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Sample records for three-axis thrust-vectoring system

  1. Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

  2. Ascent thrust vector control system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Testing of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control System in support of the Ares 1-X program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available

  3. Experimental investigations of thrust vectoring systems for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolls, L. S.; Aoyagi, K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of two technology programs sponsored by NASA to investigate the characteristics of two thrust vectoring schemes for V/STOL aircraft. The operational capability of the VTOL aircraft is dependent on maximum utilization of the installed thrust in both the cruise and powered lift modes of flight. An effective thrust vectoring system on the cruise propulsion unit is therefore essential to provide maximum payload in hover and STOL plus minimum specific fuel consumption in loiter and cruise. Introducing a high by-pass ratio fan system, augmenting the gas generator thrust, as the propulsion system for VTOL aircraft places increased significance on the performance of the relatively short coupled thrust vectoring systems. The two programs discussed herein include both large-scale and small-scale tests of a vectoring hood system with a vented, internal-lip and swivel nozzle systems. These tests indicated that a satisfactory thrust vectoring system can be developed.

  4. Space transportation system solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, fail-safe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system has completed the major portion of qualification and verification tests and is prepared to be cleared for the first Shuttle flight (STS-1). Substantiation data will include analytical and test data.

  5. Space Transportation System solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, failsafe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system completed the required qualification and verification tests and is certified for the intended application. Substantiation data include analytical and test data.

  6. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  7. Three axis attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  8. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  9. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo; Gedcke, Dale A.; Raudorf, Thomas W.; Sangsingkeow, Pat

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  10. Design development of the Apollo command and service module thrust vector attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.

  11. Preliminary design study of a lateral-directional control system using thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lateral-directional control system for a fighter airplane capable of controlled operation at extreme angles of attack is developed. The subject airplane is representative of a modern twin-engine high-performance jet fighter, is equipped with ailerons, rudder, and independent horizontal-tail surfaces. Idealized bidirectional thrust-vectoring engine nozzles are appended to the mathematic model of the airplane to provide additional control moments. Optimal schedules for lateral and directional pseudo control variables are calculated. Use of pseudo controls results in coordinated operation of the aerodynamic and thrust-vectoring controls with minimum coupling between the lateral and directional airplane dynamics. Linear quadratic regulator designs are used to specify a preliminary flight control system to improve the stability and response characteristics of the airplane. Simulated responses to step pilot control inputs are stable and well behaved. For lateral stick deflections, peak stability axis roll rates are between 1.25 and 1.60 rad/sec over an angle-of-attack range of 10 deg to 70 deg. For rudder pedal deflections, the roll rates accompanying the sideslip responses can be arrested by small lateral stick motions.

  12. Solid rocket thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Thrust vector control systems that superimpose a side force on the motor thrust, steering being achieved by the side force causing a moment about the vehicle center of gravity are described. A brief review of thrust vector control systems is presented, and two systems, flexible joint and liquid injection, are treated in detail. Treatment of the flexible-joint thrust vector control system is limited to the design of the flexible joint and its insulation against hot motor gases. Treatment of the liquid injection thrust vector control system is limited to discussion of the injectant, valves, piping, storage tanks, and pressurization system; no evaluation is presented of the nozzle except for (1) the effect of the injectant and erosion at the injection port and (2) the effect of injection on pressure distribution within the nozzle.

  13. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  14. Design of a mixer for the thrust-vectoring system on the high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One of the advanced control concepts being investigated on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) is multi-axis thrust vectoring using an experimental thrust-vectoring (TV) system consisting of three hydraulically actuated vanes per engine. A mixer is used to translate the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands into the appropriate TV-vane commands for distribution to the vane actuators. A computer-aided optimization process was developed to perform the inversion of the thrust-vectoring effectiveness data for use by the mixer in performing this command translation. Using this process a new mixer was designed for the HARV and evaluated in simulation and flight. An important element of the Mixer is the priority logic, which determines priority among the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands.

  15. Investigation of advanced thrust vectoring exhaust systems for high speed propulsive lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R. A.; Petit, J. E.; Capone, F. J.; Whittaker, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a wind tunnel investigation conducted at the NASA-Langley research center to determine thrust vectoring/induced lift characteristics of advanced exhaust nozzle concepts installed on a supersonic tactical airplane model. Specific test objectives include: (1) basic aerodynamics of a wing body configuration, (2) investigation of induced lift effects, (3) evaluation of static and forward speed performance, and (4) the effectiveness of a canard surface to trim thrust vectoring/induced lift forces and moments.

  16. A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1992-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

  17. Results of solar electric thrust vector control system design, development and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector control system TVCS for a solar-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of solar electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a solar electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved solar electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by control computer software, a significant advantage in control capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.

  18. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  19. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  20. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  1. Miniature image guided three-axis scanning and positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avirovik, Dragan; Dave, Digant; Priya, Shashank

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a high precision three axes scanning and positioning system for integration with Multifunctional Image Guided Surgical (MIGS) Platform. The stage integrates three main components: an optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe, laser scalpel and suction cup. The requirements for this stage were to provide scanning area of 400mm2, resolution of less than 10 microns and scanning velocity in the range of 10 - 40 mm/s. The stage was modeled using computer aided design software NX Unigraphics. In addition to the parameters mentioned above, additional boundary conditions for the stage were set as low volume and modularity. Optimized stage model was fabricated by using rapid prototyping technique that integrates low cost stepper motors, threaded rod drive train and a stepper motor controller. The EZ4axis stepper motor controller was able to provide 1/8th microstep resolution control over the motors, which met the criterion desired for the MIGS platform. Integration of computer controlled three-axis stage with MIGS platform provides the opportunity for conducting intricate surgical procedures using remote control or joystick. The device is image guided using the OCT probe and it is able to pin point any location requiring a laser scalpel incision. Due to the scanning capabilities, a high quality threedimensional image of the tissue topography is obtained which allows the surgeon to make a confident decision of where to apply the laser scalpel and make an incision.

  2. A review of thrust-vectoring schemes for fighter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Re, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a review of thrust vectoring schemes for advanced fighter applications. Results are presented from wind tunnel and system integration studies on thrust vectoring nozzle concepts. Vectoring data are presented from wind tunnel tests of axisymmetric C-D (convergent-divergent) and nonaxisymmetric wedge, C-D, single ramp and USB (upper-surface blowing) nozzle concepts. Results from recent airframe/nozzle integration studies on the impact of thrust vectoring on weight, cooling and performance characteristics are discussed. This review indicates that the aircraft designer has, at his disposal, a wide range of thrust vectoring schemes which offer potential for added or improved aircraft capability.

  3. Comparative investigation of multiplane thrust vectoring nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F.; Smereczniak, P.; Spetnagel, D.; Thayer, E.

    1992-01-01

    The inflight aerodynamic performance of multiplane vectoring nozzles is critical to development of advanced aircraft and flight control systems utilizing thrust vectoring. To investigate vectoring nozzle performance, subscale models of two second-generation thrust vectoring nozzle concepts currently under development for advanced fighters were integrated into an axisymmetric test pod. Installed drag and vectoring performance characteristics of both concepts were experimentally determined in wind tunnel testing. CFD analyses were conducted to understand the impact of internal flow turning on thrust vectoring characteristics. Both nozzles exhibited drag comparable with current nonvectoring axisymmetric nozzles. During vectored-thrust operations, forces produced by external flow effects amounted to about 25 percent of the total force measured.

  4. A Change of Inertia-Supporting the Thrust Vector Control of the Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziubanek, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is America's next launch vehicle. To utilize the vehicle more economically, heritage hardware from the Space Transportation System (STS) will be used when possible. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) actuators could possibly be used in the core stage of the SLS. The dynamic characteristics of the SRB actuator will need to be tested on an Inertia Load Stand (ILS) that has been converted to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The inertia on the pendulum of the ILS will need to be changed to match the SSME inertia. In this testing environment an SRB actuator can be tested with the equivalent resistence of an SSME.

  5. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  6. New Highly Dynamic Approach for Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, M.; Ettl, J.; Grothe, D.; Hrbud, I.

    2015-09-01

    For a new launcher system a thrust vector control system is needed. This launch vehicle system consists of two rockets which are namely the VS-50 (two-stage suborbital vehicle) and the VLM-1 (three-stage microsatellite launch vehicle). VLM-1 and VS-50 are developed in a cooperation between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Brazilian Aeronautics and Space Institute (IAE). To keep these two rockets on its trajectory during flight a highly dynamic thrust vector control system is required. For the purpose of developing such a highly dynamic thrust vector control system a master thesis was written by the author. The development includes all mechanical constructions as well as control algorithms and electronics design. Moreover an optimization of control algorithms was made to increase the dynamic capabilities of the thrust vector control system. The composition of the right components plus the sophisticated control algorithm make the thrust vector control system highly dynamic.

  7. Thrust vector control using electric actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Robert T.; Hall, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles.

  8. Thrust Vector Control using movable probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalleri, Robert; Tiarn, Weihnurng; Readey, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if movable probes or struts positioned in the nozzle can be used to provide Thrust Vector Control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The study employed CFD to determine estimates of the shock standoff distance from the probe. An empirical correlation was used to construct the shock shape and the pressure distribution generated by the probe. The TVC performance for a single and multiple number of probes was then used to determine requirements for a maximum thrust angle offset of 7.5 degrees. Consideration was given to what materials would be suitable for the probe and if active cooling is required. Based on the performance analysis and thermal requirements, a Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) system was sized. Indications are that a PTVC system weight is in the 1500 1bm weight range, compared to the existing weight of 7500 1bm for the SRB nozzle gimble system.

  9. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  10. The Magsat three axis arc second precision attitude transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenkel, F. W.; Heins, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Magsat Attitude Transfer System (ATS), which provides attitude alteration in pitch, yaw, and roll is described. A remote vector magnetometer extends from Magsat on a 20 ft boom, requiring vector orientation by reference to coordinate axes determined by a set of star mapping cameras. The ATS was designed to perform in a solar illuminated environment by using an optically narrow bandwidth with synchronous demodulation at 9300 A. The pitch/yaw optical design, the electrooptics, and signal and switching diagrams are provided. Simple mirrors with no moving parts are placed on the magnetometer to reflect a collimated beam from the ATS for attitude indication, which is accurate to one part in 96. Alignment was completed within 24 hr after launch.

  11. Three-axis lever actuator with flexure hinges for an optical disk system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Soo; Kim, Soo-Hyun

    2002-10-01

    A three-axis lever actuator with a flexure hinge has been designed and fabricated. This actuator is driven by electromagnetic force based on a coil-magnet system and can be used as a high precision actuator and, especially as a pickup head actuator in optical disks. High precision and low sensitivity to external vibration are the major advantages of this lever actuator. An analysis model was found and compared to the finite element method. Dynamic characteristics of the three-axis lever actuator were measured. The results are in very close agreement to those predicted by the model and finite element analysis.

  12. Thrust vector control using electric actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, R.T.; Hall, D.K.

    1995-01-25

    Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  13. Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

  14. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xuyong

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  15. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  16. A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páscoa, José C.; Dumas, Antonio; Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Paul; Vucinic, Dean

    2013-09-01

    The advantages associated to Vertical Short-Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) have been demonstrated since the early days of aviation, with the initial technolology being based on airships and later on helicopters and planes. Its operational advantages are enormous, being it in the field of military, humanitarian and rescue operations, or even in general aviation. Helicopters have limits in their maximum horizontal speed and classic V/STOL airplanes have problems associated with their large weight, due to the implementation of moving elements, when based on tilting rotors or turbojet vector mechanical oriented nozzles. A new alternative is proposed within the European Union Project ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle). The project introduces a novel scheme to orient the jet that is free of moving elements. This is based on a Coanda effect nozzle supported in two fluid streams, also incorporating boundary layer plasma actuators to achieve larger deflection angles. Herein we introduce a state-of-the-art review of the concepts that have been proposed in the framework of jet orienting propulsion systems. This review allows to demonstrate the advantages of the new concept in comparison to competing technologies in use at present day, or of competing technologies under development worldwide.

  17. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

  18. Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

  19. Thrust-Vector Deflectors For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Rotating shield steers thrust in desired direction. Report discusses use of thrust-vector deflectors (TVD's) to enhance controllability and reduce number of small rocket engines (thrustors) needed to control attitudes of artificial satellites. Developed in aircraft industry for use in jet engines. Principal advantages gained, lower cost and greater simplicity.

  20. Ground test of the D shaped vented thrust vectoring nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esker, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Static ground tests of a large scale lift/cruise thrust vectoring nozzle were conducted to establish: (1) vectoring performance 'in' and 'out' of ground effect; (2) thrust spoilage capability; (3) compatibility of the nozzle with a turbotip fan; and (4) the nozzle structural temperature distribution. Vectoring performance of a short coupled, vented nozzle design on a large scale, (60%) basis was compared with small scale (4.5%) test nozzle results. The test nozzle was a "boilerplate" model of the MCAIR "D" vented nozzle configured for operation with the LF336/J85 turbotip lift fan system. Calibration of the LF336/J85 test fan with a simple convergent nozzle was performed with four different nozzle exit areas to establish reference thrust, nozzle pressure ratio, and nozzle corrected flow characteristics for comparison with the thrust vectoring nozzle data. Thrust vectoring tests with the 'D' vented nozzle were conducted over the range of vector angles between 0 and 117 deg for several different nozzle exit areas.

  1. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  2. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  3. Design of high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Marshall has undertaken the development of electromechanical actuators (EMAs) for thrust vector control (TVC) augmentation system implementation. The TVC EMA presented has as its major components two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two-pass gear-reduction system, and a roller screw for rotary-to-linear motion conversion. System control is furnished by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply; a pair of resolvers deliver position feedback to the controller, such that precise positioning is achieved. Peformance comparisons have been conducted between the EMA and comparable-performance hydraulic systems applicable to TVCs.

  4. Thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, D. N.; Brinton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Thrust vector control (TVC) for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is obtained by omniaxis vectoring of the nozzle. The development and integration of the system are under the cognizance of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The nozzle and flexible bearing have been designed and will be built by Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Division. The vector requirements of the system, the impact of multiple reuse on the components, and the unique problems associated with a large flexible bearing are discussed. The design details of each of the major TVC subcomponents are delineated. The subscale bearing development program and the overall development schedule also are presented.

  5. Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry

  6. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-01-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  7. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-05-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  8. Experimental and theoretical comparison of the Probe Thrust Vector Control concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalleri, Robert; Tiarn, Weihnurng; Lewis, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    A concept that offers an alternate method for thrust vector control of liquid or solid propellant rockets is the use of a solid body or probe that is inserted on demand through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternative to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector control system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment is time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment is time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the concept are PTVC vectoring performance and active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. The objective of the work reported here is presentation of experimental subscale cold flow tests and comparison of these tests with CFD predictions and the response time of the PTVC system.

  9. Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

    1990-01-01

    Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

  10. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude determination support with a multimission three-axis stabilized spacecraft flight dynamics support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Richard; Lee, Michael

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) was launched June 7, 1992 by an expendable Delta 2 launch vehicle. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used a multimission three-axis stabilized spacecraft (MTASS) Flight Dynamics Support System (FDSS) to support the EUVE launch and mission operations. For EUVE, MTASS has been used to monitor attitude sensor performance, study OBC attitude determination performance, and study attitude perturbations. The current status of these efforts are summarized. After its successful implementation for EUVE, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), MTASS has demonstrated multimission flight dynamics support systems can effectively bridge the gap between single-mission support systems of the past and future generic systems.

  11. Gyroless yaw control system for a three axis stabilized, zero-momentum spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite attitude control system is usable in the absence of any inertial yaw attitude reference, such as a gyroscope, and in the absence of a pitch bias momentum. Both the roll-yaw rigid body dynamics and the roll-yaw orbit kinematics are modelled. Pitch and roll attitude control are conventional. The model receives inputs from a roll sensor, and roll and yaw torques from reaction wheel monitors. The model produces estimated yaw which controls the spacecraft yaw attitude.

  12. A three-axis angular monitoring system for the magnetic field satellite /MAGSAT/ mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collyer, P. W.; Schenkel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    An electro-optical attitude transfer system was developed to monitor the angular orientation of magnetometers deployed at the end of a 20-foot boom extending outboard from the Magsat spacecraft. One autocollimator monitors pitch and yaw attitude, cooperating with a plane mirror at the end of the boom; a second monitors roll (twist) from an offset look-angle, using one dihedral reflector at the boom end and a second on the spacecraft. RMS errors due to all causes including linearity, G-forces, cross-coupling and translation are estimated to be 3.9 arcsec over + or - 180 arcsec excursion in pitch and yaw, and 5.3 to 7.5 arcsec over + or - 300 arcsec roll. Design and fabrication problems relative to the remote dihedral refector proved to be the most challenging, and solutions to these problems will be described.

  13. A three-axis high-resolution capacitive tactile imager system based on floating comb electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surapaneni, R.; Guo, Q.; Xie, Y.; Young, D. J.; Mastrangelo, C. H.

