-11-10

    We present the intrinsic optical properties over a broad spectral range of TiN thin films deposited on an Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate. We analyze the measured reflectivity spectra of the film-substrate multilayer structure within a well-establish procedure based on the Fresnel equation and extract the real part of the optical conductivity of TiN. We identify the metallic contribution as well as the finite energy excitations and disentangle the spectral weight distribution among them. The absorption spectrum of TiN bears some similarities with the electrodynamic response observed in the normal state of the high-temperature superconductors. Particularly, a mid-infrared feature in the optical conductivity is quite reminiscent of a pseudogap-like excitation.

  5. In-situ integrated processing and characterization of thin films of high temperature superconductors, dielectrics and semiconductors by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, R.; Sinha, S.; Hsu, N. J.; Thakur, R. P. S.; Chou, P.; Kumar, A.; Narayan, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this strategy of depositing the basic building blocks of superconductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics having common elements, researchers deposited superconducting films of Y-Ba-Cu-O, semiconductor films of Cu2O, and dielectric films of BaF2 and Y2O3 by metal oxide chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). By switching source materials entering the chamber, and by using direct writing capability, complex device structures like three terminal hybrid semiconductor/superconductor transistors can be fabricated. The Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films on BaF2/YSZ substrates show a T(sub c) of 80 K and are textured with most of the grains having their c-axis or a-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Electrical characteristics as well as structural characteristics of superconductors and related materials obtained by x-ray deffraction, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis are discussed.

  6. In-situ integrated processing and characterization of thin films of high temperature superconductors, dielectrics and semiconductors by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, R.; Sinha, S.; Hsu, N. J.; Thakur, R. P. S.; Chou, P.; Kumar, A.; Narayan, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this strategy of depositing the basic building blocks of superconductors, semiconductors, and dielectric having common elements, researchers deposited superconducting films of Y-Ba-Cu-O, semiconductor films of Cu2O, and dielectric films of BaF2 and Y2O3 by metal oxide chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). By switching source materials entering the chamber, and by using direct writting capability, complex device structures like three-terminal hybrid semiconductors/superconductors transistors can be fabricated. The Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films on BaF2/YSZ substrates show a T(sub c) of 80 K and are textured with most of the grains having their c-axis or a-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Electrical characteristics as well as structural characteristics of superconductors and related materials obtained by x-ray defraction, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis are discussed.

  7. Thin film growth of Fe-based superconductors: from fundamental properties to functional devices. A comparative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, S.; Kidszun, M.; Oswald, S.; Hess, C.; Büchner, B.; Kölling, S.; Wilde, L.; Thersleff, T.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Jourdan, M.; Hiramatsu, H.; Hosono, H.

    2014-04-01

    Fe-based superconductors bridge a gap between MgB2 and the cuprate high temperature superconductors as they exhibit multiband character and transition temperatures up to around 55 K. Investigating Fe-based superconductors thus promises answers to fundamental questions concerning the Cooper pairing mechanism, competition between magnetic and superconducting phases, and a wide variety of electronic correlation effects. The question addressed in this review is, however, is this new class of superconductors also a promising candidate for technical applications? Superconducting film-based technologies range from high-current and high-field applications for energy production and storage to sensor development for communication and security issues and have to meet relevant needs of today's society and that of the future. In this review we will highlight and discuss selected key issues for Fe-based superconducting thin film applications. We initially focus our discussion on the understanding of physical properties and actual problems in film fabrication based on a comparison of different observations made in the last few years. Subsequently we address the potential for technological applications according to the current situation.

  8. Fabrication of high T(sub c) superconductor thin film devices: Center director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a technique for fabricating superconducting weak link devices with micron-sized geometries etched in laser ablated Y1Ba2Cu3O(x) (YBCO) thin films. Careful placement of the weak link over naturally occurring grain boundaries exhibited in some YBCO thin films produces Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) operating at 77 K.

  9. Method for forming single phase, single crystalline 2122 BCSCO superconductor thin films by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Raghvendra K. (Inventor); Raina, Kanwal (Inventor); Solayappan, Narayanan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A substantially single phase, single crystalline, highly epitaxial film of Bi.sub.2 CaSr.sub.2 Cu.sub.2 O.sub.8 superconductor which has a T.sub.c (zero resistance) of 83 K is provided on a lattice-matched substrate with no intergrowth. This film is produced by a Liquid Phase Epitaxy method which includes the steps of forming a dilute supercooled molten solution of a single phase superconducting mixture of oxides of Bi, Ca, Sr, and Cu having an atomic ratio of about 2:1:2:2 in a nonreactive flux such as KCl, introducing the substrate, e.g., NdGaO.sub.3, into the molten solution at 850.degree. C., cooling the solution from 850.degree. C. to 830.degree. C. to grow the film and rapidly cooling the substrate to room temperature to maintain the desired single phase, single crystalline film structure.

  10. Epitaxial layers of 2122 BCSCO superconductor thin films having single crystalline structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Raghvendra K. (Inventor); Raina, Kanwal K. (Inventor); Solayappan, Narayanan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A substantially single phase, single crystalline, highly epitaxial film of Bi.sub.2 CaSr.sub.2 Cu.sub.2 O.sub.8 superconductor which has a T.sub.c (zero resistance) of 83K is provided on a lattice-matched substrate with no intergrowth. This film is produced by a Liquid Phase Epitaxy method which includes the steps of forming a dilute supercooled molten solution of a single phase superconducting mixture of oxides of Bi, Ca, Sr, and Cu having an atomic ratio of about 2:1:2:2 in a nonreactive flux such as KCl, introducing the substrate, e.g., NdGaO.sub.3, into the molten solution at 850.degree. C., cooling the solution from 850.degree. C. to 830.degree. C. to grow the film and rapidly cooling the substrate to room temperature to maintain the desired single phase, single crystalline film structure.

  11. Thin films of the Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, YU; Luo, H. L.; Hu, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Using RF sputtering technique, thin films of near single phase Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x) were successfully prepared on SrTiO3(100), MgO(100), and LaAlO3(012) substrates. Zero resistance of these films occurred in the range of 90-105 K.

  12. Thin film seeds for melt processing textured superconductors for practical applications

    DOEpatents

    Veal, Boyd W. (Downers Grove, IL); Paulikas, Arvydas (Downers Grove, IL); Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Zhong, Wei (West Lafayette, IN)

    1999-01-01

    A method of fabricating bulk superconducting material such as RBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta. where R is La or Y comprising depositing a thin epitaxially oriented film of Nd or Sm (123) on an oxide substrate. The powder oxides of RBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta. or oxides and/or carbonates of R and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form RBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta., where R is Y or La are heated, in physical contact with the thin film of Nd or Sm (123) on the oxide substrate to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the oxide or carbonate mixture while maintaining the thin film solid to grow a large single domain 123 superconducting material. Then the material is cooled. The thin film is between 200 .ANG. and 2000 .ANG.. A construction prepared by the method is also disclosed.

  13. Thin film seeds for melt processing textured superconductors for practical applications

    DOEpatents

    Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.; Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.

    1999-02-09

    A method of fabricating bulk superconducting material such as RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} where R is La or Y comprising depositing a thin epitaxially oriented film of Nd or Sm (123) on an oxide substrate is disclosed. The powder oxides of RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} or oxides and/or carbonates of R and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, where R is Y or La are heated, in physical contact with the thin film of Nd or Sm (123) on the oxide substrate to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the oxide or carbonate mixture while maintaining the thin film solid to grow a large single domain 123 superconducting material. Then the material is cooled. The thin film is between 200 {angstrom} and 2000 {angstrom}. A construction prepared by the method is also disclosed.

  14. Sequentially evaporated thin Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor films: Composition and processing effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, George J.; Rohrer, Norman J.; Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1988-01-01

    Thin films of YBa2Cu3O(7-beta) have been grown by sequential evaporation of Cu, Y, and BaF2 on SrTiO3 and MgO substrates. The onset temperatures were as high as 93 K while T sub c was 85 K. The Ba/Y ratio was varied from 1.9 to 4.0. The Cu/Y ratio was varied from 2.8 to 3.4. The films were then annealed at various times and temperatures. The times ranged from 15 min to 3 hr, while the annealing temperatures used ranged from 850 C to 900 C. A good correlation was found between transition temperature (T sub c) and the annealing conditions; the films annealed at 900 C on SrTiO3 had the best T sub c's. There was a weaker correlation between composition and T sub c. Barium poor films exhibitied semiconducting normal state resistance behavior while barium rich films were metallic. The films were analyzed by resistance versus temperature measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of the films and the correlations are reported.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of amorphous niobium carbide-based thin film superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, J. A.; Prolier, T.; Elam, J. W.; Becker, N. G.; Pellin, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Niobium carbide thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum (TMA), NbF{sub 5}, and NbCl{sub 5} precursors. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed at 200 and 290 C revealed controlled, linear deposition with a high growth rate of 5.7 and 4.5 {angstrom}/cycle, respectively. The chemical composition, growth rate, structure, and electronic properties of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 125-350 C. Varying amounts of impurities, including amorphous carbon (a-C), AlF{sub 3}, NbF{sub x}, and NbCl{sub x}, were found in all samples. A strong growth temperature dependence of film composition, growth rate, and room temperature DC resistivity was observed. Increasing film density, decreasing total impurity concentration, and decreasing resistivity were observed as a function of increasing deposition temperature for films grown with either NbF{sub 5} or NbCl{sub 5}. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements down to 1.2 K revealed a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 1.8 K in a 75 nm thick film grown at 350 C with TMA and NbF{sub 5}. The superconducting critical temperature could be increased up to 3.8 K with additional use of NH{sub 3} during ALD film growth.

  16. atomic layer deposition of amorphous niobium carbide-based thin film superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Prolier, T.; Klug, J. A.; Elam, J. W.; Claus, H.; Becker, N. G.; Pellin, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Niobium carbide thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum (TMA), NbF{sub 5}, and NbCl{sub 5} precursors. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed at 200 and 290 C revealed controlled, linear deposition with a high growth rate of 5.7 and 4.5 {angstrom}/cycle, respectively. The chemical composition, growth rate, structure, and electronic properties of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 125-350 C. Varying amounts of impurities, including amorphous carbon (a-C), AlF{sub 3}, NbF{sub x}, and NbCl{sub x}, were found in all samples. A strong growth temperature dependence of film composition, growth rate, and room temperature DC resistivity was observed. Increasing film density, decreasing total impurity concentration, and decreasing resistivity were observed as a function of increasing deposition temperature for films grown with either NbF{sub 5} or NbCl{sub 5}. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements down to 1.2 K revealed a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 1.8 K in a 75 nm thick film grown at 350 C with TMA and NbF{sub 5}. The superconducting critical temperature could be increased up to 3.8 K with additional use of NH{sub 3} during ALD film growth.

  17. A radio-frequency coil for the microwave characterization of vortex dynamics in thin film superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra-Sols, Pedro-de-Jess; Fernndez-Martnez, Antoni; Hernndez, Joan Manel; Garca-Santiago, Antoni; Vanacken, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-frequency coil for the experimental investigation of the magnetic properties of thin superconducting films under microwave fields at different values of temperature and dc magnetic field has been developed. The system has been used for low-temperature microwave frequency-dependent magnetization measurements in a Pb thin film with an engineered periodical antidot array. The characteristic frequencies and the electric and magnetic fields of the resonant system formed by a multi-turn coil with a sample loaded in its core are estimated using the helical approach. A good agreement of the calculated values with those recorded in swept-frequency spectra is obtained. The relation between the characteristics of the resonant structure and the frequency-driven magnetic response of the sample at different nominal microwave powers documents the capability and sensitivity of the layout.

  18. Use of ion beams to decompose metalorganics into patterned thin-film superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mantese, J.V.; Catalan, A.B.; Hamdi, A.H.; Micheli, A.L.

    1988-05-16

    Ion implantation of 400 keV O/sup +2/ ions, at a dose of 5 x 10/sup 14/ ions/cm/sup 2/, was used to selectively decompose a high T/sub c/ superconductor-forming metalorganic (MO). Implantation rendered the metal carboxylates insoluble in their solvent, xylene, permitting patterning of the MO prior to pyrolysis and annealing. Fine line superconductors were formed having 90 K onset temperatures and zero resistance at 68 K.

  19. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagade, A. A.; Ganbavle, V. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt ferrite thin films are deposited onto quartz glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures using ferric nitrate and cobalt nitrate as precursors. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study indicates the formation of CoFe2O4 by decomposition of cobalt and ferric nitrates after 800 C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that annealed films are polycrystalline in nature and exhibit spinel cubic crystal structure. Crystallite size varies from 39 to 44 nm with the substrate temperatures. Direct optical band gap energy of CoFe2O4 thin films is found to be 2.57 eV. The AFM images show that roughness and grain size of the CoFe2O4 thin film are about 9 and 138 nm, respectively. The measured DC resistivity of the deposited thin films indicates that as temperature increases the resistivity decreases indicating the semiconductor nature of the films. Decrease in dielectric constant (?') and loss tangent (tan?) has been observed with frequency and attains the constant value at higher frequencies. The AC conductivity of cobalt ferrite thin films increases with increase in frequency. Thus, the prepared films show normal dielectric performance of the spinel ferrite thin film. Room-temperature complex impedance spectra show the incomplete semicircles as films exhibit high resistance values at lower frequencies.

  20. Fabrication and properties of thin-film heterostructures: High-temperature superconductor/solid electrolyte/electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. P.; Matveev, A. T.; Gremenok, V. F.

    1992-02-01

    Thin-film heterostructures, Y1NBa2CuOx/solid electrolyte/electrodes, have been fabricated, and their electrical properties have been investigated. It is shown that by electrochemical injection-extraction of oxygen one can locally and reversibly change the character of the conductivity and superconducting transition temperature of thin-film Y1Ba2Cu3Ox.

  1. Selective laser pyrolysis of metalorganics as a method of forming patterned thin-film superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mantese, J.V.; Catalan, A.B.; Mance, A.M.; Hamdi, A.H.; Micheli, A.L.; Sell, J.A.; Meyer, M.S.

    1988-10-03

    Fine line superconductors of Y-Ba-Cu-O were formed on <100> SrTiO/sub 3/ by the completely nonvacuum techniques of metalorganic deposition and selective laser pyrolysis. Lines 35 ..mu..m wide were written, using an Ar laser, in metal neodecanoates prior to pyrolysis. Regions of the metalorganics not exposed to laser pyrolysis were developed away using a xylene wash. Complete pyrolysis of the metal neodecanoates and rapid thermal annealing produced lines having superconducting onsets above 90 K and zero resistance at 69 K.

  2. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  3. Use of electron beam lithography to selectively decompose metalorganics into patterned thin-film superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mantese, J.V.; Catalan, A.B.; Hamdi, A.H.; Micheli, A.L.; Studer-Rabeler, K.

    1988-08-08

    Fine line superconductors, approximately 5 ..mu..m in width and 260 nm thick, were formed from Y-Ba-Cu on <100>SrTiO/sub 3/ by the combined methods of metalorganic deposition and selective area electron beam exposure. The lines were written in metal neodecanoates using an electron beam having a spot size of 0.25 ..mu..m and an energy of 25 kV. The dosage of the exposure was 1200 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/. Unexposed areas were removed with a 30 s xylene wash. A 500 /sup 0/C pyrolysis in air for 300 s followed by rapid thermal annealing in oxygen produced lines having superconducting onsets above 90 K and zero resistance at 69 K.

  4. Thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Doermer, M.F. ); Oliver, W.C. ); Pharr, G.M.; Brotzen, F.R. )

    1990-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of papers presented at the 1990 Spring Meeting of the Materials Research Society in a symposium entitled Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties II. As indicated by the title, the symposium was the second in a series, the first of which was held at the Fall Meeting in 1988. The importance of thin film mechanical properties is now recognized to the extent that basic characterization techniques such as microindentation and thin film stress measurement are performed routinely, and new characterization techniques are being developed on a daily basis. Many of the papers in the symposium dealt with the developments in these characterization methods and their application to a broad spectrum of materials such as compositionally modulated structures, ion implanted materials, optical coatings, and the numerous metals, ceramics and organics used in semiconductor device manufacture.

  5. Ferromagnetic SrRuO3 thin-film deposition on a spin-triplet superconductor Sr2RuO4 with a highly conducting interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. S.; Shin, Yeong Jae; Lee, Seung Ran; Kang, Sung Jin; Sugimoto, Yuske; Yonezawa, Shingo; Noh, Tae Won; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2015-01-01

    Ferromagnetic SrRuO3 thin films are deposited on the ab surface of single crystals of the spin-triplet superconductor (TSC) Sr2RuO4 as substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The films are under a severe in-plane compressive strain. Nevertheless, the films exhibit ferromagnetic order with the easy axis along the c-direction below the Curie temperature of 158 K. The electrical transport reveals that the SrRuO3/Sr2RuO4 interface is highly conducting, in contrast with the interface between other normal metals and the ab surface of Sr2RuO4. Our results stimulate investigations on proximity effects between a ferromagnet and a TSC.

  6. Multi-seeded growth of melt processed Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors using different arrangements of thin film seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Guo, L. S.; Wu, Y. S.; Yao, X.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2013-03-01

    Gd-Ba-Cu-O (GdBCO) bulk superconductors of diameter of 42 mm have been fabricated via a multi-seeded melt growth (MSMG) method in air using well-oriented Nd-Ba-Cu-O thin film seeds. The effect of seed orientation on the growth process and the formation of grain boundaries were investigated systematically by using two thin film seeds arranged with crystallographic orientations of (100)/(100) and (110)/(110), respectively. The multi-seeded process was then firstly extended to four thin film seeds arranged asymmetrically [(110)/(110)], which involved placing the seeds in pairs, with two adjacent seeds positioned relatively close to each other and the other two at a greater separation. This modified technique is beneficial to obtain a large size GdBCO bulk in a shorter time as well as clean grain boundaries by rejecting the excess melt liquid thoroughly along the growth front. More interestingly, a domain of non-equilibrium shape is formed during the MSMG process, which leads potentially to the growth of much larger samples. The growth mode of the enhancement in growth rate is interpreted by the presence of a high index crystallographic (110) face to the initial growth front.

  7. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naffouti, Wafa; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Mehdi, Ahmed; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of solution flow rate on the physical properties of the films was investigated by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectrophotometry techniques. XRD analysis revealed the tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 with highly preferred (101) orientation. AFM images showed that grain size on top of TiO2 thin films depended on solution flow rate. An indirect band gap energy of 3.46 eV was determined by means of transmission and reflection measurements. The envelope method, based on the optical transmission spectrum, was used to determine film thickness and optical constants, for example real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, refractive index, and extinction coefficient. Ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at room temperature. These peaks were attributed to the intrinsic emission and to the surface defect states, respectively.

  8. Techniques for Connecting Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mester, John; Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2006-01-01

    Several improved techniques for connecting superconducting thin films on substrates have been developed. The techniques afford some versatility for tailoring the electronic and mechanical characteristics of junctions between superconductors in experimental electronic devices. The techniques are particularly useful for making superconducting or alternatively normally conductive junctions (e.g., Josephson junctions) between patterned superconducting thin films in order to exploit electron quantum-tunneling effects. The techniques are applicable to both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors (where Tc represents the superconducting- transition temperature of a given material), offering different advantages for each. Most low-Tc superconductors are metallic, and heretofore, connections among them have been made by spot welding. Most high-Tc superconductors are nonmetallic and cannot be spot welded. These techniques offer alternatives to spot welding of most low-Tc superconductors and additional solutions to problems of connecting most high-Tc superconductors.

  9. Materials research, superconductor and thin layer technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-11-01

    Materials research into polymer electric conductors, organic and inorganic polymer microspheres for chromatography, electronic gas sensor corrosion protection of historic glass windows, soldering of ceramics and metals, fiber reinforced automobile parts, superconductors, and thin layer technology is summarized.

  10. Influence of a magnetic field on the two-dimensional phase transition in thin-film superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. C.; Lee, Hu Jong

    1987-09-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of the influence of a magnetic field on the phase transition and low-temperature dynamical properties of two-dimensional superconducting films. Five samples of granular indium/indium oxide composite films were studied, with sheet resistances varying from 945 to 3150 ?/?, and thicknesses from 100 to 250 Å. Measurements were made of the resistance R(T,H) and of the current-voltage characteristics in perpendicular magnetic fields of maximum value 30 G. The temperature range investigated ranged from 0.7Tc0 to 1.5Tc0, where Tc0 is the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer mean-field transition temperature. In the temperature regime above Tc, the Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding temperature, the resistance was found to obey universal magnetic field scaling. Below Tc, the magnetoresistance displayed an activated temperature dependence characteristic of vortex pinning. The pinning activation energy U(H,T) increased with a Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependence below Tc and displayed an unusual magnetic field dependence, varying inversely with magnetic field below 1 G, but becoming independent of field in stronger fields. As Tc was approached from below, all signs of vortex pinning disappeared, with U(H,Tc)=0 and the magnetoresistance exhibiting linear Bardeen-Stephen behavior. These results are interpreted in the context of other work on two-dimensional superconductors.

  11. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  12. Investigation into the growth and structure of thin-film solid solutions of iron-based superconductors in the FeSe{sub 0.92}-FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} system

    SciTech Connect

    Stepantsov, E. A.; Kazakov, S. M.; Belikov, V. V.; Makarova, I. P.; Arpaia, R.; Gunnarsson, R.; Lombardi, F.

    2013-09-15

    Thin films of FeSe{sub 0.92} and FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} iron chalcogenide superconductors and solid solutions containing these components in different ratios have been grown on the surface of LaAlO{sub 3} (10 1-bar 2) crystals by pulsed laser deposition. Films of solid solutions have been deposited by simultaneous laser ablation from two targets of the FeSe{sub 0.92} and FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} stoichiometric compositions onto one substrate. An X-ray diffraction study of the film structure shows that the films grown are epitaxial and their lattice parameters regularly vary with the ratio of the deposited components, which was controllably varied by changing the ablation intensities from the targets.

  13. Studies of Solution Deposited Cerium Oxide Thin Films on Textured Ni-Alloy Substractes for YBCO Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Erin L; Bhuiyan, Md S; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2006-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) buffer layers play an important role for the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) based superconducting tapes using the rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) approach. The chemical solution deposition (CSD) approach has been used to grow epitaxial CeO2 films on textured Ni-3 a 4% W alloy substrates with various starting precursors of ceria. Precursors such as cerium acetate, cerium acetylacetonate, cerium 2-ethylhexanoate, cerium nitrate, and cerium trifluoroacetate were prepared in suitable solvents. The optimum growth conditions for these cerium precursors were Ar-4% H2 gas processing atmosphere, solution concentration levels of 0.2-0.5 M, a dwell time of 15 min, and a process temperature range of 1050-1150 degrees C. X-ray diffraction, AFM, SEM, and optical microscopy were used to characterize the CeO2 films. Highly textured CeO2 layers were obtained on Ni-W substrates with both cerium acetate and cerium acetylacetonate as starting precursors. YBCO films with a Jc of 1.5 MA/cm2 were obtained on cerium acetylacetonate-based CeO2 films with sputtered YSZ and CeO2 cap layers.

  14. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  15. Thallium thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, J.; Kampwirth, R.; Gray, K.

    1988-06-01

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, and IBM Alamden Research Center have created thin films from thallium barium calcium copper oxide (TlBaCaCuO). Their work which is discussed here, has given us higher T/sub c/'s in thin films, appreciation for the properties of the thallium system, and provocative ideas about structure-property relationships.

  16. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  17. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  18. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse (Rochester Hills, MI); Poli, Andrea A. (Livonia, MI); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  19. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  20. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  1. Nanomechanical and electrical properties of Nb thin films deposited on Pb substrates by pulsed laser deposition as a new concept photocathode for superconductor cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontad, F.; Lorusso, A.; Panareo, M.; Monteduro, A. G.; Maruccio, G.; Broitman, E.; Perrone, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report a design of photocathode, which combines the good photoemissive properties of lead (Pb) and the advantages of superconducting performance of niobium (Nb) when installed into a superconducting radio-frequency gun. The new configuration is obtained by a coating of Nb thin film grown on a disk of Pb via pulsed laser deposition. The central emitting area of Pb is masked by a shield to avoid the Nb deposition. The nanomechanical properties of the Nb film, obtained through nanoindentation measurements, reveal a hardness of 2.8±0.3 GPa, while the study of the electrical resistivity of the film shows the appearance of the superconducting transitions at 9.3 K and 7.3 K for Nb and Pb, respectively, very close to the bulk material values. Additionally, morphological, structural and contamination studies of Nb thin film expose a very low droplet density on the substrate surface, a small polycrystalline orientation of the films and a low contamination level. These results, together with the acceptable Pb quantum efficiency of 2×10-5 found at 266 nm, demonstrate the potentiality of the new concept photocathode.

  2. Heterogeneity in Polymer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Inoue, Rintaro; Nishida, Koji

    2011-07-01

    In the last two decades very extensive studies have been performed on polymer thin films to reveal very interesting but unusual properties. One of the most interesting findings is the decrease in glass transition temperature Tg with film thickness in polystyrene (PS) thin film supported on Si substrate. Another interesting finding is apparent negative thermal expansivity in glassy state for thin films below 25 nm. In order to understand the unusual properties of polymer thin films we have studied temperature dependence of thickness of polystyrene thin films by means of X-ray and neutron reflectivity. In addition, we also studied dynamics of PS thin films using inelastic neutron scattering. In the presentation we will discuss the results from viewpoints of heterogeneity of polymer thin films. Finally we did neutron reflectivity measurements on a 5-layer thin film, consisting of alternatively stacked d-PS and h-PS layers to see the distribution of glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity directly.

  3. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  4. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  7. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  8. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  9. Formation of film superconductors by metallo-organic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, A.L.; Dungan, D.F.; Hamdi, A.H.; Mantese, J.V.; Laugal, R.C.O.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method for producing thin film superconductor materials. It comprises forming a solution from the neodecanoates of yttrium, barium, and copper metals; depositing a film of the solution onto a substrate. The substrate selected from the group consisting of strontium titanate, barium titanate, and sapphire; pyrolyzing the film in an oxygen-containing environment at a first temperature of about 500{degrees}C. for about 5 minutes, so as to decompose the neodecanoates of yttrium, barium, and copper into a film containing oxides of yttrium, barium, and copper, the pyrolyzing occurring substantially immediately after the depositing step; and heating the metal oxide film to a second temperature of about 850{degrees}C. for a duration of approximately no more than 2 minutes and allowing the metal oxide film to cool to room temperature, then heating the metal oxide film to a third temperature of about 920{degrees}C. for a duration of approximately no more than 1 minute.

  10. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  11. NMR characterization of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  12. NMR characterization of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  13. Reversible laser chemically induced phase transformations in thin-film Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub x/ superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, M.; Sedlacek, J.H.C.; Black, J.G.; Ehrlich, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    Phase transformations of a thin film of Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub x/ were induced with a focused laser beam in chemical ambients. The transformations, involving superconductive and nonsuperconductive phases, are achieved rapidly and with a high degree of spatial control. They are fully reversible, and the appropriate processing parameters have been studied. These effects are interpreted within present models, which relate the superconducting properties of Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub x/ to its oxygen content and crystalline structure.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  15. Thin film scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Warren; McKinney, George; Tzolov, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating materials convert energy flux (particles or electromagnetic waves) into light with spectral characteristic matching a subsequent light detector. Commercial scintillators such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) are commonly used. These are inefficient at lower energies due to the conductive coating present on their top surface, which is needed to avoid charging. We hypothesize that nano-structured thin film scintillators will outperform the commercial scintillators at low electron energies. We have developed alternative thin film scintillators, zinc tungstate and zinc oxide, which show promise for higher sensitivity to lower energy electrons since they are inherently conductive. Zinc tungstate films exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 74%. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was applied in transmission and reflection geometries. The comparison between the thin films and the YAG and YAP commercial scintillators shows much higher light output from the zinc tungstate and zinc oxide at electron energies less than 5 keV. Our films were integrated in a backscattered electron detector. This detector delivers better images than an identical detector with commercial YAG scintillator at low electron energies. Dr. Nicholas Barbi from PulseTor LLC, Dr. Anura Goonewardene, NSF Grants: #0806660, #1058829, #0923047.

  16. Physics of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Francombe, M.H. ); Vossen, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This book of Physics of Thin Films emphasizes two main technical themes. The first is essentially an extension of the topical thrust on Thin Films for Advance Electronic Devices, developed in Volume 15 of this series. The second deals primarily with the physical and mechanical behavior of films and the influence of these in relation to various applications. The first of the four articles in this volume, by Neelkanth G. Dhere, discusses high-transition-temperature (T{sub c}) superconducting films. Since their discovery in 1986, both world-wide research activity and published literature on high-T{sub c} oxide films have exploded at a phenomenal rate. In his treatment, the author presents an effective survey of the already vast literature on this subject, discusses the numerous techniques under development for the growth of these perovskite-related complex oxides, and describes their key properties and applications. In particular, factors affecting the epitaxial structure, critical current capability, and microwave conductivity in Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O based film compositions are evaluated in relation to their use at 77K. An overview of potential applications in a variety of microwave devices, wide-band optical detectors, SQUID-type high-sensitivity magnetometers, etc., is included.