    2013-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication and testing of a high-resolution 169-sensing cell capacitive flexible tactile imager (FTI) for normal and shear stress measurement as an auxiliary sensor for robotic grippers and gait analysis. The FTI consists of a flexible high-density array of normal stress and two-dimensional shear stress sensors fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) techniques. The drive/sense lines of the FTI are realized using FPCB whereas the floating electrodes (Au) are patterned on a compressible PDMS layer spin coated on the FPCB layer. The use of unconnected floating electrodes significantly improves the reliability of traditional quad-electrode contact sensing devices by eliminating the need for patterning electrical wiring on PDMS. When placed at the heel of a boot, this FTI senses the position and motion of the line of contact with the ground. Normal stress readouts are obtained from the net capacitance of the cell and the shear-sense direction is determined by the amount of asymmetric overlap of the floating combs with respect to the bottom electrodes. The FTI is characterized using a high-speed switched-capacitor circuit with a 12-bit resolution at full frame rates of 100 Hz (˜0.8 Mb s-1) capable of resolving a displacement as low as 60 µm. The FTI and the readout circuitry contribute to a noise/interference level of 5 mV and the sensitivity of normal and shear stress for the FTI is 0.38 MPa-1 and 79.5 GPa-1 respectively.

  14. Feedback control for counterflow thrust vectoring with a turbine engine: Experiment design and robust control design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dores, Delfim Zambujo Das

    2005-11-01

    Engineering research over the last few years has successfully demonstrated the potential of thrust vector control using counterflow at conditions up to Mach 2. Flow configurations that include the pitch vectoring of rectangular jets and multi-axis vector control in diamond and axisymmetric nozzle geometries have been studied. Although bistable (on-off) fluid-based control has been around for some time, the present counterflow thrust vector control is unique because proportional and continuous jet response can be achieved in the absence of moving parts, while avoiding jet attachment, which renders most fluidic approaches unacceptable for aircraft and missile control applications. However, before this study, research had been limited to open-loop studies of counterflow thrust vectoring. For practical implementation it was vital that the counterflow scheme be used in conjunction with feedback control. Hence, the focus of this research was to develop and experimentally demonstrate a feedback control design methodology for counterflow thrust vectoring. This research focused on 2-D (pitch) thrust vectoring and addresses four key modeling issues. The first issue is to determine the measured variable to be commanded since the thrust vector angle is not measurable in real time. The second related issue is to determine the static mapping from the thrust vector angle to this measured variable. The third issue is to determine the dynamic relationship between the measured variable and the thrust vector angle. The fourth issue is to develop dynamic models with uncertainty characterizations. The final and main goal was the design and implementation of robust controllers that yield closed-loop systems with fast response times, and avoid overshoot in order to aid in the avoidance of attachment. These controllers should be simple and easy to implement in real applications. Hence, PID design has been chosen. Robust control design is accomplished by using ℓ1 control theory in

  15. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring by Navier-Stokes solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Jing-Biau; Lan, C. Edward

    1991-01-01

    Induced aerodynamics from thrust vectoring are investigated by a computational fluid dynamic method. A thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code with multiblock capability is used. Jet properties are specified on the nozzle exit plane to simulate the jet momentum. Results for a rectangular jet in a cross flow are compared with data to verify the code. Further verification of the calculation is made by comparing the numerical results with transonic data for a wing-body combination. Additional calculations were performed to elucidate the following thrust vectoring effects: the thrust vectoring effect on shock and expansion waves, induced effects on nearby surfaces, and the thrust vectoring effect on the leading edge vortex.

  16. Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

  17. Thrust and mass flow characteristics of four 36 inch diameter tip turbine fan thrust vectoring systems in and out of ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esker, D. W.; Roddiger, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The calibration tests carried out on the propulsion system components of a 70 percent scale, powered model of a NASA 3-fan V/STOL aircraft configuration are described. The three X3/6B/T58 turbotip fan units used in the large scale powered model were tested on an isolated basis over a range of ground heights from H/D of 1.02 to infinity. A higher pressure ratio LF336/J85 fan unit was tested over a range of ground heights from 1.55 to infinity. The results of the test program demonstrated that: (1) the thrust and mass flow performance of the X376B/T58 nose lift unit is essentially constant for H/D variations down to 1.55; at H/D 1.02 back pressurization of the fan exit occurs and is accompanied by an increase in thrust of five percent; (2) a change in nose fan exit hub shape from flat plate to hemispherical produces no significant difference in louvered lift nozzle performance for height variations from H/D = 1.02 to infinity; (3) operation of the nose lift nozzle at the higher fan pressure ratio generated by the LF336/J85 fan system causes no significant change in ground proximity performance down to an H/D of 1.55, the lowest height tested with this unit; and (4) the performance of the left and right X376B/T58 lift/cruise units in the vertical lift mode remains unchanged, within plus or minus two percent for the range of ground heights from H/D = 1.02 to infinity.

  18. Design of a three-axis magnetic field measurement system for the magnetic shield of the ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Chuiyu; Yao, Xu

    2015-10-01

    The magnetic field is one of the main causes of zero drift in a Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG), which should be avoided by adopting a magnetic shielding system. The Gauss Meter is usually used to measure the magnetic shielding effectiveness. Generally, the traditional Gauss Meter has advantages of high measure range and high reliability, however, its drawbacks such as complex structure, high price and the PC client software cannot be customized at will, are also obvious. In this paper, aiming at a type of experimental magnetic shielding box of RLG, we design a new portable three-axis magnetic field measurement system. This system has both high modularity degree and reliability, with measuring range at ±48Gs, max resolution at 1.5mGs and can measure the magnetic field in x, y and z direction simultaneously. Besides, its PC client software can be easily customized to achieve the automatic DAQ, analysis, plotting and storage functions. The experiment shows that, this system can meet the measuring requirements of certain type of experimental magnetic shielding box for RLG, meanwhile, for the measurement of some other magnetic shielding effectiveness, this system is also applicable.

  19. Development of a Low-Cost Attitude and Heading Reference System Using a Three-Axis Rotating Platform

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ying-Chih; Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsiao, Fei-Bin

    2010-01-01

    A development procedure for a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) with a self-developed three-axis rotating platform has been proposed. The AHRS consists of one 3-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, and one 3-axis digital compass. Both the accelerometer and gyroscope triads are based on micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, and the digital compass is based on anisotropic-magnetoresistive (AMR) technology. The calibrations for each sensor triad are readily accomplished by using the scalar calibration and the least squares methods. The platform is suitable for the calibration and validation of the low-cost AHRS and it is affordable for most laboratories. With the calibrated parameters and data fusion algorithm for the orientation estimation, the self-developed AHRS demonstrates the capabilities of compensating for the sensor errors and outputting the estimated orientation in real-time. The validation results show that the estimated orientations of the developed AHRS are within the acceptable region. This verifies the practicability of the proposed development procedure. PMID:22319258

  20. An MRI-compatible three-axis focused ultrasound system for performing drug delivery studies in small animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Chau, Anthony; Kukic, Aleksandra; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided focused-ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that can enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents. The objective of this work was to develop a focused-ultrasound system for preclinical research in small animals that is capable of sonicating with high spatial precision within a closed-bore MRI. The system features a computer-controlled, non-magnetic, three-axis positioning system that uses piezoelectric actuators and linear optical encoders to position a focused-ultrasound transducer to targeted tissues under MRI guidance. The actuator and encoder signals are transmitted through low-pass-filtered connectors on a grounded RF-penetration panel to prevent artifacts during image acquisition. The transducer is attached to the positioning system by a rigid arm and is submerged within a closed water tank. The arm passes into the tank through flexible bellows to ensure that the system remains sealed. An RF coil acquires high-resolution images in the vicinity of the target tissue. An aperture on the water tank, centered about the RF coil, provides an access point for target sonication. Registration between ultrasound and MRI coordinates involves sonicating a temperature-sensitive phantom and measuring the centroid of the thermal focal zone in 3D with MR thermometry. Linear distances of 5 cm with a positioning resolution of 0.05 mm can be achieved for each axis. The system was operated successfully on MRI scanners from different vendors at both 1.5 and 3.0 T, and simultaneous motion and imaging was possible without any mutual interference or imaging artifacts. This system is used for high-throughput small-animal experiments to study the efficacy of ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery.

  1. Analysis of Thrust Vectoring Capabilities for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B .; Gromov, Konstantin; Murray, Emmanuell

    2005-01-01

    A strategy to mitigate the impact of the trajectory design of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) on the attitude control design is described in this paper. This paper shows how the thrust vectoring control torques, i.e. the torques required to steer the vehicle, depend on various parameters (thrust magnitude, thrust pod articulation angles, and thrust moment arms). Rather than using the entire reaction control system (RCS) system to steer the spacecraft, we investigate the potential utilization of only thrust vectoring of the main ion engines for the required attitude control to follow the representative trajectory. This study has identified some segments of the representative trajectory where the required control torque may exceed the designed ion engine capability, and how the proposed mitigation strategy succeeds in reducing the attitude control torques to within the existing capability.

  2. Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1995-01-01

    A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

  3. Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

  4. Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Characteristics of a Model Representative of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 70 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.

  5. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control V-2 off-nominal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the V-2 off nominal test sequence performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control (SRB TVC) system are reported. The TVC subsystem was subjected to 19 off nominal test conditions. The test sequence consisted of: 8 burp starts, 30 hot firings, 14 GN2 spin tests, and 3 servicing passive system tests. It is concluded that the TVC subsystem operated nominally in response to the given commands and test conditions. Test objectives, detail results, and data are included.

  6. Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enright, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.

  7. Performance and human factors results from thrust vectoring investigations in simulated air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.; Meintel, A. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In support of research related to advanced fighter technology, the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) has been used to investigate the effects of advanced aerodynamic concepts, parametric changes in performance parameters, and advanced flight control systems on the combat capability of fighter airplanes. At least five studies were related to thrust vectoring and/or inflight thrust reversing. The aircraft simulated ranged from F-4 class to F-15 class, and included the AV-8 Harrier. This paper presents an overview of these studies including the assumptions involved, trends of results, and human factors considerations that were found.

  8. Attitude control of a spinning rocket via thrust vectoring

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.

    1990-12-19

    Two controllers are developed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that has a thrust vectoring capability. The first controller has a single-input/single-output design that ignores the gyroscopic coupling between the control channels. The second controller has a multi-input/multi-output structure that is specifically intended to account for the gyroscopic coupling effects. A performance comparison between the two approached is conducted for a range of roll rates. Each controller is tested for the ability to track step commands, and for the amount of coupling impurity. Both controllers are developed via a linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis procedure, which is motivated by the multi-input/multi-output nature of second controller. Time responses and a singular value analysis are used to evaluate controller performance. This paper describes the development and comparison of two controllers that are designed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that is equipped with thrust vector control. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

  10. Test stand for precise measurement of impulse and thrust vector of small attitude control jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, J. R.; Chisel, D. M.

    1973-01-01

    A test stand which accurately measures the impulse bit and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters used in the attitude control system of space vehicles has been developed. It can be used to measure, in a vacuum or ambient environment, both impulse and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters using hydrazine or inert gas propellants. The ballistic pendulum configuration was selected because of its accuracy, simplicity, and versatility. The pendulum is mounted on flexure pivots rotating about a vertical axis at the center of its mass. The test stand has the following measurement capabilities: impulse of 0.00004 to 4.4 N-sec (0.00001 to 1.0 lb-sec) with a pulse duration of 0.5 msec to 1 sec; static thrust of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) with a 5 percent resolution; and thrust angle alinement of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) thrusters with 0.01 deg accuracy.

  11. An MRI-compatible three-axis focused ultrasound system for performing drug delivery studies in small animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Chau, Anthony; Kukic, Aleksandra; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an MRI-compatible focused-ultrasound system for preclinical research in small animal models capable of delivering exposures with high spatial precision in a closed-bore clinical imager. A computer-controlled, non-magnetic, 3-axis positioning system was developed using ceramic actuators and linear encoders to position a focused-ultrasound transducer within a clinical MR scanner. Registration between ultrasound and MRI coordinates involves sonicating a tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom and measuring the centroid of the thermal focal zone with MR thermometry. Linear distances of 5 cm with a positioning resolution of 0.1 mm were achieved for each axis. The system was operated successfully in MR imagers from different vendors at both 1.5 and 3.0 T, and simultaneous motion and imaging was possible without any mutual interference or imaging artifacts. Initial experiments involving opening of the blood-brain barrier at specific targets within the brain suggest a targeting accuracy of 0.4 mm.

  12. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  13. Multiaxis thrust vectoring using axisymmetric nozzles and postexit vanes on an F/A-18 configuration vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Grafton, Sue B.; Mason, Mary L.; Peron, Lee R.

    1991-01-01

    A ground-based investigation was conducted on an operational system of multiaxis thrust vectoring using postexit vanes around an axisymmetric nozzle. This thrust vectoring system will be tested on the NASA F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. The system provides thrust vectoring capability in both pitch and yaw. Ground based data were gathered from two separate tests at NASA Langley Research Center. The first was a static test in the 16-foot Transonic Tunnel Cold-Jet Facility with a 14.25 percent scale model of the axisymmetric nozzle and the postexit vanes. The second test was conducted in the 30 by 60 foot wind tunnel with a 16 percent F/A-18 complete configuration model. Data from the two sets are being used to develop models of jet plume deflection and thrust loss as a function of vane deflection. In addition, an aerodynamic interaction model based on plume deflection angles will be developed. Results from the scale model nozzle test showed that increased vane deflection caused exhaust plume turning. Aerodynamic interaction effects consisted primarily of favorable interaction of moments and unfavorable interaction of forces caused by the vectored jet plume.

  14. Altitude testing of a flight weight, self-cooled, 2D thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, W. H.; Blozy, J. T.; Speir, D. W.; Lottig, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Augmented Deflector Exhaust Nozzle (ADEN) was tested in PSL-3 at NASA-Lewis Research Center using an F404 engine. The ADEN is a flight weight Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle with thrust vectoring, an internal cooling system utilizing the available engine fan flow, and a variable area throat controlled by the engine control system. Test conditions included dry and max A/B operation at nozzle pressure ratios from 2.0 to 15.0. High nozzle pressure loading was simulated to verify structural integrity at near maximum design pressure. Nozzle settings covered the full range in throat area and + or - 15 deg deflection angle. Test results demonstrated expected aerodynamic performance, cooling system effectiveness, control system stability, and mechanical integrity.

  15. Design and Testing of Three-Axis Satellite Attitude Determination and Stabilization Systems That Are Based on Magnetic Sensing and Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.; Guelman, Moshe

    2002-11-01

    Three-axis satellite attitude determination and active stabilization systems have been designed and tested using both flight experiments and simulation studies. These are being developed for use on low-Earth-orbiting name- satellites. Such satellites can be used as elements of constellations that implement synthetic aperture radar or that serve as nudes in a communications network. The research has addressed the problems of under-sensing and under-actuation that are present in magnetic-based systems. Magnetometer outputs are insensitive to rotation about the local Earth magnetic field, and magnetic torque coils cannot produce torque slump the field direction. A new attitude representation and a special globally-convergent extended Kalman filter have been used to solve the 3-axis attitude estimation problem. The efficacy of this system has been demonstrated using data from the missions, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Semi-active global 3-axis stabilization has been demonstrated using a simplified magnetometer output feedback control law in combination with weak passive stabilization of the axes. The passive stabilization can come from a very small momentum wheel or from a new aerodynamic system. The momentum-wheel-based concept has been successfully tested on the TechSat Gurwin II spacecraft.

  16. Design and evaluation of single and dual flow thrust vector nozzles with post exit vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Vaccarezza, Stephen E.; Dobbins, Sean

    1992-01-01

    This Thrust Vectored Research project required that a 1/24 scale model of the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, (HARV), propulsion system be constructed on the university campus. This propulsion system was designed for cold flow testing on a multicomponent test rig. Forces and moments were measured to study nozzle performance parameters. The flow visualization technique of color Schlieren photography was performed to investigate the flow phenomena at the nozzle exit. The flow interactions that were identified consisted of vane nozzleing between the outer and lower vanes and vane tip interference. The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed circumferentially on a maximum afterburner nozzle. The performance of the nozzle was investigated with the outer and lower vanes equally deflected, (-10 deg is less than delta(sub v) is less than 25 deg), and with the upper vane fully retracted, (delta(sub v) equals -10 deg). The nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 4 to 6. The results indicated that a vane nozzleing effect developed at nozzle pressure ratios of 4 and 6 when the outer and lower vanes were deflected far enough into the flow field such that the increase in vane area accelerated the flow past the vanes causing distorted shock waves. This accelerated flow was a result of a pressure differential existing between the inside surface of the vane and the ambient pressure. The stagnation pressure that developed along the inside surface of the vane accelerated the flow past the vanes causing it to equalize with ambient pressure, thus providing distorted shock waves. A tip interference was present at the trailing edge of the upper vane as a result of low nozzle pressure, NPR 4, with high vane deflection, delta(sub v) equals 25 degrees, and also with a high nozzle pressure, NPR 6, and low vane deflections, delta(sub v) equals 15 degrees.