  17. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  18. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  19. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  20. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model. PMID:20936224

  1. Thin film mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ryan C.

    This doctoral thesis details the methods of determining mechanical properties of two classes of novel thin films suspended two-dimensional crystals and electron beam irradiated microfilms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Thin films are used in a variety of surface coatings to alter the opto-electronic properties or increase the wear or corrosion resistance and are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical system fabrication. One of the challenges in fabricating thin films is the introduction of strains which can arise due to application techniques, geometrical conformation, or other spurious conditions. Chapters 2-4 focus on two dimensional materials. This is the intrinsic limit of thin films-being constrained to one atomic or molecular unit of thickness. These materials have mechanical, electrical, and optical properties ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems with truly novel device functionality. As such, the breadth of applications that can benefit from a treatise on two dimensional film mechanics is reason enough for exploration. This study explores the anomylously high strength of two dimensional materials. Furthermore, this work also aims to bridge four main gaps in the understanding of material science: bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and finite element analysis, bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and experimental results, nanoscale to microscale, and microscale to mesoscale. A nonlinear elasticity model is used to determine the necessary elastic constants to define the strain-energy density function for finite strain. Then, ab initio calculations-density functional theory-is used to calculate the nonlinear elastic response. Chapter 2 focuses on validating this methodology with atomic force microscope nanoindentation on molybdenum disulfide. Chapter 3 explores the convergence criteria of three density functional theory solvers to further verify the numerical calculations. Chapter 4 then uses this model to investigate the role of grain boundaries on the strength of chemical vapor deposited graphene. The results from these studies suggest that two dimensional films have remarkably high strength-reaching the intrinsic limit of molecular bonds. Chapter 5 explores the viscoelastic properties of heterogeneous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfilms through dynamic nanoindentation. PDMS microfilms are irradiated with an electron beam creating a 3 m-thick film with an increased cross-link density. The change in mechanical properties of PDMS due to thermal history and accelerator have been explored by a variety of tests, but the effect of electron beam irradiation is still unknown. The resulting structure is a stiff microfilm embedded in a soft rubber with some transformational strain induced by the cross-linking volume changes. Chapter 5 employs a combination of dynamic nanoindentation and finite element analysis to determine the change in stiffness as a function of electron beam irradiation. The experimental results are compared to the literature. The results of these experimental and numerical techniques provide exciting opportu- nities in future research. Two dimensional materials and flexible thin films are exciting materials for novel applications with new form factors, such as flexible electronics and microfluidic devices. The results herein indicate that you can accurately model the strength of two dimsensional materials and that these materials are robust against nanoscale defects. The results also reveal local variation of mechanical properties in PDMS microfilms. This allows one to design substrates that flex with varying amounts of strain on the surface. Combining the mechanics of two dimensional materials with that of a locally irradiated PDMS film could achieve a new class of flexible microelectromechanical systems. Large-scale growth of two dimensional materials will be structurally robust-even in the presence of nanostructural defects-and PDMS microfilms can be irradiated to vary strain of the electromechanical systems. These systems could be designed to investigate electromechanical coupling in two dimensional films or for a substitute to traditional silicon microdevices. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Using Superconducting Thin Films in Microwave Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkin, Varery

    1997-01-01

    High temperature superconductors(HTS) and microwaves devices form the ideal partnership. The application of superconductors in microwave devices, components and systems allows the reduction in size, power consumption and insertion loss. The surface resistance of high-Tc superconductors has been found to be two orders of magnitude lower than normal conducting copper materials. The reduction in size and power requirements, which together both lead to a reduction in system mass, coupled with reasonably accessible operating temperatures, suggest that HTS microwave components should find ready application in satellite communications systems. At present, multi- channeling communication networks demand filters with narrow bandwidth in order to allow the available RF frequency spectrum to be partitioned into small frequency bands, -and possible variation of dielectric constant from substrate to substrate is undesirable. Microwave multiplexers demand the fabrication of two identical filters in each channel. Thus, the filter with tuning function is preferable. Tunable filters are the critical component for phased array antennas in order to electronically steer the radiated beam. To fabricate a tunable filter that uses an electric field for operation, one would like a material that provides a large change on dielectric constant for a given electric field, yet has a relatively low tangent in order to minimize the insertion loss of the device. Ferroelectrics have been the materials of choice. Their large dielectric constant sufficiently increases the coupling between microwave resonators and its dependence on electric field provides timability. Development of technology promises to diminish tangent loss. The use of thin ferroelectric films sufficiently decreases insertion losses keeping considerable potential for applications. NASA Lewis Research Center is the one of the leading centers in investigation of superconductors/ferroelectric tunable components for microwave devices. A large number of possible microwave devices were fabricated and tested on the basis of thin film multilayer superconductor-ferroelectric structures. In major cases the systems with edge-coupling scheme were investigated. Dr. Genkin has recently focused on the new potentialities which implements the using of thin ferroelectric films in filters fabricated with end-coupled microstrip lines. Numerical modeling shows that these systems have large potential for application in tunable narrow- and wide-bandpass filters in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The phase shifter with end-coupled resonant sections was fabricated and tested. Experimental results show large tunability, particular in low voltages. The possible optimization of this structure promises to improve the obtained result and to reach the low level of insertion losses.

  3. Fabrication of high-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions on thin SiN membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Edouard; Jacobson, Brian R.; Hu, Qing

    1993-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated high-quality and high-current density superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions on freestanding thin silicon nitride (SIN) membranes. These devices can be used in a novel millimeter-wave and THz receiver system which is made using micromachining. The SIS junctions with planar antennas were fabricated first on a silicon wafer covered with a SiN membrane, the Si wafer underneath was then etched away using an anisotropic KOH etchant. The current-voltage characteristics of the SIS junctions remained unchanged after the whole process, and the junctions and the membrane survived thermal cycling.

  4. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  5. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film-forming material in a working device is a complex, multifaceted endeavor. It requires close attention to maintaining the optical properties of the electro-optic active portion of the polymer while manipulating the polymer structure to obtain the desired secondary polymer properties.

  6. Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

    1975-10-31

    A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

  7. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  8. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  9. Thin films: Past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  10. Standing Electromagnetic Waves in Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeli, P.

    2001-03-01

    One of the signature properties of superconductivity is its zero frequency dissipationlessness. Under these conditions, the k-vector is purely imaginary and is determined by reciprocating the London penetration depth (λ_L). But at non-zero frequencies, superconductors dissipate energy. This means that λL is insufficient to account for surface resistance and that the presence of surface resistance means that the k-vector now includes a wavelength and is complex. This apparently adverse property of dissipation however, ushers in some interesting physics: dissipation means that the fields are characterized by a finite wavelength. A finite wavelength means that standing electromagnetic waves can occur in superconducting films. The periodicity of the resonant thicknesses (Δd) in otherwise identical superconducting films is a new length scale in superconductors and is given by Δd=-π\\verttildeλ\\vert^2/Im(tildeλ), where tildeλ is the complex electromagnetic penetration depth of the superconducting thin-film and Im is the imaginary operator. This resonant effect is most pronounced near the transition temperature and it is necessary to delineate its contribution in a host of enigmatic data that have been known for over 30 years including the quantum-size effect, Wyatt-Dayem effect, Carlson-Goldman mode, non-equilibrium superconductivity... [P. Beeli, J. Supercond., in press].

  11. Niobium thin films are superconductive in strong magnetic fields at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, P. J.; Fowler, P.

    1966-01-01

    Niobium film superconductor carries high currents in strong magnetic fields. The thin niobium film is formed on an inert substrate through evaporation in a vacuum environment. Control of temperature and vacuum results in rejection of gaseous impurities so that the film is of a very high purity.

  12. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  13. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  14. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Kannan M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  15. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  16. Local Mixed State in HTSC Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordion, Irina; Tokman, Iosif

    1997-03-01

    We propose a new way to investigate the local properties of YBaCuO thin films. Micromagnet ( SmCo5 with size 1 × 1 × 0.5 mm ) has been used to induce the mixed state in the local zone isolated from the film edge. We have the experimental evidence ( Y.Nozdrin, P.Visheslavtsev, I.Tokman, I.Gordion, "A Laser-Magnetic Tomography for HTSC Film", IEEE Trans. on Appl. Superconductivity. v.5 n.2, pp. 1424-1427, (1995)) that flux flow in this case does not penetrate through the edge of the film, and this fact has also been proved by theoretical calculation of meissner current density induced by micromagnet in the HTSC disk which was based on London model for superconductors. >From calculation based on Bean-like model for critical state it has been found that the radius of induced local mixed state did not exceed ac (maximum distance between the micromagnet and the film at which vortices appeared). Experimental measurement by scanning Hall probe has proved this fact. So we can reduce the size of induced mixed state zone by minimizing the size of the micromagnet. This method can be useful for local investigation of HTSC films.

  17. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1-x, FeTexS1-x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i) easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii) strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate); (iii) high critical current density (Jc 0.5 106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition) with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv) high upper critical field (50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0), with a low anisotropy, ? 2). These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20-50 T) and low temperatures (2-10 K).

  18. Thin-film temperature sensor.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    A new device has been developed for sensing small and rapid temperature changes accompanying biochemical reactions. The active element consists of an evaporated thin-film capacitor having a relatively strong temperature dependence. This dependence is derived from electron trapping effects in the thin amorphous dielectric film. A voltage output of at least 50 mV/deg can be obtained prior to amplification by using a resonant ac bridge circuit operating at 100 kHz. The corresponding noise output for a 10 kHz bandwidth can with an optimum circuit be as low as 4 microvolts. Therefore, the minimum detectable temperature change would be 80 microdegrees at 10 kHz. Rapid thermal response is assured by supporting the thin-film capacitor on a thin anodic tantalum oxide film suspended across an electrolytically etched window in a tantalum foil.

  19. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  20. Thin film cell development workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

  1. Multilayer Thin-Film Microcapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil; Karmon, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Miniature capacitors containing multiple alternating thin-film dielectric and metal layers proposed, especially for use in integrated and hybrid electronic circuits. Because capacitance inversely proportional to thickness of dielectric layers, use of thin, high-quality dielectric layers affords capacitance and energy-storage densities much greater than now available. These devices much smaller and more reliable than state-of-art capacitors.

  2. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  3. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodriguez, Mark A. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  4. Chemical preparation of powders and films for high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, B. C.; Voigt, J. A.; Lamppa, D. L.; Doughty, D. H.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Ginley, D. S.; Headley, T. J.; Harrington, M. S.; Eatough, M. O.

    A precipitation process has been developed to prepare precursor powders which can be calcined and sintered to form high critical temperature superconductors such as YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-x). Precursor powders are prepared using a continuous precipitation system in which a solution containing highly soluble salts of the desired metal cations is rapidly and completely mixed with a solution containing precipitating anions such as hydroxide and carbonate ions. The resulting amorphous powder can be calcined to form submicron particles of desired superconducting phases which are useful in preparing inks for the ink-jet printing of superconducting interconnects. The powders can be redissolved in organic solvents to form solutions which can be used in spin or dip coating substrates with thin superconducting films. Finally, the powders have been used to prepare bulk ceramics which exhibit the highest reported critical currents of any chem-prep ceramics. Bulk samples prepared from chloride doped precursors exhibit large, oriented grains and extensive flux pinning.

  5. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  6. Calorimetry of epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, David W.; Hellman, F.; Groves, J. R.; Clemens, B. M.; Moyerman, S.; Fullerton, E. E.

    2011-02-15

    Thin film growth allows for the manipulation of material on the nanoscale, making possible the creation of metastable phases not seen in the bulk. Heat capacity provides a direct way of measuring thermodynamic properties of these new materials, but traditional bulk calorimetric techniques are inappropriate for such a small amount of material. Microcalorimetry and nanocalorimetry techniques exist for the measurements of thin films but rely on an amorphous membrane platform, limiting the types of films which can be measured. In the current work, ion-beam-assisted deposition is used to provide a biaxially oriented MgO template on a suspended membrane microcalorimeter in order to measure the specific heat of epitaxial thin films. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction showed the biaxial order of the MgO template. X-ray diffraction was also used to prove the high quality of epitaxy of a film grown onto this MgO template. The contribution of the MgO layer to the total heat capacity was measured to be just 6.5% of the total addenda contribution. The heat capacity of a Fe{sub .49}Rh{sub .51} film grown epitaxially onto the device was measured, comparing favorably to literature data on bulk crystals. This shows the viability of the MgO/SiN{sub x}-membrane-based microcalorimeter as a way of measuring the thermodynamic properties of epitaxial thin films.

  7. Metallurgical coatings and thin films; Proceedings of the International Conference, 18th, San Diego, CA, Apr. 22-26, 1991. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Gary E. (editor); Mcintyre, Dale C. (editor); Hofmann, Siegfried (editor)

    1991-01-01

    A conference on metallurgical coatings and thin films produced papers in the areas of coatings for use at high temperatures; hard coatings and deposition technologies; diamonds and related materials; tribological coatings/surface modifications; thin films for microelectronics and high temperature superconductors; optical coatings, film characterization, magneto-optics, and guided waves; and methods for characterizing films and modified surfaces.

  8. Optical and electrical properties of thin superconducting films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covington, Billy C.; Jing, Feng Chen

    1990-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic techniques can provide a vital probe of the superconducting energy gap which is one of the most fundamental physical properties of superconductors. Currently, the central questions regarding the optical properties of superconductors are how the energy gap can be measured by infrared techniques and at which frequency the gap exists. An effective infrared spectroscopic method to investigate the superconducting energy gap, Eg, was developed by using the Bomem DA 3.01 Fourier Transformation Spectrophotometer. The reflectivity of a superconducting thin film of YBaCuO deposited on SrTiO3 was measured. A shoulder was observed in the superconducting state reflectance R(sub S) at 480/cm. This gives a value of Eg/kT(sub c) = 7.83, where k is the Boltzmann constant and T(sub c) is the superconducting transition temperature, from which, it is suggested that YBaCuO is a very strong coupling superconductor.

  9. Nonlinear microwave response of MgB2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, James C.; Leong, K. T.; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, J. H.; Oh, B.; Lee, H. N.; Moon, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    Thin films of the recently discovered superconductor MgB2 show promise for a number of different electronic applications. In order to evaluate the suitability of this new material for communication applications at microwave frequencies, we have measured both the linear and nonlinear microwave response of ex situ fabricated thin films of MgB2 on sapphire substrates patterned into coplanar-waveguide (CPW) transmission lines. Linear measurements yield the surface resistance and absolute value of the penetration depth, as well as the characteristic impedance of our MgB2 transmission lines. The nonlinear response of the same transmission lines was then measured by harmonic generation. Assuming that the measured nonlinear response is due to kinetic inductance effects, we were able to directly determine the relevant pair-breaking current density in our MgB2 thin films by combining results from our linear and nonlinear measurements. Because the resulting pair-breaking current density is an intrinsic material property independent of sample geometry, we can quantitatively compare the nonlinear responses of MgB2 thin films and YBa2Cu3O7-dgr (YBCO) thin films at comparable reduced temperatures. We find that for sufficiently low reduced temperatures the pair-breaking current density in MgB2 thin films rivals that in YBCO. Contribution of an agency of the U.S. government, not subject to copyright.

  10. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  11. Morphology of Microscopic Thin Rubber Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    2014-03-01

    Microscopic thin rubber films have been prepared using photolithographic methods. Thin films of low molecular weight polybutadiene have been spun cast on positive photoresists, and transferred to various substrates upon UV exposure for crosslinking and defining the lateral dimension. The morphological scaling of thin rubber films as a function of film dimension and temperature is discussed.

  12. Epitaxial gadolinium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, J. W.; Mennig, J.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2007-02-05

    GdN thin films are deposited on MgO(100) by low-energy ion-beam-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy at elevated temperatures. Elemental analysis by secondary-ion mass spectrometry proves that a protective layer is imperative to avoid oxidation of the GdN films in air. In situ surface structural investigation of the growing GdN films by reflection high-energy electron diffraction reveals epitaxial film growth. This result is confirmed by x-ray diffraction structure and texture analysis. Accordingly, the GdN films on MgO(100) exhibit cube-on-cube epitaxy. Due to the epitaxial growth the crystalline quality of the films is by far higher than that of films previously reported of in literature.

  13. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

  14. New technique for measuring the microwave penetration depth in high- Tc superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durusoy, H. Z.; Akta?, B.; Yilgin, R.; Terada, N.; Ichikawa, M.; Kaneda, T.; Tagirov, L. R.

    2000-07-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique has been used to obtain the microwave (MW) penetration depth in high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin film. An FMR-signal-generating thin permalloy film was sandwiched in between of two YBa 2Cu 3O 7 films to probe the MW field penetrating through the films. Below the superconducting transition temperature Tc the HTSC films started to screen the marker inside the sandwich. The low-temperature saturation value ? ab?1250 at 25 K has been deduced for our c-axis films from the temperature dependence of the FMR signal intensity below Tc.

  15. Drop dynamics on a thin film: Thin film rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Kim, Pilnam; Stone, Howard A.

    2011-11-01

    The spreading of a water drop on an oil film that covers a solid substrate is a common event in many industrial processes. We study in experiments the dynamics of a water drop on a thin silicone oil film and quantify its interaction with the solid substrate that supports the film. The oil film becomes unstable and ruptures for solids that are hydrophilic. We determine the ``waiting time,'' the time it takes the water drop to drain the silicone film. This timescale is found to highly depend on how well water wets the solid, illustrating the interplay between intermolecular and hydrodynamic forces in the phenomenon. A phase diagram for the thin film stability is extracted based on waters equilibrium contact angle on the solid, which shows that we can either promote or inhibit de-wetting. As water comes in direct contact with the solid, it spreads and peels off the silicone film. We show the influence of viscosity, equilibrium contact angle and film height on the opening radius of the hole formed as the solid de-wets.

  16. Drying of thin colloidal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  17. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  18. Thin films under chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  20. Characterization of sculptured thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Joseph V.; Horn, Mark; Lakhtakia, Ashlesh; Pantano, C. G.

    2004-05-11

    Physical vapor deposition can be used to synthesize sculptured thin films with high surface areas. Highly directional vapor deposition onto a tilted, rotating substrate has been shown to produce nanostructured materials with controlled columnar features, including zig-zag, cusp, chevron, and helical geometries. Nanoporous coatings such as these are desirable for optical sensing applications due to their accessible high surface area, but few techniques are available to quantify the surface area of thin films. Electron beam and thermal evaporation techniques are used to synthesize highly porous thin films from silicon dioxide and a germanium antimony selenide chalcogenide glass in order to explore their potential for optical applications in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. Characterization has been performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained with a quartz crystal microbalance. It is shown that surface area can be increased up to 375 times that of a flat film by deposition at oblique angles. A nitrogen adsorption technique is introduced as a means to examine the porosity of sculptured thin films at a nanoscale.

  1. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  2. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more »With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  3. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  4. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  5. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  6. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  7. Microwave response of high transition temperature superconducting thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix Antonio

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the microwave response of YBa2Cu3O(7 - delta), Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O high transition temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films by performing power transmission measurements. These measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 300 K to 20 K and at frequencies within the range of 30 to 40 GHz. Through these measurements we have determined the magnetic penetration depth (lambda), the complex conductivity (sigma(sup *) = sigma(sub 1) - j sigma(sub 2)) and the surface resistance (R(sub s)). An estimate of the intrinsic penetration depth (lambda approx. 121 nm) for the YBa2Cu3O(7 - delta) HTS has been obtained from the film thickness dependence of lambda. This value compares favorably with the best values reported so far (approx. 140 nm) in single crystals and high quality c-axis oriented thin films. Furthermore, it was observed that our technique is sensitive to the intrinsic anisotropy of lambda in this superconductor. Values of lambda are also reported for Bi-based and Tl-based thin films. We observed that for the three types of superconductors, both sigma(sub 1) and sigma(sub 2) increased when cooling the films below their transition temperature. The measured R(sub s) are in good agreement with other R(sub S) values obtained using resonant activity techniques if we assume a quadratic frequency dependence. Our analysis shows that, of the three types of HTS films studied, the YBa2Cu3O(7 - delta) thin film, deposited by laser ablation and off-axis magnetron sputtering are the most promising for microwave applications.

  8. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  9. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  10. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  11. Thermopower of thin iron films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Randy; Schrder, Klaus

    1992-02-01

    Thin iron films were prepared by evaporation in a high vacuum system (pressure in the 10 -5 MPa range). The thermopower was measured in situ near room temperature as a function of film thickness. Iron films with rather high resistivity values showed a strong thickness effect of the Seeback coefficient, S, with the difference between S (bulk) and S (film) reaching values of up to (193) ?V/K for a sample 5 nm thick. The difference between S (bulk) and S (film) decreased with increasing d values. However, a sample with a resistance value of 50 ?? cm at d = 5 n had an S value which differed by less than 3 ?V/K from S (bulk).

  12. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  13. Phase Coarsening in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. G.; Glicksman, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    Phase coarsening (Ostwald ripening) phenomena are ubiquitous in materials growth processes such as thin film formation. The classical theory explaining late-stage phase coarsening phenomena was developed by Lifshitz and Slyozov, and by Wagner in the 1960s. Their theory is valid only for a vanishing volume fraction of the second phase in three dimensions. However, phase coarsening in two-dimensional systems is qualitatively different from that in three dimensions. In this paper, the many-body concept of screening length is reviewed, from which we derive the growth law for a `screened' phase island, and develop diffusion screening theory for phase coarsening in thin films. The coarsening rate constant, maximum size of phase islands in films, and their size distribution function will be derived from diffusion screening theory. A critical comparison will be provided of prior coarsening concepts and improvements derived from screening approaches.

  14. Ferroelectric potassium niobate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Lamppa, D.L.; Tissot, R.G.; Yio, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We report on the first ferroelectric measurements of chemically prepared KNbO/sub 3/ thin films. Polycrystalline KNbO/sub 3/ thin films were fabricated by dip coating substrates with methanolic solutions of potassium hydroxide and niobium ethoxide. Perovskite KNbO/sub 3/ was obtained for both bulk gels and films by using 800/degree/C firing treatments. For films, the intermediate temperature processing schedule was critical for the complete conversion of low temperature phases to perovskite KNbO/sub 3/. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that properly processed films possessed the orthorhombic distortion of the perovskite structure at room temperature. In response to a 1 kHz, sinusoidal field of 300 kV/cm amplitude, we measured the following ferroelectric properties: (1) a remanent polarization of 4.5 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/, (2) a spontaneous polarization of 8.3 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/, and (3) a coercive field of 55 kV/cm.

  15. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  16. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  17. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  18. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  19. High-Temperature-Superconductor Films In Microwave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.; Chorey, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses recent developments in continuing research on fabrication and characterization of thin films of high-temperature superconducting material and incorporation of such films into microwave circuits. Research motivated by prospect of exploiting superconductivity to reduce electrical losses and thereby enhancing performance of such critical microwave components as ring resonators, filters, transmission lines, phase shifters, and feed lines in phased-array antennas.

  20. Growth and Structure of High-Temperature Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achutharaman, Vedapuram Sankar

    High temperature superconducting thin films with atomic scale perfection are required for technological applications and scientific studies on the mechanism of superconductivity. Ozone assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been shown to produce in-situ superconducting thin films. To obtain a well-controlled and reproducible process, some components such as the substrate heater and the substrate holder have to be designed to be compatible with high oxygen partial pressures. Also, to ensure precise stoichiometry and precipitate-free films, evaporation sources and temperature controllers have to be designed for better temperature stability. The investigation of the MBE process and the thin films grown by MBE are required to obtain a better understanding of the growth parameters such as the composition of the film, substrate surface structure, substrate temperature and ozone partial pressure. This can be obtained by dynamically monitoring the growth process by in-situ characterization techniques such as reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Intensity oscillations of the specular RHEED beam have been observed during the growth of RBa_2Cu_3 O_7 (R = Y,Dy) films on SrTiO _3. A model for the origin of these RHEED intensity oscillations will be proposed from extensive RHEED intensity studies. A mechanism for growth of these oxides by physical vapor deposition techniques such as MBE and pulsed laser deposition will also be developed. To verify both the models, the growth of the superconductors will be simulated by the Monte Carlo method and compared with experimental RHEED observations.

  1. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  2. Thin-Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy using a photovoltaic cell is called thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. One way to make this an efficient process is to have the thermal energy source be an efficient selective emitter of radiation. The emission must be near the band-gap energy of the photovoltaic cell. One possible method to achieve an efficient selective emitter is the use of a thin film of rare-earth oxides. The determination of the efficiency of such an emitter requires analysis of the spectral emittance of the thin film including scattering and reflectance at the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Emitter efficiencies (power emitted in emission band/total emitted power) in the range 0.35-0.7 are predicted. There is an optimum optical depth to obtain maximum efficiency. High emitter efficiencies are attained only for low (less than 0.05) substrate emittance values, both with and without scattering. The low substrate emittance required for high efficiency limits the choice of substrate materials to highly reflective metals or high-transmission materials such as sapphire.

  3. Magneto-optical observation of dynamic relaxation in ? thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka, M. R.; Johansen, T. H.; Bratsberg, H.; P, L.; Shen, Y.; Vase, P.

    1997-12-01

    Using magneto-optical visualization of the flux in superconductors, the dependence of the flux distributions on the rate of sweep of the external magnetic field 0953-8984/9/49/010/img8 (`dynamic relaxation') is directly observed for 0953-8984/9/49/010/img9 thin films patterned into small rectangles. The differences in the flux patterns are clearly detectable especially when the sample is not fully penetrated. Various ways of analysing the flux patterns in order to determine the dynamic relaxation rate Q quantitatively from the magneto-optical images are discussed.

  4. Preparation of thin ceramic films via an aqueous solution route

    DOEpatents

    Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A new chemical method of forming thin ceramic films has been developed. An aqueous solution of metal nitrates or other soluble metal salts and a low molecular weight amino acid is coated onto a substrate and pyrolyzed. The amino acid serves to prevent precipitation of individual solution components, forming a very viscous, glass-like material as excess water is evaporated. Using metal nitrates and glycine, the method has been demonstrated for zirconia with various levels of yttria stabilization, for lanthanum-strontium chromites, and for yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductors on various substrates.

  5. Upper critical field of niobium nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyutin, M. A.; Kuz'michev, N. D.; Shilkin, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    The temperature dependences of the superconducting transition of niobium nitride (NbN) thin films have been investigated via the first harmonic of the voltage in dc magnetic fields of up to 8 T. The temperature dependence of the second critical field of NbN has been determined. The parameter responsible for the effect of spin paramagnetism in this material and the temperature dependence of the upper critical field that describes well the experimental data have been found in terms of the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) theory. The key parameters of the superconductor have been estimated from the transport and optical measurements.

  6. Large area magneto-optical investigations of YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, M.; Schey, B.; Biegel, W.; Stritzker, B.; Eisenmenger, J.; Leiderer, P.

    1999-03-01

    A new apparatus for magneto-optical investigations of high temperature superconducting (HTS) films as large as 2020 cm2 is presented. With this equipment flux penetration of an external magnetic field into YBCO thin films has been studied by scanning the samples through an inhomogeneous magnetic field (magneto-optical scanning technique, MOST). The normal penetration of magnetic flux into a superconductor will be changed drastically in the presence of defects. The apparatus was constructed to realize an effective quality control of large area HTS thin films used for device fabrication. With this technique, a visualization of flux pattern in superconducting films larger than 11 cm2 is presented for the first time. The results are compared to inductive jc measurements as well as to micrographs [optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] and show that also in the large area characterization the magneto-optical method is very sensitive to microstructural defects impairing the critical current density, which is the relevant parameter for an application of the superconducting thin films. Moreover, it could be shown that MOST has appreciable advantages compared to inductive jc scans and microscopy (OM, SEM). In particular it is possible to observe defects, which are below the optical resolution of the MOST setup.

  7. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah; Mansour, Hazim Louis

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  8. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  9. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: (a) coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming material possessing the capability of being sintered; and (b) irradiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed. 4 figs.

  10. A thin film nitinol heart valve.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Lenka L; Levi, Daniel S; Carman, Gregory P

    2005-11-01

    In order to create a less thrombogenic heart valve with improved longevity, a prosthetic heart valve was developed using thin film nitinol (NiTi). A "butterfly" valve was constructed using a single, elliptical piece of thin film NiTi and a scaffold made from Teflon tubing and NiTi wire. Flow tests and pressure readings across the valve were performed in vitro in a pulsatile flow loop. Bio-corrosion experiments were conducted on untreated and passivated thin film nitinol. To determine the material's in vivo biocompatibility, thin film nitinol was implanted in pigs using stents covered with thin film NiTi. Flow rates and pressure tracings across the valve were comparable to those through a commercially available 19 mm Perimount Edwards tissue valve. No signs of corrosion were present on thin film nitinol samples after immersion in Hank's solution for one month. Finally, organ and tissue samples explanted from four pigs at 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after thin film NiTi implantation appeared without disease, and the thin film nitinol itself was without thrombus formation. Although long term testing is still necessary, thin film NiTi may be very well suited for use in artificial heart valves. PMID:16438227

  11. Numerical modeling of thin film optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topasna, Daniela M.; Topasna, Gregory A.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films are an important and sometimes essential component in many optical and electrical devices. As part of their studies in optics, students receive a basic grounding in the propagation of light through thin films of various configurations. Knowing how to calculate the transmission and reflection of light of various wavelengths through thin film layers is essential training that students should have. We present exercises where students use Mathcad to numerically model the transmission and reflection of light from various thin film configurations. By varying the number of layers and their optical parameters, students learn how to adjust the transmission curves in order to tune particular filters to suit needed applications.

  12. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  13. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  14. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  15. Electroactive controlled release thin films

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kris C.; Zacharia, Nicole S.; Schmidt, Daniel J.; Wrightman, Stefani N.; Andaya, Brian J.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2008-01-01

    We present the fabrication of nanoscale electroactive thin films that can be engineered to undergo remotely controlled dissolution in the presence of a small applied voltage (+1.25 V) to release precise quantities of chemical agents. These films, which are assembled by using a nontoxic, FDA-approved, electroactive material known as Prussian Blue, are stable enough to release a fraction of their contents after the application of a voltage and then to restabilize upon its removal. As a result, it is possible to externally trigger agent release, exert control over the relative quantity of agents released from a film, and release multiple doses from one or more films in a single solution. These electroactive systems may be rapidly and conformally coated onto a wide range of substrates without regard to size, shape, or chemical composition, and as such they may find use in a host of new applications in drug delivery as well as the related fields of tissue engineering, medical diagnostics, and chemical detection. PMID:18272499

  16. An Ultra-Thin Molecular Superconductor Made from Charge Transfer Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Kendal; Hassenien, A.; Khan, S.; Braun, K.-F.; Tanaka, H.; Hla, S.-W.

    2010-03-01

    A class of charge transfer molecular systems having a D2A arrangement (D = donor, A = accepter) exhibit superconductivity in the bulk and are often termed ``unusual superconductors'' based on the different nature of their superconducting states as compared to convention BCS superconductors. In this study we have formed an ultra-thin (BETS)2-GaCl4 molecular superconductor consisting of a single sheet of layered molecules composed of individual GaCl4 sandwiched between the chains of a double domino stacked BETS on a Ag(111) surface. Amazingly, the superconducting gap can still be detected in such an ultra-thin molecular layer, and the shape of the gap reveals a d-wave pairing symmetry. Moreover, real space STM spectroscopic images provide direct evidence of the superconducting site as the BETS chains. In stark contrast to the high Tc superconductors, the spectroscopic maps clearly display nanoscale electronic order indicating robust superconducting properties at this extreme spatial limit..

  17. Photoluminescence study of Cupric Telluride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyvasagam, K.; Muralidharan, G.; Vasu, V.; Soundararajan, N.

    2008-04-01

    Thin films of Cupric Telluride (CuTe) of thickness from 50 nm to 150 nm have been prepared by thermal evaporation technique onto well-cleaned glass substrates kept at 300 K under the vacuum better than 210-5 mbar. After annealing the deposited films at 375 K for one-hour, the photoluminescence spectra of CuTe thin film was recorded. The X ray diffraction analysis confirmed the composition and polycrystalline nature of CuTe films. The grain size of CuTe thin film, estimated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, is around 40 nm. From Photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission peak at visible range was observed for all the films. Further a shift in the peak position was observed for the CuTe thin films of 150 nm thickness. The observed PL spectra were attributed to confinement effect.

  18. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  19. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  20. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  1. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  2. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  3. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  4. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldner, R. B.; Arntz, F. O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T. E.; Wong, K. K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P. C.

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community.

  5. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics.

    PubMed

    Parkes, D E; Shelford, L R; Wadley, P; Hol, V; Wang, M; Hindmarch, A T; van der Laan, G; Campion, R P; Edmonds, K W; Cavill, S A; Rushforth, A W

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications. PMID:23860685

  6. Preparation and Characterization of PZT Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Sreemany, M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; Sen, Suchitra; Halder, S. K.

    2008-07-29

    In analogy with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors (PWAS), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films also seem to be promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) due to a number of reasons. Firstly, PZT thin films with well oriented domains show enhanced piezoelectric response. Secondly, PWAS requires comparatively large voltage leading to a demand for thin PZT films (<< {mu}m in thickness) for low voltage operation at {<=}10 V. This work focuses on two different aspects: (a) growing oriented PZT thin films in ferroelectric perovskite phase in the range of (80-150) nm thickness on epitaxial Si/Pt without a seed layer and (b) synthesizing perovskite phase in PZT thin films on Corning glass 1737 using a seed layer of TiO{sub x} (TiO{sub x} thickness ranging between 30 nm to 500 nm)

  7. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, D. E.; Shelford, L. R.; Wadley, P.; Hol, V.; Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; van der Laan, G.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Cavill, S. A.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications. PMID:23860685

  8. Tin disulfide thin films via soft chalcogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Zafer; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-09-01

    Tin disulfide displays a wide range of attractive physical and chemical properties and are potentially important for various device applications including nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, as well as energy conversion. Here, we report on the largescale synthesis of tin disulfide granular thin films on silicon dioxide substrates by soft chalcogenization method in which the pre-deposited tin thin films are transformed into tin disulfide thin films via exposure to sulfur vapor. The obtained tin disulfide films have been comprehensively characterized to study their fundamental properties in detail by using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microcopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as telephone cord buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  10. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  11. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  12. Weakly superconducting, thin-film structures as radiation detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements were taken with weakly superconducting quantum structures of the Notarys-Mercereau type, representing a thin superconductor film with a short region that is weakened in the sense that its transition temperature is lower than in the remaining portion of the film. The structure acts as a superconducting relaxation oscillator in which the supercurrent increases with time until the critical current of the weakened section is attained, at which moment the supercurrent decays and the cycle repeats. Under applied radiation, a series of constant-voltage steps appears in the current-voltage curve, and the size of the steps varies periodically with the amplitude of applied radiation. Measurements of the response characteristics were made in the frequency range of 10 to 450 MHz.

  13. Casimir Force Between Thin Metallic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Iannuzzi, Davide; Capasso, Federico

    2004-03-01

    We have measured the Casimir force between thin metallic films. As the thickness of a metallic film approaches the skin depth, the properties of the system are no longer those of the bulk material. In this study, we focus on how such changes in the boundary conditions of a system affect the Casimir force. We use a microelectromechanical system with a polysilicon plate that acts as a torsional device and measure the attractive force between the plate and a sphere, both of which are coated with a metallic film. The Casimir force for spheres coated with a thick metallic film is compared to the force for those with a thin film.

  14. Titanium oxide thin film gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komem, Y.; Ankonina, G.; Rothschild, A.; Im, J. S.; Chung, U.-J.

    2007-12-01

    Solid-state gas sensors based on metal-oxide thin films offer unique advantages such as compatibility with microfabrication processes and stability at high temperatures and under harsh conditions. At the same time, the sensitivity and selectivity of metal oxide sensors should be improved to compete with alternative technologies. This paper describes titanium oxide thin films for gas sensors. Titanium oxide is particularly attractive due to its high dielectric constant, which leads to extended gas-modulated space charge effects well into the filmresulting in high sensitivity, as well as for its compatibility with Si-based microprocessing technologies. The sensing properties of polycrystalline titanium oxide films (~70 nm thick) deposited having small grain size (tens of nanometers), are described. A unique technique, using laser-induced melting and solidification of the films, that enables controlling the grain size in thin films will be discussed as a method to study grain size effects on sensing properties of titanium oxide films.

  15. Infrared radiation of thin plastic films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, C. L.; Chan, C. K.; Cunnington, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is presented for infrared radiation characteristics of thin plastic films with and without a metal substrate. On the basis of the thin-film analysis, a simple analytical technique is developed for determining band-averaged optical constants of thin plastic films from spectral normal transmittance data for two different film thicknesses. Specifically, the band-averaged optical constants of polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide were obtained from transmittance measurements of films with thicknesses in the range of 0.25 to 3 mil. The spectral normal reflectance and total normal emittance of the film side of singly aluminized films are calculated by use of optical constants; the results compare favorably with measured values.

  16. Thin spray film thickness measuring technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G.; Kurtz, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Thin spray film application depths, in the 0.0002 cm to 0.002 cm range, are measured by portable, commercially available, light density measuring device used in conjunction with glass plate or photographic film. Method is automated by using mechanical/electrical control for shutting off film applicator at desired densitometer reading.

  17. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  18. Primary research efforts on exploring the commercial possibilities of thin film growth and materials purification in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The progress made on research programs in the 1987 to 1988 year is reported. The research is aimed at producing thin film semiconductors and superconductor materials in space. Sophisticated vacuum chambers and equipment were attained for the epitaxial thin film growth of semiconductors, metals and superconductors. In order to grow the best possible epitaxial films at the lowest possible temperatures on earth, materials are being isoelectronically doped during growth. It was found that isoelectrically doped film shows the highest mobility in comparison with films grown at optimal temperatures. Success was also attained in growing epitaxial films of InSb on sapphire which show promise for infrared sensitive devices in the III-V semiconductor system.

  19. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    SciTech Connect

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  20. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  1. Flux-Flow noise in YBCO thin films in the normal region, transition and superconducting state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Paula; Castro, Hector

    2008-03-01

    The dynamic of vortexes inside type II superconductor thin films in the mixed state, that is, under their critical temperature and immersed in a DC magnetic field below its critical value, can be studied by means of the measurement of flux-flow noise, before the transition, during it and in the superconducting state. We measure the fluctuation in the voltage signal in the pseudogap region for an YCaBaCuO thin film, and compare it with the response in the other two regions. The response for overdoped and underdoped samples is compared with the response of optimaldoped samples.

  2. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  3. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  4. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  5. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  6. Sensing using nanostructured metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriakidis, G.; Dovinos, D.; Suchea, M.

    2006-10-01

    Metal oxides gas sensing properties particularly for In IIO 3 and ZnO nanostructures and nanostructured thin films are reviewed. Fabrication methods for these most commonly used metal oxides are presented, followed by a study on how growth techniques lead to nanostructures and nanostructured polycrystalline films with surface features of nanometer scale for film thickness bellow 1?m. The study continues with a discussion on how, a broad range of morphological parameters, affect the thin film response to various gases. After an overview, the study focus on thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition in different growth conditions. In IIO 3 and ZnO thin films prepared for ozone sensing exhibit resistivity changes of five to eight orders of magnitude at room temperature after exposure to UV light and subsequent ozone treatment. Structural properties, i.e., crystallinity and microstructure investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are studied. The nanostructure and nanostructured surfaces are highly controlled by the deposition parameters, which, control the transport properties, and thus the sensing characteristics as measured by conductometric techniques. Analyses on the sensing response of nanostructures and nanostructured In IIO 3 and ZnO films for different gases are presented. Experiments on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices based on In IIO 3 and ZnO thin films fabricated on LiNbO3 substrates indicate the capability of achieving sensing levels in the low ppb range.

  7. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  8. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Tucson, AZ); Moravsky, Alexander P. (Tucson, AZ); Hassen, Charles N. (Tucson, AZ)

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  9. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  10. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  11. Resonant Andreev Spectroscopy in normal-Metal/thin-Ferromagnet/Superconductor Device: Theory and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Francesco; Giubileo, Filippo; Citro, Roberta; di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Attanasio, Carmine; Cirillo, Carla; Polcari, Albino; Romano, Paola

    2015-12-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe the transport properties of normal-metal/thin-ferromagnet/superconductor device. We perform experimental test of the model using a gold tip on PdNi/Nb bilayer. The resonant proximity effect causes conductance features very sensitive to the local ferromagnetic properties, enabling accurate measurement of polarization and thickness of the ferromagnet by point contact spectroscopy.

  12. Advances in CZTS thin films and nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N.; Ahmed, R.; Bakhtiar-Ul-Haq; Shaari, A.

    2015-06-01

    Already published data for the optical band gap (Eg) of thin films and nanostructured copper zinc tin sulphide (CZTS) have been reviewed and combined. The vacuum (physical) and non-vacuum (chemical) processes are focused in the study for band gap comparison. The results are accumulated for thin films and nanostructured in different tables. It is inferred from the re- view that the nanostructured material has plenty of worth by engineering the band gap for capturing the maximum photons from solar spectrum.

  13. Thin-film reliability and engineering overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability and engineering technology base required for thin film solar energy conversions modules is discussed. The emphasis is on the integration of amorphous silicon cells into power modules. The effort is being coordinated with SERI's thin film cell research activities as part of DOE's Amorphous Silicon Program. Program concentration is on temperature humidity reliability research, glass breaking strength research, point defect system analysis, hot spot heating assessment, and electrical measurements technology.

  14. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  15. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  16. Combinatorial Arc Plasma Deposition of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Seiichi; Yamauchi, Ryusuke; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new combinatorial thin film deposition process that uses arc plasma [combinatorial arc plasma deposition (CAPD)]. The major goal of CAPD in this study is to search for new compositions of amorphous thin film alloys. CAPD uses three cathodic arc plasma guns and the guns shoot the pulse like plasma one by one at a specific time interval. The plasma from each gun is guided onto a substrate by a magnetic field at a specific area on the substrate so as to deposit a compositionally-graded thin film. The deposited thin film is separated into 1,089 samples (the size of each is 1 1 mm2) by a trench grid on the substrate. The samples together are called the thin film library and all samples are numbered by the 5-bit row and column marks in the grid. To prove CAPD, a thin film library of a Pd-Cu-Si alloy system was deposited. The composition and non crystallinity of 180 samples were evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX) and imaging-plate X-ray diffractometer (IP-XRD), respectively. Both measurements were performed without detaching the samples from the library. Analysis of 180 samples showed a graded composition, and some of the samples were shown to be amorphous.

  17. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.

  18. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.…

  19. Thin transparent films formed from powdered glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Glass film less than five mils thick is formed from powdered glass dispersed in an organic liquid, deposited on a substrate, and fused into place. The thin films can be cut and shaped for contact lenses, optical filters and insulating layers.

  20. Thin films, asphaltenes, and reservoir wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, R.; Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1993-04-01

    Reservoir wettability impacts the success of oil recovery by waterflooding and other methods. To understand wettability and its alteration, thin-film forces in solid-aqueous-oil systems must be elucidated. Upon rupture of thick aqueous films separating the oil and rock phases, asphaltene components in the crude oil adsorb irreversibly on the solid surface, changing it from water-wet to oil-wet. Conditions of wettability alteration can be found by performing adhesion tests, in which an oil droplet is brought into contact with a solid surface. Exceeding a critical capillary pressure destabilizes the film, causing spontaneous film rupture to a molecularly adsorbed layer and oil adhesion accompanied by pinning at the three-phase contact line. The authors conduct adhesion experiments similar to those of Buckley and Morrow and simultaneously examine the state of the underlying thin film using optical microscopy and microinterferometry. Aqueous thin films between an asphaltic Orcutt crude oil and glass surfaces are studied as a function of aqueous pH and salinity. For the first time, they prove experimentally that strongly water-wet to strongly oil-wet wettability alteration and contact-angle pinning occur when thick aqueous films thin to molecularly adsorbed films and when the oil phase contains asphaltene molecules.

  1. RF surface resistance of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The excitement engendered by the discovery of the new T sub c oxide superconductors has led to much speculation about practical applications of thin films of these materials in digital and analog electronic devices. Most of these envisioned applications involve high frequency signals for which a detailed knowledge of the surface impedance of the novel superconductors is very important. We have measured the surface resistance of thin films of YBaCuO in the frequency range 0.5 less than f less than 17 GHz using a stripline-resonator method. The stripline procedure also was used to measure the surface resistance of high quality gold and aluminum films; the resistance values obtained agree with values predicted from the measured dc resistance using the Pippard formalism for the anomalous skin effect. The YBaCuO were produced by a multilayer deposition process. The films are formed by e-beam evaporation of 24 layers of Y, Ba, and Cu. Films with the highest transition temperature were obtained using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. After deposition, the films are transferred to a furnace where they are annealed in flowing O2 at 850 C for 2h. The furnace then is turned off and allowed to cool to 100 C in about 16 h. Auger profiling of the films made by this process shows that the concentrations of Y, Ba, Cu, and O are uniform to within 1 percent throughout the thickness of the film.

  2. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  3. Induced electronic anisotropy in bismuth thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Albert D.; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Li, Mingda; Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-08-11

    We use magneto-resistance measurements to investigate the effect of texturing in polycrystalline bismuth thin films. Electrical current in bismuth films with texturing such that all grains are oriented with the trigonal axis normal to the film plane is found to flow in an isotropic manner. By contrast, bismuth films with no texture such that not all grains have the same crystallographic orientation exhibit anisotropic current flow, giving rise to preferential current flow pathways in each grain depending on its orientation. Extraction of the mobility and the phase coherence length in both types of films indicates that carrier scattering is not responsible for the observed anisotropic conduction. Evidence from control experiments on antimony thin films suggests that the anisotropy is a result of bismuth's large electron effective mass anisotropy.

  4. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, Akhil Gupta, Mukul Phase, D. M. Reddy, V. R. Gupta, Ajay

    2014-04-24

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mssbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  5. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  6. Determination of Young's modulus of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, an improved vibrating-reed method is described for determining Young's modulus of thin films deposited on both sides of a substrate. This technique consists of measuring the resonant frequency of a cantilever composite beam obtained by coating both sides of a substrate. The calculation procedure is presented to evaluate the film modulus from sample geometry, material density, and mechanical resonant frequency. For accurate determination of resonant frequency, the phase angle between the exciting and vibration signals is analyzed. Using the proposed technique, Young's modulus of ZrO[sub 2] thin films is calculated, obtaining a value in agreement with literature data.

  7. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  8. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  9. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  10. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  11. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P. M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M. A.

    1991-12-01

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates (pc) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-pc's arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius Rc, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  12. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P.M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M.A. Center for Fundamental Materials Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 )

    1991-12-15

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates ({ital p}{sub {ital c}}) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-{ital p}{sub {ital c}}'s arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius {ital R}{sub {ital c}}, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  13. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOEpatents

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  14. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Manoj A.; Tadvani, Jalil K.; Sze Tung, Wing; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A.

    2010-06-01

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  15. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  16. Interferometry of thick and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Interferometry is now an established technique for the measurement of surface topography. It has the capability of combining sub-nanometre resolution. A very useful extension to its capability is the ability to measure thick and thin films on a local scale. For films with thicknesses in excess of 1-2μm (depending on refractive index), the SWLI interaction with the film leads simply the formation of two localised fringes, each corresponding to a surface interface. It is relatively trivial to locate the positions of these two envelope maxima and therefore determine the film thickness, assuming the refractive index is known. For thin films (with thicknesses ~20nm to ~2μm, again depending on the index), the SWLI interaction leads to the formation of a single interference maxima. In this context, it is appropriate to describe the thin film structure in terms of optical admittances; it is this regime that is addressed through the introduction of a new function, the 'helical conjugate field' (HCF) function. This function may be considered as providing a 'signature' of the multilayer measured so that through optimization, the thin film multilayer may be determined on a local scale.

  17. Formation and investigation of nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabari, Ali

    Small devices, in the range of nanometers, are playing a major role in today's technology. The field of nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties, phenomena and processes due to their small nanoscale size. Researches more and more are finding that structural features in the range of about 1 to 100 nanometers behave quite differently than isolated molecules (1 nanometer) or bulk materials. For comparison, a 10 nanometer structure is 1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. The virtues of working in the nanodomain are increasingly recognized by the scientific community and discussed in the popular press. The use of such devices is expected to revolutionize our industries and lives. This work mainly focuses on the fabrication, characterization and discovery of new nanostructured thin films. This research consists of the design of a new high-deposition rate nanoparticle machine for depositing nanostructured films from beams of nanoparticles and investigation film's unique optical and physical properties. A high-deposition rate nanoparticle machine was designed, built and successfully tested. Different nanostructured thin films were deposited from Copper, Gold, Iron and Zirconium targets with the grain size of between 1 to 20 nm under different conditions. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed nanoscale grain size structures of deposited films. The optical properties of the nanostructured films deposited from copper, Iron and Zirconium targets were significantly different from optical properties of bulk and thin films. Zr, Cu and Fe films were transparent. Gold films revealed an epitaxial contact with the silicon substrate with interesting crystal structures. The new high-deposition rate nanoparticle machine was able to deposit new nanostructured films with different properties from bulk and thin films reported in the literatures.

  18. Evidence for spin mixing in holmium thin film and crystal samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, I. T. M.; Yates, K. A.; Moore, J. D.; Morrison, K.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Verhagen, T.; Aarts, J.; Zverev, V. I.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Witt, J. D. S.; Blamire, M. G.; Cohen, L. F.

    2011-04-01

    In a number of recent experiments, holmium has been shown to promote spin-triplet pairing when in proximity to a spin-singlet superconductor. The condition for the support of spin-triplet pairing is that the ferromagnet should have an inhomogeneous magnetic state at the interface with the superconductor. Here we use Andreev reflection spectroscopy to study the properties of single ferromagnet/superconductor interfaces formed of holmium and niobium, as a function of the contact resistance of the junction between them. We find that both single-crystal and c-axis-oriented thin-film holmium show unusual behavior for low junction contact resistance, characteristic of spin-mixing-type properties, which are thought necessary to underpin spin-triplet formation. We also explore whether this signature is observed when the junction is formed of Ni0.19Pd0.81 and niobium.

  19. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films.

    PubMed

    Henager, C H; Pawlewicz, W T

    1993-01-01

    The normal component of thin-film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride, silicon aluminum nitride, silicon aluminum oxynitride, silicon carbide, and for dielectricenhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO(2)/Si(3)N(4))(n) and Al(Al(2)O(3)/AlN)(n). Sputtered films of more conventional materials such as SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ta(2)O(5), Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin-film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film-substrate interface contribution is presented. PMID:20802666

  20. Electrochemical Analysis of Conducting Polymer Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Ritesh N.; Wang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers built via the layer-by-layer (LbL) method has been one of the most promising systems in the field of materials science. Layered structures can be constructed by the adsorption of various polyelectrolyte species onto the surface of a solid or liquid material by means of electrostatic interaction. The thickness of the adsorbed layers can be tuned precisely in the nanometer range. Stable, semiconducting thin films are interesting research subjects. We use a conducting polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV), in the preparation of a stable thin film via the LbL method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the ionic conductivity of the PPV multilayer films. The ionic conductivity of the films has been found to be dependent on the polymerization temperature. The film conductivity can be fitted to a modified Randle’s circuit. The circuit equivalent calculations are performed to provide the diffusion coefficient values. PMID:20480052

  1. Mesoscopically structured nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Drisko, Glenna L; Grosso, David; Boissiere, Cédric; Sanchez, Clement

    2014-11-01

    This review describes the main successful strategies that are used to grow mesostructured nanocrystalline metal oxide and SiO₂ films via deposition of sol-gel derived solutions. In addition to the typical physicochemical forces to be considered during crystallization, mesoporous thin films are also affected by the substrate-film relationship and the mesostructure. The substrate can influence the crystallization temperature and the obtained crystallographic orientation due to the interfacial energies and the lattice mismatch. The mesostructure can influence the crystallite orientation, and affects nucleation and growth behavior due to the wall thickness and pore curvature. Three main methods are presented and discussed: templated mesoporosity followed by thermally induced crystallization, mesostructuration of already crystallized metal oxide nanobuilding units and substrate-directed crystallization with an emphasis on very recent results concerning epitaxially grown piezoelectric structured α-quartz films via crystallization of amorphous structured SiO₂ thin films. PMID:25224841

  2. Gas jet deposition of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, B. L.; Schmitt, J. J.; Golz, J. W.; Di, Y.; Johnson, D. L.

    1991-06-01

    A novel approach to thin film deposition is presented, which combines supersonic gas jets with fast flow techniques for the "gas jet deposition" (GJD) of metal, semiconductor, oxide, nitride, and organic thin films. The vapor sources are supersonic jets, usually of helium and hydrogen, which convect condensible vapors to a wide range of substrates. Areas larger than the jet area can be coated by moving the substrate relative to the jet. GJD provides numerous advantages. The apparatus is simple and flexible, and requires only high-speed mechanical pumps rather than high-vacuum equipment with attendant long pumpdown times. The paper describes several kinds of GJD apparatus as well as examples of GJD films and applications. These include multilayer structures, oxide and eitride films, gold elelectron deposition on heat-sensitive piezoelectric plastic, and trapping of "guest" rhodamine dye molecules in silicon dioxide and nitride "host" films.

  3. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  4. Solvothermal annealing of block copolymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Gotrik, Kevin W; Ross, C A

    2013-11-13

    A two-stage annealing process for block copolymer films was introduced consisting of a solvent vapor exposure followed by a thermal cycle. By heating the film but not the chamber, changes in the ambient vapor pressure of the solvent were avoided. Films of block copolymers and homopolymers showed transient nonmonotonic swelling behavior immediately after solvent exposure that was dependent on how the thin film was cast before the anneal. Thermal cycling of the solvent-swelled block copolymer films during the solvent vapor anneal (SVA) caused the films to deswell in 1-10 s and produced well-ordered microdomains in templated 45.5 and 51.5 kg/mol polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane films annealed in toluene and n-heptane vapors for total process times of 30 s to 5 min. PMID:24083573

  5. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika; Rao, C. V. S.

    2011-01-15

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10{sup -5} Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness {approx}782 nm.

  6. Corrosion Behaviour of Sputtered Alumina Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, I. Neelakanta; Dey, Arjun; Sridhara, N.; Anoop, S.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Rani, R. Uma; Anandan, Chinnasamy; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Corrosion studies of sputtered alumina thin films grown on stainless steel (SS) 304 were carried out by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Noticeable changes were not observed in morphology and surface roughness of films after carrying out the corrosion test. Corrosion current density (icorr) of alumina coated SS decreased up to 10-10 A cm-2 while icorr value in the range of 10-5-10-6 A cm-2 was observed for bare SS. The direct sputtered film showed superior corrosion resistance behaviour than the reactive sputtered film. This might be attributed to the difference in thickness of the films sputtered by direct and reactive methods. The electronic structure of deposited alumina films was studied both before and after corrosion test by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique which also confirmed no structural changes of alumina film after exposing it to corrosive environment.

  7. Superconductivity in magnesium diboride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Malisa, A.; Johansson, L.-G.; Komissinski, P. V.

    2002-08-01

    Mg-B thin films were grown in situ on (1 0 0) SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Targets pressed from a commercial MgB 2 powder had a superconducting transition temperature of 37 K. Films were characterized by atomic force microscopy and susceptibility measurements. First samples showed superconducting onset at 30 K and became superconducting at about 20 K. Films were patterned into microbridges 4-100 ?m wide by Ar ion beam milling. Films had large contact resistances, of the order of 500 ? cm 2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K.

  8. Sputter deposition of zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, Loren Wellington

    Sputter deposition and characterization of ZnO thin films for application as a transparent conducting electrode has been studied. The effects of gas ambient upon annealed film properties, evolution of structural and electrical properties of very thin ZnO films, and the influence of negative ion resputtering on the thin film properties were investigated. For annealing sputter deposited ZnO thin films, the gas ambient in the quartz tube furnace was found to be a critical parameter for the resistivity of ZnO:Al thin films. Annealing films in forming gas (N2/H 2 90%/10%) at 400C for 60 minutes was found to reduce the resistivity of the films by up to two orders of magnitude with a minimum value of 2 x 10-3 Ocm. Optical measurements indicate an increase in carrier concentration is responsible for the decreased resistivity. The nucleation of ZnO:Al films on glass substrates occurs by the island (Volmer-Webber) mechanism. Films less than 1000 A thick were found to have higher resistivity due to decreased carrier concentration postulated to result from carrier depletion by chemisorbed oxygen. The minimum resistivity achieved was 4.3 x 10-3 Ocm at a film thickness of 1580 A. The effects of negative ion resputtering on the structural and electrical properties of deposited ZnO:Al films were evaluated. A model incorporating system geometry, deposition conditions, negative ion resputtering, and film thickness was developed to explain the structural and electrical properties of the deposited films. The model defines Regions I, II, and III, with the resistivity in Region I between 4.3 x 10-3 to 1.2 x 10-2 Ocm, a carrier concentration of between 7.2 x 1019 to 3.2 x 1020 cm-3, and mobilities of approximately 7 cm2/Vs. In Region II, the resistivity decreases to 1.5 x 10-3 Ocm, due to increased carrier concentrations of 5 x 1020 cm -3, while mobility remains near 7 cm2/Vs. For Region III resistivity increases to greater than 10 Ocm, due to carrier concentrations as low as 1.0 x 1019 cm -3, and mobilities as low as 1.5 cm2/Vs. Low carrier concentrations in Region I result from compensation by native defects created by negative ion resputtering, while low carrier concentrations in Region III result from chemisorbed oxygen species.

  9. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM); Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  10. Sequentially evaporated thin film YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconducting microwave ring resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrer, Norman J.; To, Hing Y.; Valco, George J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Chorey, Chris; Warner, Joseph D.

    1990-01-01

    There is great interest in the application of thin film high temperature superconductors in high frequency electronic circuits. A ring resonator provides a good test vehicle for assessing the microwave losses in the superconductor and for comparing films made by different techniques. Ring resonators made of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) have been investigated on LaAlO3 substrates. The superconducting thin films were deposited by sequential electron beam evaporation of Cu, Y, and BaF2 with a post anneal. Patterning of the superconducting film was done using negative photolithography. A ring resonator was also fabricated from a thin gold film as a control. Both resonators had a gold ground plane on the backside of the substrate. The ring resonators' reflection coefficients were measured as a function of frequency from 33 to 37 GHz at temperatures ranging from 20 K to 68 K. The resonator exhibited two resonances which were at 34.5 and 35.7 GHz at 68 K. The resonant frequencies increased with decreasing temperature. The magnitude of the reflection coefficients was in the calculation of the unloaded Q-values. The performance of the evaporated and gold resonator are compared with the performance of a laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-x) resonator. The causes of the double resonance are discussed.

  11. Heteroepitaxial film growth of layered compounds with the ZrCuSiAs-type and ThCr 2Si 2-type structures: From Cu-based semiconductors to Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    FeAs-based layered superconductors such as F-doped LaFeAsO have recently been investigated intensively because of their high superconducting transition temperatures. Epitaxial films of these compounds are important to examine their intrinsic materials properties as well as to transfer them to device applications. In this review, we first present our research route from transparent p-type oxides semiconductors to the Fe-based superconductors. Then we review growth of epitaxial thin films for the layered oxychalcogenides and oxypnictides. Reactive solid-phase epitaxy technique was inevitable to prepare epitaxial thin films of the oxychalcogenides and Zn-based oxypnictides. On the other hand, epitaxial thin films of Mn-based oxypnictides were grown by standard pulsed laser deposition. These techniques, however, did not grow epitaxial thin films for LaFeAsO. Thus, we developed a modified pulsed laser deposition process and succeeded in obtaining epitaxial thin films of FeAs-based superconductors, LaFeAsO and cobalt-doped SrFe 2As 2.

  12. Rapid thermal annealing of high T/sub c/ superconducting thin films formed by metalorganic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mantese, J.V.; Hamdi, A.H.; Micheli, A.L.; Chen, Y.L.; Wong, C.A.; Johnson, J.L.; Karmarkar, M.M.; Padmanabhan, K.R.

    1988-05-09

    Thin-film superconductors of Y-Ba-Cu and Yb-Ba-Cu have been formed by the nonvacuum method of metalorganic deposition (MOD). The films produced in this manner were homogeneous and free of voids and cracks over large dimensions. A two-step rapid thermal annealing of the MOD films, in oxygen, at 850 /sup 0/C for 60 s followed by a second annealing at 920 /sup 0/C for 30 s enhanced grain growth in the films and reduced the effects of substrate interaction. Preferred epitaxial grain growth, in the high T/sub c/ films, with the c axis both perpendicular and parallel to the substrate surface, occurred on <100> SrTiO/sub 3/. Both the Y-Ba-Cu and Yb-Ba-Cu films showed superconducting onset temperatures above 90 K and zero resistance at 86 K.

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of laser ablated YBa 2-xSr xCu 3O 7 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, C.; Slater, P. R.; Jones, M. O.; Asab, A.; Shaffery, P.; Gameson, I.; Edwards, P. P.; Sutton, S.; Wellhofer, F.; Woodall, P.

    1994-12-01

    A comparison of the Sr solubility limits in bulk YBa 2Cu 3O 7 and thin film YBa 2Cu 3O 7 has been made. Whereas for the former, single phase samples of YBa 2-xSr xCu 3O 7 are only formed for 0? x?1.0 the thin films show a higher solubility range, 0? x?1.6. Both the c parameter and T c decrease with increasing x, and the Sr content of the films has been confirmed by EDAX. These results demonstrate the potential of laser ablation for the synthesis of new and modified oxide superconductors.

  14. Crystallization of zirconia based thin films.

    PubMed

    Stender, D; Frison, R; Conder, K; Rupp, J L M; Scherrer, B; Martynczuk, J M; Gauckler, L J; Schneider, C W; Lippert, T; Wokaun, A

    2015-07-28

    The crystallization kinetics of amorphous 3 and 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ and 8YSZ) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), spray pyrolysis and dc-magnetron sputtering are explored. The deposited films were heat treated up to 1000 C ex situ and in situ in an X-ray diffractometer. A minimum temperature of 275 C was determined at which as-deposited amorphous PLD grown 3YSZ films fully crystallize within five hours. Above 325 C these films transform nearly instantaneously with a high degree of micro-strain when crystallized below 500 C. In these films the t'' phase crystallizes which transforms at T > 600 C to the t' phase upon relaxation of the micro-strain. Furthermore, the crystallization of 8YSZ thin films grown by PLD, spray pyrolysis and dc-sputtering are characterized by in situ XRD measurements. At a constant heating rate of 2.4 K min(-1) crystallization is accomplished after reaching 800 C, while PLD grown thin films were completely crystallized already at ca. 300 C. PMID:26119755

  15. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  16. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  17. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  18. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  19. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  20. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14.degree. half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  1. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  2. Nanostructures in thin film opto-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko?odziej, Andrzej; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Ko?odziej, Micha?

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations in the area of photovoltaics and microelectronics generated interest in thin-film technologies with nanostructural modifications. In this paper we concentrate on technological experiments, structure and composition control of the components of a thin silicon solar cell and opto-electonic devices. The results of high resolution electron microscopy and optical transmission and reflection analysis are presented. Additionally, the authors carried out theoretical calculations of scattering, absorption and reflection of the Ag nanoparticles located at the surface and also within the films on the absorber border.

  3. Borocarbide thin films and tunneling measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Iavarone, M.; Andreone, A.; Cassinese, A.; Dicapual, R.; giannil, L.; Vagliol, R.; DeWilde, Y.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-06-15

    The results obtained by their group in thin film fabrication and STM tunneling on superconducting borocarbides YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C have been be briefly reviewed. Results concerning the microwave surface impedance and the S/N planar junctions on LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C thin films have been also presented and analyzed. These new data unambiguously confirm the full BCS nature of the superconducting gap in borocarbides and the absence of significant pair-breaking effects in LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C.