  17. Design and evaluation of single and dual flow thrust vector nozzles with post exit vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Vaccarezza, Stephen E.; Dobbins, Sean

    1992-12-01

    This Thrust Vectored Research project required that a 1/24 scale model of the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, (HARV), propulsion system be constructed on the university campus. This propulsion system was designed for cold flow testing on a multicomponent test rig. Forces and moments were measured to study nozzle performance parameters. The flow visualization technique of color Schlieren photography was performed to investigate the flow phenomena at the nozzle exit. The flow interactions that were identified consisted of vane nozzleing between the outer and lower vanes and vane tip interference. The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed circumferentially on a maximum afterburner nozzle. The performance of the nozzle was investigated with the outer and lower vanes equally deflected, (-10 deg is less than delta(sub v) is less than 25 deg), and with the upper vane fully retracted, (delta(sub v) equals -10 deg). The nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 4 to 6. The results indicated that a vane nozzleing effect developed at nozzle pressure ratios of 4 and 6 when the outer and lower vanes were deflected far enough into the flow field such that the increase in vane area accelerated the flow past the vanes causing distorted shock waves. This accelerated flow was a result of a pressure differential existing between the inside surface of the vane and the ambient pressure. The stagnation pressure that developed along the inside surface of the vane accelerated the flow past the vanes causing it to equalize with ambient pressure, thus providing distorted shock waves. A tip interference was present at the trailing edge of the upper vane as a result of low nozzle pressure, NPR 4, with high vane deflection, delta(sub v) equals 25 degrees, and also with a high nozzle pressure, NPR 6, and low vane deflections, delta(sub v) equals 15 degrees.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of a thrust vector controlled transport at the conceptual design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Vincent Patrick

    The impetus to innovate, to push the bounds and break the molds of evolutionary design trends, often comes from competition but sometimes requires catalytic political legislature. For this research endeavor, the 'catalyzing legislation' comes in response to the rise in cost of fossil fuels and the request put forth by NASA on aircraft manufacturers to show reduced aircraft fuel consumption of +60% within 30 years. This necessitates that novel technologies be considered to achieve these values of improved performance. One such technology is thrust vector control (TVC). The beneficial characteristic of thrust vector control technology applied to the traditional tail-aft configuration (TAC) commercial transport is its ability to retain the operational advantage of this highly evolved aircraft type like cabin evacuation, ground operation, safety, and certification. This study explores if the TVC transport concept offers improved flight performance due to synergistically reducing the traditional empennage size, overall resulting in reduced weight and drag, and therefore reduced aircraft fuel consumption. In particular, this study explores if the TVC technology in combination with the reduced empennage methodology enables the TAC aircraft to synergistically evolve while complying with current safety and certification regulation. This research utilizes the multi-disciplinary parametric sizing software, AVD Sizing, developed by the Aerospace Vehicle Design (AVD) Laboratory. The sizing software is responsible for visualizing the total system solution space via parametric trades and is capable of determining if the TVC technology can enable the TAC aircraft to synergistically evolve, showing marked improvements in performance and cost. This study indicates that the TVC plus reduced empennage methodology shows marked improvements in performance and cost.

  19. Computational Study of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring using Separation Control in a Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2003-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two- dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D was used to guide the design and analyze over 60 configurations. Nozzle design variables included cavity convergence angle, cavity length, fluidic injection angle, upstream minimum height, aft deck angle, and aft deck shape. All simulations were computed with a static freestream Mach number of 0.05. a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.858, and a fluidic injection flow rate equal to 6 percent of the primary flow rate. Results indicate that the recessed cavity enhances the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring and allows for greater thrust-vector angles without compromising thrust efficiency.

  20. Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated

  1. Static internal performance of an axisymmetric nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, George T., Jr.; Capone, Francis J.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring axisymmetric nozzle. Thrust vectoring for this nozzle was achieved by deflection of only the divergent section of this nozzle. The effects of nozzle power setting and divergent flap length were studied at nozzle deflection angles of 0 to 30 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

  2. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem test report (D-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, B.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the sequence of tests performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. The operational characteristics of the thrust vector control subsystem components, as determined from the tests, are discussed. Special analyses of fuel consumption, basic steady state characteristics, GN2 spin, and actuator displacement were reviewed which will aid in understanding the performance of the auxiliary power unit. The possibility of components malfunction is also discussed.

  3. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  4. Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

  5. A Computational Study of a New Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two-dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. Several design cycles with the structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D and with experiments in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility have been completed to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. This paper presents computational results on potential design improvements for best experimental configuration tested to date. Nozzle design variables included cavity divergence angle, cavity convergence angle and upstream throat height. Pulsed fluidic injection was also investigated for its ability to decrease mass flow requirements. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 7, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to 3 percent of the primary flow rate. Computational results indicate that increasing cavity divergence angle beyond 10 is detrimental to thrust vectoring efficiency, while increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 improves thrust vectoring efficiency at nozzle pressure ratios greater than 2, albeit at the expense of discharge coefficient. Pulsed injection was no more efficient than steady injection for the Dual Throat Nozzle concept.

  6. Pneumatic motor powered Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for liquid propelled launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Mark C.; Evans, P. S.

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies performed for the Titan 4 launch vehicle indicate significant potential advantages in replacing the current stage 1 and 2 recirculating hydraulic TVC (thrust vector control) system with a PMA (pneumatic mechanical actuation) system. Some of the advantages of a PMA system over the recirculating hydraulic system include reduced part count and weight, reduced maintenance and life-cycle cost, and improved mission reliability. PMA technology, used in aircraft applications since the 1960s, is well suited in launch vehicle TVC applications where an existing pneumatic pressure source is available. A typical pneumatic motor TVC consists of a pneumatic power source, a dual rotor pneumatic motor, a gear box, a ball screw actuator, and the associated closed-loop servo-control elements. One key issue with implementing this mechanical approach is designing a TVC system to withstand large load transient disturbances during liquid engine starting. Hydraulic actuator transient loads have exceeded 60,000 lb(sub f) for a 30,000 lb(sub f) stall design actuator during ground starts of the Titan 3B, Stage 1 engine. A PMA TVC system must also withstand these start transients without imparting excessive reaction loads to the engine nozzle and thrust structure. Work completed to date with Martin Marietta to examine pneumatic motor powered TVC options and technology benefits is presented. The load transient issue is discussed along with potential solutions and the associated trades. General background on PMA technology and experience base is also presented.

  7. Internal performance of two nozzles utilizing gimbal concepts for thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Taylor, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle and a nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle, both of which utilized a gimbal type mechanism for thrust vectoring was evaluated in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle used the gimbal concept for yaw thrust vectoring only; pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by simultaneous deflection of the upper and lower divergent flaps. The model geometric parameters investigated were pitch vector angle for the axisymmetric nozzle and pitch vector angle, yaw vector angle, nozzle throat aspect ratio, and nozzle expansion ratio for the nonaxisymmetric nozzle. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 12.0.

  8. Static Investigation of a Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle With Variable Internal Contouring Ability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Mills, Charles T. L.; Mason, Mary L.

    1997-01-01

    The thrust efficiency and vectoring performance of a convergent-divergent nozzle were investigated at static conditions in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The diamond-shaped nozzle was capable of varying the internal contour of each quadrant individually by using cam mechanisms and retractable drawers to produce pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. Pitch thrust vectoring was achieved by either retracting the lower drawers to incline the throat or varying the internal flow-path contours to incline the throat. Yaw thrust vectoring was achieved by reducing flow area left of the nozzle centerline and increasing flow area right of the nozzle centerline; a skewed throat deflected the flow in the lateral direction.

  9. An Experimental/Modeling Study of Jet Attachment during Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strykowski, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the applicability of vectoring rectangular jets using asymmetrically applied counterflow in the presence of a short collar. This novel concept has applications in the aerospace industry where counterflow can be used to vector the thrust of a jet's exhaust, shortening take-off and landing distances and enhancing in-flight maneuverability of the aircraft. Counterflow thrust vectoring, 'CFTV' is desirable due to its fast time response, low thrust loss, and absence of moving parts. However, implementation of a CFTV system is only possible if bistable jet attachment can be prevented. This can be achieved by properly designing the geometry of the collar. An analytical model is developed herein to predict the conditions under which a two-dimensional jet will attach to an offset curved wall. Results from this model are then compared with experiment; for various jet exit Mach numbers, collar offset distances, and radii of curvature. Their excellent correlation permits use of the model as a tool for designing a CFTV system.

  10. Robust vibration suppression of an adaptive circular composite plate for satellite thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Su; Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a novel application of adaptive composite structures, a University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) smart composite platform, is developed for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of satellites. The device top plate of the UHM platform is an adaptive circular composite plate (ACCP) that utilizes integrated sensors/actuators and controllers to suppress low frequency vibrations during the thruster firing as well as to potentially isolate dynamic responses from the satellite structure bus. Since the disturbance due to the satellite thruster firing can be estimated, a combined strategy of an adaptive disturbance observer (DOB) and feed-forward control is proposed for vibration suppression of the ACCP with multi-sensors and multi-actuators. Meanwhile, the effects of the DOB cut-off frequency and the relative degree of the low-pass filter on the DOB performance are investigated. Simulations and experimental results show that higher relative degree of the low-pass filter with the required cut-off frequency will enhance the DOB performance for a high-order system control. Further, although the increase of the filter cut-off frequency can guarantee a sufficient stability margin, it may cause an undesirable increase of the control bandwidth. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive DOB with feed-forward control strategy is verified through simulations and experiments using the ACCP system.

  11. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  12. Two-DOF precision platform for spacecraft thrust vector control: control strategies and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents control strategies and simulations of a two-DOF precision platform as an adaptive thruster mount structure with precision positioning and active vibration suppression capabilities for thrust vector control of space satellites. First, the configuration of the two-DOF precision platform is introduced, which is an intelligent tripod with two in-plane rotational degrees of freedom for the top device-plate. Precision positioning of this platform is achieved using active members that extend or contract to tilt the top device-plate where the thruster is mounted. Kinematic analysis of the platform is then presented and followed by two control strategies; namely local control strategy and global control strategy. In the local control strategy, the motion of each active member is controlled locally according to the kinematical feature of the platform and the local sensor information to achieve the desired tilt of the top device-plate. In the global control strategy, the motion of each active member is adjusted according to the system level information from a tilt sensor. Fuzzy logic control is employed and the two control strategies are simulated and compared.

  13. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem verification test (V-2) report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the verification testing sequence V-2 performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. A detailed history of the hot firings plus additional discussion of the auxiliary power unit and the hydraulic component performance is presented. The test objectives, data, and conclusions are included.

  14. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Foster, John V.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Connelly, Patrick J.; Kelly, John W.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thomas, Michael; Wichman, Keith D.; Wilson, R. Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  15. Development of a three axis fluidic airspeed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neradka, V. F.

    1972-01-01

    A three axis fluidic airspeed sensor system has been fabricated and wind tunnel tested. The complete system consists of the fluidic sensor, air power supply and instrumentation and readout. The system is adapted to aircraft and requires only the standard aircraft 28V dc supply to function.

  16. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  17. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  18. Three-axis adjustable loading structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, E. J.; Gray, D. T. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A three axis adjustable loading structure for testing the movable surfaces of aircraft by applying pressure, is described. The device has three electric drives where the wall angle, horizontal position, and vertical position of the test device can be rapidly and accurately positioned.

  19. Development and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Rae A.; Cowan, John R.

    1993-01-01

    A road map of milestones toward the goal of a full scale Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor/Flight Support Motor (RSRM/FSM) hot fire test is discussed. These milestones include: component feasibility, full power system demonstration, SSME hot fire tests, and RSRM hot fire tests. The participation of the Marshall Space Flight Center is emphasized.

  20. Development and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Rae A.; Cowan, John R.

    1993-06-01

    A road map of milestones toward the goal of a full scale Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor/Flight Support Motor (RSRM/FSM) hot fire test is discussed. These milestones include: component feasibility, full power system demonstration, SSME hot fire tests, and RSRM hot fire tests. The participation of the Marshall Space Flight Center is emphasized.

  1. Optimal Pitch Thrust-Vector Angle and Benefits for all Flight Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Bolonkin, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is exploring the optimum thrust-vector angle on aircraft. Simple aerodynamic performance models for various phases of aircraft flight are developed and optimization equations and algorithms are presented in this report. Results of optimal angles of thrust vectors and associated benefits for various flight regimes of aircraft (takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, final approach, and landing) are given. Results for a typical wide-body transport aircraft are also given. The benefits accruable for this class of aircraft are small, but the technique can be applied to other conventionally configured aircraft. The lower L/D aerodynamic characteristics of fighters generally would produce larger benefits than those produced for transport aircraft.

  2. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  3. Three axis control of an experimental platform using CMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akio; Kurokawa, Haruhisa; Kokaji, Shigeru

    A three axis attitude control system was designed using exact linearization. We study the effect of inertia moment variation and sensor noise in exact linearization and show that it is expressed as parameter changes and disturbances in a linearized system. A robust attitude control system has been realized by applying robust model matching, which is a control method for a linear system. The control system was evaluated by computer simulations and ground experiments using control moment gyros, and robustness was verified.

  4. Vista/F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) control law design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwerneman, W. D.; Eller, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    For the Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) program, a new control law was developed using multi-axis thrust vectoring to augment the aircraft's aerodynamic control power to provide maneuverability above the normal F-16 angle of attack limit. The control law architecture was developed using Lockheed Fort Worth's offline and piloted simulation capabilities. The final flight control laws were used in flight test to demonstrate tactical benefits gained by using thrust vectoring in air-to-air combat. Differences between the simulator aerodynamics data base and the actual aircraft aerodynamics led to significantly different lateral-directional flying qualities during the flight test program than those identified during piloted simulation. A 'dial-a-gain' flight test control law update was performed in the middle of the flight test program. This approach allowed for inflight optimization of the aircraft's flying qualities. While this approach is not preferred over updating the simulator aerodynamic data base and then updating the control laws, the final selected gain set did provide adequate lateral-directional flying qualities over the MATV flight envelope. The resulting handling qualities and the departure resistance of the aircraft allowed the 422nd_squadron pilots to focus entirely on evaluating the aircraft's tactical utility.

  5. Multiaxis aircraft control power from thrust vectoring at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive research programs conducted at the Langley Research Center have shown that thrust vectoring can be provided by multifunction (nonaxisymmetric) nozzles. Most of this research has been conducted on pitch vectoring at both static and forward flight conditions. Recent efforts have been aimed at evaluating yaw vectoring concepts at static (wind off) conditions. This paper summarizes results for three different twin-engine fighter configurations tested over a Mach number range of 0.15 to 2.47 at angles of attack up to 35 deg. The objective of these investigations was to determine the multiaxis control power characteristics provided by thrust vectoring. All three configurations employed two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles which provided pitch vectoring by differential deflection of the upper and lower nozzle divergent flaps. Three different means of yaw vectoring were tested: (1) a translating nozzle sidewall; (2) yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls; and (3) canted nozzles. These investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10x10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. Longitudinal and direction control power from thrust vectoring was greater than that provided by aerodynamic control effectors at low speed or at high angles of attack.

  6. Static performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles with yaw thrust-vectoring vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.

    1988-01-01

    A static test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16 ft Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the effects of post exit vane vectoring on nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Three baseline nozzles were tested: an unvectored two dimensional convergent nozzle, an unvectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, and a pitch vectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Each nozzle geometry was tested with 3 exit aspect ratios (exit width divided by exit height) of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.0. Two post exit yaw vanes were externally mounted on the nozzle sidewalls at the nozzle exit to generate yaw thrust vectoring. Vane deflection angle (0, -20 and -30 deg), vane planform and vane curvature were varied during the test. Results indicate that the post exit vane concept produced resultant yaw vector angles which were always smaller than the geometric yaw vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust ratio increased with the magnitude of resultant yaw vector angle. The widest post exit vane produced the largest degree of flow turning, but vane curvature had little effect on thrust vectoring. Pitch vectoring was independent of yaw vectoring, indicating that multiaxis thrust vectoring is feasible for the nozzle concepts tested.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of polymeric three-axis thermal accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cátia; Noh, Jong; Fonseca, Helder; Pontes, António; Gaspar, João; Alexandre Rocha, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The concept, fabrication process, and characterization of a three-axis thermal accelerometer are presented in this paper. A combination of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology with microinjection molding enables the realization of functional, highly complex 3D geometries at the microscale, used here for the fabrication of a fully integrated three-axis accelerometer. While conventional thermal accelerometers are silicon based, using MEMS technologies only, the integration of polymeric materials and technologies into the fabrication process can greatly improve the realization of three-axis devices while diminishing the typical thermal losses. Three-axis thermal accelerometers were successfully fabricated by combining the proposed technologies proving the viability of the concept. Fabricated accelerometers show xy-axis sensitivity around 8 mV g-1, a z-axis sensitivity of 2.2 mV g-1 for a power of 45 mW and a 4 Hz bandwidth (bandwidth is based on simulations). Thermal tests performed showed that the heater can sustain up to 280 °C without overheating the remaining structures and damaging the device.