  4. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  5. Resonant Andreev Spectroscopy in normal-Metal/thin-Ferromagnet/Superconductor Device: Theory and Application

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Francesco; Giubileo, Filippo; Citro, Roberta; Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Attanasio, Carmine; Cirillo, Carla; Polcari, Albino; Romano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe the transport properties of normal-metal/thin-ferromagnet/superconductor device. We perform experimental test of the model using a gold tip on PdNi/Nb bilayer. The resonant proximity effect causes conductance features very sensitive to the local ferromagnetic properties, enabling accurate measurement of polarization and thickness of the ferromagnet by point contact spectroscopy. PMID:26626046

  6. Resonant Andreev Spectroscopy in normal-Metal/thin-Ferromagnet/Superconductor Device: Theory and Application.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Francesco; Giubileo, Filippo; Citro, Roberta; Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Attanasio, Carmine; Cirillo, Carla; Polcari, Albino; Romano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe the transport properties of normal-metal/thin-ferromagnet/superconductor device. We perform experimental test of the model using a gold tip on PdNi/Nb bilayer. The resonant proximity effect causes conductance features very sensitive to the local ferromagnetic properties, enabling accurate measurement of polarization and thickness of the ferromagnet by point contact spectroscopy. PMID:26626046

  7. Stable freestanding thin films of pure water

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Je, J. H.; Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2008-03-10

    Obtaining water microstructures is very difficult because of low viscosity and high surface tension. We produced stable freestanding thin films of pure water by x-ray bombardment of small liquid volumes in capillary tubes. A detailed characterization with phase-contrast radiology demonstrated a lifetime beyond 1 h with no chemical stabilizer for micron-thickness films with half-millimeter-level diameter. This can be attributed to the interplay of two x-ray effects: water evaporation and surface charging.

  8. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  9. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Gary E.; Seraphin, Bernhard O.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  10. Bulk photoconductive gain in pentacene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Hegmann, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Bulk photoconductive gain greater than 16 is observed in pentacene thin films deposited onto coplanar interdigitated-electrode photodetector structures. The gain is highest at low light intensity but decreases at higher light intensity due to trap filling effects. The internal photogeneration quantum efficiency is found to be independent of wavelength below the absorption edge with the onset of photocurrent yield occurring at the absorption edge of the film.

  11. Unabridged phase diagram for single-phased FeSexTe1-x thin films

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jincheng; Yeoh, Wai Kong; Cui, Xiangyuan; Xu, Xun; Du, Yi; Shi, Zhixiang; Ringer, Simon P.; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-01-01

    A complete phase diagram and its corresponding physical properties are essential prerequisites to understand the underlying mechanism of iron-based superconductivity. For the structurally simplest 11 (FeSeTe) system, earlier attempts using bulk samples have not been able to do so due to the fabrication difficulties. Here, thin FeSexTe1-x films with the Se content covering the full range (0 ? x ? 1) were fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition method. Crystal structure analysis shows that all films retain the tetragonal structure in room temperature. Significantly, the highest superconducting transition temperature (TC = 20?K) occurs in the newly discovered domain, i.e., 0.6 ? x ? 0.8. The single-phased superconducting dome for the full Se doping range is the first of its kind in iron chalcogenide superconductors. Our results present a new avenue to explore novel physics as well as to optimize superconductors. PMID:25449669

  12. Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.

    1995-04-01

    Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation forces, e.g. microgravity - magnetic damping devices.

  13. Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation forces, e.g. microgravity - magnetic damping devices.

  14. Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T{sub c} superconducting YBCO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F.C.

    1995-04-01

    Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here the authors present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T{sub c} superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, the authors investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation.

  15. Patterned polarized fluorescence from a thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, G.; Sayyad, A.; Mataka, S.; Pau, S.

    2011-08-01

    Patterned polarized fluorescence from a thin film comprised of fluorescent dichroic dye dispersed in liquid crystalline polymer is demonstrated with features as small as 11 μm. Cooperative alignment of these fluorescent dichroic molecules in a liquid crystal polymer leads to films exhibiting polarized green, red, and yellow emission. The dichroic fluorescence emission ratios for these films are 10 to 16 depending on the type of the dye. This simple strategy could be utilized for generating large area linearly polarized light sources or electroluminescent displays.

  16. Cell patterning using microstructured ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Chen, Chia-Yi; Lee, Chiun-Peng; Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic cell patterning is demonstrated through controlling the micromagnetic states in microstructured ferromagnetic thin films. The number of magnetic nanoparticles entering the cells by endocytosis can be determined by magnetophoresis experiment and is found to be dependent of the cocultured extracellular magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. In zigzag magnetic films the effects of cell patterning differ for magnetic films at as-deposited state and at remanent states after applying fields in different directions. Remanent states of concentric rings are proposed for cell patterning. Cells can be arranged at any positions in sequence by selectively changing the magnetic field directions.

  17. Microstructural characterization in nanocrystalline ceramic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hakkwan

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the effects of process variables on microstructure in several fluoride and oxide thin films prepared by vapor deposition, in order to predict the properties and behaviors of nanocrystalline thin film materials. There are three distinct stages of this research. The first stage focuses on measuring of the porosity in polycrystalline thin films of a variety of fluorides as a function of the substrate temperature during deposition, and discussing the mechanism by which the porosity varies as a function of the process variables. We have measured the porosity in thin films of lithium fluoride (LiF), magnesium fluoride (MgF2), barium fluoride (BaF 2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a quartz crystal thickness monitor. The porosity is very sensitive to the substrate temperature and decreases as the substrate temperature increases. Consistent behavior is observed among all of the materials in this study. The second stage is to understand the film microstructure including grain growth and texture development, because these factors are known to influence the behavior and stability of polycrystalline thin films. This study focuses on grain growth and texture development in polycrystalline lithium fluoride thin films using dark field (DF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is demonstrated that we can isolate the size distribution of <111> surface normal grains from the overall size distribution, based on simple and plausible assumptions about the texture. The {111} texture formation and surface morphology were also observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and AFM, respectively. The grain size distributions become clearly bimodal as the annealing time increases, and we deduce that the short-time size distributions are also a sum of two overlapping peaks. The smaller grain-size peak in the distribution corresponds to the {111}-oriented grains which do not grow significantly, while all other grains increase in size with annealing time. A novel feature of the LiF films is that the {111} texture component strengthens with annealing, despite the absence of growth for these grains, through the continued nucleation of new grains. The third stage focuses on the evaluation of triple junction energy in nanocrystalline ZrO2 thin films. Grain boundaries and triple junctions are important aspects of the microstructure of most crystalline materials, and it is necessary to understand them to be able to predict the behavior of bulk polycrystals and polycrystalline thin films. Triple junctions, where three grains or grain boundaries meet, become increasingly important in nanocrystalline materials where they occupy an increasing fraction of the total volume of the material. It would therefore be of great significance to know whether, and if so how triple junction energy varies. In this study we evaluate triple junction energies in nanocrystalline ZrO2 thin films using thickness mapping images produced by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), which enable us to measure the surface topography associated with grain boundaries and triple junctions. In our films, the triple junction energy is deduced to be either zero (within the accuracy of the measurement) for most, but significantly positive for a few of the junctions.

  18. Internal friction of thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Photiadis, Douglas

    2003-03-01

    Thin metal films are vital part of variety of microelectromechanical systems for interconnects, storage, and drive/detection circuitries. However, these thin metal films, as commonly prepared, are highly disordered. The disorder could affect the electrical and mechanical properties of the film and the device, leading to poor performance. We have studied the internal friction of several monatomic metal films and metal alloy films at near room temperature. For most of those materials, the internal friction is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the thermoelastic loss limit in single crystalline silicon in the same frequency range. Some aluminum alloy films, which have low internal friction as bulk material, also show surprisingly low internal friction. This is attributed to dislocation pinning effect in these alloys. In general, the near room temperature internal friction is related to low temperature internal friction below 1K that we found earlier. A possible cause for the mechanical loss is related to dislocation motion in the films.

  19. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  20. Semiconductor cooling by thin-film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tick, P. A.; Vilcans, J.

    1970-01-01

    Thin-film, metal alloy thermocouple junctions do not rectify, change circuit impedance only slightly, and require very little increase in space. Although they are less efficient cooling devices than semiconductor junctions, they may be applied to assist conventional cooling techniques for electronic devices.

  1. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Shu, Longlong; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Maria, Jon-Paul; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2014-10-01

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 ?C/m at Curie temperature (28 C) and 17.44 ?C/m at 41 C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10-100 ?C/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  2. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130?nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5??C/m at Curie temperature (?28?C) and 17.44??C/m at 41?C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10100??C/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  3. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  4. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  5. Ferrite thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zaquine, I.; Benazizi, H.; Mage, J.C.

    1988-11-15

    Production of ferrite thin films is the key to integration of microwave ferrite devices (circulators for phased array antennas, for instance). The interesting materials are the usual microwave ferrites: garnets, lithium ferrites, barium hexaferrites. The required thicknesses are a few tens of micrometers, and it will be important to achieve high deposition rates. Different substrates can be used: silicon and alumina both with and without metallization. The films were deposited by rf sputtering from a single target. The as-deposited films are amorphous and therefore require careful annealing in oxygen atmosphere. The sputtered films are a few micrometers thick on 4 in. substrates. The optimum annealing temperature was found by trying to obtain the highest possible magnetization for each ferrite. The precision on the value of magnetization is limited by the precision on the thickness of the film. We obtain magnetization values slightly lower than the target's. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth was measured on toroids from 5 to 18 GHz.

  6. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  7. Deuterium storage in nanocrystalline magnesium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchetto, R.; Bazzanella, N.; Miotello, A.; Brusa, R. S.; Zecca, A.; Mengucci, A.

    2004-02-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium deuteride thin films with the ?-MgD2 structure were prepared by vacuum evaporation of hexagonal magnesium (h-Mg) samples and thermal annealing in 0.15 MPa D2 atmosphere at 373 K. Thermal desorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the rate-limiting step in the deuterium desorption was given by the thermal decomposition of the deuteride phase. The activation energy ?g of the ?-MgD2?h-Mg+D2 reaction scaled from 1.130.03 eV in 650-nm-thick films to 1.010.02 eV in 75-nm-thick films most likely as consequence of different stress and defect level. Positron annihilation spectroscopy analysis of the thin-film samples submitted to deuterium absorption and desorption cycles reveal the presence of a high concentration of void-like defects in the h-Mg layers after the very first decomposition of the ?-MgD2 phase, the presence of these open volume defects reduces the D2 absorption capacity of the h-Mg thin film.

  8. Multiferroic RMnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontcuberta, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials have received an astonishing attention in the last decades due to expectations that potential coupling between distinct ferroic orders could inspire new applications and new device concepts. As a result, a new knowledge on coupling mechanisms and materials science has dramatically emerged. Multiferroic RMnO3 perovskites are central to this progress, providing a suitable platform to tailor spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions. With views towards applications, the development of thin films of multiferroic materials have also progressed enormously and nowadays thin-film manganites are available, with properties mimicking those of bulk compounds. Here we review achievements on the growth of hexagonal and orthorhombic RMnO3 epitaxial thin films and the characterization of their magnetic and ferroelectric properties, we discuss some challenging issues, and we suggest some guidelines for future research and developments. En ce qui concerne les applications, le dveloppement de films minces de matriaux multiferroques a aussi normment progress, et de nos jours des films minces de manganites avec des proprits similaires celles des matriaux massifs existent. Nous passons en revue ici les rsultats obtenus dans le domaine de la croissance de couches minces pitaxis de RMnO3 hexagonal et orthorhombique et de la caractrisation de leurs proprits magntiques et ferrolectriques. Nous discutons certains enjeux et proposons quelques ides pour des recherches et dveloppements futurs.

  9. Fracture of nanoporous thin-film glasses.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Eric P; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2004-01-01

    Fracture of nanoporous thin-film glasses is a significant challenge for the integration of these mechanically fragile materials in emerging microelectronic and biological technologies. In particular, the integration of these materials has been limited by accelerated cracking rates in moist environments leading to premature failure. Here, we demonstrate how cracking is affected by aqueous solution chemistry, and reveal anomalously high crack-growth rates in hydrogen peroxide solutions frequently encountered during device processing or when in use. Kinetic mechanisms involving the transport and steric hindrance of reactive hydrogen peroxide molecules at the crack tip are proposed. Thin-film design strategies that involve energy dissipation by local plasticity in thin ductile layers on increasing the resistance to cracking of nanoporous glass layers is demonstrated. Understanding how aqueous solutions influence cracking and associated device reliability is a fundamental challenge for these promising materials to be viable candidates for new technologies. PMID:14661017

  10. Thin film multiferroic nanocomposites by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Alguer, Miguel; Ricote, Jess; Torres, Mara; Amorn, Harvey; Alberca, Aurora; Iglesias-Freire, Oscar; Nemes, Norbert; Holgado, Susana; Cervera, Manuel; Piqueras, Juan; Asenjo, Agustina; Garca-Hernndez, Mar

    2014-02-12

    Thin film multiferroic nanocomposites might enable a range of potentially disruptive integrated magnetoelectric devices for information storage, spintronics, microwave telecommunications, and magnetic sensing. With this aim, we have investigated ion implantation of magnetic species into ferroelectric single crystal targets as a radically novel approach to prepare film nanoparticulate magnetic-metal ferroelectric-oxide composites. These materials are an alternative to multiferroic oxide epitaxial columnar nanostructures that are under intensive research, but whose magnetoelectric response is far from expectations. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate the preparation of such a thin film multiferroic nanocomposite of Co and BaTiO3 by ion implantation of a high dose of the magnetic species, followed by rapid thermal processing under tailored conditions. Results thus constitute a proof of concept for the feasibility of obtaining the materials by this alternative approach. Ion implantation is a standard technique for the microelectronic industry in combination with well-established patterning procedures. PMID:24417708

  11. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  12. Transverse freezing of thin liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerman, Michael

    A pair of coupled non-linear partial differential equations is derived using lubrication theory that govern the morphology of a thin, liquid film of a pure and a binary metal alloy, bounded by the liquid's solid phase and a passive gas phase. The analysis is motivated by the directional freezing of metallic foams, and is a first attempt to model transverse freezing in thin films that form in foam networks, but also applies to thin film layers in general. Both the no-slip crystal-melt and the free melt-gas interfaces are deformable. The governing pair of non-linear differential equations for the most general case incorporate crystal-melt and melt-gas surface tension, latent heat, heat transfer, volume change, molecular interactions, thermocapillary and dilute phase concentration effects. Linear analysis of a uniform film reveals a variety of instabilities. A unique wavenumber is selected at the onset of instability in the case of an applied temperature gradient with vanishing crystal-melt surface tension. This system reproduces the isothermal result for a rigid solid-liquid interface in which a band of wavenumbers is unstable. A new long-wave instability has been identified, for the case with CM surface tension, that is due to the coupling of the interfaces. Numerical solutions of the fully non-linear system provide film evolution and rupture times, and show that, near the critical conditions, rupture can occur by the growth of standing or traveling waves. The numerics also reveals complex non-linear interactions between unstable modes. It is found that for most unstable initial conditions, the crystal-melt interface retreats by melting away from the tip region of the encroaching melt-gas interface due to a rise in heat flux as the film thins near the rupture point.

  13. Electrolyte and Electrode Passivation for Thin Film Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W.; Whitacre, J.; Ratnakumar, B.; Brandon, E.; Blosiu, J.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Passivation films for thin film batteries have been prepared and the conductivity and voltage stability window have been measured. Thin films of Li2CO3 have a large voltage stability window of 4.8V, which facilitates the use of this film as a passivation at both the lithium anode-electrolyte interface at high cathodic potentials.

  14. A magnetron sputtering system for the preparation of patterned thin films and in situ thin film electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Arnalds, U. B.; Agustsson, J. S.; Ingason, A. S.; Eriksson, A. K.; Gylfason, K. B.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Olafsson, S.

    2007-10-15

    We describe a versatile three gun magnetron sputtering system with a custom made sample holder for in situ electrical resistance measurements, both during film growth and ambient changes on film electrical properties. The sample holder allows for the preparation of patterned thin film structures, using up to five different shadow masks without breaking vacuum. We show how the system is used to monitor the electrical resistance of thin metallic films during growth and to study the thermodynamics of hydrogen uptake in metallic thin films. Furthermore, we demonstrate the growth of thin film capacitors, where patterned films are created using shadow masks.

  15. A magnetron sputtering system for the preparation of patterned thin films and in situ thin film electrical resistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalds, U. B.; Agustsson, J. S.; Ingason, A. S.; Eriksson, A. K.; Gylfason, K. B.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Olafsson, S.

    2007-10-01

    We describe a versatile three gun magnetron sputtering system with a custom made sample holder for in situ electrical resistance measurements, both during film growth and ambient changes on film electrical properties. The sample holder allows for the preparation of patterned thin film structures, using up to five different shadow masks without breaking vacuum. We show how the system is used to monitor the electrical resistance of thin metallic films during growth and to study the thermodynamics of hydrogen uptake in metallic thin films. Furthermore, we demonstrate the growth of thin film capacitors, where patterned films are created using shadow masks.

  16. Magnetic Structure of Engineered Multiferroic Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xianglin

    2011-03-01

    The intriguing properties of multiferroics, i.e., materials exhibiting the coexistence of magnetism and ferroelectricity, have stimulated intense research interest in recent years. From the viewpoint of practical applications, one needs to exploit the thin film architectures of multiferroic materials. However, fewer studies have addressed the magnetic structures of multiferroic thin films. I will present recent experimental works on two multiferroic films, BiFe O3 and EuTi O3 , physical properties of which can be engineered via the epitaxial growth on appropriate substrates. Neutron diffraction studies on BiFe O3 films deposited on vicinal SrTi O3 substrates show that the magnetic structure of these films is closely correlated with the ferroelectric states that depend on the chosen substrate miscut. Epitaxial EuTi O3 grown on DySc O3 susbtrate, which is a paraelectric antiferromagnet in its bulk form, is strain-tuned into multiferroics, displaying both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic characters. The relationship between the strong magnetic anisotropy and the film microstructure will be discussed. In collaboration with P.P. Zhang, S.Y Baek, C. B. Eom, J.H Lee, P. Ryan, J.W. Freeland, D.A. Muller, C.J. Fennie, V. Gopalan, P. Schiffer, E. Johnston-Halperin, and D.G. Schlom. This work was supported by the Clifford G. Shull Fellowship at ORNL.

  17. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  18. Electronic evidence of an insulatorsuperconductor crossover in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films

    PubMed Central

    He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Defa; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-01-01

    In high-temperature cuprate superconductors, it is now generally agreed that superconductivity is realized by doping an antiferromagnetic Mott (charge transfer) insulator. The doping-induced insulator-to-superconductor transition has been widely observed in cuprates, which provides important information for understanding the superconductivity mechanism. In the iron-based superconductors, however, the parent compound is mostly antiferromagnetic bad metal, raising a debate on whether an appropriate starting point should go with an itinerant picture or a localized picture. No evidence of doping-induced insulatorsuperconductor transition (or crossover) has been reported in the iron-based compounds so far. Here, we report an electronic evidence of an insulatorsuperconductor crossover observed in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. By taking angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the electronic structure and energy gap, we have identified a clear evolution of an insulator to a superconductor with increasing carrier concentration. In particular, the insulatorsuperconductor crossover in FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits similar behaviors to that observed in the cuprate superconductors. Our results suggest that the observed insulatorsuperconductor crossover may be associated with the two-dimensionality that enhances electron localization or correlation. The reduced dimensionality and the interfacial effect provide a new pathway in searching for new phenomena and novel superconductors with a high transition temperature. PMID:25502774

  19. Electronic evidence of an insulator-superconductor crossover in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films.

    PubMed

    He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Defa; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2014-12-30

    In high-temperature cuprate superconductors, it is now generally agreed that superconductivity is realized by doping an antiferromagnetic Mott (charge transfer) insulator. The doping-induced insulator-to-superconductor transition has been widely observed in cuprates, which provides important information for understanding the superconductivity mechanism. In the iron-based superconductors, however, the parent compound is mostly antiferromagnetic bad metal, raising a debate on whether an appropriate starting point should go with an itinerant picture or a localized picture. No evidence of doping-induced insulator-superconductor transition (or crossover) has been reported in the iron-based compounds so far. Here, we report an electronic evidence of an insulator-superconductor crossover observed in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. By taking angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the electronic structure and energy gap, we have identified a clear evolution of an insulator to a superconductor with increasing carrier concentration. In particular, the insulator-superconductor crossover in FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits similar behaviors to that observed in the cuprate superconductors. Our results suggest that the observed insulator-superconductor crossover may be associated with the two-dimensionality that enhances electron localization or correlation. The reduced dimensionality and the interfacial effect provide a new pathway in searching for new phenomena and novel superconductors with a high transition temperature. PMID:25502774

  20. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1992-10-01

    Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

  1. Thermal expansion properties of thin multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xianchao; Morawe, Christian; Peffen, Jean-Christophe; Zhang, Lin

    2014-09-01

    Under synchrotron radiation white beam exposure, strong mechanical stress can build up in multilayer optics, caused by the thermal mismatch between layer material and substrate material. To study the stability and performance of multilayer optics under heat load, Pd, Cr, and B4C single layers of thicknesses in the nanometer range and [Pd/B4C] multilayers were prepared in the sputter-depositing facility of the ESRF Multilayer Laboratory. Curvature changes versus temperature were measured using a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor. Films coated on 200 ?m thin Si wafers induced significant curvature changes over a temperature range from 60C to 200C. A combined parameter K including Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) was defined to describe the thermal deformation properties of the thin-film layer. The investigation shows that all three materials in thin film cause less thermal expansion than expected from material properties for bulk material in the literature. In particular, the thermal expansion of B4C films appears to be close to that of the Si substrate.

  2. Deformation behavior of metallic glass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Zhao, F.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, M. W.

    2012-09-01

    We report room-temperature deformation behavior of damage-free metallic glass films characterized by nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. The glass films with thicknesses ranging from 5 ?m down to 60 nm plastically deform by shear bands when subjected to both spherical and sharp Berkovich indenters. Importantly, we found that gallium contamination from focus ion beam (FIB) milling significantly suppresses shear band formation, indicating that the absence of shear bands in FIB milled samples may be caused by gallium irradiation damage, rather than sample size effect. Finite element simulation reveals that a high stress gradient at the film/substrate interface promotes the plastic deformation of the thin films but does not give rise to significant strain inhomogeneity.

  3. Preparation of tungsten-bronze thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Masatoshi; Kawabata, Akira; Takeda, Fumio

    1991-09-01

    The paper describes the preparation of ferroelectric tungsten-bronze thin films, including Pb(0.6)Ba(0.4)Nb2O6 (PBN), Pb2KNb5O15, K3Li2Nb5O15, K(2.7)Na(0.3)Li2Nb5O15, and K2BiNb5O15 films, by sputter deposition on sapphire and fused-quartz substrates using ceramic targets. It was found that (001)-oriented epitaxial PBN films could be successfully grown on (0 1 -1 2) sapphire substrates at temperature around 650 C, but could not be grown in the tungsten-bronze phase because of a significant K deficiency in the sputtered films during the growth.

  4. Stress and plasticity in Cu thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihnacht, Volker; Brckner, Winfried

    1999-11-01

    Aim of the work was to get more detailed knowledge about the processes of plasticity in thin Cu films. For this purpose, stress measurements and microstructural investigations have been done on 535nm thick Cu films on oxidized Si substrates. The film stress was measured by wafer-curvature technique using a home-made laser-optical apparatus. This apparatus allowed four-point bending experiments additionally to thermal cycling. It turned out that applied bending strains even higher than 0.5% did not leave significant plastic strains after relief of bending stress. It is concluded, that the elastic interaction of parallel dislocations at the film-substrate interface may play an important role in strain hardening even after small plastic strains.

  5. Dynamics of polymer thin films and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraai, Zahra

    2007-12-01

    The dynamics of thin polymer films display many differences from the bulk dynamics. Different modes of motions in polymers are affected by confinement in different ways. The enhancement in the dynamics of some modes of motion can cause anomalies in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of thin films, while other modes of motion such as diffusion can be substantially slowed down due to the confinement effects. In this thesis, different modes of dynamics are probed using different techniques. The interface healing of two identical polymer surfaces is used as a probe of segmental motion in the direction normal to the plane of the films and it is shown that this mode of motion is slowed down at temperatures above bulk glass transition, while the glass transition itself is decreased indicating that the type of motion responsible for the glass transition is enhanced. The glass transition measurements at different cooling rates indicate that this enhancement only happens at temperatures close to or below bulk glass transition temperature and it is not expected to be detected at higher temperatures where the system is in the melt state. It is shown that the sample preparation technique is not a factor in observing this enhanced dynamics, while the existence of the free surface can be important in observed reductions in the glass transition temperature. The dynamics near the free surface is further studied using a novel nano-deformation technique, and it is shown that the dynamics near the free surface is in fact enhanced compared to the bulk dynamics and this enhancement is increased as the temperature is decreased further below Tg. It is also shown that this mode of relaxation is much different from the bulk modes of relaxations, and a direct relationship between this enhanced motion and Tg reduction in thin films can be established. The results presented in this thesis can lead to a possible universal picture that can resolve the behavior of different modes of motions in thin polymer films.

  6. Planar tunneling into YBCMO (M = zinc, nickel) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badica, Elvira

    Planar tunneling spectroscopy of Zn and Ni-doped Y1Ba 2Cu3O7-delta thin films is reported. The tunneling conductance is studied as a function of crystallographic orientation, doping concentration, temperature and applied magnetic field. Tunnel junctions are fabricated with either Bi or Pb as a counter-electrode, ex-situ, on thin films grown by off-axis DC magnetron sputter deposition from single stoichiometric targets. Films are grown in different crystallographic orientations, classified into ab-plane and c-axis. Doping concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.24 (Ni) and 0.01, 0.02, 0.08 (Zn), corresponding to zero-resistance superconducting transition temperatures (Tc's) of 84K, 81K, 77K (Ni) and 84K, 81K, 60K (Zn), respectively, are studied. Extensive characterization by resistivity vs. temperature measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) and magnetic susceptibility, shows reproducible and high quality films Resistivity vs. temperature measurements show good agreement with data reported in literature for single crystals. Tunnel junction characteristics are reproducible. Single step elastic tunneling is the predominant transport mechanism across the barrier, as shown by many standard quality checks, including the quality of the well studied Pb and YBCO density of states. The ab-plane tunneling conductance of Zn and Ni doped YBCO films shows distinct features. A gap-like feature that decreases in energy with increasing doping concentration is observed, together with the zero bias conductance peak, comprised of surface-induced Andreev bound states (ABS). The ABS are a direct consequence of the superconducting order parameter of YBCO being of d-wave symmetry. The magnitude of the ABS decreases as the doping concentration is increased. In the case of Zn doped films, the ABS are quenched for the highest doping concentration used. Applied magnetic fields split the ABS, consistent with the Doppler-shift model for ABS transport along an interface. Results are discussed in the light of theoretical models of d-wave superconductors with impurities, and available data on similar systems. Related experiments, that are relevant to the main subject of the thesis, which include a study of a phase transition into a broken-time reversal symmetry state, the magnetic field orientation dependence and magnetic hysteresis of the ABS, are also discussed. Finally, experiments aimed to further investigate the effect of Zn and Ni-doping on the low-energy DoS of YBCO are presented.

  7. Thin Film...Large Payoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SRS Technologies is currently the only company licensed by Langley Research Center to produce colorless polyimides. They currently produce two polyimides, the LaRC-CP1 and LaRC-CP2 developed by Langley Research Center. These polyimides offer many advantages over other commercially available materials including excellent thermal stability, radiation resistance, solubility, and transparency. The SRS polyimides can be used in laminates, films, molded parts, and stock shapes. The polyimide technology has also helped the company further their development of solar arrays.

  8. A study of reactive plasma deposited thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, J.; Williams, E.

    1986-01-01

    A state-of-the-art research laboratory was established to grow and characterize amorphous thin films that are useful in semi-conductor devices. Two film systems, nitride films and silicon dioxide films were studied. Over seventy deposition runs for nitride films were made. The films were deposited on silicon substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the uniformity of the films were affected by the location of the film on the platen.

  9. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  10. Exploiting Elasticity with Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Soft matter is often dominated by long-ranging mechanical distortion and is thus intimately linked to elastic theory. The detailed understanding provided by theory has allowed remarkable technological achievements to be made with polymers and other soft systems. However, as technology pushes lengthscales downward many challenges have arisen and even basic problems such as measuring Young's modulus become difficult. To move forward, many polymer thin-film researchers have been attracted to the simple repetitive buckling pattern known as wrinkling because the instability provides a convenient tool to measure mechanical properties. As with all technology the wrinkle system does have physical limits on its applicability, several of which may not be obvious and may have implications for extreme measurement. Here we highlight some of our recent work examining the limits of this elastic pattern and the implications for thin polymer films. We first show how the morphology of ultra-thin wrinkled polystyrene and polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) films show signs of localization effects - a clear deviation from linear elasticity. We go on to show how roughness, in certain cases, can induce similar morphologies, even in the limits of vanishing applied stress. As random roughness influences a film's elastic behaviour it is natural to examine periodic roughness as means to control localization and create more complex morphologies. Colloidal polystyrene is an excellent test material as it can easily be assembled in highly ordered crystalline monolayers. Remarkably, this ``discrete'' polymer film shows the same wrinkled morphology as does a continuum film. We show how a completely different type of elasticity is necessary to explain the effect, that of a granular material. More disordered ``glassy'' colloidal monolayers provide a means to push our understanding of the granular elastic theory, and suggest an interesting, albeit highly speculative limit for extreme continuum behaviour.

  11. Elastic Properties of Molecular Glass Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Jessica

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the impact of bulk polymer properties on the nanometer length scale modulus. The elastic modulus of amorphous organic thin films is examined using a surface wrinkling technique. Potential correlations between thin film behavior and intrinsic properties such as flexibility and chain length are explored. Thermal properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion, are examined along with the moduli of these thin films. It is found that the nanometer length scale behavior of flexible polymers correlates to its bulk Tg and not the polymers intrinsic size. It is also found that decreases in the modulus of ultrathin flexible films is not correlated with the observed Tg decrease in films of the same thickness. Techniques to circumvent reductions from bulk modulus were also demonstrated. However, as chain flexibility is reduced the modulus becomes thickness independent down to 10 nm. Similarly for this series minor reductions in T g were obtained. To further understand the impact of the intrinsic size and processing conditions; this wrinkling instability was also utilized to determine the modulus of small organic electronic materials at various deposition conditions. Lastly, this wrinkling instability is exploited for development of poly furfuryl alcohol wrinkles. A two-step wrinkling process is developed via an acid catalyzed polymerization of a drop cast solution of furfuryl alcohol and photo acid generator. The ability to control the surface topology and tune the wrinkle wavelength with processing parameters such as substrate temperature and photo acid generator concentration is also demonstrated. Well-ordered linear, circular, and curvilinear patterns are also obtained by selective ultraviolet exposure and polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol film. As a carbon precursor a thorough understanding of this wrinkling instability can have applications in a wide variety of technologies.

  12. A Multilayered Thin Film Insulator for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Blaha, Charles A.; Busfield, A. Rachel; Thomas, Valarie D.

    2002-01-01

    The status of work to develop a reliable high temperature dielectric thin film for use with thin film sensors is presented. The use of thin films to electrically insulate thin film sensors on engine components minimizes the intrusiveness of the sensor and allows a more accurate measurement of the environment. A variety of insulating films were investigated for preventing electrical shorting caused by insulator failure between the sensor and the component. By alternating layers of sputtered high temperature ceramics, a sequence of insulating layers was devised that prevents pinholes from forming completely through the insulator and maintains high electrical resistivity at high temperatures. The major technical challenge remaining is to optimize the fabrication of the insulator with respect to composition to achieve a reliable high temperature insulating film. Data from the testing of various potentially insulating thin film systems is presented and their application to thin film sensors is also discussed.

  13. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  14. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}){sup n} and Al(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AIN){sup n}. Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented.

  15. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore » field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  16. Influence of superconductor film composition on adhesion strength of coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Khatri, Narayan; Liu, Yuhao; Delgado, Louis; Galstyan, Eduard; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    The effect of high temperature superconductor (HTS) film composition on the adhesion strength of rare-earth barium copper oxide coated conductors (CCs) has been studied. It has been found that the mechanical integrity of the superconductor layer is very susceptible to the defects especially those along the ab plane, probably due to the weak interfaces between the defects and the matrix. Gd and Y in the standard composition were substituted with Sm and the number of in-plane defects was drastically reduced. Consequently, a four-fold increase in adhesion or peeling strength in Sm-based CCs was achieved compared to the standard GdYBCO samples.

  17. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbeck, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.

  18. Epitaxial decagonal thin films on crystalline substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, E. J.; Marks, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    Al-Cu-Fe-Cr quasicrystalline thin films were grown on atomically flat Al2O3 sapphire (0001) substrates by single-target magnetron sputtering followed by annealing. A decagonal phase with the tenfold axis A10 parallel to the substrate surface normal was observed. The epitaxial decagonal film had two different unique orientations: a twofold P axis A2P and a twofold D axis A2D parallel to of the substrate. These two configurations were explained using a coincidence reciprocal lattice planes model for the interface energy. We show that this classic approach for crystal-crystal epitaxy can be applied to quasicrystal-crystal systems.

  19. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  20. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  1. Thermal stability of NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volochová, D.; Kavečanský, V.; Antal, V.; Diko, P.; Yao, X.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal stability of the Nd1+x Ba2‑x Cu3O7‑δ (Nd-123 or NdBCO) thin films deposited on MgO substrate, with YBa2Cu3O7‑δ (Y-123 or YBCO) buffer layer (NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film), has been experimentally studied in order to determine the optimal film thickness acting as seed for bulk YBCO growth. YBCO bulk superconductors with Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) and CeO2 addition were prepared by the top seeded melt growth process in a chamber furnace using NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film seeds of different thicknesses (200–700 nm with 20 nm YBCO buffer layer) and different maximum temperatures, T max. The maximum temperatures varied in the range of 1040 °C–1125 °C. The highest thermal stability 1118 °C was observed in the case of NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film of 300 nm thickness. These results are corroborated with differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as microstructure observations.

  2. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  3. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  5. Practical designs for thin film wave plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Ian J.; Wu, Qi Hong

    1998-09-01

    Thin film wave plates are constructed by the oblique deposition of dielectric material onto glass substrates. Two basic designs incorporating biaxial columnar thin films have been proposed. The single-column-angle plate provides different sensitivities of retardance to angular tilting, but suffers from thickness (and hence retardance) wedging. The double-column-angle plate is relatively insensitive in tilt and substantially free of wedging. However, both basic designs are susceptible to the ingress of atmospheric moisture, which has the effect of reducing the retardance. In this paper we describe modifications to the basic designs that seal the wave plates against the uptake of atmospheric moisture. The modifications eliminate wedging in the single- column-angle plate, but the characteristic angular sensitivity of the basic designs are retained.

  6. DNA strand patterns on aluminium thin films.

    PubMed

    Khatir, Nadia Mahmoudi; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Majid, Wan Haliza Abd; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al) metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si) and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS) applications in general. PMID:22163981

  7. Thin film strain gage development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  8. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Young-Han E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  9. Nanoporous piezo- and ferroelectric thin films.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paula; Hou, Ru Z; Wu, Aiying; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Vilarinho, Paula M; Mosa, Jadra; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Boissire, Cdric; Grosso, David; Sanchez, Clment

    2012-02-01

    Nanoporous barium titanate and lead titanate thin films (?100 nm calculated from ellipsometric data) are prepared starting from sol-gel solutions modified with a commercially available block-copolymer and evaporation-induced self-assembly methodology. The tuning of the thermal treatment followed by in situ ellipsometry allows the decomposition of the organic components and of the structuring agent leading to the formation of porous tetragonal crystalline perovskite structures as observed by XRD, HRTEM, SEM, and ellipsoporosimetry. Both nanoporous barium titanate and lead titanate thin films present local piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior measured by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), being promising platforms for the preparation of the generation of new multifunctional systems. PMID:22206407

  10. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  11. EBSD analysis of electroplated magnetite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Teng, C. L.; Ryan, M. P.; Hartmann, U.; Mcklich, F.

    2010-05-01

    By means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), we analyse the crystallographic orientation of electroplated magnetite thin films on Si/copper substrates. Varying the voltage during the electroplating procedure, the resulting surface properties are differing considerably. While a high voltage produces larger but individual grains on the surface, the surfaces become smoother on decreasing voltage. Good quality Kikuchi patterns could be obtained from all samples; even on individual grains, where the surface and the edges could be measured. The spatial resolution of the EBSD measurement could be increased to about 10 nm; thus enabling a detailed analysis of single magnetite grains. The thin film samples are polycrystalline and do not exhibit a preferred orientation. EBSD reveals that the grain size changes depending on the processing conditions, while the detected misorientation angles stay similar.

  12. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  13. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se?/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se? (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased. PMID:24922214

  14. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  15. Stable localized patterns in thin liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Oron, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    We study a 2-D nonlinear evolution equation which describes the 3-D spatiotemporal behavior of the air-liquid interface of a thin liquid film lying on the underside of a cooled horizontal plate. We show that the Marangoni effect can stabilize the destabilizing effect of gravity (the Rayleigh-Taylor instability) allowing for the existence of stable localized axisymmetric solutions for a wide range of parameter values. Various properties of these structures are discussed.

  16. Phase transitions in calcium nitrate thin films.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadleh, Hind A; Krueger, B J; Ross, J L; Grassian, V H

    2003-11-21

    Calcium carbonate is a ubiquitous mineral and its reactivity with indoor and outdoor air pollutants will contribute to the deterioration of these materials through the formation of salts that deliquesce at low relative humidity (RH). As shown here for calcium nitrate thin films, deliquescence occurs at even lower relative humidity than expected from bulk thermodynamics and lower than the recommended humidity for the preservation of artifacts and antiques. PMID:14651109

  17. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B. (116 Baltimore Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Dudney, Nancy J. (11634 S. Monticello Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Weatherspoon, Kim A. (223 Wadsworth Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  18. Thin Film Sensors for Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensors that can provide accurate surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements have been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. These sensors provide minimally intrusive characterization of advanced propulsion materials and components in hostile, high-temperature environments as well as validation of propulsion system design codes. The sensors are designed for applications on different material systems and engine components for testing in engine simulation facilities. Thin film thermocouples and strain gauges for the measurement of surface temperature and strain have been demonstrated on metals, ceramics and advanced ceramic-based composites of various component configurations. Test environments have included both air-breathing and space propulsion-based engine and burner rig environments at surface temperatures up to 1100 C and under high gas flow and pressure conditions. The technologies developed for these sensors as well as for a thin film heat flux gauge have been integrated into a single multifunctional gauge for the simultaneous real-time measurement of surface temperature, strain, and heat flux. This is the first step toward the development of smart sensors with integrated signal conditioning and high temperature electronics that would have the capability to provide feedback to the operating system in real-time. A description of the fabrication process for the thin film sensors and multifunctional gauge will be provided. In addition, the material systems on which the sensors have been demonstrated, the test facilities and the results of the tests to-date will be described. Finally, the results will be provided of the current effort to demonstrate the capabilities of the multifunctional gauge.

  19. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  20. Composite dilatometer for polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Alan T.; Balik, C. M.

    1989-02-01

    A dilatometer is described for measuring volume changes in polymer thin films over a temperature range of 30-150 C. The dilatometer is made entirely of glass, except for a stainless steel base and an aluminum clamp, which allow the sample chamber to be reusable. The dilatometer has the capability to measure volume changes in a 0.2 cm3 sample to within 0.13%. Polymer volume data reduction is discussed as well as the calibration procedures for this dilatometer.

  1. Modeling amorphous thin films: Kinetically limited minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Pawel; Perkins, John; Lany, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous materials become increasingly attractive components of thin film devices such as thin film displays or solar cells. They are typically prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques at temperatures well below the melting point of deposited material (< 0 . 2Tm). Computational models of amorphous structures, however, are almost elusively constructed from a high temperature equilibrated crystal melt using simulated annealing (SA) protocol. While such procedure imitates the quench form melt preparation of bulk glasses, its applicability to modeling low temperature synthesized amorphous thin films is unclear. To account for low T growth conditions we propose a new method. The method, kinetically limited minimization (KLM), starts from a randomly initialized structure and minimizes the total energy in a number of local structural perturbation-relaxation events. We compare KLM and SA with quench rates ranging from 64 K/ps to 2500 K/ps using two prototypical ionic and covalent materials: In2O3 and Si, respectively. While both methods provide qualitatively similar structures, we find that, compared to KLM, slow quench SA provides stronger medium range order in a-In2O3 and fast quench SA provides weaker short range order in a-Si.

  2. Determination of the London penetration depth of FeSe0.3Te0.7 thin films by scanning SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. T.; Wu, S. L.; Wang, J. W.; Chen, T. J.; Wang, M. J.; Chen, J. C.; Wu, M. K.; Chi, C. C.

    2015-08-01

    We use the scanning SQUID microscope (SSM) to image the vortices in superconducting FeSe0.3Te0.7 (FST) thin films. The observed peak flux value of FST is nearly a quarter of that of an accompanying Nb film. We developed a method for quantitatively determining the London penetration depth of the FST film from the known value of Nb. The obtained value, 0.88 μm, is significantly larger than those obtained from single crystals of similar compositions by using other methods. The methodology developed for this study is useful for measuring London penetration depths of thin-film superconductors in general.

  3. Oriented lead zirconate titanate thin films: Characterization of film crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, J.A.; Tuttle, B.A.; Headley, T.J.; Eatough, M.O.; Lamppa, D.L.; Goodnow, D.

    1993-11-01

    Film processing temperature and time was varied to characterize the pyrochlore-to-perovskite crystallization of solution-derived PZT 20/80 thin films. 3000 {Angstrom} thick films were prepared by spin deposition using <100> single crystal MgO as substrate. By controlled rapid thermal processing, films at different stages in the perovskite crystallization process were prepared with the tetragonal PZT 20/80 phase being <100>/<001> oriented relative to the MgO surface. An activation energy for the conversion process of 326 kJ/mole was determined by use of an Arrhenius expression using rate constants found by application of the method of Avrami. Activation energy for formation of the PZT 20/80 perovskite phase of the solution-derived films compared favorably with that calculated from data by Kwok and Desu for sputter-deposited 3500 {Angstrom} thick PZT 55/45 films. Similarity in activation energies indicates that the energetics of the conversion process are not strongly dependent on the method used for film deposition.

  4. Thin Dielectric Films Containing Tb{sup 3+} Ions For Application In Thin Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Angelov, O.; Dimova-Malmovska, D.; Baumgartner, K.; Carius, R.; Hollaender, B.

    2010-01-21

    Thin transparent dielectric films containing Tb{sup 3+} are developed for application as spectral converters of the solar spectrum in thin film silicon solar cells. The results on the deposition and characterization of thin SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films containing Tb{sup 3+} ions are presented. The films are prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering, a well established technique for large area coatings. Photoluminescence (PL) is measured at room temperature, using the 488 nm line of an Ar laser and a nitrogen-cooled CCD camera attached to a monochromator. The dependence of the PL intensity on the concentration of Tb in the film is studied. It is found that the intensity exhibits a maximum at about 1 at.%. Annealing studies are performed on SiO{sub 2}:Tb with two different methods to improve the PL intensity. In both regimes of annealing, the best results for thin SiO{sub 2}:Tb films are obtained in the temperature range of 650-700 deg. C. After treatment at this temperature the Tb PL increases 2.5-3 times.

  5. Stable multilayer thin films composed of gold nanoparticles and lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yan-lei; Li, Chao

    2008-01-01

    It needs appropriately attractive forces to construct multilayer thin films by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. It is feasible to prepare multilayer thin films on glass slides with negatively charged gold nanoparticles and positively charged lysozyme through the electrostatic LBL assembly technique. The gold nanoparticles/lysozyme multilayer thin films are highly stable; immersion in 0.1 M HCl, NaOH, and surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous solutions cannot destroy the films. The highly stable gold nanoparticles/lysozyme multilayer thin films have potential application in long-term antibacterial coating.

  6. Thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compaan, A.; Bohn, R. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to develop to vacuum-based growth techniques for CdTe thin-film solar cells: (1) laser-driven physical vapor deposition (LDPVD) and (2) radio-frequency (rf) sputtering. The LDPVD process was successfully used to deposit thin films of CdS, CdTe, and CdCl{sub 2}, as well as related alloys and doped semiconductor materials. The laser-driven deposition process readily permits the use of several target materials in the same vacuum chamber and, thus, complete solar cell structures were fabricated on SnO{sub 2}-coated glass using LDPVD. The rf sputtering process for film growth became operational, and progress was made in implementing it. Time was also devoted to enhancing or implementing a variety of film characterization systems and device testing facilities. A new system for transient spectroscopy on the ablation plume provided important new information on the physical mechanisms of LDPVD. The measurements show that, e.g., Cd is predominantly in the neutral atomic state in the plume but with a fraction that is highly excited internally ({ge} 6 eV), and that the typical neutral Cd translational kinetic energies perpendicular to the target are 20 eV and greater. 19 refs.

  7. Deformation properties of thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, John Bernard

    Thin polymer films being processed mostly on rigid substrates experience a "self-orientation" tendency toward a preferred planar orientation of the main-chain of the polymer backbone parallel to the in-plane direction of the film. This tendency increases as the length (called the Kuhn length) between the natural hinges of the polymer increases. The orientation causes the thermoelastic properties of the films to vary from the in-plane direction to the out-of-plane direction. Experimental methods are developed to measure the out-of-plane displacement of polymer films, 10-100 mum thick. The films are adhered to rigid substrates and experience thermal and mechanical displacements in the out-of-plane direction. These displacements are influenced by the constraining effect of the substrates which acts within the plane of the film. Thus, the constraining effect is analyzed in order to separate the true properties of elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion from the as-measured or apparent properties. This analysis also required the knowledge of the in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson's ratio. Techniques are developed to measure these ratios which are also dependent on anisotropy in structure. The anisotropic thermomechanical properties of thin films processed on substrates are found to vary by a factor of 2-10, as compared to the in-plane (or isotropic) values for the polyimides PMDA//PDA and BPDA//PDA and epoxy based adhesives. Under an increase in displacement, the elastic response will eventually suffer an increasing amount of inelastic deformation. This non-elastic deformation has also been investigated based on the relaxation of a stress applied to epoxy based adhesive films sandwiched between two rigid substrates. The amount of stress relaxation decreases as the thickness of the epoxy based adhesive films is decreased, due to a hydrostatic state of stress associated with the presence of an in-plane residual stress which occurs during the thermal curing of the film on the rigid substrates and additional in-plane stress produced by substrate constraint.

  8. Predicting negative ion resputtering in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.J.; Messier, R.

    1986-05-01

    Negative-ion bombardment of a growing thin film can lead to changes in growth rate, surface morphology, and composition of the film through resputtering of the deposited material. A model was examined which predicts the probability of negative-ion formation based on ion potential and electron affinity values (I--EA) of the elements in the material being sputtered. It was found that I--EA values are but one of many factors influencing the amount and distribution of resputtering effects occurring. The model was found to be most useful in comparing isostructural materials resputtered under identical conditions. Since the resputtering is not uniform, and in some cases can lead to conical etch pits extending part way, or even completely, through the film to the substrate, their elimination will be a prime requirement for devices with bulk properties.

  9. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin trilayer liquid films.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-11-01

    When DC or AC electric fields are applied to a thin liquid film, the interface may become unstable and form a series of pillars. We examine how the presence of a second liquid interface influences pillar dynamics and morphologies. For perfect dielectric films, linear stability analysis of a lubrication-approximation-based model shows that the root mean square voltage governs the pillar behavior. For leaky dielectric films, Floquet theory is applied to carry out the linear stability analysis, and reveals that the accumulation of free charge at each interface depends on the conductivities in the adjoining phases and that high frequencies of the AC electric field may be used to control this accumulation at each interface independently. The results presented here may of interest for the controlled creation of surface topographical features in applications such as patterned coatings and microelectronics.

  10. Lattice expansion in nanocrystalline niobium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, R.; Sperling, E. A.; Thompson, G. B.; Fraser, H. L.; Bose, S.; Ayyub, P.

    2003-06-01

    High-purity nanocrystalline niobium (Nb) thin films have been deposited using high-pressure magnetron sputter deposition. Increasing the pressure of the sputtering gas during deposition has systematically led to reduced crystallite sizes in these films. Based on x-ray and electron diffraction results, it is observed that the nanocrystalline Nb films exhibit a significantly large lattice expansion with reduction in crystallite size. There is however, no change in the bcc crystal structure on reduction in crystallite size to below 5 nm. The lattice expansion in nanocrystalline Nb has been simulated by employing a recently proposed model based on linear elasticity and by appropriately modifying it to incorporate a crystallite-size-dependent width of the grain boundary.

  11. Tunneling measurements of the zero-bias conductance peak and the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin-film energy gap

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.; Moreland, J.; Ono, R.H. ); Kalkur, T.S. )

    1991-01-28

    We have examined the zero-bias conductance peak that is often found in high-temperature-superconductor tunnel-junction spectra. We have also measured the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin-film energy gap. The zero-bias conductance peak can be explained in terms of quasiparticle tunneling, phase diffusion, and a supercurrent. The implications of this model are discussed.

  12. Preface: Thin films of molecular organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraxedas, J.

    2008-03-01

    This special issue is devoted to thin films of molecular organic materials and its aim is to assemble numerous different aspects of this topic in order to reach a wide scientific audience. Under the term 'thin films', structures with thicknesses spanning from one monolayer or less up to several micrometers are included. In order to narrow down this relaxed definition (how thin is thin?) I suggest joining the stream that makes a distinction according to the length scale involved, separating nanometer-thick films from micrometer-thick films. While the physical properties of micrometer-thick films tend to mimic those of bulk materials, in the low nanometer regime new structures (e.g., crystallographic and substrate-induced phases) and properties are found. However, one has to bear in mind that some properties of micrometer-thick films are really confined to the film/substrate interface (e.g. charge injection), and are thus of nanometer nature. Supported in this dimensionality framework, this issue covers the most ideal and model 0D case, a single molecule on a surface, through to the more application-oriented 3D case, placing special emphasis on the fascinating 2D domain that is monolayer assembly. Thus, many aspects will be reviewed, such as single molecules, self-organization, monolayer regime, chirality, growth, physical properties and applications. This issue has been intentionally restricted to small molecules, thus leaving out polymers and biomolecules, because for small molecules it is easier to establish structure--property relationships. Traditionally, the preparation of thin films of molecular organic materials has been considered as a secondary, lower-ranked part of the more general field of this class of materials. The coating of diverse surfaces such as silicon, inorganic and organic single crystals, chemically modified substrates, polymers, etc., with interesting molecules was driven by the potential applications of such molecular materials/substrate systems (also called heterostructures) based on the physical properties of the bulk materials, usually in the form of single crystals. However, in recent years the thin films community has been continually growing, helping the field to mature. In my opinion two main aspects have advanced the thin molecular films field. The first is the different applications with optical and electrical devices such as OFETs (organic field-effect transistors) and OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes), applications that could not have been achieved with single crystals because of limited size, difficult processability and mechanical fragility. The second is the involvement of the surface science community with their overwhelming arsenal of experimental techniques. From the synthesis point of view, the preparation of thin films is being regarded as a complementary synthesis route. The different externally accessible variables involved in the preparation process (temperature, pressure, molecular flux, distance, time, concentration, solvent, substrate, etc.), which define the so-called parameter hyperspace, can be so diverse when comparing competing synthesis routes (e.g. solution versus vapour growth) that we should not be surprised if different crystallographic phases with different morphologies are obtained, even if metastable. We should not forget here that the amazingly large number of available molecules is due to the longstanding and innovative work of synthesis chemists, a task that has not been sufficiently recognized (laymen in the domain of synthesis of organic molecules tend to believe that almost any molecule can be synthesized). In summary, one of the goals of this issue is to highlight the emerging importance of the field of thin molecular organic films by giving selected examples. It is clear that some important examples are missing, which are due in part to space limitation and to the understandable reluctance of highly-ranked specialists to contribute because of work overload. Among these not included but not forgotten subjects we can list films showing linear and non-linear optical properties (e.g. OLEDs), the always fascinating world of polymorphism, films involving small molecules of biological interest such as aminoacids and nucleic acids, nanopatterning, growth in zero gravity, etc. I have no doubt that contributions on such subjects deserve to be collected in a future special issue.

  13. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films in conjunction with superconducting oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Sengupta, L.C.; Demaree, J.D.; Kosik, W.

    1994-12-01

    The possibility of combining ferroelectrics and superconductors has been of interest for use in memory storage devices. Additionally, superconductors offer crystal structures compatible to the epitaxial growth of the ferroelectric, Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO3 (BSTO), which is cubic at this stoichiometry. BSTO has a lattice constant of 3.94 A as compared to the superconducting Pr(2-x)Ce(x)CuO4 tetragonal single crystal which also has a lattice constant of a=3.94 A. (minor variations with Cerium content). In this study, ferroelectric thin films of BSTO were deposited on single crystals of Pr2CuO4 and Pr(2-x)Ce(x)CuO4. The optical constants of the substrates, single crystals of Pr2CuO4 and Pr(2-x)Ce(x)CuO4, were determined using Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE) and the composition and crystal structure were examined using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with ion beam channeling. The substrate/film interfaces and the compositional variation in the films were also studied with RBS and with SEM/EDS. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction was used to verify the epitaxial nature of the films. The effect of the deposition parameters (laser repetition rate, oxygen backfill pressure, and deposition geometry) on the quality of the films was experimented with previously and only the optimized parameters were used.

  15. Dynamics of Bimodal Growth in Pentacene Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Alex C.; Malliaras, George G.; Kazimirov, Alexander

    2006-09-08

    Previous studies have established that pentacene films deposited on silicon oxide consist of a substrate-induced 'thin-film' phase, with the bulk phase of pentacene detected in thicker films only. We show that the bulk phase nucleates as early as the first monolayer, and continues to nucleate as film growth progresses, shadowing the growth of the thin-film phase. Moreover, we find that the transition between the 'thin-film' and the bulk phase is not a continuous one, as observed in heteroepitaxial systems, but rather the two phases nucleate and grow independently.

  16. Critical currents and high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhari, P.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental information on critical currents and epitaxial thin films of high temperature superconductors is summarized. Experiments performed to measure critical currents across single grain boundaries are described. A variety of mechanisms responsible for limiting currents in films as well as across grain boundaries are presented and their predictions compared with experimental data.

  17. Effects of processing parameters on the laser deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogar, N. S.; Castain, R.; Dye, R. C.; Foltyn, S.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Wu, X. D.

    Y2O3 pressed powders were ablated by pulses from a XeCl excimer laser, operating at 308 nm, 150 mJ/pulse, approximately equals 15 nsec/pulse and 20 Hz. Emission spectra from Y* and YO* were recorded as a function of ambient oxygen pressure in the range 10(exp -5) to 4 x 10(exp -1) Torr, at a laser fluence of approximately 4J/sq cm. A kinetic model is developed to describe the results, and the application to production of laser-deposited high-temperature superconductor thin films is discussed.

  18. Superconducting YBaCuO thin films by Cu-ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, K.M.; Bordes, N.; Nastasi, M.; Tesmer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the fabrication of thin-film superconductors by Cu-ion implantation into initially Cu-deficient Y(BaF{sub 2})Cu thin films. The precursor films were co-evaporated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates, and subsequently implanted to various doses with 400 keV {sup 63}Cu{sup 2+}. Implantations were preformed at both LN{sub 2} temperature, and at 380{degree}C. The films were post-annealed in oxygen, and characterized as a function of dose by four-point probe analysis, x-ray diffraction, ion-beam backscattering and channeling, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that a significant improvement in film quality could be achieved by heating the films to 380{degree}C during the implantation. The best films became fully superconducting at 60--70 K, and exhibited good metallic R vs. T. behavior in the normal state. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. LiMn2O4-based cathode thin films for Li thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Haena; Shin, Dong-Wook; Choi, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    Substitution methods for Mn3+ in a spinel lithium manganese oxide with other cations have been used to prevent capacity degradation during the electrochemical charge and discharge of Li-batteries by increasing the average valence of Mn. In particular, in this review we outlin the effects of Sn substitution on the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 thin films that can be used as positive electrode in Li-batteries. The thin films were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition and solution deposition with regard to the structural and the electro-chemical characteristics.

  20. RF critical field measurement of MgB2 thin films coated on Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Eremeev, G.; Zou, G.; Dolgashev, V.; Martin, D.; Nantista, C.; Tantawi, S.; Yoneda, C.; Moeckly, B. H.; Campisi, I.

    2010-06-01

    Niobium (Nb) Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities have been used or will be used for a number of particle accelerators. The fundamental limit of the accelerating gradient has been thought to be around 50 MV/m due to its RF critical magnetic field of around 200 mT. This limit will prevent new projects requiring higher gradient and compact accelerators from considering SRF structures. There is a theory, however, that promises to overcome this limitation by coating thin (less than the penetration depth) superconductors on Nb. We initiated measurements of critical magnetic fields of Nb coated with various thin film superconductors, starting with MgB2 films deposited using reactive evaporation technique, with the goal to apply this coating to SRF cavities. This paper will present first test results of the RF critical magnetic field of a system consisting of a 10 nm B and a 100 nm MgB2 films deposited on a chemically polished 2-inch single grain Nb substrate.

  1. Low-Cost Detection of Thin Film Stress during Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a simple, cost-effective optical method for thin film stress measurements during growth and/or subsequent annealing processes. Stress arising in thin film fabrication presents production challenges for electronic devices, sensors, and optical coatings; it can lead to substrate distortion and deformation, impacting the performance of thin film products. NASA's technique measures in-situ stress using a simple, noncontact fiber optic probe in the thin film vacuum deposition chamber. This enables real-time monitoring of stress during the fabrication process and allows for efficient control of deposition process parameters. By modifying process parameters in real time during fabrication, thin film stress can be optimized or controlled, improving thin film product performance.

  2. Investigating the interfacial dynamics of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Aaron W.

    This thesis probes the interfacial dynamics and associated phenomena of thin films. Surface specific tools were used to study the self-assembly of alkanethiols, the mono- and bilayer dynamics of SF6, and the surface motion of poly(methyl methacrylate). Non-pertubative helium atom scattering was the principal technique used to investigate these systems. A variety of other complementary tools, including scanning tunneling microscopy, electron diffraction, Auger spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ellipsometry were used in tandem with the neutral atom scattering studies. Controlling the spontaneous assembly of alkanethiols on Au(111) requires a better fundamental understanding of the adsorbate-adsorbate and substrate-adsorbate interactions. Our characterization focused on two key components, the surface structure and adsorbate vibrations. The study indicates that the Au(111) reconstruction plays a larger role than anticipated in the low-density phase of alkanethiol monolayers. A new structure is proposed for the 1-decanethiol monolayer that impacts the low-energy vibrational mode. Varying the alkane chain lengths imparts insight into the assembly process via characterization of a dispersionless phonon mode. Studies of SF6 physisorbed on Au(111) bridge surface research on rare gas adsorbates with complicated dynamical organic thin films. Mono- and bilayer coverages of SF6/Au(111) were studied at cryogenic temperatures. Our experiments probed the surface properties of SF6 yielding insights into substrate and coverage effects. The study discovered a dispersionless Einstein oscillation with multiple harmonic overtones. A second layer of SF6 softened the mode, but did not show any indications of bulk or cooperative interactions. The vibrational properties of SF 6 showed both striking similarities and differences when compared with physisorbed rare gases. Lastly, this thesis will discuss studies of thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) on Si. The non-pertubative and surface specific nature of helium atom scattering allows for a deft study of the relationship between surface motion and the glass transition temperature. An added parameter in this complex organic system is the film thickness. The confinement effects and enhanced surface displacement were examined as a function of the thermal attenuation of both inelastic and elastic helium atom scattering. The Debye-Waller factor for these thin films of PMMA is similar to the low-density alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers discussed earlier.

  3. HRTEM of extended defects in Tl-2212 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, P.P.; Venturini, E.L.; Doyle, B.L.; Schoene, H.

    1997-02-01

    Many applications of high temperature superconductors, HTS, require the presence of lattice defects in the material structure to suppress the motion of magnetic vortices and enhance the critical current density, J{sub c}. The microstructure of Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{minus}{delta}} (Tl-2212) thin films which have extended defects induced by high energy Au and Cu ion irradiation is studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, HRTEM, with slow scan digital imaging. In order to optimize the HTS properties and better analyze the consequent microstructural modification, the fluence is varied. At moderate fluences, resulting in {approximately}4% reduction of the superconducting transition, large enhancements of J{sub c} and vortex pinning potential are observed. The density and microstructure of isolated defects and surrounding structure will be discussed and compared to damage profiles calculated using the TRIM code. Correlation will be made between the HRTEM results and the changes in HTS properties.

  4. Indium and tin oxide multilayered thin films as gas sensors based on reactive pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, Veronica; Orlando, Stefano; Parisi, Giovanni P.; Giardini-Guidoni, Anna

    2000-02-01

    Pulsed laser ablation is a very interesting method to deposit thin films of several materials and compounds as oxides, nitrides, insulators, semi- and super-conductors. Indium and In Oxide polycrystalline thin films have been gown on silicon substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition from two metallic targets of indium and Tin by a multilayered deposition, both in presence of oxygen, using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. These In2O3, SnO2 thin films find valid application as antistatic coatings, transparent resistive heaters, electrical electrodes for flat panel display and electrochromic device.s A comparison has been performed, among Indium Oxide, Tin Oxide, and multilayers of Indium and Tin Oxides, to evaluate their use as gas sensor devices. The influence of the physical parameters such as the substrate temperature, the laser energy, and the oxygen pressure in the deposition chamber has been investigated. The plume has been monitored by fast photography. The characterization of the films has been performed by X-Ray Diffraction, showing a preferential orientation. A four-contact probe shows that our films exhibit an increase in resistivity when exposed to NO.