  8. Three-Axis Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Ho Jung

    1987-01-01

    Gravity gradients measured even on accelerating platforms. Three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer based on flux quantization and Meissner effect in superconductors and employs superconducting quantum interference device as amplifier. Incorporates several magnetically levitated proof masses. Gradiometer design integrates accelerometers for operation in differential mode. Principal use in commercial instruments for measurement of Earth-gravity gradients in geo-physical surveying and exploration for oil.

  9. Dryden/Edwards 1994 Thrust-Vectoring Aircraft Fleet - F-18 HARV, X-31, F-16 MATV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The three thrust-vectoring aircraft at Edwards, California, each capable of flying at extreme angles of attack, cruise over the California desert in formation during flight in March 1994. They are, from left, NASA's F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; the X-31, flown by the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) at Dryden; and the Air Force F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) aircraft. All three aircraft were flown in different programs and were developed independently. The NASA F-18 HARV was a testbed to produce aerodynamic data at high angles of attack to validate computer codes and wind tunnel research. The X-31 was used to study thrust vectoring to enhance close-in air combat maneuvering, while the F-16 MATV was a demonstration of how thrust vectoring could be applied to operational aircraft.

  10. Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

  11. GRADIO three-axis electrostatic accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dedicated accelerometers for satellite gravity gradiometry (GRADIO project) are described. The design profits from experience acquired with the CACTUS accelerometer payload of the satellite CASTOR-D5B and studies of highly accurate accelerometers for inertial navigation. The principle of operation, based on a three-axis electrostatic suspension of a cubic proof mass, is well suited for the measurements of accelerations less than 0.0001 m/sec/sec. A resolution better than 10 to the minus 11th power m/sec/sec/sq root Hz is expected.

  12. Evaluation of dual flow thrust vector nozzles with exhaust stream impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Dobbins, Sean; Vaccarezza, Steven

    1992-01-01

    To supplement previous work performed by NASA, a cold-jet facility was established at the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo campus. The purpose of this facility is to continue the studies of cold flow multiaxis thrust vectoring conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. A single nozzle test apparatus was completed and is presently operational. Included are the results of the single flow test envelope that was requested by NASA personnel. Details about the test apparatus are included in the Cal Poly Semi-Annual Progress report.

  13. Experimental Study of a Nozzle Using Fluidic Counterflow for Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    1998-01-01

    A static experimental investigation of a counterflow thrust vectoring nozzle concept was performed. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal performance characteristics were defined over a nozzle pressure ratio (jet total to ambient) range of 3.5 to 10.0. The effects of suction collar geometry and suction slot height on nozzle performance were examined. In the counterflow concept, thrust vectoring is achieved by applying a vacuum to a slot adjacent to a primary jet that is shrouded by a suction collar. Two flow phenomena work to vector the primary jet depending upon the test conditions and configuration. In one case, the vacuum source creates a secondary reverse flowing stream near the primary jet. The shear layers between the two counterflowing streams mix and entrain mass from the surrounding fluid. The presence of the collar inhibits mass entrainment and the flow near the collar accelerates, causing a drop in pressure on the collar. The second case works similarly except that the vacuum is not powerful enough to create a counterflowing stream and instead a coflowing stream is present. The primary jet is vectored if suction is applied asymmetrically on the top or bottom of the jet.

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC) Actuator hardware are documented. The function of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuators (ATVC) is to gimbal the main engines to provide for attitude and flight path control during ascent. During first stage flight, the SRB nozzles provide nearly all the steering. After SRB separation, the Orbiter is steered by gimbaling of its main engines. There are six electrohydraulic servoactuators, one pitch and one yaw for each of the three main engines. Each servoactuator is composed of four electrohydraulic servovalve assemblies, one second stage power spool valve assembly, one primary piston assembly and a switching valve. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Critical failures resulting in loss of ATVC were mainly due to loss of hydraulic fluid, fluid contamination and mechanical failures.

  15. Static investigation of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap rotation of thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and deflection of flat yaw flaps hinged at the end of the sidewalls for yaw thrust vectoring. The hinge location of the yaw flaps was varied at four positions from the nozzle exit plane to the throat plane. The yaw flaps were designed to contain the flow laterally independent of power setting. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the yaw flap deflected into the exhaust stream and the divergent flaps, the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw flap deflection. The impact of varying the nozzle pitch vector angle, throat area, yaw flap hinge location, yaw flap length, and yaw flap deflection angle on nozzle internal performance characteristics, was studied. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.0. Static results indicate that configurations with the yaw flap hinge located upstream of the exit plane provide relatively high levels of thrust vectoring efficiency without causing large losses in resultant thrust ratio. Therefore, these configurations represent a viable concept for providing simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring.

  16. Preliminary Characterization of the Altair Lunar Lander Slosh Dynamics and Some Implications for the Thrust Vector Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Strahan, Alan; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Casillas, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system and preliminary modeling of propellant slosh, for the Altair Lunar Lander. Altair is a vehicle element of the NASA Constellation Program aimed at returning humans to the moon. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is the measurement and control of spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude in support of mission objectives. One key GN&C function is the commanding of effectors that control attitude and impart delta V on the vehicle, utilizing both reaction control system (RCS) thrusters and throttling and TVC gimbaling of the vehicle main engine. Both the Altair descent and ascent modules carry fuel tanks. During thrusting maneuvers, the sloshing of liquid fuels in partially filled tanks can interact with the controlled system in such a way as to cause the overall system to be unstable. These fuel tanks must be properly placed, relative to the spacecraft's c.m., to avoid any unstable interactions. Following this will be a discussion of propellant slosh modeling work performed for the present vehicle configuration, including slosh frequency and participatory fluid mass predictions. Knowing the range of slosh mode frequencies over mission phases, the TVC bandwidth must be carefully selected so as not to excite the slosh modes at those frequencies. The likely need to increase the damping factor of slosh modes via baffles will also be discussed. To conclude, a discussion of operations procedures aimed at minimizing TVC-slosh interactions will be given.

  17. Three-axis particle impact probe

    SciTech Connect

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.; Utt, C.E.

    1991-04-02

    Three-axis particle impact probes detect particle impact vectors along x-, y-, and z-axes by means of a head mounted on the outer end of a shaft that is flexibly mounted in silicone rubber at the top of a housing so as to enable motion imparted to the head upon impact to be transmitted to a grounded electrode secured to the shaft within the housing. Excitable electrodes are mounted in the housing in a fixed position, spaced apart from the ground electrode and forming, with the ground electrode, capacitor pairs. Movement of the ground electrode results in changes in capacitance, and these differences in capacitance are used for measurement or derivation of momentum vectors along each of the three axes. In one embodiment, the ground electrode is mounted at the base of the shaft and is secured to a silicone rubber layer at the top of the housing, providing for cantilevered movement. In another embodiment, the shaft is mounted at its mid point in a flexible bushing so that it undergoes pivotal movement around that point.

  18. Three-axis particle impact probe

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    Three-axis particle impact probes detect particle impact vectors along x-, y-, and z-axes by spherical probe head mounted on the outer end of a shaft that is flexibly mounted in silicone rubber at the top of a housing so as to enable motion imparted to the head upon impact to be transmitted to a grounded electrode secured to the shaft within the housing. Excitable electrodes are mounted in the housing in a fixed position, spaced apart from the ground electrode and forming, with the ground electrode, capacitor pairs. Movement of the ground electrode results in changes in capacitance, and these difference in capacitance are used for measurement or derivation of momentum vectors along each of the three axes. In one embodiment, the ground electrode is mounted at the base of the shaft and is secured to a silicone rubber layer at the top of the housing, providing for cantilevered movement. In another embodiment, the shaft is mounted at its mid point in a flexible bushing so that it undergoes pivotal movement around that point.

  19. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. This paper includes a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring and the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000-ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000-ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  20. Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at wind-off conditions in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with a thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg. Vectoring was accomplished by a downward rotation of a hinged upper convergent flap and a corresponding rotation of a center-pivoted lower convergent flap. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle and upper-rotating-flap geometry on internal nozzle performance characteristics were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 5.0.

  1. Static internal performance of single-expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at static conditions (wind off) in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle, sidewall containment, ramp curvature, lower-flap lip angle, and ramp length on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single-expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated. Geometric thrust-vector angle was varied from -20 deg. to 60 deg., and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 10.0.

  2. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  3. Static internal performance including thrust vectoring and reversing of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of geometric design parameters on two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to 12 in the static test facility. Forward flight (dry and afterburning power settings), vectored-thrust (afterburning power setting), and reverse-thrust (dry power setting) nozzles were investigated. The nozzles had thrust vector angles from 0 deg to 20.26 deg, throat aspect ratios of 3.696 to 7.612, throat radii from sharp to 2.738 cm, expansion ratios from 1.089 to 1.797, and various sidewall lengths. The results indicate that unvectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles have static internal performance comparable to axisymmetric nozzles with similar expansion ratios.

  4. Static internal performance of a single expansion ramp nozzle with multiaxis thrust vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Schirmer, Alberto W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at static conditions in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle. Yaw vectoring was achieved by deflecting yaw flaps in the nozzle sidewall into the nozzle exhaust flow. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the variable angle yaw flap deflected into the exhaust flow and the nozzle upper ramp and lower flap which were deflected for pitch vectoring, the downstream corners of both the nozzle ramp and lower flap were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw vectoring. The effects of nozzle upper ramp and lower flap cutout, yaw flap hinge line location and hinge inclination angle, sidewall containment, geometric pitch vector angle, and geometric yaw vector angle were studied. This investigation was conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

  5. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  6. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 Active Axisymmetric Thrust-vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  7. PAB3D Simulations of a Nozzle with Fluidic Injection for Yaw Thrust-Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted on an exhaust nozzle with fluidic injection for yaw thrust-vector control. The nozzle concept was tested experimentally in the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility (JETF) at nozzle pressure ratios up to 4 and secondary fluidic injection flow rates up to 15 percent of the primary flow rate. Although many injection-port geometries and two nozzle planforms (symmetric and asymmetric) were tested experimentally, this paper focuses on the computational results of the more successful asymmetric planform with a slot injection port. This nozzle concept was simulated with the Navier-Stokes flow solver, PAB3D, invoking the Shih, Zhu, and Lumley algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (ASM) at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) of 2,3, and 4 with secondary to primary injection flow rates (w(sub s)/w(sub p)) of 0, 2, 7 and 10 percent.

  8. Stable three-axis nuclear-spin gyroscope in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Cappellaro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    Gyroscopes find wide applications in everyday life from navigation and inertial sensing to rotation sensors in hand-held devices and automobiles. Current devices, based on either atomic or solid-state systems, impose a choice between long-time stability and high sensitivity in a miniaturized system. Here, we introduce a quantum sensor that overcomes these limitations by providing a sensitive and stable three-axis gyroscope in the solid state. We achieve high sensitivity by exploiting the long coherence time of the 14N nuclear spin associated with the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, combined with the efficient polarization and measurement of its electronic spin. Although the gyroscope is based on a simple Ramsey interferometry scheme, we use coherent control of the quantum sensor to improve its coherence time and robustness against long-time drifts. Such a sensor can achieve a sensitivity of η˜0.5(mdegs-1)/Hzmm3 while offering enhanced stability in a small footprint. In addition, we exploit the four axes of delocalization of the nitrogen-vacancy center to measure not only the rate of rotation, but also its direction, thus obtaining a compact three-axis gyroscope.

  9. Fiber-optic three axis magnetometer prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Thomas D.; Mccomb, David G.; Kingston, Bradley R.; Dube, C. Michael; Poehls, Kenneth A.; Wanser, Keith

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to develop a high sensitivity, fiber optic, interferometric, three-axis magnetometer for interplanetary spacecraft applications. Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) has successfully integrated a low noise, high bandwidth interferometer with high sensitivity metallic glass transducers. Also, DTI has developed sophisticated signal processing electronics and complete data acquisition, filtering, and display software. The sensor was packaged in a compact, low power and weight unit which facilitates deployment. The magnetic field sensor had subgamma sensitivity and a dynamic range of 10(exp 5) gamma in a 10 Hz bandwidth. Furthermore, the vector instrument exhibited the lowest noise level when only one axis was in operation. A system noise level of 1 gamma rms was observed in a 1 Hz bandwidth. However, with the other two channels operating, the noise level increased by about one order of magnitude. Higher system noise was attributed to cross-channel interference among the dither fields.

  10. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem FMEA/CIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuator (ATVD) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATVC hardware. The IOA product for the ATVC actuator analysis consisted of 25 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 16 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 21 FMEAs and 13 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

  11. Computational Issues Associated with Temporally Deforming Geometries Such as Thrust Vectoring Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyalakuntla, Kishore; Soni, Bharat K.; Thornburg, Hugh J.; Yu, Robert

    1996-01-01

    During the past decade, computational simulation of fluid flow around complex configurations has progressed significantly and many notable successes have been reported, however, unsteady time-dependent solutions are not easily obtainable. The present effort involves unsteady time dependent simulation of temporally deforming geometries. Grid generation for a complex configuration can be a time consuming process and temporally varying geometries necessitate the regeneration of such grids for every time step. Traditional grid generation techniques have been tried and demonstrated to be inadequate to such simulations. Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) based techniques provide a compact and accurate representation of the geometry. This definition can be coupled with a distribution mesh for a user defined spacing. The present method greatly reduces cpu requirements for time dependent remeshing, facilitating the simulation of more complex unsteady problems. A thrust vectoring nozzle has been chosen to demonstrate the capability as it is of current interest in the aerospace industry for better maneuverability of fighter aircraft in close combat and in post stall regimes. This current effort is the first step towards multidisciplinary design optimization which involves coupling the aerodynamic heat transfer and structural analysis techniques. Applications include simulation of temporally deforming bodies and aeroelastic problems.

  12. Parametric study of a simultaneous pitch/yaw thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirmer, Alberto W.; Capone, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of the last eleven years, the concept of thrust vectoring has emerged as a promising method of enhancing aircraft control capabilities in post-stall flight incursions during combat. In order to study the application of simultaneous pitch and yaw vectoring to single expansion ramp nozzles, a static test was conducted in the NASA-Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel. This investigation was based on internal performance data provided by force, mass flow and internal pressure measurements at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8. The internal performance characteristics of the nozzle were studied for several combinations of six different parameters: yaw vectoring angle, pitch vectoring angle, upper ramp cutout, sidewall hinge location, hinge inclination angle and sidewall containment. Results indicated a 2-to- 3-percent decrease in resultant thrust ratio with vectoring in either pitch or yaw. Losses were mostly associated with the turning of supersonic flow. Resultant thrust ratios were also decreased by sideways expansion of the jet. The effects of cutback corners in the upper ramp and lower flap on performance were small. Maximum resultant yaw vector angles, about half of the flap angle, were achieved for the configuration with the most forward hinge location.

  13. Single-beam three-axis atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haichao; Dong, Haifeng; Chen, Lin; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    A single-beam atomic magnetometer being operated near zero-field and measuring three-axis fields simultaneously is demonstrated. We produce a rotating field on the x-0-y plane with the frequency of 90 Hz and a modulation field in the z axis at 130 Hz. The rotating field enables a nonzero z axis output when the transverse fields are zeroed using feedback systems. Based on the phase difference of π / 2 , x and y axes fields can be measured using one lock-in amplifier. Magnetic field sensitivities of 300 fT/Hz1/2 in x and y axes and 3 pT/Hz1/2 in the z axis are achieved.

  14. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  15. A unique three-axis gimbal mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilkert, J. M.; Jonas, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Future space based deployable telescopes will be subject to non-atmospheric disturbances. Jitter and optical misalignment on a spacecraft can be caused by mechanical noise of the spacecraft, and settling after maneuvers. The introduction of optical misalignment and jitter can reduce the performance of an optical system resulting in pointing error and contributing to higher order aberrations. Adaptive optics can be used to control jitter and higher order aberrations in an optical system. In this paper, wavefront control methods for the Naval Postgraduate School adaptive optics testbed are developed. The focus is on removing structural noise from the flexible optical surface using discrete time proportional integral control with second order filters. Experiments using the adaptive optics testbed successfully demonstrate wavefront control methods, including a combined iterative feedback and gradient control technique. This control technique results in a three time improvement in RMS wavefront error over the individual controllers correcting from a biased mirror position. Second order discrete time notch filters are also used to remove induced low frequency actuator and sensor noise at 2Hz. Additionally a 2 Hz structural disturbance is simulated on a Micromachined Membrane Deformable Mirror and removed using discrete time notch filters combined with an iterative closed loop feedback controller, showing a 36 time improvement in RMS wavefront error over the iterative closed loop feedback alone.

  16. Improved Controller for a Three-Axis Piezoelectric Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    An improved closed-loop controller has been built for a three-axis piezoelectric positioning stage. The stage can be any of a number of commercially available or custom-made units that are used for precise three-axis positioning of optics in astronomical instruments and could be used for precise positioning in diverse fields of endeavor that include adaptive optics, fabrication of semiconductors, and nanotechnology.