  5. Wrinkling of Inhomogeneously Strained Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2013-03-01

    Wrinkles occur due to a mechanical instability when sufficient strain is applied to an incompressible thin film attached to a deformable substrate. For wrinkles made with a polymer film supported on a soft elastomer, the amplitude is directly proportional to the wavelength and the square root of the applied strain. This dependence has been confirmed with ideal substrates where the global strain is homogeneously distributed, but the influence of strain inhomogeneity has not been considered previously. We use the contact line wrinkling technique to prepare polystyrene thin films with periodic regions of different wrinkle amplitudes, hence strains, on soft substrates. The surfaces with inhomogeneous wrinkle amplitudes and directions approach a homogeneous structure upon the application of sufficiently large strains. The surface becomes homogeneous at a relatively small strain due to the growth rate difference between pre-wrinkles and new wrinkles. Moreover, we find the pre-wrinkled region starts strain localizing prior to the initially flat region. We derive relationships to describe these processes, providing fundamental knowledge of the wrinkling mechanism.

  6. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Sliz, R.; Fabritius, T.; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  7. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics. PMID:26676997

  8. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  9. Spreading Resistance on Thin Film Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Hung, D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Electrical contact [1] is important to wire-array z-pinches, metal-insulator-vacuum junctions, and high power microwave sources, etc. Contact problems account for 40 percent of all electrical failures, from small scale consumer electronics to large scale defense and aerospace systems. The crowding of the current lines at contacts leads to enhanced localized heating, a measure of which is the spreading resistance (Rs). For a microscopic area of contact (the ``a-spot'' [1]) on a thin film, we calculate Rs in both Cartesian and cylindrical geometries [2]. In the limit of small film thickness, h, the normalized thin film spreading resistance converges to the finite values, 2.77 for the Cartesian case and 0.28 for the cylindrical case. These same finite limits are found to be applicable to the a-spot between bulk solids in the high frequency limit if the skin depth is identified with h. Extension to a general a-spot geometry is proposed [2]. [4pt] [1] R. Holm, Electric Contacts, 4th ed., Springer (1967). [0pt] [2] P. Zhang et al., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59, 1936 (2012).

  10. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. For example, the magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, thanks to the strong out-of-plane anisotropy, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 50 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern, which sets the onset of the glass transition.

  11. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  12. Spin Superfluidity and Long-Range Transport in Thin-Film Ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Skarsvg, Hans; Holmqvist, Cecilia; Brataas, Arne

    2015-12-01

    In ferromagnets, magnons may condense into a single quantum state. Analogous to superconductors, this quantum state may support transport without dissipation. Recent works suggest that longitudinal spin transport through a thin-film ferromagnet is an example of spin superfluidity. Although intriguing, this tantalizing picture ignores long-range dipole interactions; here, we demonstrate that such interactions dramatically affect spin transport. In single-film ferromagnets, "spin superfluidity" only exists at length scales (a few hundred nanometers in yttrium iron garnet) somewhat larger than the exchange length. Over longer distances, dipolar interactions destroy spin superfluidity. Nevertheless, we predict the reemergence of spin superfluidity in trilayer ferromagnet-normal metal-ferromagnet films that are ?1???m in size. Such systems also exhibit other types of long-range spin transport in samples that are several micrometers in size. PMID:26684138

  13. Spin Superfluidity and Long-Range Transport in Thin-Film Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarsvg, Hans; Holmqvist, Cecilia; Brataas, Arne

    2015-12-01

    In ferromagnets, magnons may condense into a single quantum state. Analogous to superconductors, this quantum state may support transport without dissipation. Recent works suggest that longitudinal spin transport through a thin-film ferromagnet is an example of spin superfluidity. Although intriguing, this tantalizing picture ignores long-range dipole interactions; here, we demonstrate that such interactions dramatically affect spin transport. In single-film ferromagnets, "spin superfluidity" only exists at length scales (a few hundred nanometers in yttrium iron garnet) somewhat larger than the exchange length. Over longer distances, dipolar interactions destroy spin superfluidity. Nevertheless, we predict the reemergence of spin superfluidity in trilayer ferromagnet-normal metal-ferromagnet films that are 1 ? m in size. Such systems also exhibit other types of long-range spin transport in samples that are several micrometers in size.

  14. Berezinsky- Kosterlitz- Thouless transition in ultrathin NbN films near superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Jie; Il'in, K.; Siegel, M.; Lemberger, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We report temperature dependent superfluid densities ? -2(T) in ultrathin NbN films near thickness-tuned superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). Superfluid densities in these films are measured by two-coil mutual inductance apparatus. For thick films, dirty limit BCS theory fits experimental data well and this verifies the correctness of this technique. As films get thinner and closer to SIT, sharp downturns near transition temperatures (Tc), signature of Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, are observed. This downturn occurs much earlier than what 2-D XY theory predicts. This might due to smaller vortex core energy than expected in 2-D XY model. The superconducting gap, deduced from fitting low temperature ? -2(T), is linear with Tc for most films but remain finite across SIT. This is consistent with the scenario that superconductivity is destroyed by phase fluctuations. Zero temperature sheet superfluid density also shows correlation with Tc, further proving the importance of fluctuations near SIT.

  15. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto-electronic (infrared detectors, lasers, and optical communications) technologies. Low bandgaps and larger fluences employed in TPV cells result in very high current densities which make it difficult to collect the current effectively. Techniques for laser and mechanical scribing, integral interconnection, and multi-junction tandem structures which have been fairly well developed for thin-film PV solar cells could be further refined for enhancing the voltages from TPV modules. Thin-film TPV cells may be deposited on metals or back-surface reflectors. Spectral control elements such as indium-tin oxide or tin oxide may be deposited directly on the TPV convertor. It would be possible to reduce the cost of TPV technologies based on single-crystal materials being developed at present to the range of US 2-5 per watt so as to be competitive in small to medium size commercial applications. However, a further cost reduction to the range of US 35- 1 per watt to reach the more competitive large-scale residential, consumer, and hybrid-electric car markets would be possible only with the polycrystalline-thin film TPV cells.

  16. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  17. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  18. Temperature stability of the pentacene thin-film phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Armin; Novák, Jiří; Flesch, Heinz-Georg; Djuric, Tatjana; Werzer, Oliver; Haase, Anja; Resel, Roland

    2011-11-01

    This work presents the influence of temperatures above 300 K on the crystal structure and morphology of pentacene thin films. The thermal expansion of the unit cell and the relative amount of different phases are investigated via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Geometrical considerations about the specific molecular packing of the thin-film phase explain the anisotropic non-linear expansion. Furthermore, around 480 K, a phase transformation of the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is observed. In contrast, only a weak influence of the temperature on the height distribution of the thin-film phase crystallites is found.

  19. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  20. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  1. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  2. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  3. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  4. Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Misner, M.; Yang, L.; Gang, O.; Ocko, B.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ion complexation within cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films was found to affect the ordering process of the copolymer films during solvent annealing, significantly enhancing the long-range positional order. Small amounts of alkali halide or metal salts were added to PS-b-PEO, on the order of a few ions per chain, where the salt complexed with the PEO block. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains strongly depended on the salt concentration and the ability of the ions to complex with PEO. The process shows large flexibility in the choice of salt used, including gold or cobalt salts, whereby well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated inside the copolymer microdomains. By further increasing the amount of added salts, the copolymer remained highly ordered at large degrees of swelling and demonstrated long-range positional correlations of the microdomains in the swollen state, which holds promise as a route to addressable media.

  5. Process for making dense thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-07-26

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for firing of device substrate to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  6. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach is that the experimentally inaccessible out-of-plane material properties are determined by fitting the model predictions to the measured nonlinear behavior of the film. Creep tests, uniaxial tension tests, and biaxial bubble tests are used to determine the material parameters. The model has been validated experimentally, against data obtained from uniaxial tension tests and biaxial cylindrical tests at a wide range of temperatures and strain rates spanning two orders of magnitude.

  7. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach is that the experimentally inaccessible out-of-plane material properties are determined by fitting the model predictions to the measured nonlinear behavior of the film. Creep tests, uniaxial tension tests, and biaxial bubble tests are used to determine the material parameters. The model has been validated experimentally, against data obtained from uniaxial tension tests and biaxial cylindrical tests at a wide range of temperatures and strain rates spanning two orders of magnitude.

  8. Low temperature OMCVD of thin rhodium films

    SciTech Connect

    Laia, J.R.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Smith, D.C. ); DeSantis, J.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Thin, highly reflective rhodium films with metal compositions greater than 98% (elemental weight percentage) have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition using Rh(allyl){sub 3} (allyl = {eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5}) in the presence of a hydrogen plasma. Uniform, crystalline films that adhere well to several types of substrates result from depositions at temperatures as low as 150{degrees}C. Depositions using H{sub 2} (no plasma), or an argon plasma yields material that is amorphous, contains a significant amount (>14%) of residual carbon, and has a dramatically slower growth rate. The composition of these materials does not vary significantly from that of the materials obtained from the in vacuo thermal deposition with Rh(allyl){sub 3}. 23 refs.

  9. High Performance Airbrushed Organic Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.; Richter, L; Dinardo, B; Jaye, C; Conrad, B; Ro, H; Germack, D; Fischer, D; DeLongchamp, D; Gunlach, D

    2010-01-01

    Spray-deposited poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) transistors were characterized using electrical and structural methods. Thin-film transistors with octyltrichlorosilane treated gate dielectrics and spray-deposited P3HT active layers exhibited a saturation regime mobility as high as 0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the best mobilities observed in high molecular mass P3HT transistors prepared using other methods. Optical and atomic force microscopy showed the presence of individual droplets with an average diameter of 20 {micro}m and appreciable large-scale film inhomogeneities. Despite these inhomogeneities, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the device-relevant channel interface indicated excellent orientation of the P3HT.

  10. Galvanostatic Ion Detrapping Rejuvenates Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Arvizu, Miguel A; Wen, Rui-Tao; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E; Martinu, Ludvik; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G

    2015-12-01

    Ion trapping under charge insertion-extraction is well-known to degrade the electrochemical performance of oxides. Galvanostatic treatment was recently shown capable to rejuvenate the oxide, but the detailed mechanism remained uncertain. Here we report on amorphous electrochromic (EC) WO3 thin films prepared by sputtering and electrochemically cycled in a lithium-containing electrolyte under conditions leading to severe loss of charge exchange capacity and optical modulation span. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) documented pronounced Li(+) trapping associated with the degradation of the EC properties and, importantly, that Li(+) detrapping, caused by a weak constant current drawn through the film for some time, could recover the original EC performance. Thus, ToF-ERDA provided direct and unambiguous evidence for Li(+) detrapping. PMID:26599729

  11. Fabrication of thin film heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film heat-flux sensors have been constructed in the form of arrays of thermocouples on upper and lower surfaces of an insulating layer, so that flux values are proportional to the temperature difference across the upper and lower surface of the insulation material. The sensor thermocouples are connected in thermopile arrangement, and the structure is patterned with photolithographic techniques. Both chromel-alumel and Pt-Pt/Rh thermocouples have been devised; the later produced 28 microvolts when exposed to the radiation of a 1000 C furnace.

  12. Robust, Thin Optical Films for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be extremely sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, extreme temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.

  13. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Rushland, PA); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  14. Sensitive detection of NMR for thin films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soonchil

    2015-10-01

    NMR can provide valuable information about thin films, but its relatively low sensitivity allows data acquisition only from bulk samples. The sensitivity problem is circumvented by detection schemes with higher sensitivity and/or enhanced polarization. In most of these ingenious techniques, electrons play a central role through hyperfine interactions with the nuclei of interest or the conversion of the spin orientation to an electric charge. The state of the art in NMR is the control of a single nuclear spin state, the complete form of which is one of the ultimate goals of nanotechnology. PMID:26549846

  15. Nanostructured thin films and their macrobehaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Mei-Ling; Liao, Shih-Fang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    The iridescence green band and cyan tail of the wing on Papilio blumei butterfly were investigated. The bi-color phenomenon on the scales of butterfly wings was found and analyzed. The spectral change with thickness of chitin-air layers, width of air hole, total layer numbers and incident angle of light were simulated by FDTD method. 2D photonic-crystal model was applied to explain the change of reflectance spectra and color with angle. The replica of structural color and nanostructured thin films for Papilio blumei butterflies was fabricated successfully by three main techniques, PS spheres bedding, electron-beam gun evaporation and ICP etching.

  16. Articles including thin film monolayers and multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, B.I.

    1992-12-31

    This invention pertains to thin film assemblies or devices useful as sensors, nonlinear optical materials, and trace material scavengers. It claims a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate. A metal species may be provided attached to the ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand may be provided attached to the metal species. A second metal species may be provided attached to the multifunctional ligand.

  17. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Device Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, John H.

    2003-01-01

    This project will primarily involve the fabrication and characterization of thin films and devices for photovoltaic applications. The materials involved include Il-VI materials such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide, and doped analogs. The equipment ot be used will be sputtering and physical evaporations. The types of characterization includes electrical, XRD, SEM and CV and related measurements to establish the efficiency of the devices. The faculty fellow will be involved in a research team composed of NASA and University researchers as well as students and other junior researchers.

  18. Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystalline Solid Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Soumya R.; Singh, Ajaya K.; Deshmukh, Lata; Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Md.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past decades, chemical bath deposition (CBD) has proven its suitability and has established itself as one of the prominent techniques for depositing different metal chalcogenide semiconductor thin films via ion-by-ion or by adsorption of colloidal particles from the chemical bath on the substrate. It is a simple, cost-effective and convenient method for large-scale deposition and has recently received a surge of interest. This article reviews the research progress in various methods or techniques including CBD for the preparation and study of the properties of metal chalcogenides. Various parameters for efficient preparation and variation in structural, morphological, compositional, optical properties, etc. are also briefly discussed.

  19. Studies on superconducting thin films for SRF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Haberkorn, Nestor; Civale, Leonardo; Hawley, Marilyn; Schulze, Roland; Zocco, Adam; Eremeev, Grigory; Guo, Jiquan; Dolgashev, Valery; Martin, David; Tantawi, Sami; Yoneda, Charles; Doi, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi

    2010-09-09

    In order to overcome the fundamental limit of Nb's critical magnetic field ({approx} 200 mT) that corresponds to E{sub acc} {approx}50 MV/m, an idea of coating several thin layers of a superconductor has been proposed. MgB{sub 2}, a superconductor that has a T{sub c} of {approx}39 K, has been studied to explore the effect of coating in terms of DC and RF critical magnetic fields, and RF surface losses. MgB{sub 2} has shown an excellent behavior, although there is some discrepancy between DC and RF measurements.

  20. Channel stamping lithography of thin film materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewhurst, Scott A.

    Channel Stamping is a soft lithography technique that can be used to produce patterned films of inorganic and polymer materials, with feature dimensions as small as 10's of nanometers. Lithography is achieved by filling the recessed portions (channels) of a poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, stamp with a solution precursor or polymer that takes on the shape and dimensions of the channels of the stamp. The solidified precursor or polymer is then transferred to a substrate by placing the stamp into contact with the substrate surface and inducing a load onto the stamp sufficient to cause the material in the channels to contact the surface and adhere. Withdrawing the load from the stamp and removing it from the substrate surface leaves a patterned film of the precursor, which may be further processed to form the desired product. Channel Stamping techniques were developed to allow patterning with a versatility rivaling photolithographic techniques, but using inexpensive wet-chemical processing. Channel Stamping was employed to fabricate silica stripes arrays for use in GaN Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth, log-pile photonic band-gap structures, and through etch removal of the silica, microfluidic channel arrays. Embedded arrays of silica stripes in TiO2 films (anatase, rutile and epitaxial rutile) were produced using solution precursors of Ti-oxopolymers and the crystallization and epitaxy behavior investigated, demonstrating that micro and nano-scale structures may be fabricated though entirely chemical solution deposition and soft-lithography techniques. Morphological instability behaviors, which lead to failures in thin films, of the silica stripes on sapphire substrates were observed and investigated, yielding new findings about the capillary instability of patterned films and about crystallization phenomena of silica films.

  1. Orientation-dependent critical currents in Y sub 1 Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x epitaxial thin films: Evidence for intrinsic flux pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, D.K.; Klabunde, C.E.; Feenstra, R.; Lowndes, D.H.; Norton, D.P.; Budai, J.D.; Kerchner, H.R.; Thompson, J.R.; Zhu, S. ); Marwick, A.D. )

    1990-01-01

    For YBCO epitaxial thin films the basal plane transport critical current density J{sub c}, flowing perpendicular to an applied magnetic field H, depends sensitively on the orientation of the crystal with respect to H. In particular, J{sub c} is sharply peaked and greatly enhanced when H is precisely parallel to the copper-oxygen planes. Experiments on a series of epitaxial monolithic and superconductor-insulator multilayer thin films provide clear evidence that the enhancement is a bulk, rather than surface or thin sample, phenomenon. Measurements of the orientation dependence are presented and compared with a model of intrinsic flux pinning'' by the layered crystal structure.

  2. Organic thin films. Rational synthesis of organic thin films with exceptional long-range structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Seiki, Noriya; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Kajitani, Takashi; Ishiwari, Fumitaka; Kosaka, Atsuko; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Someya, Takao; Fukushima, Takanori

    2015-06-01

    Highly oriented, domain-boundary-free organic thin films could find use in various high-performance organic materials and devices. However, even with state-of-the-art supramolecular chemistry, it is difficult to construct organic thin films with structural integrity in a size regime beyond the micrometer length scale. We show that a space-filling design, relying on the two-dimensional (2D) nested hexagonal packing of a particular type of triptycene, enables the formation of large-area molecular films with long-range 2D structural integrity up to the centimeter length scale by vacuum evaporation, spin-coating, and cooling from the isotropic liquid of the triptycene. X-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic observations reveal that triptycene molecules form a completely oriented 2D (hexagonal triptycene array) + 1D (layer stacking) structure, which is key for the long-range propagation of structural order. PMID:26045433

  3. Superconductor films with improved flux pinning and reduced AC losses

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-04-05

    The present invention relates to a method for producing a defect-containing superconducting film, the method comprising (a) depositing a phase-separable layer epitaxially onto a biaxially-textured substrate, wherein the phase-separable layer includes at least two phase-separable components; (b) achieving nanoscale phase separation of the phase-separable layer such that a phase-separated layer including at least two phase-separated components is produced; and (c) depositing a superconducting film epitaxially onto said phase-separated components of the phase-separated layer such that nanoscale features of the phase-separated layer are propagated into the superconducting film.

  4. Electrodeposited CulnSe2 Thin Film Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R. P.; Mantovani, J. G.; Bailey, S. G.; Hepp, A. F.; Gordon, E. M.; Haraway, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated thin films and junctions based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) which have been grown by electrochemical deposition. CIS is a leading candidate for use in polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method for producing thin-film CIS. We have produced both p and n type CIS thin films from the same aqueous solution by simply varying the deposition potential. A CIS pn junction was deposited using a step-function potential. Stoichiometry of the single layer films was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Carrier densities of these films increased with deviation from stoichiometry, as determined by the capacitance versus voltage dependence of Schottky contacts. Optical bandgaps for the single layer films as determined by transmission spectroscopy were also found to increase with deviation from stoichiometry. Rectifying current versus voltage characteristics were demonstrated for the Schottky barriers and for the pn junction.

  5. Electrodeposited CuInSe2 Thin Film Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R. P.; Mantovani, J. G.; Bailey, S. G.; Hepp, A. F.; Gordon, E. M.; Haraway, R.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated thin films and junctions based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) which have been grown by electrochemical deposition. CIS is a leading candidate for use in polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method for producing thin-film CIS. We have produced both p and n type CIS thin films from the same aqueous solution by simply varying the deposition potential. A CIS pn junction was deposited using a step-function potential. Stoichiometry of the single layer films was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Carrier densities of these films increased with deviation from stoichiometry, as determined by the capacitance versus voltage dependence of Schottky contacts. Optical bandgaps for the single layer films as determined by transmission spectroscopy were also found to increase with deviation from stoichiometry. Rectifying current versus voltage characteristics were demonstrated for the Schottky barriers and for the pn junction.

  6. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips; Haipeng Wang; Andy Wu; T. J. Renk; P Provencio

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV. The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.

  7. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  8. Dynamic interfaces in an organic thin film

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chenggang; Liu, Qiang; Riddick, Blake C.; Cullen, William G.; Reutt-Robey, Janice; Weeks, John D.; Williams, Ellen D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-dimensional boundaries between phases and domains in organic thin films are important in charge transport and recombination. Here, fluctuations of interfacial boundaries in an organic thin film, acridine-9-carboxylic acid on Ag(111), have been visualized in real time and measured quantitatively using scanning tunneling microscopy. The boundaries fluctuate via molecular exchange with exchange time constants of 1030 ms at room temperature, with length-mode fluctuations that should yield characteristic f?1/2 signatures for frequencies less than ?100 Hz. Although acridine-9-carboxylic acid has highly anisotropic intermolecular interactions, it forms islands that are compact in shape with crystallographically distinct boundaries that have essentially identical thermodynamic and kinetic properties. The physical basis of the modified symmetry is shown to arise from significantly different substrate interactions induced by alternating orientations of successive molecules in the condensed phase. Incorporating this additional set of interactions in a latticegas model leads to effective multicomponent behavior, as in the BlumeEmeryGriffiths model, and can straightforwardly reproduce the experimentally observed isotropic behavior. The general multicomponent description allows the domain shapes and boundary fluctuations to be tuned from isotropic to highly anisotropic in terms of the balance between intermolecular interactions and moleculesubstrate interactions. PMID:18765797

  9. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  10. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  11. The role of microstructural phenomena in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, D.E.; Lambeth, D.N.

    1992-12-31

    The subject is germane to magnetic recording media. Results during the first 2 years are presented under the following headings: atomic resolution TEM of CoNiCr films; CoNiCr and CoCrTa thin films; development of texture; and CoSm/Cr thin films. The HREM results showed that defects in Co-based films may be responsible for higher coercivity. Findings are presented on the effects of Cr interlayers on the microstructure of the second Co-based film in Co/Cr/Co/Cr multilayer films. Proposed research plans are outlined.

  12. The role of microstructural phenomena in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, D.E.; Lambeth, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    The subject is germane to magnetic recording media. Results during the first 2 years are presented under the following headings: atomic resolution TEM of CoNiCr films; CoNiCr and CoCrTa thin films; development of texture; and CoSm/Cr thin films. The HREM results showed that defects in Co-based films may be responsible for higher coercivity. Findings are presented on the effects of Cr interlayers on the microstructure of the second Co-based film in Co/Cr/Co/Cr multilayer films. Proposed research plans are outlined.

  13. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  14. Structural and optical properties of Tin sulphide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkari, A.; Ben Nasr, T.; Kamoun, N.

    2007-09-01

    Tin sulphide SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). By investigating the influence of triethanolamine (TEA) concentration on the properties of deposited films, we obtained the optimum deposition parameter. These films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the orthorhombic structure and the direct band gap energy is found to be about 1.65 eV, for films prepared at TEA concentration films equal to 13.5 M.

  15. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  16. Ti-Cr-Al-O Thin Film Resistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-03-21

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are produced for use as an electrical resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O{sub 2}. Vertical resistivity values from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 10} Ohm-cm are measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O films. The film resistivity can be design selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistor is found to be thermally stable unlike other metal-oxide films.

  17. Structural and optical properties of Tin sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Akkari, A.; Ben Nasr, T.; Kamoun, N.

    2007-09-19

    Tin sulphide SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). By investigating the influence of triethanolamine (TEA) concentration on the properties of deposited films, we obtained the optimum deposition parameter. These films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the orthorhombic structure and the direct band gap energy is found to be about 1.65 eV, for films prepared at TEA concentration films equal to 13.5 M.

  18. Bioglass thin films for biomimetic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbecaru, C.; Alexandru, H. V.; Ianculescu, Adelina; Popescu, A.; Socol, G.; Sima, F.; Mihailescu, Ion

    2009-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain bioglass (BG) thin film coatings on titanium substrates. An UV excimer laser KrF* ( λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the BG targets with 57 or 61 wt.% SiO 2 content (and Na 2O-K 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5 oxides). The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere at 13 Pa and for substrates temperature of 400 °C. The PLD films displayed typical BG of 2-5 μm particulates nucleated on the film surface or embedded in. The PLD films stoichiometry was found to be the same as the targets. XRD spectra have shown, the glass coatings obtained, had an amorphous structure. One set of samples, deposited in the same conditions, were dipped in simulated body fluids (SBFs) and subsequently extracted one by one after several time intervals 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. After washing in deionized water and drying, the surface morphology of the samples and theirs composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). After 3-7 days the Si content substantially decreases in the coatings and PO 43- maxima start to increase in FTIR spectra. The XRD spectra also confirm this evolution. After 14-21 days the XRD peaks show a crystallized fraction of the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAP). The SEM micrographs show also significant changes of the films surface morphology. The coalescence of the BG droplets can be seen. The dissolution and growth processes could be assigned to the ionic exchange between BG and SBFs.

  19. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  20. Use of thin films in high-temperature superconducting bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J. R.; Cansiz, A.

    1999-09-30

    In a PM/HTS bearing, locating a thin-film HTS above a bulk HTS was expected to maintain the large levitation force provided by the bulk with a lower rotational drag provided by the very high current density of the film. For low drag to be achieved, the thin film must shield the bulk from inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Measurement of rotational drag of a PM/HTS bearing that used a combination of bulk and film HTS showed that the thin film is not effective in reducing the rotational drag. Subsequent experiments, in which an AC coil was placed above the thin-film HTS and the magnetic field on the other side of the film was measured, showed that the thin film provides good shielding when the coil axis is perpendicular to the film surface but poor shielding when the coil axis is parallel to the surface. This is consistent with the lack of reduction in rotational drag being due to a horizontal magnetic moment of the permanent magnet. The poor shielding with the coil axis parallel to the film surface is attributed to the aspect ratio of the film and the three-dimensional nature of the current flow in the film for this coil orientation.

  1. Electrochromic switching of monolithic Prussian blue thin film devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianxi; Zhou, Wencai; Walheim, Stefan; Wang, Zhengbang; Lindemann, Peter; Heissler, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Weidler, Peter G; Schimmel, Thomas; Wll, Christof; Redel, Engelbert

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic, crystalline and highly oriented coordination network compound (CNC) Prussian blue (PB) thin films have been deposited though different routes on conductive substrates. Characterization of the monolithic thin films reveals a long-term stability, even after many redox cycles the crystallinity as well as the high orientation remain intact during the electrochromic switching process. PMID:26072745

  2. XPS depth profile study of sprayed CZTS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepu, D. R.; Rajeshmon, V. G.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-01

    XPS depth profile studies were carried out to analyze the composition and stoichiometry of sprayed CZTS thin films giving an efficiency of 1.85% in CZTS based thin film solar cell. Surface layers were nearly stoichiometric (Cu:Zn:Sn:S=2:1:1:4) whereas the inner layers were found to be Copper rich in composition making it electrically more conductive.

  3. Applications of thin film thermocouples for surface temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-08-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  4. Thin film knitting pattern morphology from a miktoarm star terpolymer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Kyoon; Nunns, Adam; Sun, Xue Yin; Manners, Ian; Ross, Caroline A

    2014-04-23

    Thin film knitting pattern from a miktoarm star terpolymer is demonstrated. Such structures have been predicted but not observed in bulk or thin film form. The knitting pattern exhibits well organized periodic structures consisting of undulating lamellae and alternating cylinders, with well-defined defects that result in sharp 90 bends and T junctions. PMID:24469920

  5. Tools to Synthesize the Learning of Thin Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Slusarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase

  6. Applications of thin-film thermocouples for surface temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-10-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, thereby leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a Class 1000 Clean Room. The thermocouples are platinum-13% rhodium vs platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  7. Tools to Synthesize the Learning of Thin Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Slusarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase…

  8. Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  9. Structural and optical properties of nanoscale Galinobisuitite thin films.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Abd-Elkader OH; Deraz NM

    1842-01-01

    Galinobisuitite thin films of (Bi2S3)(PbS) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). Thin films were prepared by a modified chemical deposition process by allowing the triethanolamine (TEA) complex of Bi(3+) and Pb(2+) to react with S(2)- ions, which are released slowly by the dissociation of the thiourea (TU) solution. The films are polycrystalline and the average crystallite size is 35 nm. The composition of the films was measured using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique. The films are very adherent to the substrates. The crystal structure of Galinobisuitite thin films was calculated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The surface morphology and roughness of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and stylus profilers respectively. The optical band gaps of the films were estimated from optical measurements.

  10. Structural and optical properties of nanoscale Galinobisuitite thin films.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elkader, Omar H; Deraz, N M

    2014-01-01

    Galinobisuitite thin films of (Bi2S3)(PbS) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). Thin films were prepared by a modified chemical deposition process by allowing the triethanolamine (TEA) complex of Bi(3+) and Pb(2+) to react with S(2)- ions, which are released slowly by the dissociation of the thiourea (TU) solution. The films are polycrystalline and the average crystallite size is 35 nm. The composition of the films was measured using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique. The films are very adherent to the substrates. The crystal structure of Galinobisuitite thin films was calculated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The surface morphology and roughness of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and stylus profilers respectively. The optical band gaps of the films were estimated from optical measurements. PMID:24473136

  11. Structural and Optical Properties of Nanoscale Galinobisuitite Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elkader, Omar H.; Deraz, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Galinobisuitite thin films of (Bi2S3)(PbS) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). Thin films were prepared by a modified chemical deposition process by allowing the triethanolamine (TEA) complex of Bi3+ and Pb2+ to react with S2? ions, which are released slowly by the dissociation of the thiourea (TU) solution. The films are polycrystalline and the average crystallite size is 35 nm. The composition of the films was measured using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique. The films are very adherent to the substrates. The crystal structure of Galinobisuitite thin films was calculated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The surface morphology and roughness of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and stylus profilers respectively. The optical band gaps of the films were estimated from optical measurements. PMID:24473136

  12. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  13. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  14. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Girault, B.; Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O.; Sauvage, T.

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  15. Reactively sputtered titanium carbide thin films: Preparation and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eizenberg, M.; Murarka, S. P.

    1983-06-01

    The low resistivity and refractory nature of titanium carbide makes it potentially useful as a diffusion barrier in thin film metallization schemes. In the present investigation, deposition and properties of thin titanium carbide films have been investigated. The films were deposited by reactive radio frequency sputtering in methane-argon mixtures on a variety of substrates. The effects of methane to argon ratio, total sputtering pressure, and power on the film deposition rate, composition and properties were determined. There were interactive effects of these parameters on the composition and properties of these films. Resistivity increased with carbon content; for Ti/C?1 it was 200 ?? cm. Stress that was compressive was maximum in the nearly stoichiometric TiC film. Grain size was small in all films, especially so in carbon rich films. All stoichiometric titanium carbide films were resistant to HF solutions. Films with TiC/?1 dissolved easily in ethylene dinitrilo tetra acetric acid (EDTA) solution.

  16. Tuning Superconductivity in FeSe Thin Films via Magnesium Doping.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenbin; Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Shahriar Al Hossain, Mohammed; Wang, Xiaolin; Cai, Chuanbing; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-03-30

    In contrast to its bulk crystal, the FeSe thin film or layer exhibits better superconductivity performance, which recently attracted much interest in its fundamental research as well as in potential applications around the world. In the present work, tuning superconductivity in FeSe thin films was achieved by magnesium-doping technique. Tc is significantly enhanced from 10.7 K in pure FeSe films to 13.4 K in optimized Mg-doped ones, which is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of bulk crystals. This is the first time achieving the enhancement of superconducting transition temperature in FeSe thin films with practical thickness (120 nm) via a simple Mg-doping process. Moreover, these Mg-doped FeSe films are quite stable in atmosphere with Hc2 up to 32.7 T and Tc(zero) up to 12 K, respectively, implying their outstanding potential for practical applications in high magnetic fields. It was found that Mg enters the matrix of FeSe lattice, and does not react with FeSe forming any other secondary phase. Actually, Mg first occupies Fe-vacancies, and then substitutes for some Fe in the FeSe crystal lattices when Fe-vacancies are fully filled. Simultaneously, external Mg-doping introduces sufficient electron doping and induces the variation of electron carrier concentration according to Hall coefficient measurements. This is responsible for the evolution of superconducting performance in FeSe thin films. Our results provide a new strategy to improve the superconductivity of 11 type Fe-based superconductors and will help us to understand the intrinsic mechanism of this unconventional superconducting system. PMID:26955971

  17. Effect of film thickness and texture morphology on the physical properties of lead sulfide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi Motlagh, Z.; Azim Araghi, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films were prepared onto ultra-clean quartz substrate by the electron beam gun (EBG) evaporation method. The thicknesses of the thin films were 50, 100, 150 and 200 nm. They were annealed at 423 K for 2 h. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of the thin films showed their texture morphology at the surface of the quartz substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the thin films showed that they have a cubic phase and rock-salt structure after annealing. The average crystallite size for the thin films was in the range of 32–100 nm. Optical measurements confirmed that crystalline thin films have a direct band gap that increases by decreasing the film thickness. This blue shift of the band gap of thin films compared to the bulk structure can be attributed to the quantum confinement effects in the nanoparticles. A decrease in conductivity by increasing the temperature confirmed the positive temperature coefficient of resistance in the thin films that showed the dominant conduction mechanism is via a band-like transition. The density of localized states at the Fermi level increases by increasing the film thickness. Current–voltage behavior of the thin films showed an increase in both dark current and photocurrent by increasing the crystallite size which is discussed, based on the presence of trap states and barriers in nanostructures.

  18. Nanotwin hardening in a cubic chromium oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuma; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Matsui, Yoshio; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Nakayama, Tadachika; Niihara, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    NaCl-type (B1) chromium oxide (CrO) has been expected to have a high hardness value and does not exist as an equilibrium phase. We report a B1-based Cr0.67O thin film with a thickness of 144 nm prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an epitaxial thin film on a MgO single crystal. The thin film contained a number of stacking faults and had a nanotwinned structure composed of B1 with disordered vacancies and corundum structures. The Cr0.67O thin film had a high indentation hardness value of 44 GPa, making it the hardest oxide thin film reported to date.

  19. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  20. Electron-interface scattering in thin metal films.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2010-04-01

    Electron-interface scattering during electron-phonon nonequilibrium in thin films creates another pathway for electron system energy loss as characteristic lengths of thin films continue to decrease. As power densities in nanodevices increase, excitations of electrons from sub-conduction-band energy levels will become more probable. These sub-conduction-band electronic excitations significantly affect the material's thermophysical properties. In this work, the effects of d-band electronic excitations are considered in electron energy transfer processes in thin metal films. In thin films with thicknesses less than the electron mean free path, ballistic electron transport leads to electron-interface scattering. The ballistic component of electron transport, leading to electron-interface scattering, is studied by a ballistic-diffusive approximation of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The effect of d-band excitations on electron-interface energy transfer is analyzed during electron-phonon nonequilibrium after short pulsed laser heating in thin films.

  1. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Nanoporous Cobalt Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunming; Nori, Sudhakar; Wei, Wei; Aggarwal, Ravi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Narayan, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous cobalt thin films were deposited on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes at room temperature using pulsed laser deposition. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoporous cobalt thin films retained the monodisperse pore size and high porosity of the anodized aluminum oxide substrates. Temperature- and field-dependent magnetic data obtained between 10 K and 350 K showed large hysteresis behavior in these materials. The increase of coercivity values was larger for nanoporous cobalt thin films than for multilayered cobalt/alumina thin films. The average diameter of the cobalt nanograins in the nanoporous cobalt thin films was estimated to be ~5 nm for blocking temperatures near room temperature. These results suggest that pulsed laser deposition may be used to fabricate nanoporous magnetic materials with unusual properties for biosensing, drug delivery, data storage, and other technological applications. PMID:19198344

  2. Development of Thin-Film Battery Powered Transdermal Medical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.B.; Sein, T.

    1999-07-06

    Research carried out at ORNL has led to the development of solid state thin-film rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. These unique devices can be fabricated in a variety of shapes and to any required size, large or small, on virtually any type of substrate. Because they have high energies per unit of volume and mass and because they are rechargeable, thin-film lithium batteries have potentially many applications as small power supplies in consumer and special electronic products. Initially, the objective of this project was to develop thin-film battery powered products. Initially, the objective of this project was to develop thin-film battery powered transdermal electrodes for recording electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms. These ''active'' electrode would eliminate the effect of interference and improve the reliability in diagnosing heart or brain malfunctions. Work in the second phase of this project was directed at the development of thin-film battery powered implantable defibrillators.

  3. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  4. Nonlinear optical microscopy for imaging thin films and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, L.B.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second harmonic generation to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. We have demonstrated the use of several nonlinear optical responses for imaging thin films. The second harmonic response of a thin film of C{sub 60} has been used to image patterned films. Two photon absorption light induced fluorescence has been used to image patterned thin films of Rhodamine 6G. Applications of nonlinear optical microscopy include the imaging of charge injection and photoinduced charge transfer between layers in semiconductor heterojunction devices as well as across membranes in biological systems.

  5. A versatile platform for magnetostriction measurements in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernpeintner, M.; Holländer, R. B.; Seitner, M. J.; Weig, E. M.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Huebl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile nanomechanical sensing platform for the investigation of magnetostriction in thin films. It is based on a doubly clamped silicon nitride nanobeam resonator covered with a thin magnetostrictive film. Changing the magnetization direction within the film plane by an applied magnetic field generates a magnetoelastic stress and thus changes the resonance frequency of the nanobeam. A measurement of the resulting resonance frequency shift, e.g., by optical interferometry, allows to quantitatively determine the magnetostriction constants of the thin film. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we determine the magnetostriction constants of a 10 nm thick polycrystalline cobalt film, showing very good agreement with literature values. The presented technique aims, in particular, for the precise measurement of magnetostriction in a variety of (conducting and insulating) thin films, which can be deposited by, e.g., electron beam deposition, thermal evaporation, or sputtering.

  6. Multiscale computations of thin films between colliding drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulhasanzadeh, Bahman; Dabiri, Sadegh; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2013-11-01

    In multiphase flows thin films frequently appear between fluid blobs colliding with each other. These films can become very thin and be difficult to resolve accurately in numerical simulations, particularly in DNS of many co-flowing drops, requiring very fine resolution and resulting in excessive computational cost due to very fine uniform grids or time consuming adaptive mesh refinement. Here, we describe an algorithm for detecting thin films using a front tracking method. We also propose a subscale model to describe the physics and the evolution of a thin film between two drops. Comparison between results for a fully resolved film on a fine grid and simulations using a much coarser grid plus the model for the description of the film, shows good agreement. This study was funded in part by NSF Grant CTS-0522581.

  7. Density of organic thin films in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cindy X.; Xiao, Steven; Xu, Gu

    2015-07-01

    A practical parameter, the volume density of organic thin films, found to affect the electronic properties and in turn the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs), is investigated in order to benefit the polymer synthesis and thin film preparation in OPVs. To establish the correlation between film density and device performance, the density of organic thin films with various treatments was obtained, by two-dimensional X-ray diffraction measurement using the density mapping with respect to the crystallinity of thin films. Our results suggest that the OPV of higher performance has a denser photoactive layer, which may hopefully provide a solution to the question of whether the film density matters in organic electronics, and help to benefit the OPV industry in terms of better polymer design, standardized production, and quality control with less expenditure.

  8. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae

    2015-07-01

    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications. PMID:25839120

  9. Characterization of reliability of printed indium tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2013-11-01

    Recently, decreasing the amount of indium (In) element in the indium tin oxide (ITO) used for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film has become necessary for cost reduction. One possible approach to this problem is using printed ITO thin film instead of sputtered. Previous studies showed potential for printed ITO thin films as the TCO layer. However, nothing has been reported on the reliability of printed ITO thin films. Therefore, in this study, the reliability of printed ITO thin films was characterized. ITO nanoparticle ink was fabricated and printed onto a glass substrate followed by heating at 400 degrees C. After measurement of the initial values of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the printed ITO thin films, their reliabilities were characterized with an isothermal-isohumidity test for 500 hours at 85 degrees C and 85% RH, a thermal shock test for 1,000 cycles between 125 degrees C and -40 degrees C, and a high temperature storage test for 500 hours at 125 degrees C. The same properties were investigated after the tests. Printed ITO thin films showed stable properties despite extremely thermal and humid conditions. Sheet resistances of the printed ITO thin films changed slightly from 435 omega/square to 735 omega/square 507 omega/square and 442 omega/square after the tests, respectively. Optical transmittances of the printed ITO thin films were slightly changed from 84.74% to 81.86%, 88.03% and 88.26% after the tests, respectively. These test results suggest the stability of printed ITO thin film despite extreme environments. PMID:24245331

  10. High-Temperature Superconducting/Ferroelectric, Tunable Thin-Film Microwave Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    1998-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, ferroelectric films such as SrTiO3 and Ba(sub x)Sr(sub 1-x)TiO3, are being used in conjunction with YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-delta) high-temperature superconducting thin films to fabricate tunable microwave components such as filters, phase shifters, and local oscillators. These structures capitalize on the variation of the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric film upon the application of a direct-current electric field, as well as on the low microwave losses of high-temperature superconductors relative to their conventional conductor counterparts. For example, the surface resistance for a YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-delta) thin film at 10 GHz and 77 K is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of copper or gold at the same temperature and frequency. SrTiO3 and Ba(sub x)Sr(sub 1-x)TiO3 films are used because their crystal structure and lattice parameters are similar to those of YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-delta), thus enabling the growth of highly textured YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-delta) films with high critical current densities (i.e., greater than 1 MA/sq cm) on the underlying ferroelectric film, or alternatively, of highly textured ferroelectric film on the underlying YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-delta) film.

  11. Characterization of Thin Films and Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2010-01-01

    Just as the numbers and types of thin films have grown dramatically, the needs and approaches for their characterization have also expanded significantly. Adequate characterization of a film or coating depends on the process to create the coating as well as the planned or potential application(s) and expected lifetime. Characterization of a coating or film necessarily requires application of methods that determine properties of the coating and not primarily the substrate. This places some focus on methods that determine properties of layers and not "bulk" material. However, the increasing importance of micro- and nano-structures in coatings and films places an increased importance in methods with high spatial resolution. The growing use of organic films and coatings and the importance of molecular functionalization of inorganic surfaces increase the importance for different types of molecular characterization tools. In most circumstances appropriate characterization requires use of a combination of tools. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to the basic methods and overview applications for some of the most important tools for characterization of films, coatings and surfaces. The chapter will be organized in six sections: Technique Overview This section provides a high level summary of the types of information that can be obtained by different methods and includes information about their sensitivity and resolution. Incident Photon Methods Techniques involving incident photons are described and some brief examples of application are shown. Methods included are: x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray reflectivity (XRR), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Incident Ion Methods - Methods initiated by ion irradiation are summarized including: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), ion channeling, elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), glow discharge mass spectrometry and uses of focused ion beams (FIB) (often in combination with scanning electron microscopy). Incident Electron Methods Methods involving incident electrons include: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron diffraction (low energy electron diffraction [LEED] and reflection high energy electron diffraction [RHEED]). Other Methods Additional methods described include scanning probe microscopy (SPM) (including scanning tunneling microscopy [STM] and atomic force microscopy [AFM]) and atom probe microscopy.

  12. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  13. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  14. Interconnected Si nanocrystals forming thin films with controlled bandgap values

    SciTech Connect

    Nychyporuk, T.; Zakharko, Yu.; Lysenko, V.; Lemiti, M.

    2009-08-24

    Interconnected Si nanocrystals forming homogeneous thin films with controlled bandgap values from 1.2 to 2.9 eV were formed by pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique under dusty plasma conditions. The chosen values of plasma duration time correspond to specific phases of the dust nanoparticle growth. Structural and optical properties of the deposited nanostructured films are described in details. These nanocrystalline Si thin films seem to be promising candidates for all-Si tandem solar cell applications.

  15. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  16. Stress distribution in Si under patterned thin film structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.P.; Huang, L.; Guo, W.S.; Cheung, W.Y.; Zhao, S.

    1997-05-01

    The authors have employed the infrared photoelasticity (PE) method to study the stress distribution in Si substrates under patterned thin film structures such as thermal oxide layers partially covered by metal films and oxide layers with long trench openings. It is demonstrated that a lot of information on the two dimensional stress distribution in the substrate under patterned thin film structures can be obtained from PE experiments. The capability, limitation, and further development of the PE method for semiconductor applications are discussed.

  17. Tensile and Adhesion Properties of Metal Thin Films Deposited onto Polyester Film Substrate Prepared by a Conventional Vacuum Evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Takuya; Saitoh, Shou; Iwamori, Satoru

    Four kinds of metal, such as aluminum, copper, indium and tin, thin films were deposited onto polyester (PET) substrate by a conventional vacuum evaporator and evaluated their tensile and adhesion properties. The tensile property was estimated by observations of micro-cracks of the thin films due to the tensile test at 150C. The tensile property of the metal thin films seems to relate with Brinell hardness and thickness of the thin film. The adhesion property of these metal thin films was estimated by measuring the pull strength. Aluminum thin film showed highest pull strength of all the thin films, and the pull strength increased with increase of the thickness.

  18. Transferable and flexible thin film devices for engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutyala, Madhu Santosh K.; Zhou, Jingzhou; Li, Xiaochun

    2014-05-01

    Thin film devices can be of significance for manufacturing, energy conversion systems, solid state electronics, wireless applications, etc. However, these thin film sensors/devices are normally fabricated on rigid silicon substrates, thus neither flexible nor transferrable for engineering applications. This paper reports an innovative approach to transfer polyimide (PI) embedded thin film devices, which were fabricated on glass, to thin metal foils. Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) were fabricated on a thin PI film, which was spin coated and cured on a glass substrate. Another layer of PI film was then spin coated again on TFTC/PI and cured to obtain the embedded TFTCs. Assisted by oxygen plasma surface coarsening of the PI film on the glass substrate, the PI embedded TFTC was successfully transferred from the glass substrate to a flexible copper foil. To demonstrate the functionality of the flexible embedded thin film sensors, they were transferred to the sonotrode tip of an ultrasonic metal welding machine for in situ process monitoring. The dynamic temperatures near the sonotrode tip were effectively measured under various ultrasonic vibration amplitudes. This technique of transferring polymer embedded electronic devices onto metal foils yield great potentials for numerous engineering applications.

  19. Patterns and conformations in molecularly thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnet, Prem B.

    Molecularly thin films have been a subject of great interest for the last several years because of their large variety of industrial applications ranging from micro-electronics to bio-medicine. Additionally, molecularly thin films can be used as good models for biomembrane and other systems where surfaces are critical. Many different kinds of molecules can make stable films. My research has considered three such molecules: a polymerizable phospholipid, a bent-core molecules, and a polymer. One common theme of these three molecules is chirality. The phospolipid molecules studied here are strongly chiral, which can be due to intrinsically chiral centers on the molecules and also due to chiral conformations. We find that these molecules give rise to chiral patterns. Bent-core molecules are not intrinsically chiral, but individual molecules and groups of molecules can show chiral structures, which can be changed by surface interactions. One major, unconfirmed hypothesis for the polymer conformation at surface is that it forms helices, which would be chiral. Most experiments were carried out at the air/water interface, in what are called Langmuir films. Our major tools for studying these films are Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) coupled with the thermodynamic information that can be deduced from surface pressure isotherms. Phospholipids are one of the important constituents of liposomes -- a spherical vesicle com-posed of a bilayer membrane, typically composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer. The application of liposomes in drug delivery is well-known. Crumpling of vesicles of polymerizable phospholipids has been observed. With BAM, on Langmuir films of such phospholipids, we see novel spiral/target patterns during compression. We have found that both the patterns and the critical pressure at which they formed depend on temperature (below the transition to a i¬‘uid layer). Bent-core liquid crystals, sometimes knows as banana liquid crystals, have drawn increasing attention because of the richness in phases that they exhibit. Due to the unique coupling between dipole properties and the packing constraints placed by the bent shape, these molecules are emerging as strong candidates in electromechanical devices. However, most applications require that the molecules be aligned, which has proved difficult. Our group has tested such molecules both as Langmuir layers and, when transferred to a solid, as alignment layers with some limited success. However, these molecules do not behave well with the surfaces and the domains at the air/water interface tend to form ill-controlled multilayer structures since attraction with the surfaces is relatively weak. New bent-core molecules obtained from Prof. Dr. C. Tsehiemke from Department of Chemistry Institute of Organic Chemistry, Martin-Luther-University, Germany, have a hydrophilic group at one end. We expect this molecule to behave better on the surface because of the stronger attraction of the hydrophilic group towards the surface than for the bent-core molecules without the hydrophilic group. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a polymer which finds many applications in modifying surface properties. It is used in manufacturing lubricants, protective coatings, hair conditioner and glass-coating. However its properties are not well understood. This polymer has been proposed to follow either helical or caterpillar conformations on a surface. The orientational order of CH3 side groups can test for these conformations (they would be predominantly up/down for the caterpillar conformation, but rotating through the entire 360 degree for the helical one). Thus previous work on the Langmuir polymer films at the air/water interface were complemented by deuterium NMR studies to probe their conformations at a surface. These experiments were performed using humid porous solids, in order to provide sufficient surface area for the technique. Previous tests in this group at room temperature were suggestive but inconclusive because of the rapid averaging motion of the molecules. Here, we attempt to freeze the molecules on the surface.

  20. Structure of Thin-Film Lithium Microbatteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay F. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A process for making thin-film batteries including the steps of cleaning a glass or silicon substrate having an amorphous oxide layer several microns thick; defining with a mask the layer shape when depositing cobalt as an adhesion layer and platinum as a current collector; using the same mask as the preceding step to sputter a layer of LiC(0)O2, on the structure while rocking it back and forth; heating the substrate to 300 C. for 30 minutes; sputtering with a new mask that defines the necessary electrolyte area; evaporating lithium metal anodes using an appropriate shadow mask; and, packaging the cell in a dry-room environment by applying a continuous bead of epoxy around the active cell areas and resting a glass slide over the top thereof. The batteries produced by the above process are disclosed.

  1. Plasma and optical thin film technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, O.; Wilbrandt, S.; Kaiser, N.; Schmitz, C.; Turowski, M.; Ristau, D.; Awakowicz, P.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Musch, T.; Rolfes, I.; Steffen, H.; Foest, R.; Ohl, A.; Khler, T.; Dolgonos, G.; Frauenheim, T.

    2011-09-01

    The PluTO project is aimed at combining thin-film and plasma technologies. Accordingly, the consortium comprises experts in optical coating (Laser Zentrum Hannover, Fraunhofer IOF) and such in plasma technology (INP Greifswald, Ruhr University of Bochum RUB). The process plasmas available, especially the sheath layers, will be thoroughly characterized by means of special probes, so that the types, numbers and energies of the particles participating in the coating formation processes can be determined comprehensively in every detail for the first time. The data thus obtained will provide a basis for a numerical modelling of layer growth at atomic scale (Bremen Center for Computational Materials Science BCCMS). The results are expected to deepen the understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the influence of plasma action on the layer properties. In parallel, suitable tools for process monitoring will be identified and made available. Some first results have already been achieved which prove the viability of the approach.

  2. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  3. Photonic Diagnostic Technique For Thin Photoactive Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1996-01-01

    Photonic diagnostic technique developed for use in noninvasive, rapid evaluation of thin paraelectric/ferroelectric films. Method proves useful in basic research, on-line monitoring for quality control at any stage of fabrication, and development of novel optoelectronic systems. Used to predict imprint-prone memory cells, and to study time evolution of defects in ferroelectric memories during processing. Plays vital role in enabling high-density ferroelectric memory manufacturing. One potential application lies in use of photoresponse for nondestructive readout of polarization memory states in high-density, high-speed memory devices. In another application, extension of basic concept of method makes possible to develop specially tailored ferrocapacitor to act as programmable detector, wherein remanent polarization used to modulate photoresponse. Large arrays of such detectors useful in optoelectronic processing, computing, and communication.

  4. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  5. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  6. Nonlinear optics of astaxanthin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, A.; Fisch, Herbert; Haas, Karl-Heinz; Haedicke, E.; Paust, J.; Schrof, Wolfgang; Ticktin, Anton

    1993-02-01

    Carotinoids exhibit large nonlinear optical properties due to their extended (pi) -electron system. Compared to other polyenes which show a broad distribution of conjugation lengths, carotinoids exhibit a well defined molecular structure, i.e. a well defined conjugation length. Therefore the carotinoid molecules can serve as model compounds to study the relationship between structure and nonlinear optical properties. In this paper the synthesis of four astaxanthins with C-numbers ranging from 30 to 60, their preparation into thin films, wavelength dispersive Third Harmonic Generation (THG) measurements and some molecular modelling calculations will be presented. Resonant (chi) (3) values reach 1.2(DOT)10-10 esu for C60 astaxanthin. In the nonresonant regime a figure of merit (chi) (3)/(alpha) of several 10-13 esu-cm is demonstrated.

  7. Tilt grain boundaries in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Y.; Bai, G.; Chang, H.L.M.; Merkle, K.L.; Lam, D.J.

    1990-07-01

    Grain boundaries in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} superconductor thin films grown on (001) MgO by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). It was found that the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films were highly textured with the c axes, or (001) orientation, nearly parallel between grains and perpendicular to the MgO substrate. A majority of the grain boundaries are low-angle boundaries with a tilt angle, {theta}, less than 15{degree}. The low-angle boundaries appear to be strongly faceted on an atomic scale in such a way that the boundary planes tend to be parallel to the (100), (010), or (110) lattice planes in one of the adjacent grains. Almost all of the lattice planes, except for a number of distorted regions along the boundaries, are continuous across the boundaries from one grain to another, accommodating the misorientation with a slight bending of the lattice planes. The small-angle boundaries are shown to consist of arrays of dislocations. A domain structure, formed by the interchange of a and b axes has been observed in large grains. The domain boundaries are strongly faceted with the (100) and (010) lattice planes parallel to the boundaries. These observations on the atomic structure of boundaries, are used to discuss the effect of grain boundaries on superconductor properties in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Homes scaling in ionic liquid gated La2CuO4 +x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, J.; Garcia-Barriocanal, J.; Goldman, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Finding more efficient ways of exploring the doping phase diagrams of high-temperature superconductors as well as probing the fundamental properties of these materials are essential ingredients for driving the discovery of new materials. We use a doping technique involving gating with ionic liquids to systematically and continuously tune the Tc of superconducting La2CuO4 +x thin films. We probe both the transport properties and the penetration depth of these samples and find that Homes scaling ?-2?? Tc is obeyed, consistent with these materials being in the dirty limit. This result is independent of the precise mechanism for the gating process as all of the parameters of the scaling relationship are determined by direct measurements on the films.

  9. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  10. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  11. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  12. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  13. Improved process for making thin-film sodium niobate capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micka, E. Z.

    1968-01-01

    Sodium niobate, formed by high vacuum, flash, and reactive evaporations, has a high dielectric constant and is used as a thin film dielectric in microelectronic capacitors. High purity films are formed from relatively inexpensive, pure starting materials. Crystalline sodium niobate films can be formed on amorphous or crystalline materials.

  14. Microwave absorption measurements of high temperature superconductors using a coplanar waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Krafft, C.S.; Beckner, C.F. )

    1991-04-15

    A wideband microwave absorption spectrometer with a coplanar waveguide transmission line was used to characterize the magnetic field dependence of microwave absorption in high temperature superconductors. This technique is useful for the nondestructive evaluation of high temperature superconductor bulk and thin film samples prior to their application in microwave devices and sensors. Results are presented for various types and forms of samples including bulk YBCO, laser-ablated thin film YBCO, and Ag-doped YBCO wire.

  15. Sputtering deposition of aluminium molybdenum alloy thin film anodes for thin film microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumoolam, Mani Chandran; Sivaramakrishnan, Balaji; Devarajan, Mutharasu

    2015-05-01

    Al5Mo thin film anodes for Li-ion batteries were prepared using DC sputtering under different conditions, the latter being specified as deposition at room temperature (S0), deposition at 300C (S1), and deposition at room temperature followed by thermal annealing at 300C (S2). The thin films were deposited using an aluminum target tiled with molybdenum discs at a ratio calculated based on the theoretical sputtering yields. The structural and compositional analyses performed with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the Al5Mo compound formation and the Al/Mo elemental ratio, respectively. The compound formation was observed to be evident only for the thin films subjected to heat treatment during or after deposition. Scanning electron micrographs reveal a higher porosity of approximately 23% for sample S0 and a lower porosity of around 18% for sample S1. The chronopotentiometry results show a higher volumetric specific capacity of approximately 197 mAh/cm3 for sample S1. Capacity increments have been observed for all samples upon charge-discharge cycles, whose values after 25 cycles for samples S0, S1, and S2 were 41.2%, 20.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Straining Graphene Using Thin Film Shrinkage Methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical works suggest the possibility and usefulness of strain engineering of graphene by predicting remarkable properties, such as Dirac cone merging, bandgap opening and pseudo magnetic field generation. However, most of these predictions have not yet been confirmed because it is experimentally difficult to control the magnitude and type (e.g., uniaxial, biaxial, and so forth) of strain in graphene devices. Here we report two novel methods to apply strain without bending the substrate. We employ thin films of evaporated metal and organic insulator deposited on graphene, which shrink after electron beam irradiation or heat application. These methods make it possible to apply both biaxial strain and in-plane isotropic compressive strain in a well-controlled manner. Raman spectroscopy measurements show a clear splitting of the degenerate states of the G-band in the case of biaxial strain, and G-band blue shift without splitting in the case of in-plane isotropic compressive strain. In the case of biaxial strain application, we find out the ratio of the strain component perpendicular to the stretching direction is at least three times larger than what was previously observed, indicating that shrinkage of the metal or organic insulator deposited on graphene induces both tensile and compressive strain in this atomically thin material. Our studies present for the first time a viable way to apply strain to graphene without the need to bend the substrate. PMID:24490629

  17. Integration of thin film decoupling capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, T.; Dimos, D.; Lockwood, S.

    1994-10-01

    Thin film decoupling capacitors consisting of submicron thick, sol-gel Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} layers between Pt electrodes on a Si substrate have recently been developed. Because the capacitor structure needs to be only {approximately}3 {mu}m thick, these devices offer advantages such as decreased package volume and ability to integrate so that interconnect inductance is decreased, which allows faster IC processing rates. To fully utilize these devices, techniques of integrating them onto packages such as multi-chip modules and printed wiring boards or onto IC dies must be developed. The results of our efforts at developing integration processes for these capacitors are described here. Specifically, we have demonstrated a process for printing solder on the devices at the Si wafer level and reflowing it to form bumps and have developed a process for fabricating the devices on thin (25 to 75 {mu}m) substrates to facilitate integration onto ICs and printed wiring boards. Finally, we assessed the feasibility of fabricating the devices on rough surfaces to determine whether it would be possible to fabricate these capacitors directly on multi-layer ceramic substrates.

  18. Positron annihilation investigation of a Y1Ba2Cu3O7- ? epitaxial thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. Y.

    2015-10-01

    An enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, slow positron coincidence Doppler broadening technique has been applied to study the characteristics of a Y1Ba2Cu3O7- ? superconducting thin film at sample temperatures of 15 K and 290 K. In this investigation, a numerical analysis of the Doppler spectra was employed to the determine the shape parameter S, defined as the ratio between the number of counts in a central portion of the spectrum and the total number of counts in the entire spectrum. The S-parameter values near 0.56 were relatively constant while the positron energies increased, which indicated the presence of voids in the thin film. The S-parameter values for the Y1Ba2Cu3O7- ? thin film showed no temperature dependence at temperatures above or below Tc because the positron trapping rate in vacancy-type defects was mostly influenced. The effect of the S-parameters caused by open volume defects is believed to be greater than the effect of the S-parameters caused by the electronic state transition in the Y1Ba2Cu3O7- ? superconductor.

  19. Hafnia: Energetics of Thin Films and Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, W.; Ushakov, S; Wang, T; Ekerdt, J; Demkov, A; Navrotsky, A

    2010-01-01

    Crystallization energetics of amorphous hafnia powders and thin films on platinum substrates was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and time-resolved high temperature x-ray diffraction. For initially amorphous 25 and 20 nm films from atomic layer deposition, crystallization enthalpy decreases from -38 to -32 kJ/mol, and crystallization temperature increases from 388 to 417 C as thickness decreases. Enthalpy of water vapor adsorption on the surface of monoclinic hafnia was measured for both bulk powder and nanoparticles and was found to vary from -110 to -130 kJ/mol for coverage of -5 H{sub 2}O/nm{sup 2}. The enthalpies of monoclinic hafnia with various surface areas, prepared by crystallization and annealing of an amorphous hafnia precursor, were measured by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. Under the previously used assumption that the interfacial enthalpy is 20% of the surface enthalpy, the surface enthalpy was calculated from experimental data as 2.8 {+-} 0.1 J/m{sup 2} for the hydrated surface and 3.7 {+-} 0.1 J/m{sup 2} for the anhydrous hafnia surface. These values are similar to those measured previously for monoclinic zirconia.

  20. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Roig, David; Degroh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  1. Josephson junction in a thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Clem, J. R.; Mawatari, Yasunori; Mints, R. G.