  17. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Multiple Injection Ports in a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle for Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.; Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    A computational and experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple injection ports in a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle, for fluidic thrust vectoring. The concept of multiple injection ports was conceived to enhance the thrust vectoring capability of a convergent-divergent nozzle over that of a single injection port without increasing the secondary mass flow rate requirements. The experimental study was conducted at static conditions in the Jet Exit Test Facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex at NASA Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary nozzle pressure ratios up to 1 for five configurations. The computational study was conducted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Internal nozzle performance was predicted for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with a secondary nozzle pressure ratio of 0.7 for two configurations. Results from the experimental study indicate a benefit to multiple injection ports in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In general, increasing the number of injection ports from one to two increased the pitch thrust vectoring capability without any thrust performance penalties at nozzle pressure ratios less than 4 with high secondary pressure ratios. Results from the computational study are in excellent agreement with experimental results and validates PAB3D as a tool for predicting internal nozzle performance of a two dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle with multiple injection ports.

  18. Fully magnetic sliding mode control for acquiring three-axis attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.; Tkachev, S. S.; Mashtakov, Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite equipped with purely magnetic attitude control system is considered. Sliding mode control is used to achieve three-axis satellite attitude. Underactuation problem is solved for transient motion. Necessary attitude is acquired by proper sliding manifold construction. Satellite motion on the manifold is executed with magnetic control system. One manifold construction approach is proposed and discussed. Numerical examples are provided.

  19. An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

  20. A charging model for three-axis stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massaro, M. J.; Green, T.; Ling, D.

    1977-01-01

    A charging model was developed for geosynchronous, three-axis stabilized spacecraft when under the influence of a geomagnetic substorm. The differential charging potentials between the thermally coated or blanketed outer surfaces and metallic structure of a spacecraft were determined when the spacecraft was immersed in a dense plasma cloud of energetic particles. The spacecraft-to-environment interaction was determined by representing the charged particle environment by equivalent current source forcing functions and by representing the spacecraft by its electrically equivalent circuit with respect to the plasma charging phenomenon. The charging model included a sun/earth/spacecraft orbit model that simulated the sum illumination conditions of the spacecraft outer surfaces throughout the orbital flight on a diurnal as well as a seasonal basis. Transient and steady-state numerical results for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft are presented.

  1. Three-axis attitude determination via Kalman filtering of magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martel, Francois; Pal, Parimal K.; Psiaki, Mark L.

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis Magnetometer/Kalman Filter attitude determination system for a spacecraft in low-altitude Earth orbit is developed, analyzed, and simulation tested. The motivation for developing this system is to achieve light weight and low cost for an attitude determination system. The extended Kalman filter estimates the attitude, attitude rates, and constant disturbance torques. Accuracy near that of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model is achieved. Covariance computation and simulation testing demonstrate the filter's accuracy. One test case, a gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft with a pitch momentum wheel and a magnetically-anchored damper, is a real satellite on which this attitude determination system will be used. The application to a nadir pointing satellite and the estimation of disturbance torques represent the significant extensions contributed by this paper. Beyond its usefulness purely for attitude determination, this system could be used as part of a low-cost three-axis attitude stabilization system.

  2. Thrust vectoring effects of a transverse gas injection into a supersonic cross flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Leger, L.; Depussay, E.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.

    2013-03-01

    The transverse gas injection into the main supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent (C-D) propulsive nozzle is investigated for the fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) possibilities as the segment part of the CNES "Perseus" project. Truncated ideal contour and conical C-D nozzles with different position and angle of the secondary circular injection port are selected as test models in the current numerical and experimental study. Analytical approach revealed parameters which affect the FTV efficiency, these criterions are further numerically explored and results data of the conical nozzle test cases are compared and coupled with the ones from experiments. It is found that upstream inclined injection has positive effect on vectoring capabilities and that with moderate secondary to primary mass-flow ratios, ranging around 5%, pertinent vector side force is possible to be achieved.

  3. Three-axis atomic magnetometer based on spin precession modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. C.; Dong, H. F. Hu, X. Y.; Chen, L.; Gao, Y.

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate a three-axis atomic magnetometer with one intensity-modulated pump beam and one orthogonal probe beam. The main field component is measured using the resonance of the pumping light, while the transverse field components are measured simultaneously using the optical rotation of the probe beam modulated by the spin precession. It is an all-optical magnetometer without using any modulation field or radio frequency field. Magnetic field sensitivity of 0.8 pT/Hz{sup 1∕2} is achieved under a bias field of 2 μT.

  4. Tooth brushing pattern classification using three-axis accelerometer and magnetic sensor for smart toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hwi; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kyungho; Yang, Heui-Kyung; Jeong, Keesam; Lee, Byungchae

    2007-01-01

    The concept of intelligent toothbrush, capable of monitoring brushing motion, orientation through the grip axis, during toothbrushing was suggested in our previous study. In this study, we describe a tooth brushing pattern classification algorithm using three-axis accelerometer and three-axis magnetic sensor. We have found that inappropriate tooth brushing pattern showed specific moving patterns. In order to trace the position and orientation of toothbrush in a mouth, we need to know absolute coordinate information of toothbrush. By applying tilt-compensated azimuth (heading) calculation algorithm, which is generally used in small telematics devices, we could find the inclination and orientation information of toothbrush. To assess the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, 8 brushing patterns were preformed by 6 individual healthy subjects. The proposed algorithm showed the detection ratio of 98%. This study showed that the proposed monitoring system was conceived to aid dental care personnel in patient education and instruction in oral hygiene regarding brushing style. PMID:18002931

  5. Design and Modeling of a Three-axis Piezoresistive Microelectronic Accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmoussa, N.; Benichou, A.; Ghaffour, K.; Benyoucef, B.

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for automotive industry and biomedical applications (BioMEMS) have the fastest growth rate within the MEMS market. The Microsystems job market imposes to research laboratories and universities to respond by increasing the quality of MEMS engineering and informatics interdisciplinary training programs. In this fact, our work consists to study and develop a three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer having uniform sensitivities along to three axes. This sensor which is made of a heavy proof mass and four long beams, allow us to obtain high sensitivities, by reducing the resonant frequencies. Uniform axial sensitivities, with a transverse sensitivity, could be obtained using a three-axis sensor. The stress analysis of this sensor was performed in order to determine the positions of the piezoresistances, in the four flexure beams.

  6. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönau, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz1/2. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  7. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  8. Method for spinning up a three-axis controlled spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorlicek, Preston L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis controlled spacecraft (1), typically a satellite, is spun up about its roll axis (20) prior to firing a motor (2), i.e., a perigee kick motor, to achieve the requisite degree of angular momentum stiffness. Thrusters (21) for imparting rotation about the roll axis (20) are activated in open-loop fashion, typically at less than full duty cycle. Cross-axis torques induced by this rotational motion are compensated for by means of closed control loops for each of the pitch and yaw axes (30, 40, respectively). Each closed control loop combines a prebias torque (72) with torques (75, 74) representative of position and rate feedback information, respectively. A deadband (52) within each closed control loop can be widened during the spinup, to conserve fuel. Position feedback information (75) in each of the control loops is disabled upon saturation of the gyroscope associated with the roll axis (20).

  9. Description of the three axis low-g accelerometer package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalavage, A. J.; Fikes, E. H.; Berry, E. H.

    1978-01-01

    The three axis low-g accelerometer package designed for use on the Space Processing Application Rocket (SPAR) Program is described. The package consists of the following major sections: (1) three Kearfott model 2412 accelerometers mounted in an orthogonal triad configuration on a temperature controlled, thermally isolated cube, (2) the accelerometer servoelectronics (printed circuit cards PC-6 through PC-12), and (3) the signal conditioner (printed circuit cards PC-15 and PC-16). The measurement range is 0 + or - 0.031 g with a quantization of 1.1 x 10 to the 7th power g. The package was flown successfully on six SPAR launches with the Black Brant booster. These flights provide approximately 300 s of free fall or zero-g environment.

  10. Miniature multifunctional high-performance three-axis positioning and scanning platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avirovik, Dragan; Dave, Digant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    This study proposes a novel concept for a three-axis positioning and scanning platform that overcomes the existing gap in technology towards meeting the requirements for displacements, resolution, weight carrying capacity and velocity at smaller dimensions. The novelty of this work stems from the fact that our three-axis stage design utilizes only two actuators. This system was developed to meet the specific requirements needed for implementation of Multifunctional Image Guided Surgical (MIGS) platform. Mathematical model accounting for the open and closed loop operation of the stage was developed. The stage can provide displacements between 10-20mm in each axis, resolution of less than 10μm and scanning velocity in the range of 10-40mm/s. It can carry weights up to 10grams while meeting the desired requirements. Additionally, the stage has small footprint (50mm × 50mm × 34mm), modular design and extremely cost-effective fabrication. Integration of computer controlled three-axis stage with MIGS platform will provide the opportunity for conducting intricate surgical procedures using remote control or joystick. We demonstrate novel applications that became possible due to the development of this stage.

  11. Static internal performance of a thrust vectoring and reversing two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with an aft flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The static internal performance of a multifunction nozzle having some of the geometric characteristics of both two-dimensional convergent-divergent and single expansion ramp nozzles has been investigated in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The internal expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of two symmetrical flat surfaces of equal length, and the external expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of a single aft flap. The aft flap could be varied in angle independently of the upper internal expansion surface to which it was attached. The effects of internal expansion ratio, nozzle thrust-vector angle (-30 deg. to 30 deg., aft flap shape, aft flap angle, and sidewall containment were determined for dry and afterburning power settings. In addition, a partial afterburning power setting nozzle, a fully deployed thrust reverser, and four vertical takeoff or landing nozzle, configurations were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for the dry power nozzles and 7 for the afterburning power nozzles.

  12. A static investigation of a simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring 2-D C-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance and flow-turning capability of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Thrust vectoring in the pitch plane was provided by rotation of the divergent flaps. The exhaust stream was turned in the yaw direction by deflection of yaw flaps hinged at the end of the nozzle sidewalls. The yaw flap hinge location was varied along the divergent region of the nozzle at four locations including the exit plane and the throat plane. The three hinge locations upstream of the nozzle exit plane required the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps to be cut off to eliminate interference when the yaw flaps were deflected. Three different lengths of yaw flaps were tested at several angles of deflection. The nozzle simulated a dry power setting with an expansion ratio typical of subsonic cruise and was tested at nozzle pressure ratios from 2.0 to 7.0.

  13. Three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, M. Vol; Paik, Ho Jung; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2002-11-01

    Superconducting differential accelerometers have been used to test Newton's inverse square law and have been proposed for other sensitive experiments. These include searches for spin-mass coupling, detecting Earth's gravitomagnetic field, and testing the Equivalence Principle. This article discusses the principle and performance of a sensitive three-axis gravity gradiometer. This device utilizes quantized flux and the Meissner effect to provide stable test mass levitation and signal coupling, and superconducting quantum interference devices to provide very low-noise amplification of the signals. The instrument comprises a total of nine superconducting accelerometers, six linear and three angular. This configuration permits simultaneous measurement of the diagonal components of the gravity gradient tensor as well as platform acceleration in all six degrees of freedom. An analysis of this instrument is presented along with experimental results. Methods to correct for various motion-induced errors are demonstrated. Other error sources are also discussed. The resulting performance of the superconducting gravity gradiometer is 2 x10-11 s-2 Hz-1/2.

  14. Real-Time Attitude Independent Three Axis Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lai, Kok-Lam; Harman, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic-reference vectors into an attitude independent observation by using scalar checking. The goal of the full calibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors and non-orthogonality corrections. Although the actual solution to this full calibration problem involves the minimization of a quartic loss function, the problem can be converted into a quadratic loss function by a centering approximation. This leads to a simple batch linear least squares solution. In this paper we develop alternative real-time algorithms based on both the extended Kalman filter and Unscented filter. With these real-time algorithms, a full magnetometer calibration can now be performed on-orbit during typical spacecraft mission-mode operations. Simulation results indicate that both algorithms provide accurate integer resolution in real time, but the Unscented filter is more robust to large initial condition errors than the extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are also tested using actual data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE).

  15. Three-axis attitude determination from vector observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, M. D.; Oh, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two computationally efficient algorithms are presented for determining three-axis attitude from two or more vector observations. The first of these, the TRIAD algorithm, provides a deterministic (i.e., nonoptimal) solution for the attitude based on two vector observations. The second, the QUEST algorithm, is an optimal algorithm which determines the attitude that achieves the best weighted overlap of an arbitrary number of reference and observation vectors. Analytical expressions are given for the covariance matrices for the two algorithms using a fairly realistic model for the measurement errors. The mathematical relationship of the two algorithms and their relative merits are discussed and numerical examples are given. The advantage of computing the covariance matrix in the body frame rather than in the inertial frame (e.g., in terms of Euler angles) is emphasized. These results are valuable when a single-frame attitude must be computed frequently. They will also be useful to the mission analyst or spacecraft engineer for the evaluation of launch-window constraints or of attitude accuracies for different attitude sensor configurations.

  16. Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

    1987-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

  17. Novel Calibration Algorithm for a Three-Axis Strapdown Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan Xia; Li, Xi Sheng; Zhang, Xiao Juan; Feng, Yi Bo

    2014-01-01

    A complete error calibration model with 12 independent parameters is established by analyzing the three-axis magnetometer error mechanism. The said model conforms to an ellipsoid restriction, the parameters of the ellipsoid equation are estimated, and the ellipsoid coefficient matrix is derived. However, the calibration matrix cannot be determined completely, as there are fewer ellipsoid parameters than calibration model parameters. Mathematically, the calibration matrix derived from the ellipsoid coefficient matrix by a different matrix decomposition method is not unique, and there exists an unknown rotation matrix R between them. This paper puts forward a constant intersection angle method (angles between the geomagnetic field and gravitational field are fixed) to estimate R. The Tikhonov method is adopted to solve the problem that rounding errors or other errors may seriously affect the calculation results of R when the condition number of the matrix is very large. The geomagnetic field vector and heading error are further corrected by R. The constant intersection angle method is convenient and practical, as it is free from any additional calibration procedure or coordinate transformation. In addition, the simulation experiment indicates that the heading error declines from ±1° calibrated by classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.2° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method, and the signal-to-noise ratio is 50 dB. The actual experiment exhibits that the heading error is further corrected from ±0.8° calibrated by the classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.3° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method. PMID:24831110

  18. Three-axis force actuator for a magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gondhalekar, Vijay (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention features a three-axis force actuator that axially, radially and rotatably supports a bearing member for frictionless rotation about an axis of rotation generally coincident with a Z-axis. Also featured is a magnetic bearing having such an actuator. The actuator includes an inner member, a magnetic member and a pole assembly having a ring member and four pole extending therefrom. The poles are equi-angular spaced from each other and radially spaced about the Z-axis. The inner member extends along the Z-axis and is a highly magnetic permeable material. The magnetic member is formed about the inner member outer surface, extends along the Z-axis and is configured so one magnetic pole polarity is located at its outer surface and the other polarity pole is located at its inner surface. Preferably, the magnetic member is a radially magnetized permanent magnet. The inner surface of the ring member is magnetically coupled to the magnetic member and a face of each pole is coupled to the bearing member. The magnetic member, the pole assembly, the inner member and the bearing member cooperate to generate a magnetic field that radially and rotatably supports a rotating member secured to the bearing member. The actuator further includes a plurality of electromagnetic coils. Preferably, a coil is formed about each pole and at least 2 coils are formed about the inner member. When energized, the electromagnetic coils generate a modulated magnetic field that stabilizes the rotating member in the desired operational position.

  19. Control theory analysis of a three-axis VTOL flight director. M.S. Thesis - Pennsylvania State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessen, F. R.

    1971-01-01

    A control theory analysis of a VTOL flight director and the results of a fixed-based simulator evaluation of the flight-director commands are discussed. The VTOL configuration selected for this study is a helicopter-type VTOL which controls the direction of the thrust vector by means of vehicle-attitude changes and, furthermore, employs high-gain attitude stabilization. This configuration is the same as one which was simulated in actual instrument flight tests with a variable stability helicopter. Stability analyses are made for each of the flight-director commands, assuming a single input-output, multi-loop system model for each control axis. The analyses proceed from the inner-loops to the outer-loops, using an analytical pilot model selected on the basis of the innermost-loop dynamics. The time response of the analytical model of the system is primarily used to adjust system gains, while root locus plots are used to identify dominant modes and mode interactions.

  20. Effects of upper-surface blowing and thrust vectoring on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale supersonic transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Shivers, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale arrow-wing supersonic transport configured with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing, and conventional lower surface engines with provisions for thrust vectoring. A limited number of tests were conducted for the upper surface engine configuration in the high lift condition for beta = 10 in order to evaluate lateral directional characteristics, and with the right engine inoperative to evaluate the engine out condition.