    2001-04-01

    The phase difference {phi}(y) for a vortex at a line Josephson junction in a thin film attenuates at large distances as a power law, unlike the case of a bulk junction where it approaches exponentially the constant values at infinities. The field of a Josephson vortex is a superposition of fields of standard Pearl vortices distributed along the junction with the line density {phi}'(y)/2{pi}. We study the integral equation for {phi}(y) and show that the phase is sensitive to the ratio l/{Lambda}, where l={lambda}{sub J}{sup 2}/{lambda}{sub L}, {Lambda}=2{lambda}{sub L}{sup 2}/d, {lambda}{sub L}, and {lambda}{sub J} are the London and Josephson penetration depths, and d is the film thickness. For l<<{Lambda}, the vortex ''core'' of the size l is nearly temperature independent, while the phase ''tail'' scales as l{Lambda}/y{sup 2}={lambda}{sub J}2{lambda}{sub L}/d/y{sup 2}; i.e., it diverges as T{yields}T{sub c}. For l>>{Lambda}, both the core and the tail have nearly the same characteristic length l{Lambda}.

  2. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two-dimensional shear lag model to approximate the three-dimensional fracture process. Based on the computational results, we propose new experiments to measure fracture toughness and creep laws in small structures. Similarly, we study delayed crack initiation, steady crack growth, and transient crack growth when the underlayer is viscoelastic.

  3. Peculiarities in magnetron sputtering of YBCO epitaxial films for applications in superconductor electronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Yu. N.; Masterov, D. V.; Pavlov, S. A.; Parafin, A. E.; Yunin, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the main factors determining the growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ high- T c superconductor films during magnetron sputtering in the planar axial geometry. Special attention is paid to the increase of the growth rate of the films suitable for superconductor electronics devices. Magnetron sputtering is used for obtaining YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with high structural and electrophysical characteristics for a growth rate up to 200 nm/h, which were used in constructing microwave disk resonators and long Josephson junctions on bicrystal substrates. The unloaded Q factor of cavities exceeds 80000 at a frequency of 7.1 GHz at a temperature of 77 K, which corresponds to the best results in this field. Josephson junction of length 50-350 μm are characterized by critical current density j c = 12-33 kA/cm2 at T = 77 K and j c = 93-230 kA/cm2 at T = 6 K in zero magnetic field. The characteristic voltage I c R n is 0.8-1.96 mV.

  4. Investigation of TiO{sub x} barriers for their use in hybrid Josephson and tunneling junctions based on pnictide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dring, S. Monecke, M.; Schmidt, S.; Schmidl, F.; Tympel, V.; Seidel, P.; Engelmann, J.; Kurth, F.; Iida, K.; Holzapfel, B.; Haindl, S.; Mnch, I.

    2014-02-28

    We tested oxidized titanium layers as barriers for hybrid Josephson junctions with high I{sub c}R{sub n}-products and for the preparation of junctions for tunneling spectroscopy. For that we firstly prepared junctions with conventional superconductor electrodes, such as lead and niobium, respectively. By tuning the barrier thickness, we were able to change the junction's behavior from a Josephson junction to tunnel-like behavior applicable for quasi-particle spectroscopy. Subsequently, we transferred the technology to junctions using Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition as base electrode and evaporated Pb as counter electrode. For barriers with a thickness of 1.5?nm, we observe clear Josephson effects with I{sub c}R{sub n}?90??V at 4.2?K. These junctions behave SNS'-like (SNS: superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor) and are dominated by Andreev reflection transport mechanism. For junctions with barrier thickness of 2.0?nm and higher, no Josephson but SIS'- (SIS: superconductor-insulator-superconductor) or SINS'-like (SINS: superconductor-normal conductor-insulator-superconductor) behavior with a tunnel-like conductance spectrum was observed.

  5. Organosilicon thin film deposition in glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    d`Agostino, R.; Lamendola, R.

    1995-12-31

    Thin films have been deposited from hexamethyldisiloxane-oxygen fed radio-frequency glow discharges under the following conditions: O{sub 2}-to-HMDS ratio ranging from 0 to 20, fixed total flow rate of 15 sccm, 200 W input power, 100 mTorr pressure. The substrates are held at room temperature. The effect of oxygen-to-monomer ratio in the feed on both plasma species distribution and film chemical composition has been studied with a variety of diagnostics, i.e. Actinometric Optical Emission Spectroscopy, AOES, (plasma phase), Infrared Spectroscopy and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, ESCA, (surface). A mechanism of deposition is proposed, based on the role of Si-containing precursors and of SiO-containing ones, which accounts for the deposition rate and the film composition. The experimental apparatus consists of a stainless-steel parallel plate reactor with a 13.56 MHz rf power. Silicon substrates are positioned in the gap between the two electrodes on a grounded stainless-steel holder. Deposition rates have been evaluated, after each experiment, by means of gravimetric measurements. The optical emission from the discharges has been sampled through a quartz window and focused on the entrance slit of a 1 m focal length Jarrel-Ash monochromator. The relative concentration trends of Si, O, H, and C atoms and of SiO, OH, CH, and CO molecules in plasma phase, have been obtained by AOES as a function of feed composition, by utilizing Ar and He actinometers. ESCA analyses have been performed by means of a PHI 5300 Perkin Elmer spectrometer used in the fixed analyser transmission mode with pass ene of 35.75 eV.

  6. Far Infrared Spectroscopy of Ultra-Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Victor M.

    1988-06-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a double polarization modulation technique, which allows for high far-infrared sensitivity to dielectric films deposited on metallized substrates. This new spectroscopy is based on the polarization specificity of the grazing angle reflectance of a thin dielectric coating on a conducting surface. The design is a modification of a Martin-Puplett configuration Michelson interferometer. The reflection absorption (RA) process has been computer modeled. Based on this model, far-infrared RA spectroscopy is compared to both mid-infrared RA spectroscopy and to standard normal transmission experiments. Physical arguments are presented to explain the differences between them in terms of macroscopic fields and the classical oscillator model of the dielectric function. The computer model allows for spectral line fitting and a method for fitting RA spectra is discussed. Far-infrared spectra and analysis are performed for two different thin film systems. The first system is a highly ionic thin film sample of potassium iodide (KI). Through fits to the KI thin film spectra, the effect of two phonon processes on the bulk LO mode of the KI crystal is discussed along with possible surface effects in the very thin samples. The second thin film system is the polymer Poly-Ethylene Oxide (PEO). The far-infrared spectra obtained from these polymer films is shown to be related to the high degree of crystallinity obtainable in the thin polymer film.

  7. Thin Film Evaporation of Receding Meniscus within Micro Pillar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhosani, Mohamed H.; Alsheghri, Ammar A.; Alghaferi, Amal; Zhang, Tiejun

    2015-03-01

    Evaporation is a key process in power generation, water desalination, and thermal management applications. It has been proved that hydrophilic micro structured surfaces can enhance the convection heat transfer by promoting high-performance thin film evaporation and enlarging the total heat transfer surface area. When depositing a water droplet on hydrophilic structured surfaces, two distinct regions can be observed, a) central region with water level higher than the micro pillar height (droplet region), b) thin film region as a result of liquid meniscus receding among micro structures. In this study, we are able to probe the physics of thin film evaporation of receding liquid meniscus among micro pillar arrays with different pillar heights, spacings and diameters. Heat transfer is systematically studied in the droplet and thin film region for each sample. Also, Young-Laplace equation and kinetic theory of mass transport are used to model the thin film evaporation around micro pillars. With the proposed model, the shape of meniscus around micro pillars and the diameter of droplet/extended thin film region can be predicted and compared with the experimental measurement. The model can also be extended to model thin film evaporation of meniscus within nano structured surfaces. Supported by cooperative agreement between Masdar Inst and MIT.

  8. Thin film nitinol covered stents: design and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Levi, Daniel S; Williams, Ryan J; Liu, Jasen; Danon, Saar; Stepan, Lenka L; Panduranga, Mohanchandra K; Fishbein, Michael C; Carman, Greg P

    2008-01-01

    Interventionalists in many specialties have the need for improved, low profile covered stents. Thin films of nitinol (<5-10 microns) could be used to improve current covered stent technology. A "hot target" sputter deposition technique was used to create thin films of nitinol for this study. Covered stents were created from commercially available balloon-inflatable and self-expanding stents. Stents were deployed in a laboratory flow loop and in four swine. Uncovered stent portions served as controls. Postmortem examinations were performed 2-6 weeks after implantation. In short-term testing, thin film nitinol covered stents deployed in the arterial circulation showed no intimal proliferation and were easily removed from the arterial wall postmortem. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thin layer of endothelial cells on the thin film, which covered the entire film by 3 weeks. By contrast, significant neointimal hyperplasia occurred on the luminal side of stents deployed in the venous circulation. Extremely low-profile covered stents can be manufactured using thin films of nitinol. Although long-term studies are needed, thin film nitinol may allow for the development of low-profile, nonthrombogenic covered stents. PMID:18496269

  9. thin films grown with additional NaF layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gee Yeong; Kim, Juran; Jo, William; Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    CZTS precursors [SLG/Mo (300 nm)/ZnS (460 nm)/SnS (480 nm)/Cu (240 nm)] were deposited by RF/DC sputtering, and then NaF layers (0, 15, and 30 nm) were grown by electron beam evaporation. The precursors were annealed in a furnace with Se metals at 590C for 20 minutes. The final composition of the CZTSSe thin-films was of Cu/(Zn + Sn) ~ 0.88 and Zn/Sn ~ 1.05, with a metal S/Se ratio estimated at ~0.05. The CZTSSe thin-films have different NaF layer thicknesses in the range from 0 to 30 nm, achieving a ~3% conversion efficiency, and the CZTSSe thin-films contain ~3% of Na. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used to identify the local potential difference that varied according to the thickness of the NaF layer on the CZTSSe thin-films. The potential values at the grain boundaries were observed to increase as the NaF thickness increased. Moreover, the ratio of the positively charged GBs in the CZTSSe thin-films with an NaF layer was higher than that of pure CZTSSe thin-films. A positively charged potential was observed around the grain boundaries of the CZTSSe thin-films, which is a beneficial characteristic that can improve the performance of a device.

  10. Fabrication and applications of highly porous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Kenneth David

    Using traditional glancing angle deposition (GLAD) as a starting point, some major refinements and extensions to the existing technology are described. The fabrication of adhesion-promoting microstructures, multilayered thin films, thin films of variable composition and controlled chevron thin films are discussed, and the possibility of patterning GLAD thin films by photolithography is described. Two successful efforts to create GLAD-like structures in typical microchannel arrangements are then discussed along with measurements of the surface area amplification that these geometries provide. The creation of inverse, or negative, perforated thin film structures is the final fabrication-based topic. No structures of similar form are found anywhere else in the scientific literature, and consequently, a great deal of space is reserved for the elucidation of the wide range of structures that may be formed. Specific applications of the newly developed process technology are also discussed. Effective, GLAD-based humidity sensors, optical polarization rotation filters, and electrodeposited, chiral, metallic thin films are all thoroughly described. A functional hydrocarbon sensor composed of helical Pt structures is discussed, and extremely sensitive electrochemical sensors for H2 S and SO2 are presented. Thick, multilayered, zirconia thin films having measured thermal conductivities significantly lower than contemporary, state-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings are also presented.

  11. Thin film thermocouples for high temperature measurement on ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples have been developed for use on metal parts in jet engines to 1000 C. However, advanced propulsion systems are being developed that will use ceramic materials and reach higher temperatures. The purpose of this work is to develop thin film thermocouples for use on ceramic materials. The thin film thermocouples are Pt13Rh/Pt fabricated by the sputtering process. Lead wires are attached using the parallel-gap welding process. The ceramic materials are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mullite. Both steady state and thermal cycling furnace tests were performed in the temperature range to 1500 C. High-heating-rate tests were performed in an arc lamp heat-flux-calibration facility. The fabrication of the thin film thermocouples is described. The thin film thermocouple output was compared to a reference wire thermocouple. Drift of the thin film thermocouples was determined, and causes of drift are discussed. The results of high-heating-rate tests up to 2500 C/sec are presented. The stability of the ceramic materials is examined. It is concluded that Pt13Rh/Pt thin film thermocouples are capable of meeting lifetime goals of 50 hours or more up to temperatures of 1500 C depending on the stability of the particular ceramic substrate.

  12. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  13. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongyou

    2002-01-01

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  14. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hong You

    2010-08-31

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  15. Thin-film Sensors for Space Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Englund, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    SSME components such as the turbine blades of the high pressure fuel turbopump are subjected to rapid and extreme thermal transients that contribute to blade cracking and subsequent failure. The objective was to develop thin film sensors for SSME components. The technology established for aircraft gas turbine engines was adopted to the materials and environment encountered in the SSME. Specific goals are to expand the existing thin film sensor technology, to continue developing improved sensor processing techniques, and to test the durability of aircraft gas turbine engine technology in the SSME environment. A thin film sensor laboratory is being installed in a refurbished clean room, and new sputtering and photoresist exposure equipment is being acquired. Existing thin film thermocouple technology in an SSME environment are being tested. Various coatings and their insulating films are being investigated for use in sensor development.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of chemically synthesized selenium thin film.

    PubMed

    Patil, A M; Kumbhar, V S; Chodankar, N R; Lokhande, A C; Lokhande, C D

    2016-05-01

    The facile and low cost simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is employed to synthesize red colored selenium thin films. These selenium films are characterized for structural, morphological, topographical and wettability studies. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed the crystalline nature of selenium thin film with hexagonal crystal structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study displays selenium nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 475nm. A specific surface area of 30.5m(2)g(-1) is observed for selenium nanoparticles. The selenium nanoparticles hold mesopores in the range of 1.39nm, taking benefits of the good physicochemical stability and excellent porosity. Subsequently, the electrochemical properties of selenium thin films are deliberated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The selenium thin film shows specific capacitance (Cs) of 21.98Fg(-1) with 91% electrochemical stability. PMID:26896773

  17. X-ray diffraction characterization of thin superconductive films

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Book, G.W.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The physical and mechanical properties of thin films are often different from the properties of bulk material and are dictated by the film/substrate orientation relationship, crystal anisotropy and crystalgraphic texture of the film. X-ray diffraction texture analysis provides information about preferential film growth and can be used for optimization of deposition parameters and prediction of properties of thin films. An x-ray back reflection technique using the Braga-Brentano geometry with experimental corrections for absorption and defocusing was used to study thin ceramic films deposited by combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). The film/substrate orientation relationships of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) superconducting thin films deposited via CCVD on single crystal MgO and polycrystalline silver substrates were studied. The as-deposited films on single crystal (100) MgO substrates showed strong preferential growth with the basal plane parallel to the substrate surface (c-axis up growth). Texture analysis showed two in-plane alignment orientations of the film with respect to the substrate, with YBCO [100] and [110] aligned with the [100] MgO substrate. YBCO films deposited on cold-rolled polycrystalline silver displayed c-axis up growth indicating that the orientation of the polycrystalline substrate (brass type texture) did not induce detectable in-plane preferential growth of the YBCO.

  18. Mounted nanoporous anodic alumina thin films as planar optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Thomas D; Lau, K H Aaron; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Solid-supported thin films of self-organized nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) have been widely employed for the template preparation of nanostructured functional materials. Recently, the use of nanoporous AAO thin films in optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWS) has been explored for high sensitivity, in situ monitoring of processes occurring within these nanoporous templates. In this contribution, we demonstrate a strategy for mounting bulk anodized AAO thin films on heterogeneous solid-supports suitable for waveguide sensing experiments. Unlike conventional preparations of AAO thin films by anodization of vacuum- or electrochemically deposited Al thin films, the full range of techniques available to anodize bulk Al may potentially be applied with the present method. Moreover, we show that AAO thin films mounted on glass substrates can have superior waveguide coupling properties compared to conventionally prepared samples. The nanostructure of the AAO can be well characterized by an EMT-OWS analysis, demonstrated by comparing scanning electron microscopy images of the AAO and the pore dimensions calculated from an effective medium theory (EMT) analysis of the film refractive index measured by OWS. Finally, using a curved metallic substrate as an example, we show that our mounting technique can be used as a general strategy to functionalize objects with nanoporous AAO films. PMID:21128414

  19. Robust topological surface state in Kondo insulator SmB{sub 6} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, Jie Jiang, Yeping; Zhang, Xiaohang; Greene, Richard L.; Usanmaz, Demet; Curtarolo, Stefano; Li, Linze; Pan, Xiaoqing; Shin, Jongmoon; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-12-01

    Fabrication of smooth thin films of topological insulators with true insulating bulk are extremely important for utilizing their novel properties in quantum and spintronic devices. Here, we report the growth of crystalline thin films of SmB{sub 6}, a topological Kondo insulator with true insulating bulk, by co-sputtering both SmB{sub 6} and B targets. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicate films that are polycrystalline with a (001) preferred orientation. When cooling down, resistivity ? shows an increase around 50?K and saturation below 10?K, consistent with the opening of the hybridization gap and surface dominated transport, respectively. The ratio ?{sub 2K}/?{sub 300K} is only about two, much smaller than that of bulk, which indicates a much larger surface-to-bulk ratio. Point contact spectroscopy using a superconductor tip on SmB{sub 6} films shows both a Kondo Fano resonance and Andeev reflection, indicating an insulating Kondo lattice with metallic surface states.

  20. Properties of Ba-hexaferrite thin films with different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiyong; Lan, Zhongwen; Sun, Ke; Guo, Rongdi; Yu, Zhong; Jiang, Xiaona; Zhu, Guangwei

    2013-04-01

    M-type Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on (0 0 1) Al2O3 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Effects of film thickness on the crystallographic, morphological and magnetic properties were investigated. Experimental results showed that properties of BaM thin films are strongly dependent on thickness and thinner film favors to obtain better (0 0 l) planes orientation with narrower XRD FWHM. The 150-nm thick film possesses columnar-type grains having c-axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane. However, with the thickness increasing from 150 to 550 nm, acicular-type grain increases. Thus, the texture of (0 0 l) planes orientation of the film deteriorates; the saturation magnetization and perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy also decrease gradually. Mechanisms for these variations are attributed to the increase of random nucleation sites and strain relaxation in the films with increasing thickness.

  1. Possible p-wave condensed conductor (or superconductor) for La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.T.; Kim, Y.J.; Kang, K.Y.

    1999-12-20

    A ferromagnetic phase with electron carriers and a semiconducting phase with hole carriers were separated in La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} thin films by the van der Pauw method. The authors conclude that two phases are attributed to the metal-insulator instability. In the ferromagnetic phase for films with anisotropic moments in two dimensions, a remnant resistivity of the order of 10{sup {minus}8} {Omega}m is observed up to 100 K and increases exponentially with temperature up to {Tc} and above one Tesla as a function of magnetic field strength (a positive magnetoresistivity). The phase below {Tc} is regarded as a polaronic state with a polaronic tunneling conduction. Possible p-wave condensation (or superconductor) with a parabolic density of states and the phase separation are discussed on the basis of the two-fold degeneracy of e{sub g} orbitals.

  2. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  3. Thickness dependent optical properties of titanium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zi-Jie; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zi-Yi; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2013-11-01

    TiO2 thin films of different thickness were prepared by the Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) method on crystal silicon. A variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) was used to determine the optical constants and thickness of the investigated films in the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm at incident angles of 60, 70, and 75, respectively. The whole spectra have been fitted by Forouhi-Bloomer (FB) model, whose best-fit parameters reveal that both electron lifetime and band gap of TiO2 thin film have positive correlation to the film thickness. The refractive indices of TiO2 thin film increase monotonically with an increase in film thickness in the investigated spectral range. The refractive index spectra of TiO2 thin films have maxima at around 320 nm and the maxima exhibit a marginally blue-shift from 327.9 to 310.0 nm with an increase in film thickness. The evolution of structural disorder in the TiO2 thin film growth can be used to explain these phenomena.

  4. Fracture of nanoporous organosilicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, David Maxwell

    Nanoporous organosilicate thin films are attractive candidates for a number of emerging technologies, ranging from biotechnology to optics and microelectronics. However, integration of these materials is challenged by their fragile nature and susceptibility to mechanical failure. Debonding and cohesive cracking of the organosilicate film are principal concerns that threaten the reliability and yield of device structures. Despite the intense interest in these materials, there is currently a need for greater understanding of the relationship between glass structure and thermomechanical integrity. The objective of this research was to investigate strategies for improving mechanical performance through variations in film chemistry, process conditions, and pore morphology. Several approaches to effecting improvements in elastic and fracture properties were examined in depth, including post-deposition curing, molecular reinforcement using hydrocarbon network groups, and manipulation of pore size and architecture. Detailed structural characterization was employed along with quantitative fracture mechanics based testing methods. It was shown that ultra-violet irradiation and electron bombardment post-deposition treatments can significantly impact glass structure in ways that cannot be achieved through thermal activation alone. Both techniques demonstrated high porogen removal efficiency and enhanced the glass matrix through increased network connectivity and local bond rearrangements. The increases in network connectivity were achieved predominantly through the replacement of terminal groups, particularly methyl and silanol groups, with Si-O network bonds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful and quantitative method for gaining new insight into the underlying cure reactions and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that curing leads to significant progressive enhancement of elastic modulus and adhesive fracture energies due to increased network bond density that results from higher network connectivity along with slight densification of the film. At the same time, the curing produced only a modest progressive increase in dielectric constant, indicating that ultra-violet and electron beam curing show great promise for the processing of low-k and ultra low-k organosilicate films. However, some general limitations of the curing processes were also discovered. In particular, the cohesive fracture energies of organosilicate films were found to be largely insensitive to curing. This was shown to be due to a crack meandering phenomenon in which the crack undergoes small-scale deflections toward local regions of free volume and reduced network bond density, thereby mitigating the effects of curing. Additionally, neither ultra-violet nor electron-beam curing were successful at improving adhesion at the lower film to barrier interface, suggesting little or no curing effects at the bottom portion of the dielectric layer. Sol-gel condensation of carbon-bridged organosilanes was used to prepare low-k films that feature hydrocarbon network bonds in lieu of terminal organic substituents. The hydrocarbon ligaments served to preserve connectivity and reinforce the glass network, resulting in remarkable improvements in elastic modulus and fracture resistance relative to competing carbon-doped oxides or SSQ derived materials of the same dielectric constant. The improvements in fracture resistance were rationalized in terms of a bridging contribution during stretching and rupture of the hydrocarbon chains that was found to scale with the length of the bridging hydrocarbon group. Additionally, the Si-C bonds in the bridged organosilicates made these films less prone to moisture assisted cracking than their silica-based and SSQ counterparts. The bridged organosilicate films demonstrated outstanding mechanical properties even at high porosity, making them excellent candidates for ultra low-k porous applications. The impact of pore morphology on the fracture of nanoporous films was also examined. For a given pore generating scheme, increasing porous volume was found to have a considerable deleterious effect on elastic modulus and adhesive and cohesive fracture resistance. However, it was demonstrated that, for a given porous volume, alterations in pore size distribution can significantly affect fracture properties. Different pore generating molecules were used to achieve a range of pore sizes for a given porous volume. It was found that decreasing pore size produced a more fracture resistant film, which was rationalized in terms of the capacity for larger pores to act as flaws that reduce film strength. Although it was shown that the effects of pore size were likely convoluted to a certain extent with considerations of pore organization and porosity grading, the work underscores the importance of porogen selection.

  5. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  6. Angular magnetoresistance in semiconducting undoped amorphous carbon thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Saleemi, Awais Siddique; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2015-05-07

    Thin films of undoped amorphous carbon thin film were fabricated by using Chemical Vapor Deposition and their structure was investigated by using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Angular magnetoresistance (MR) has been observed for the first time in these undoped amorphous carbon thin films in temperature range of 2???40?K. The maximum magnitude of angular MR was in the range of 9.5%???1.5% in 2???40?K. The origin of this angular MR was also discussed.

  7. Double Laser for Depth Measurement of Thin Films of Ice

    PubMed Central

    Domingo Beltrán, Manuel; Luna Molina, Ramón; Satorre Aznar, Miguel Ángel; Santonja Moltó, Carmina; Millán Verdú, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The use of thin films is extensive in both science and industry. We have created an experimental system that allows us to measure the thicknesses of thin films (with typical thicknesses of around 1 µm) in real time without the need for any prior knowledge or parameters. Using the proposed system, we can also measure the refractive index of the thin film material exactly under the same experimental conditions. We have also obtained interesting results with regard to structural changes in the solid substance with changing temperature and have observed the corresponding behavior of mixtures of substances. PMID:26426024

  8. Relaxation of ferroelectric thin films of diisopropylammonium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiansheng; Gao, Kaige; Xiao, Shuyu; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Cai, Hong-Ling; Wu, X S

    2015-02-14

    Molecular ferroelectric thin films are highly desirable for their easy and environmentally friendly processing, light weight, and mechanical flexibility. A thin film of diisopropylammonium perchlorate (DIPAP) processed by a spin-coating method shows a good roughness and textured structure with (101) orientation in the ferroelectric phase with a space group of P1. Simultaneously, the thin film shows ferroelectricity and ferroelectric relaxivity above room temperature, which is completely different from crystals. These properties make DIPAP a candidate in sensing, data storage, electro-optics, and molecular/flexible electronics. PMID:25583685

  9. Mechanics of precisely controlled thin film buckling on Elastomeric substrate.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Jiang, H.; Rogers, J.; Huang, Y.; Arizone State Univ.; Beckman Inst.; University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

    2007-01-01

    Stretchable electronics has many important and emerging applications. Sun et al. [Nature Nanotech. 1, 201 (2006)] recently demonstrated stretchable electronics based on precisely controlled buckle geometries in GaAs and Si nanoribbons on elastomeric substrates. A nonlinear buckling model is presented in this letter to study the mechanics of this type of thin film/substrate system. An analytical solution is obtained for the buckling geometry (wavelength and amplitude) and the maximum strain in buckled thin film. This solution agrees very well with the experiments, and shows explicitly how buckling can significantly reduce the thin film strain to achieve the system stretchability.

  10. Electrospray aerosol deposition of water soluble polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Marshall L.; Pestov, Dmitry; Tepper, Gary C.; McLeskey, James T.

    2014-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of thin films from the water soluble polymer sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl)-ethyloxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTEBS) by electrospray deposition (ESD). Contiguous thin films were created by adjusting the parameters of the electrospray apparatus and solution properties to maintain a steady Taylor cone for uniform nanoparticle aerosolization and controlling the particle water content to enable coalescence with previously deposited particles. The majority of deposited particles had diameters less than 52 nm. A thin film of 64.7 nm with a root mean square surface roughness of 20.2 nm was achieved after 40 min of ESD.

  11. XRay Study of Transfer Printed Pentacene Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Y.; Solin, S. A.; Hines, D. R.; Williams, E. D.

    2007-04-10

    We investigated the structural properties and transfer properties of pentacene thin films fabricated by thermal deposition and transfer printing onto SiO2 and plastic substrates, respectively. The dependence of the crystallite size on the printing time, temperature and pressure were measured. The increases of crystalline size were observed when pentacene thin films were printed under specific conditions, e.g. 120 deg. C and 600 psi and can be correlated with the improvement of the field effect mobility of pentacene thin-film transistors.

  12. Development of Thin Film Ceramic Thermocouples for High Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Blaha, Charles A.; Gonzalez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    The maximum use temperature of noble metal thin film thermocouples of 1100 C (2000 F) may not be adequate for use on components in the increasingly harsh conditions of advanced aircraft and next generation launch technology. Ceramic-based thermocouples are known for their high stability and robustness at temperatures exceeding 1500 C, but are typically found in the form of rods or probes. NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of ceramics as thin film thermocouples for extremely high temperature applications to take advantage of the stability and robustness of ceramics and the non-intrusiveness of thin films. This paper will discuss the current state of development in this effort.

  13. Magnetically tunable bandpass filter using cobalt ferrite thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepanshu; Khare, Neeraj; Abegaonkar, Mahesh P.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite thin film based low loss magnetically tunable bandpass filter in the flip chip configuration is fabricated. Cobalt ferrite thin film was synthesized by ultrasonic assisted chemical vapor deposition technique on the quartz substrate. This was overlaid on a resonator appropriately coupled to 50 Ω feed lines. The initial operating frequency (resonance frequency) of the bandpass filter was 13.8 GHz which was shifted to 12.82 GHz when a small magnetic field (~150 Oe) was applied showing a tunability of ~7%. A large variation in the tunability of the coupled filter is attributed to change in the permeability of the CFO thin film on the application of magnetic field.

  14. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

  15. Synthesis Of Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, S.; Arockiadoss; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient thin film synthesis of the nanocomposite of Graphene and Chitosan using solution casting technique. Characterizations of the thin films clearly indicate the presence of dispersed flakes of Graphene in Chitosan. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of nanoparticles of Carbon in the composite though they also indicate presence of Oxygen which transcend from the bulk Graphite crystals. Preliminary amperometric studies reveal an increase in current with absorption of moisture and a potential humidity sensing ability of the nanocomposite thin film.

  16. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  17. Double Laser for Depth Measurement of Thin Films of Ice.

    PubMed

    Beltrn, Manuel Domingo; Molina, Ramn Luna; Aznar, Miguel ngel Satorre; Molt, Carmina Santonja; Verd, Carlos Milln

    2015-01-01

    The use of thin films is extensive in both science and industry. We have created an experimental system that allows us to measure the thicknesses of thin films (with typical thicknesses of around 1 m) in real time without the need for any prior knowledge or parameters. Using the proposed system, we can also measure the refractive index of the thin film material exactly under the same experimental conditions. We have also obtained interesting results with regard to structural changes in the solid substance with changing temperature and have observed the corresponding behavior of mixtures of substances. PMID:26426024

  18. Trapping Centers in Borophosphosilicate Glass Thin Films on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billman, Curt; Bullen, Andy; Lenahan, Patrick; Lowry, Robert; Fuller, Robert; Evans, Howard

    1997-03-01

    / We have investigated trapping centers in borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) thin films on silicon with electron /spin resonance (ESR) and electrical measurements on BPSG films flooded with electrons and holes as well as /films subjected to vacuum ultraviolet illumination. We have identified over a dozen paramagnetic centers and /have, to date, measured capture cross sections and "charge states" of several of these centers. Our results may /be of significant technological importance since these BPSG films are widely utilized in integrated circurity.

  19. Leak rates for air and isobutane through thin polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Donald W.; Aslam Lone, M.; Graham, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    The production of large area, thin (40-140 ?g/cm 2) polypropylene films for use as entrance windows in an array of proportional gas counters is described. The relationship between film thickness and interference fringe colour has been measured. Leak rates through coated and uncoated films have been measured for air and isobutane for pressure differentials of up to 1 atm. The maximum pressure difference that can be sustained by such films has also been determined.

  20. Transparent metal nanowire thin films prepared in mesostructured templates.

    PubMed

    Azulai, Daniel; Belenkova, Tatyana; Gilon, Hagit; Barkay, Zahava; Markovich, Gil

    2009-12-01

    The preparation of conductive and transparent gold/silver nanowire mesh films is reported. The nanowires formed after the reduction of the metal ions was triggered and a thin growth solution film was spread on a substrate. Metal reduction progressed within a template of a highly concentrated surfactant liquid crystalline mesostructure formed on the substrate during film drying to form ordered bundles of ultrathin nanowires. The films exhibited metallic conductivity over large areas, high transparency, and flexibility. PMID:19852500