  1. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.; and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  2. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Galvis, J A; Herrera, E; Guillamón, I; Azpeitia, J; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Cuenca, M; Higuera, J A; Díaz, N; Pazos, M; García-Hernandez, M; Buendía, A; Vieira, S; Suderow, H

    2015-01-01

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert. PMID:25638089

  3. Autonomous space systems control incorporating automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H; Shakhesi, S

    2016-05-01

    The research attempts to deal with the autonomous space systems incorporating new automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties. The main subject behind the investigation is to realize the high-resolution small amplitude orbital maneuvers via the first control strategy. And subsequently to realize the large amplitude orbital maneuvers via the second control strategy, as well. There is a trajectory optimization to provide the three-axis referenced commends for the aforementioned overactuated autonomous space system to be able to transfer from the initial orbit to its final ones, in finite burn, as long as the uncertainties of key parameters of the system such as the thrust vector, the center of the gravity, the moments of the inertia and so on are taken into real consideration. The strategies performances are finally considered through a series of experiments and a number of benchmarks to be tangibly verified. PMID:26895709

  4. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  5. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot. PMID:24387485

  6. Microfabrication of Three-Axis Tactile Feedback Actuator for Robot-Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Eunhyup; Yoo, Jihyung; Lee, Hyungkew; Park, Joonah; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a three-axis tactile feedback actuator using pneumatic balloons for human perception applications such as robot-assisted surgery systems. A tactile actuator is composed of a center structure having four balloons, sidewalls with one lateral balloon on each sidewall, and a bottom structure supporting the center structure. We fabricated the proposed device using flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) and hard polyurethane with final dimensions of 18 ×18 ×18 mm3. The four balloons on the center structure produce normal tactile display during pneumatic-pressure-assisted inflation. The lateral movement of the center structure driven by sidewall balloons generates a shear tactile display on fingertips. The center deflections of the circular and rectangular balloons were calculated and measured experimentally.

  7. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of a three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, Ranjith; Viet Dao, Dzung; Toriyama, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a miniaturized three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer using bulk micromachining technology. The accelerometer consists of a highly symmetric single-crystalline silicon crossbeam structure with 12 conventional two-terminal p-type piezoresistors diffused on the surface of the beams. The die size of the acceleration chip is 3 mm × 3 mm. In addition, it is significantly smaller than those of previously presented approaches. It measures three components of acceleration up to ± 10 g on three orthogonal axes simultaneously. The average measured sensitivities of the fabricated sensor for accelerations Ax, Ay, Az on the X, Y, Z axes are about 1.14, 1.15, 0.98 mV (V g)-1 respectively. The measurement results show a cross-axis sensitivity of <4%. This sensor is designed for use in biomechanical research applications such as human gesture recognition systems.

  8. Three-axis MEMS Accelerometer for Structural Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbin, E.; Koleda, A.; Nesterenko, T.; Vtorushin, S.

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system accelerometers are widely used for metrological measurements of acceleration, tilt, vibration, and shock in moving objects. The paper presents the analysis of MEMS accelerometer that can be used for the structural inspection. ANSYS Multiphysics platform is used to simulate the behavior of MEMS accelerometer by employing a finite element model and MATLAB/Simulink tools for modeling nonlinear dynamic systems.

  9. A low-voltage three-axis electromagnetically actuated micromirror for fine alignment among optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Euisik

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, a new three-axis electromagnetically actuated micromirror structure has been proposed and fabricated. It is electromagnetically actuated at low voltage using an external magnetic field. The main purpose of this work was to obtain a three-axis actuated micromirror in a mechanically robust structure with large static angular and vertical displacement at low actuation voltage for fine alignment among optical components in an active alignment module as well as conventional optical systems. The mirror plate and torsion bars are made of bulk silicon using a SOI wafer, and the actuation coils are made of electroplated Au. The maximum static deflection angles were measured as ±4.2° for x-axis actuation and ±9.2° for y-axis actuation, respectively. The maximum static vertical displacement was measured as ±42 µm for z-axis actuation. The actuation voltages were below 3 V for all actuation. The simulated resonant frequencies are several kHz, and these imply that the fabricated micromirror can be operated in sub-millisecond order. The measured radius of curvature (ROC) of the fabricated micromirror is 7.72 cm, and the surface roughness of the reflector is below 1.29 nm which ensure high optical performance such as high directionality and reflectivity. The fabricated micromirror has demonstrated large actuated displacement at low actuation voltage, and it enables us to compensate a larger misalignment value when it is used in an active alignment module. The robust torsion bar and lifting bar structure formed by bulk silicon allowed the proposed micromirror to have greater operating stability. The additional degree of freedom with z-axis actuation can decrease the difficulty in the assembly of optical components and increase the coupling efficiency between optical components.

  10. Development of three-axis inkjet printer for gear sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iba, Daisuke; Rodriguez Lopez, Ricardo; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Morimasa; Miura, Nanako; Iizuka, Takashi; Masuda, Arata; Moriwaki, Ichiro; Sone, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The long-term objective of our research is to develop sensor systems for detection of gear failure signs. As a very first step, this paper proposes a new method to create sensors directly printed on gears by a printer and conductive ink, and shows the printing system configuration and the procedure of sensor development. The developing printer system is a laser sintering system consisting of a laser and CNC machinery. The laser is able to synthesize micro conductive patterns, and introduced to the CNC machinery as a tool. In order to synthesize sensors on gears, we first design the micro-circuit pattern on a gear through the use of 3D-CAD, and create a program (G-code) for the CNC machinery by CAM. This paper shows initial experiments with the laser sintering process in order to obtain the optimal parameters for the laser setting. This new method proposed here may provide a new manufacturing process for mechanical parts, which have an additional functionality to detect failure, and possible improvements include creating more economical and sustainable systems.

  11. Three-axis active magnetic attitude control asymptotical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    Active magnetic attitude control system providing given inertial attitude is considered. Control algorithm is constructed on the basis of a planar motion model. It decreases attitude discrepancy. Alternative approach is based on the PD-controller design. System behavior is analyzed for specific motion cases and sometimes for specific inertia tensor (axisymmetrical satellite) using averaging technique. Overall satellite angular motion is covered. Necessary attitude is found to be accessible for some control parameters. Stability is proven and optimal algorithm parameters are obtained. Floquet-based analysis is performed to verify and broaden analytical results.

  12. Three-Axis Attitude Control With a Single Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Single-device attitude-control system provides stabilization along three axes. Flywheel connected to electronically controlled motor rotates on magnetic bearing. At high rotational speed, small angular displacements about x and y axes, in response to control signals enable storage of relatively large amounts of angular momentum. Angular momentum about z axis stored in changes in rotational speed.

  13. Development of an ultraprecision three axis micromilling machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Bo; Liang, Yingchun

    2009-05-01

    To meet the requirement for high efficiency machining of the ultra-precision, ultra-smooth micro structured optical surface, an ultra-precision three axes micro milling machine was developed. The overall size of the machine is 600mm×500mm×700mm and all the strokes of three axes are 75mm. To overcome nonlinearity that always exists in conventional servo mechanism driven by ball screw, permanent-magnet linear motor is used to directly drive the aerostatic bearing slide. Linear encoder with 1.2 nm resolution was used as the feedback of position to buildup closed loop control system. The open architected CNC system is composed of the high performance embedded PMAC motion control card and standard industrial PC, and the control algorithm is based on "PID + velocity/acceleration feed forward + notch filter" strategy. Test results indicate that the positioning accuracy of all the three axes is less than +/-0.25μm, and the repetitive positioning accuracy is less than +/-0.2μm. The machine is proved to achieve nanometer scale through step response and sinusoidal signal track. The preparatory milling experiments with micro cemented carbide milling cutter further proves the processing capacity.

  14. Simulator evaluation of a perspective clipped-pole display and a thrust-vector controller for VTOL zero-zero landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Greif, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    Five pilots participated in a simulator study to evaluate design features of a perspective clipped pole display and a side arm thrust vector controller for potential applications to VTOL zero visibility landings. Analyses of objective measures by a t test for related means showed significant learning effects, but did not show significant performance differences among display conditions. A mean longitudinal touchdown velocity of less than 4 knots, a mean vertical touchdown velocity of less than 1.22m/sec, and a mean longitudinal position error of approximately 15.24 m were attained during the final 10 trials of the experiment. The conclusion that adequate airspeed and altitude cues could be obtained from the glideslope and runway poles is supported by the absence of significant performance differences among display conditions.

  15. Performance of twin two-dimensional wedge nozzles including thrust vectoring and reversing effects at speeds up to Mach 2.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Maiden, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Transonic tunnel and supersonic pressure tunnel tests were reformed to determine the performance characteristics of twin nonaxisymmetric or two-dimensional nozzles with fixed shrouds and variable-geometry wedges. The effects of thrust vectoring, reversing, and installation of various tails were also studied. The investigation was conducted statically and at flight speeds up to a Mach number of 2.20. The total pressure ratio of the simulated jet exhaust was varied up to approximately 26 depending on Mach number. The Reynolds number per meter varied up to 13.20 x 1 million. An analytical study was made to determine the effect on calculated wave drag by varying the mathematical model used to simulate nozzle jet-exhaust plume.

  16. Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Green, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    A continuing challenge for modern instrument pointing control systems is to meet the increasingly stringent pointing performance requirements imposed by emerging advanced scientific, defense, and civilian payloads. Instruments such as adaptive optics telescopes, space interferometers, and optical communications make unprecedented demands on precision pointing capabilities. A cost-effective method was developed for increasing the pointing performance for this class of NASA applications. The solution was to develop an attitude estimator that fuses star tracker and gyro measurements with a high-bandwidth angular rotation sensor (ARS). An ARS is a rate sensor whose bandwidth extends well beyond that of the gyro, typically up to 1,000 Hz or higher. The most promising ARS sensor technology is based on a magnetohydrodynamic concept, and has recently become available commercially. The key idea is that the sensor fusion of the star tracker, gyro, and ARS provides a high-bandwidth attitude estimate suitable for supporting pointing control with a fast-steering mirror or other type of tip/tilt correction for increased performance. The ARS is relatively inexpensive and can be bolted directly next to the gyro and star tracker on the spacecraft bus. The high-bandwidth attitude estimator fuses an ARS sensor with a standard three-axis suite comprised of a gyro and star tracker. The estimation architecture is based on a dual-complementary filter (DCF) structure. The DCF takes a frequency- weighted combination of the sensors such that each sensor is most heavily weighted in a frequency region where it has the lowest noise. An important property of the DCF is that it avoids the need to model disturbance torques in the filter mechanization. This is important because the disturbance torques are generally not known in applications. This property represents an advantage over the prior art because it overcomes a weakness of the Kalman filter that arises when fusing more than one rate

  17. Tunable three-axis magnetoresistance sensor with a spin-polarised current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jui-Hang; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2015-10-01

    A three-axis magnetic tunnel junction sensor with three ferromagnetic layers to achieve a linear and hysteresis-free response is proposed and studied analytically. We show that the orientation of the easy axis of the sensor and the sensitivity are tunable by changing the density of a injected spin-polarised current. Additionally, the sensors integrated in a full Wheatstone bridge can have perpendicular and transverse sensing capability in different initial magnetisation arrangements. A value of 0.35% TMR/Oe is observed in sensing the perpendicular field. These findings indicate that a three-axis sensor can be fabricated more easily on a flat substrate.

  18. Static thrust-vectoring performance of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles with post-exit yaw vanes. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Aug. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Robert J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the 16-ft transonic tunnel to determine the performance and turning effectiveness of post-exit yaw vanes installed on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles. One nozzle design that was previously tested was used as a baseline, simulating dry power and afterburning power nozzles at both 0 and 20 degree pitch vectoring conditions. Vanes were installed on these four nozzle configurations to study the effects of vane deflection angle, longitudinal and lateral location, size, and camber. All vanes were hinged at the nozzle sidewall exit, and in addition, some were also hinged at the vane quarter chord (double-hinged). The vane concepts tested generally produced yaw thrust vectoring angles much less than the geometric vane angles, for (up to 8 percent) resultant thrust losses. When the nozzles were pitch vectored, yawing effectiveness decreased as the vanes were moved downstream. Thrust penalties and yawing effectiveness both decreased rapidly as the vanes were moved outboard (laterally). Vane length and height changes increased yawing effectiveness and thrust ratio losses, while using vane camber, and double-hinged vanes increased resultant yaw angles by 50 to 100 percent.

  19. Dual-waveband MWIR/visible three-axis stabilized sensor suite for submarine optronics masts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, George R.

    1998-10-01

    A dual-band MWIR/Visible Electro-Optic sensor suite has been developed for use in the CM010 family of Optronics Masts, currently being evolved by Pilkington Optronics for the Royal Navy's new Astute Class submarines. The sensor suite features a medium wave IR thermal imaging camera and a broadcast standard color TV camera, both of which view the scene through a common sapphire pressure window. Three-axis stabilization is provided for both sensors, in which pitch and yaw are controlled by a common line-of-sight prism behind the sensor window, while control of roll about the line of sight is achieved by individual optical derotators within the TI and visible band optics. Precision stabilized control is provided in both the MWIR and visible optical chains. The MWIR sensor consists of a diagonally-microscanned 320 X 240 focal plane, the microscan beam deflection being carried out by the TI piezo mirror. The visible sensor, designed for daylight use, consists of three 1024 X 1024 pixel frame transfer CCD focal planes, which in conjunction with variable neutral density filters yield excellent performance over a 103 dynamic range of daylight scene illuminance. Both optical systems provide Fields of View of 3, 6 and 24 degrees, and a Field of Regard covering from -15 degrees in depression to +60 degrees in elevation. Field of view switching is carried out by dual-band afocal optics situated in the common optical path. A 'Quick Look Round' mode allows both sensors to capture imagery through a full 360 degree azimuth sweep for subsequent analysis, with minimal mast exposure time.

  20. Time-optimal three-axis reorientation of asymmetric rigid spacecraft via homotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the time-optimal rest-to-rest three-axis reorientation of asymmetric rigid spacecraft. First, time-optimal solutions for the inertially symmetric rigid spacecraft (ISRS) three-axis reorientation are briefly reviewed. By utilizing initial costates and reorientation time of the ISRS time-optimal solution, the homotopic approach is introduced to solve the asymmetric rigid spacecraft time-optimal three-axis reorientation problem. The main merit is that the homotopic approach can start automatically and reliably, which would facilitate the real-time generation of open-loop time-optimal solutions for attitude slewing maneuvers. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. For principle axis reorientation, numerical results and analytical derivations show that, multiple time-optimal solutions exist and relations between them are given. For generic reorientation problem, though mathematical rigorous proof is not available to date, numerical results also indicated the existing of multiple time-optimal solutions.

  1. Flexible Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor Array for Dynamic Three-Axis Force Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Liu, Weiting; Gu, Chunxin; Cheng, Xiaoying; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A new flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor array based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is proposed for measuring three-axis dynamic contact force distribution. The array consists of six tactile units arranged as a 3 × 2 matrix with spacing 8 mm between neighbor units. In each unit, a PVDF film is sandwiched between four square-shaped upper electrodes and one square-shaped lower electrode, forming four piezoelectric capacitors. A truncated pyramid bump is located above the four piezoelectric capacitors to improve force transmission. A three-axis contact force transmitted from the top of the bump will lead to the four piezoelectric capacitors underneath undergoing different charge changes, from which the normal and shear components of the force can be calculated. A series of dynamic tests have been carried out by exerting sinusoidal forces with amplitudes ranging from 0 to 0.5 N in the x-axis, 0 to 0.5 N in the y-axis, and 0 to 1.5 N in the z-axis, separately. The tactile units show good sensitivities with 14.93, 14.92, and 6.62 pC/N in the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. They can work with good linearity, relatively low coupling effect, high repeatability, and acceptable frequency response in the range of 5–400 Hz to both normal and shear load. In addition, dynamic three-axis force measurement has been conducted for all of the tactile units. The average errors between the applied and calculated forces are 10.68% ± 6.84%. Furthermore, the sensor array can be easily integrated onto a curved surface, such as robotic and prosthetic hands, due to its excellent flexibility. PMID:27271631

  2. Flexible Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor Array for Dynamic Three-Axis Force Measurement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Liu, Weiting; Gu, Chunxin; Cheng, Xiaoying; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A new flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor array based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is proposed for measuring three-axis dynamic contact force distribution. The array consists of six tactile units arranged as a 3 × 2 matrix with spacing 8 mm between neighbor units. In each unit, a PVDF film is sandwiched between four square-shaped upper electrodes and one square-shaped lower electrode, forming four piezoelectric capacitors. A truncated pyramid bump is located above the four piezoelectric capacitors to improve force transmission. A three-axis contact force transmitted from the top of the bump will lead to the four piezoelectric capacitors underneath undergoing different charge changes, from which the normal and shear components of the force can be calculated. A series of dynamic tests have been carried out by exerting sinusoidal forces with amplitudes ranging from 0 to 0.5 N in the x-axis, 0 to 0.5 N in the y-axis, and 0 to 1.5 N in the z-axis, separately. The tactile units show good sensitivities with 14.93, 14.92, and 6.62 pC/N in the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. They can work with good linearity, relatively low coupling effect, high repeatability, and acceptable frequency response in the range of 5-400 Hz to both normal and shear load. In addition, dynamic three-axis force measurement has been conducted for all of the tactile units. The average errors between the applied and calculated forces are 10.68% ± 6.84%. Furthermore, the sensor array can be easily integrated onto a curved surface, such as robotic and prosthetic hands, due to its excellent flexibility. PMID:27271631

  3. Robust three-axis attitude stabilization for inertial pointing spacecraft using magnetorquers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    In this work feedback control laws are designed for achieving three-axis attitude stabilization of inertial pointing spacecraft using only magnetic torquers. The designs are based on an almost periodic model of geomagnetic field along the spacecraft's orbit. Both attitude plus attitude rate feedback and attitude only feedback are proposed. Both feedback laws achieve local exponential stability robustly with respect to large uncertainties in the spacecraft's inertia matrix. The latter properties are proved using general averaging and Lyapunov stability. Simulations are included to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  4. Three-Axis Time-Optimal Attitude Maneuvers of a Rigid-Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xijing; Li, Jisheng

    With the development trends for modern satellites towards macro-scale and micro-scale, new demands are requested for its attitude adjustment. Precise pointing control and rapid maneuvering capabilities have long been part of many space missions. While the development of computer technology enables new optimal algorithms being used continuously, a powerful tool for solving problem is provided. Many papers about attitude adjustment have been published, the configurations of the spacecraft are considered rigid body with flexible parts or gyrostate-type systems. The object function always include minimum time or minimum fuel. During earlier satellite missions, the attitude acquisition was achieved by using the momentum ex change devices, performed by a sequential single-axis slewing strategy. Recently, the simultaneous three-axis minimum-time maneuver(reorientation) problems have been studied by many researchers. It is important to research the minimum-time maneuver of a rigid spacecraft within onboard power limits, because of potential space application such as surveying multiple targets in space and academic value. The minimum-time maneuver of a rigid spacecraft is a basic problem because the solutions for maneuvering flexible spacecraft are based on the solution to the rigid body slew problem. A new method for the open-loop solution for a rigid spacecraft maneuver is presented. Having neglected all perturbation torque, the necessary conditions of spacecraft from one state to another state can be determined. There is difference between single-axis with multi-axis. For single- axis analytical solution is possible and the switching line passing through the state-space origin belongs to parabolic. For multi-axis, it is impossible to get analytical solution due to the dynamic coupling between the axes and must be solved numerically. Proved by modern research, Euler axis rotations are quasi-time-optimal in general. On the basis of minimum value principles, a research for

  5. Spatiotemporal evaluation of human colon motility using three-axis fluxgates and magnetic markers.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Fraga, T; Carneiro, A A O; de Araujo, D B; Oliveira, R B; Sosa, M; Baffa, O

    2005-11-01

    An alternative method to study the mechanical activity of the human colon in fasting and postprandial states is presented. The method is based on measurements of the magnetic fields produced by a magnetic marker, a small cylindrical NdBFe magnet, when it was ingested by the subjects. A portable magnetic probe, consisting of two digital three-axis fluxgate magnetometers, arranged in a first-order electronic gradiometer, was implemented for this research. Measurements were taken in 16 healthy male subjects. Contractile activity frequency measurements were taken along the colon length, including the ascending, transverse and descending sections, as well as the rectal sigmoidal section. Values for the contractile activity frequency of 2-5 cycles min(-1) were measured. The set-up is simple, low-cost and suitable for use in an unshielded environment. PMID:16594296

  6. The upgrade of the cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the ILL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzl, K.; Schmidt, W.; Raymond, S.; Feilbach, H.; Mounier, C.; Vettard, B.; Brückel, T.

    2016-05-01

    After nearly 40 years of successful operation the cold three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, has been relocated to a new position and the primary spectrometer has been upgraded. Latest modern optical components are employed. A new guide in combination with a virtual source concept and a double focusing monochromator guarantee highest flux. With its high unpolarized and polarized neutron flux IN12 allows for demanding experiments. A velocity selector in the guide ensures a clean beam and a very low background. A gain in flux of about an order of magnitude at the sample position has been achieved compared to the previous instrument and IN12's wavelength range now extends far into the warmish region.

  7. A Three-Axis Force Sensor for Dual Finger Haptic Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Marco; Marcheschi, Simone; Salsedo, Fabio; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the design process, the characterization and testing of a novel three-axis mechanical force sensor. This sensor is optimized for use in closed-loop force control of haptic devices with three degrees of freedom. In particular the sensor has been conceived for integration with a dual finger haptic interface that aims at simulating forces that occur during grasping and surface exploration. The sensing spring structure has been purposely designed in order to match force and layout specifications for the application. In this paper the design of the sensor is presented, starting from an analytic model that describes the characteristic matrix of the sensor. A procedure for designing an optimal overload protection mechanism is proposed. In the last part of the paper the authors describe the experimental characterization and the integrated test on a haptic hand exoskeleton showing the improvements in the controller performances provided by the inclusion of the force sensor. PMID:23202012

  8. Study on grinding of free-form optics surface in three-axis CNC machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haicheng; Zhang, Yun-long; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Zhibin; Bao, Long-xiang; Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Liu, Xuan-min

    2014-08-01

    Due to the glass is a type of brittle material, so the high-precision free-form optics of glass material is usually machined by the technical of grinding. In this paper, for the characteristics of the diamond grinding wheel, analyzing the grinding path of free-form optics and mathematical model of the path is established based on the three-axis CNC grinding device. Moreover, the cause of the interference in the process of grinding is analyzed and the methods of avoiding. Finally, based on the above analysis results, through the experiment, the free-form optics surface accuracy was reached to 3.6um, realize the machining of the free-form optics.

  9. Micromachined three-axis thermal accelerometer with a single composite heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Jamal; Leung, Albert M.

    2011-07-01

    A novel three-axis thermal accelerometer is designed, fabricated, and characterized in this paper. The device includes two half sensor plates attached to buckled cantilevers to form out-of-plane structures. Cantilevers are assembled by a single push of a microprobe and preserve their shapes when they latch into stoppers anchored to the substrate. The fabrication process is based on surface micromachining on silicon substrates using polyimide as the structural layer and amorphous silicon as the sacrificial layer. The fabricated devices are individually packaged and characterized. Using a total heater power of 2.5 mW, the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively, showed sensitivities of 66, 64, and 25 µV g-1. Compared to the earlier versions of the same class accelerometers, the fabricated single heater accelerometer demonstrates more than fourfold sensitivity improvement.

  10. Self-Locking Avoidance and Stiffness Compensation of a Three-Axis Micromachined Electrostatically Suspended Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yonggang; Sun, Boqian; Han, Fengtian

    2016-01-01

    A micromachined electrostatically-suspended accelerometer (MESA) is a kind of three-axis inertial sensor based on fully-contactless electrostatic suspension of the proof mass (PM). It has the potential to offer broad bandwidth, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and, thus, would be perfectly suited for land seismic acquisition. Previous experiments showed that it is hard to lift up the PM successfully during initial levitation as the mass needs to be levitated simultaneously in all six degrees of freedom (DoFs). By analyzing the coupling electrostatic forces and torques between three lateral axes, it is found there exists a self-locking zone due to the cross-axis coupling effect. To minimize the cross-axis coupling and solve the initial levitation problem, this paper proposes an effective control scheme by delaying the operation of one lateral actuator. The experimental result demonstrates that the PM can be levitated up with six-DoF suspension operation at any initial position. We also propose a feed-forward compensation approach to minimize the negative stiffness effect inherent in electrostatic suspension. The experiment results demonstrate that a more broadband linear amplitude-frequency response and higher suspension stiffness can be achieved, which is crucial to maintain high vector fidelity for potential use as a three-component MEMS geophone. The preliminary performance tests of the three-axis linear accelerometer were conducted under normal atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The main results and noise analysis are presented. It is shown that vacuum packaging of the MEMS sensor is essential to extend the bandwidth and lower the noise floor, especially for low-noise seismic data acquisition. PMID:27213376

  11. Self-Locking Avoidance and Stiffness Compensation of a Three-Axis Micromachined Electrostatically Suspended Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yonggang; Sun, Boqian; Han, Fengtian

    2016-01-01

    A micromachined electrostatically-suspended accelerometer (MESA) is a kind of three-axis inertial sensor based on fully-contactless electrostatic suspension of the proof mass (PM). It has the potential to offer broad bandwidth, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and, thus, would be perfectly suited for land seismic acquisition. Previous experiments showed that it is hard to lift up the PM successfully during initial levitation as the mass needs to be levitated simultaneously in all six degrees of freedom (DoFs). By analyzing the coupling electrostatic forces and torques between three lateral axes, it is found there exists a self-locking zone due to the cross-axis coupling effect. To minimize the cross-axis coupling and solve the initial levitation problem, this paper proposes an effective control scheme by delaying the operation of one lateral actuator. The experimental result demonstrates that the PM can be levitated up with six-DoF suspension operation at any initial position. We also propose a feed-forward compensation approach to minimize the negative stiffness effect inherent in electrostatic suspension. The experiment results demonstrate that a more broadband linear amplitude-frequency response and higher suspension stiffness can be achieved, which is crucial to maintain high vector fidelity for potential use as a three-component MEMS geophone. The preliminary performance tests of the three-axis linear accelerometer were conducted under normal atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The main results and noise analysis are presented. It is shown that vacuum packaging of the MEMS sensor is essential to extend the bandwidth and lower the noise floor, especially for low-noise seismic data acquisition. PMID:27213376

  12. Thermomechanical Actuator-Based Three-Axis Optical Scanner for High-Speed Two-Photon Endomicroscope Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Chi; Choi, Heejin; So, Peter T. C.; Culpepper, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and characterization of a three-axis thermomechanical actuator-based endoscopic scanner for obtaining ex vivo two-photon images. The scanner consisted of two sub-systems: 1) an optical system (prism, gradient index lens, and optical fiber) that was used to deliver and collect light during imaging and 2) a small-scale silicon electromechanical scanner that could raster scan the focal point of the optics through a specimen. The scanner can be housed within a 7 mm Ø endoscope port and can scan at the speed of 3 kHz × 100 Hz × 30 Hz along three axes throughout a 125 × 125 × 100 μm3 volume. The high-speed thermomechanical actuation was achieved through the use of geometric contouring, pulsing technique, and mechanical frequency multiplication (MFM), where MFM is a new method for increasing the device cycling speed by pairing actuators of unequal forward and returning stroke speeds. Sample cross-sectional images of 15-μm fluorescent beads are presented to demonstrate the resolution and optical cross-sectioning capability of the two-photon imaging system. PMID:25673965

  13. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

    The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

  14. Calibration of QM-MOURA three-axis magnetometer and gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Michelena, M.; Sanz, R.; Cerdán, M. F.; Fernández, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    MOURA instrument is a three-axis magnetometer and gradiometer designed and developed for Mars MetNet Precursor mission. The initial scientific goal of the instrument is to measure the local magnetic field in the surroundings of the lander i.e. to characterize the magnetic environment generated by the remanent magnetization of the crust and the superimposed daily variations of the field produced either by the solar wind incidence or by the thermomagnetic variations. Therefore, the qualification model (QM) will be tested in representative scenarios like magnetic surveys on terrestrial analogues of Mars and monitoring solar events, with the aim to achieve some experience prior to the arrival to Mars. In this work, we present a practical first approach for calibration of the instrument in the laboratory; a finer correction after the comparison of MOURA data with those of a reference magnetometer located in San Pablo de los Montes (SPT) INTERMAGNET Observatory; and a comparative recording of a geomagnetic storm as a demonstration of the compliance of the instrument capabilities with the scientific objectives.

  15. Three-axis optical force plate for studies in small animal locomotor mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, S. Tonia

    2006-05-15

    The use of force plates to measure whole-body locomotor mechanics is a well-established technique. However, commercially available force plates are not sensitive enough for use on small-bodied vertebrates or invertebrates. The standard design for single- and multiple-axis, high-sensitivity force plates built by individual research groups uses semiconductor foil strain gauges to measure deflections; yet foil strain gauges are highly temperature and position sensitive, resulting in a drifting base line and nonlinear responses. I present here a design for a three-axis optical force plate that was successfully calibrated to measure forces as small as 1.5 mN and is capable of determining the position of center of pressure with a mean error of 0.07 cm along the X axis and 0.13 cm along the Y axis. Using optical sensors instead of foil strain gauges to measure deflection, this force plate is not subject to temperature-related drift and is more robust against slight positioning inaccuracies. This force plate was used to measure forces produced by amphibious fishes weighing less than 2 g as they jumped off the force platform.

  16. Three-axis optical force plate for studies in small animal locomotor mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, S. Tonia

    2006-05-01

    The use of force plates to measure whole-body locomotor mechanics is a well-established technique. However, commercially available force plates are not sensitive enough for use on small-bodied vertebrates or invertebrates. The standard design for single- and multiple-axis, high-sensitivity force plates built by individual research groups uses semiconductor foil strain gauges to measure deflections; yet foil strain gauges are highly temperature and position sensitive, resulting in a drifting base line and nonlinear responses. I present here a design for a three-axis optical force plate that was successfully calibrated to measure forces as small as 1.5mN and is capable of determining the position of center of pressure with a mean error of 0.07cm along the X axis and 0.13cm along the Y axis. Using optical sensors instead of foil strain gauges to measure deflection, this force plate is not subject to temperature-related drift and is more robust against slight positioning inaccuracies. This force plate was used to measure forces produced by amphibious fishes weighing less than 2g as they jumped off the force platform.

  17. Design and fabrication of a three-axis multilayer gradient coil for magnetic resonance microscopy of mice.

    PubMed

    Chronik, B; Alejski, A; Rutt, B K

    2000-06-01

    There is great interest in the non-destructive capabilities of magnetic resonance microscopy for studying murine models of both disease and normal function; however, these studies place extreme demands on the MR hardware, most notably the gradient field system. We designed, using constrained current minimum inductance methods, and fabricated a complete, unshielded three-axis gradient coil set that utilizes interleaved, multilayer axes to achieve maximum gradient strengths of over 2000 mT m(-1) in rise times of less than 50 micros with an inner coil diameter of 5 cm. The coil was wire-wound using a rectangular wire that minimizes the deposited power for a given gradient efficiency. Water cooling was also incorporated into the coil to assist in thermal management. The duty cycle for the most extreme cases of single shot echo planar imaging (EPI) is limited by the thermal response and expressions for maximum rates of image collection are given for burst and continuous modes of operation. The final coil is capable of the collection of single shot EPI images with 6 mm field of view and 94 microm isotropic voxels at imaging rates exceeding 50 s(-1). PMID:10873203

  18. Design and fabrication of a three-axis edge ROU head and neck gradient coil.

    PubMed

    Chronik, B A; Alejski, A; Rutt, B K

    2000-12-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a complete three-axis gradient coil capable of imaging the human neck is described. The analytic method of constrained current minimum inductance (CCMI) was used to position the uniform region of the gradient coil adjacent to and extending beyond the physical edge of the coil. The average gradient efficiency of the three balanced axes is 0.37 mT/m/A and the average inductance is 827 microH. With maximum amplifier current of 200A and receive signal sweep width of +/-125 kHz, the average minimum FOV using this gradient set is 7.9 cm. The completed coil has an inner diameter of 32 cm, an outer diameter of 42 cm, and a length (including cabling connections) of 80 cm. The entire coil was built in-house. The structure is actively water cooled. Heating measurements were made to characterize the thermal response of the coil under various operating conditions and it was determined that a continuous current of 100A could be passed through all three axes simultaneously without increasing the internal coil temperature by more than 23 degrees C. Eddy current measurements were made for all axes. With digital compensation, the gradient eddy current components could be adequately compensated. A large B(o) eddy current field is produced by the Gz axis that could be corrected through the use of an auxiliary B(o) compensation coil. Preliminary imaging results are shown in both phantoms and human subjects. PMID:11108634

  19. A novel stress isolation guard-ring design for the improvement of a three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Shen; Chang, Heng-Chung; Hu, Chih-Fan; Cheng, Chao-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-10-01

    This study designs and implements a stress isolation guard-ring structure to improve the performances of the existing single proof-mass three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer. Thus, the environment disturbances, such as temperature variation and force/deflection transmittance, for a packaged three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer are significantly reduced. In application, the three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer has been fabricated using the bulk micromachining process on the SOI wafer. Experimental results show that the out-of-plane deformation of the suspended spring mass on the packaged accelerometer is reduced from 0.72 to 0.10 µm at a 150 °C temperature elevation. The temperature coefficient of zero-g offset for the presented sensor is reduced, and the temperature-induced sensitivity variation is minimized as well. Measurements also demonstrate that the guard-ring design successfully reduces the false signals induced by the force and displacement transmittance disturbances for one order of magnitude. Moreover, the three-axis acceleration sensing for the presented accelerometer with guard ring has also been demonstrated with sensitivities of 0.12-0.17 mV V-1 g-1 and nonlinearity < 1.02%.

  20. Three Axis Control of the Hubble Space Telescope Using Two Reaction Wheels and Magnetic Torquer Bars for Science Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hur-Diaz, Sun; Wirzburger, John; Smith, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is renowned for its superb pointing accuracy of less than 10 milli-arcseconds absolute pointing error. To accomplish this, the HST relies on its complement of four reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) for attitude control and four magnetic torquer bars (MTBs) for momentum management. As with most satellites with reaction wheel control, the fourth RWA provides for fault tolerance to maintain three-axis pointing capability should a failure occur and a wheel is lost from operations. If an additional failure is encountered, the ability to maintain three-axis pointing is jeopardized. In order to prepare for this potential situation, HST Pointing Control Subsystem (PCS) Team developed a Two Reaction Wheel Science (TRS) control mode. This mode utilizes two RWAs and four magnetic torquer bars to achieve three-axis stabilization and pointing accuracy necessary for a continued science observing program. This paper presents the design of the TRS mode and operational considerations necessary to protect the spacecraft while allowing for a substantial science program.

  1. Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1999-01-01

    The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

  2. Fully printed flexible fingerprint-like three-axis tactile and slip force and temperature sensors for artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shingo; Kanao, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2014-12-23

    A three-axis tactile force sensor that determines the touch and slip/friction force may advance artificial skin and robotic applications by fully imitating human skin. The ability to detect slip/friction and tactile forces simultaneously allows unknown objects to be held in robotic applications. However, the functionalities of flexible devices have been limited to a tactile force in one direction due to difficulties fabricating devices on flexible substrates. Here we demonstrate a fully printed fingerprint-like three-axis tactile force and temperature sensor for artificial skin applications. To achieve economic macroscale devices, these sensors are fabricated and integrated using only printing methods. Strain engineering enables the strain distribution to be detected upon applying a slip/friction force. By reading the strain difference at four integrated force sensors for a pixel, both the tactile and slip/friction forces can be analyzed simultaneously. As a proof of concept, the high sensitivity and selectivity for both force and temperature are demonstrated using a 3×3 array artificial skin that senses tactile, slip/friction, and temperature. Multifunctional sensing components for a flexible device are important advances for both practical applications and basic research in flexible electronics. PMID:25437513

  3. Characterization of the non axial thrust generated by large solid propellant rocket motors in three axis stabilized ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmann, W. J.; Dionne, E. R.; Klemetson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Nonaxial thrusts produced by solid rocket motors during three-axis stabilized attitude control have been determined from ascent experience on twenty three Burner II, Burner IIA and Block 5D-1 upper stage vehicles. A data base representing four different rocket motor designs (three spherical and one extended spherical) totaling twenty five three-axis stabilized firings is generated. Solid rocket motor time-varying resultant and lateral side force vector magnitudes, directions and total impulses, and roll torque couple magnitudes, directions, and total impulses are tabulated in the appendix. Population means and three sigma deviations are plotted. Existing applicable ground test side force and roll torque magnitudes and total impulses are evaluated and compared to the above experience data base. Within the spherical motor population, the selected AEDC ground test data consistently underestimated experienced motor side forces, roll torques and total impulses. Within the extended spherical motor population, the selected AEDC test data predicted experienced motor side forces, roll torques, and total impulses, with surprising accuracy considering the very small size of the test and experience populations.

  4. Three-axis attitude and direction reference instrument has only one moving part

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, F. B.

    1966-01-01

    Lunar vehicle instrument combines the functions of attitude reference, direction reference, and display in a unit having only one moving part. The device, using bubble levels and a calibrated dial, is used as a sextant prior to takeoff, and as a backup navigation system during flight.

  5. Three-axis stabilization of spacecraft using parameter-independent nonlinear quaternion feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Kelkar, Atul G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of rigid spacecraft. A nonlinear control law which uses the feedback of the unit quaternion and the measured angular velocities is proposed and is shown to provide global asymptotic stability. The control law does not require the knowledge of the system parameters, and is therefore robust to modeling errors. The significance of the control law is that it can be used for large-angle maneuvers with guaranteed stability.

  6. Attitude determination with three-axis accelerometer for emergency atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Two algorithms are disclosed that, with the use of a 3-axis accelerometer, will be able to determine the angles of attack, sideslip and roll of a capsule-type spacecraft prior to entry (at very high altitudes, where the atmospheric density is still very low) and during entry. The invention relates to emergency situations in which no reliable attitude and attitude rate are available. Provided that the spacecraft would not attempt a guided entry without reliable attitude information, the objective of the entry system in such case would be to attempt a safe ballistic entry. A ballistic entry requires three controlled phases to be executed in sequence: First, cancel initial rates in case the spacecraft is tumbling; second, maneuver the capsule to a heat-shield-forward attitude, preferably to the trim attitude, to counteract the heat rate and heat load build up; and third, impart a ballistic bank or roll rate to null the average lift vector in order to prevent prolonged lift down situations. Being able to know the attitude, hence the attitude rate, will allow the control system (nominal or backup, automatic or manual) to cancel any initial angular rates. Also, since a heat-shield forward attitude and the trim attitude can be specified in terms of the angles of attack and sideslip, being able to determine the current attitude in terms of these angles will allow the control system to maneuver the vehicle to the desired attitude. Finally, being able to determine the roll angle will allow for the control of the roll ballistic rate during entry.

  7. Three axis pulsed plasma thruster with angled cathode and anode strip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph (Inventor); Myers, Roger M. (Inventor); Osborne, Robert D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude and altitude control system utilizes sets of three pulsed plasma thrusters connected to a single controller. The single controller controls the operation of each thruster in the set. The control of a set of three thrusters in the set makes it possible to provide a component of thrust along any one of three desired axes. This configuration reduces the total weight of a spacecraft since only one controller and its associated electronics is required for each set of thrusters rather than a controller for each thruster. The thrusters are positioned about the spacecraft such that the effect of the thrusters is balanced.

  8. OPMILL - MICRO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC MILLING MACHINES THREE AXIS EQUATION PLOTTING CAPABILITIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo

  9. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  10. Three-axis distributed fiber optic strain measurement in 3D woven composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-03-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading.

  11. Attitude control study for a large flexible spacecraft using a Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolivar, A. F.; Key, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude control performance of the solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) was evaluated. A thrust vector control system for powered flight control was examined along with a gas jet reaction control system, and a reaction wheel system, both of which have been proposed for nonpowered flight control. Comprehensive computer simulations of each control system were made and evaluated using a 30 mode spacecraft model. Results obtained indicate that thrust vector control and reaction wheel systems offer acceptable smooth proportional control. The gas jet control system is shown to be risky for a flexible structure such as SEPS, and is therefore, not recommended as a primary control method.

  12. Research flight-control system development for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Powers, Bruce; Regenie, Victoria; Chacon, Vince; Degroote, Steve; Murnyak, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The F-18 high alpha research vehicle was recently modified by adding a thrust vectoring control system. A key element in the modification was the development of a research flight control system integrated with the basic F-18 flight control system. Discussed here are design requirements, system development, and research utility of the resulting configuration as an embedded system for flight research in the high angle of attack regime. Particular emphasis is given to control system modifications and control law features required for high angle of attack flight. Simulation results are used to illustrate some of the thrust vectoring control system capabilities and predicted maneuvering improvements.

  13. A three-axis micromachined accelerometer with a CMOS position-sense interface and digital offset-trim electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lemkin, M.; Boser, B.E.

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes a three-axis accelerometer implemented in a surface-micromachining technology with integrated CMOS. The accelerometer measures changes in a capacitive half-bridge to detect deflections of a proof mass, which result from acceleration input. The half-bridge is connected to a fully differential position-sense interface, the output of which is used for one-bit force feedback. By enclosing the proof mass in a one-bit feedback loop, simultaneous force balancing and analog-to-digital conversion are achieved. On-chip digital offset-trim electronics enable compensation of random offset in the electronic interface. Analytical performance calculations are shown to accurately model device behavior. The fabricated single-chip accelerometer measures 4 {times} 4 mm{sup 2}, draws 27 mA from a 5-V supply, and has a dynamic range of 84, 81, and 70 dB along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively.

  14. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  15. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators †

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  16. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  17. Neutron optics of the ILL high-flux polarized neutron three-axis spectrometer IN20B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulda, Jiri; Courtois, Pierre; Saroun, Jan; Thomas, Michel; Enderle, M.; Flores, P.

    2001-11-01

    The three-axis spectrometer IN20 has been upgraded to enhance significantly the data collection rate in experiments using polarized neutrons to study magnetic excitations in the (higher) thermal energy range. To increase the monochromatic polarized neutron flux, a new geometry of the primary spectrometer, optimized by detailed ray-tracing simulations, has been adopted. The main ingredients are a neutron source of a diameter increased from 100 mm to 170 mm and a large double focusing monochromator, illuminated through a heavy input slit (virtual source) of adjustable width. This geometry permits to keep the background at a possibly low level while maximizing the solid angle available for monochromatic focusing. The real challenge of the project has been the new Heusler monochromator. With its active surface of 230 x 150 mm2, consisting of 75 crystal plates mounted in 15 columns, it is the largest polarizing crystal assembly ever built. In combination with the horizontally focusing analyzer of a similar design, implemented in spring 2000, the data collection rate in the polarization analysis mode has increased by a factor 30 - 50 in April 2001 as compared to the original IN20, which up to now has provided world's highest polarized neutron flux in the thermal energy range.

  18. Development of a three-axis hybrid mesh isolator using the pseudoelasticity of a shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Se-Hyun; Jang, Young-Soon; Han, Jae-Hung

    2011-07-01

    Launch vehicles and satellites experience severe vibration and pyroshock loads during flight phases. In particular, intense pyroshock, which is generated by the actuation of separation devices, can cause malfunctions in the electronic components in launch vehicles and satellites, potentially resulting in catastrophic failure during flight. This paper introduces a new three-axis hybrid mesh isolator using the pseudoelasticity of a shape memory alloy wire that was manufactured and tested to attenuate pyroshock and vibration transmitted to the electronic components. To characterize the isolation capability, quasi-static loading tests were performed; the test results showed that the pseudoelastic effect of the shape memory alloy wire significantly absorbs energy due to the stress-induced phase transformation. The ground pyroshock test results showed a remarkable pyroshock load attenuation of the hybrid mesh isolator in all frequency ranges. The dynamic characteristics and vibration isolation performances of the mesh isolators were also verified by random vibration tests. The healthiness of the hybrid mesh isolator was also studied under a harsh vibration loading level, and the results confirmed its wide applicability without degradation of the isolation capability.

  19. Parameter estimation of a three-axis spacecraft simulator using recursive least-squares approach with tracking differentiator and Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheyao; Qi, Naiming; Chen, Yukun

    2015-12-01

    Spacecraft simulators are widely used to study the dynamics, guidance, navigation, and control of a spacecraft on the ground. A spacecraft simulator can have three rotational degrees of freedom by using a spherical air-bearing to simulate a frictionless and micro-gravity space environment. The moment of inertia and center of mass are essential for control system design of ground-based three-axis spacecraft simulators. Unfortunately, they cannot be known precisely. This paper presents two approaches, i.e. a recursive least-squares (RLS) approach with tracking differentiator (TD) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method, to estimate inertia parameters. The tracking differentiator (TD) filter the noise coupled with the measured signals and generate derivate of the measured signals. Combination of two TD filters in series obtains the angular accelerations that are required in RLS (TD-TD-RLS). Another method that does not need to estimate the angular accelerations is using the integrated form of dynamics equation. An extended TD (ETD) filter which can also generate the integration of the function of signals is presented for RLS (denoted as ETD-RLS). States and inertia parameters are estimated simultaneously using EKF. The observability is analyzed. All proposed methods are illustrated by simulations and experiments.

  20. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportion System (STS) systems study. Appendix D: Trade study summary for the liquid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Trade studies plans for a number of elements in the Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) component of the Space Transportation System (STS) are given in viewgraph form. Some of the elements covered include: avionics/flight control; avionics architecture; thrust vector control studies; engine control electronics; liquid rocket propellants; propellant pressurization systems; recoverable spacecraft; cryogenic tanks; and spacecraft construction materials.

  1. Three-axis acoustic device for levitation of droplets in an open gas stream and its application to examine sulfur dioxide absorption by water droplets.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Terrance L; Budwig, Ralph S

    2007-01-01

    Two acoustic devices to stabilize a droplet in an open gas stream (single-axis and three-axis levitators) have been designed and tested. The gas stream was provided by a jet apparatus with a 64 mm exit diameter and a uniform velocity profile. The acoustic source used was a Langevin vibrator with a concave reflector. The single-axis levitator relied primarily on the radial force from the acoustic field and was shown to be limited because of significant droplet wandering. The three-axis levitator relied on a combination of the axial and radial forces. The three-axis levitator was applied to examine droplet deformation and circulation and to investigate the uptake of SO(2) from the gas stream to the droplet. Droplets ranging in diameters from 2 to 5 mm were levitated in gas streams with velocities up to 9 ms. Droplet wandering was on the order of a half droplet diameter for a 3 mm diameter droplet. Droplet circulation ranged from the predicted Hadamard-Rybczynski pattern to a rotating droplet pattern. Droplet pH over a central volume of the droplet was measured by planar laser induced fluorescence. The results for the decay of droplet pH versus time are in general agreement with published theory and experiments. PMID:17503939

  2. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.

  3. Experience with a three-axis side-located controller during a static and centrifuge simulation of the piloted launch of a manned multistage vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, William H.; Holleman, Euclid C.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine a human pilot's ability to control a multistage vehicle through the launch trajectory. The simulation was performed statically and dynamically by utilizing a human centrifuge. An interesting byproduct of the program was the three-axis side-located controller incorporated for pilot control inputs. This method of control proved to be acceptable for the successful completion of the tracking task during the simulation. There was no apparent effect of acceleration on the mechanical operation of the controller, but the pilot's control feel deteriorated as his dexterity decreased at high levels of acceleration. The application of control in a specific control mode was not difficult. However, coordination of more than one mode was difficult, and, in many instances, resulted in inadvertent control inputs. The acceptable control harmony at an acceleration level of 1 g became unacceptable at higher acceleration levels. Proper control-force harmony for a particular control task appears to be more critical for a three-axis controller than for conventional controllers. During simulations in which the pilot wore a pressure suit, the nature of the suit gloves further aggravated this condition.

  4. Drifts of a three-axis stabilizer under vibration of the frames and platform with unbalanced dynamically tuned gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbrutskii, A. V.; Sarapulov, S. A.

    1985-10-01

    It is shown that the unbalance of a dynamically tuned gyro, leading to gyro self-excitation through vibration of the platform in a gimball suspension, causes drifts of the stabilizer. The magnitude of the drift depends on the gyro balancing precision, the location of gyros on the platform, and the relationship between the moments of inertia of the suspension elements, the precision of the adjustment, and the ultimate rigidity of the platform. Ways to reduce the drifts of the system are examined.

  5. Two-photon three-axis digital scanned light-sheet microscopy (2P3A-DSLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Weijian; Zhao, Jia; Chen, Xuanyang; Lin, Yuan; Ren, Huixia; Zhang, Yunfeng; Fan, Ming; Zhou, Zhuan; Cheng, Heping; Sun, Yujie; Chen, Liangyi

    2014-09-01

    In this presentation we report a new 3D scanned DSLM. The system combined 1) two-photon excitation, 2) scanning along the illumination axis (x-axis) using tunable acoustic gradient lens (TAG) to stretch the Rayleigh range [5], 3) scanning vertically to the illumination axis (y-axis) by one galvo mirror to create light sheet. 4) scanning along Z-axis to do fast 3D imaging by another galvo mirror. The image plane was kept aligned with the fast z-axis scanned light sheet plane by an electric tunable lens (ETL) as described in ref. 6. The light sheet can be tailored to any shape between 50×50 μm2 and more than 500×500 μm2 with constant thickness limited by diffraction and fast imaging rates limited by the detector. The tailorable illumination area allows multi-scale field of view (FOV), and is consequently capable of imaging cells, tissue and live animals in one setup.

  6. Design and fabrication of three-axis accelerometer sensor microsystem for wide temperature range applications using semi-custom process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdassi, A.; Wang, Y.; Xereas, G.; Chodavarapu, V. P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an integrated CMOS-MEMS inertial sensor microsystem, consisting of a 3-axis accelerometer sensor device and its complementary readout circuit, which is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from - 55°C to 175°C. The accelerometer device is based on capacitive transduction and is fabricated using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial process available from MEMSCAP. The fabricated accelerometer device is then post-processed by depositing a layer of amorphous silicon carbide to form a composite sensor structure to improve its performance over an extended wide temperature range. We designed and fabricated a CMOS readout circuit in IBM 0.13μm process that interfaces with the accelerometer device to serve as a capacitance to voltage converter. The accelerometer device is designed to operate over a measurement range of +/-20g. The described sensor system allows low power, low cost and mass-producible implementation well suited for a variety of applications with harsh or wide temperature operating conditions.

  7. Dual-rate-loop control based on disturbance observer of angular acceleration for a three-axis aerial inertially stabilized platform.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Jia, Yuan; Zhao, Qiang; Cai, Tongtong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a dual-rate-loop control method based on disturbance observer (DOB) of angular acceleration for a three-axis ISP for aerial remote sensing applications, by which the control accuracy and stabilization of ISP are improved obviously. In stabilization loop of ISP, a dual-rate-loop strategy is designed through constituting inner rate loop and the outer rate loop, by which the capability of disturbance rejection is advanced. Further, a DOB-based on angular acceleration is proposed to attenuate the influences of the main disturbances on stabilization accuracy. Particularly, an information fusion method is suggested to obtain accurate angular acceleration in DOB design, which is the key for the disturbance compensation. The proposed methods are theoretically analyzed and experimentally validated to illustrate the effectiveness. PMID:27016450

  8. A new three-axis vibrating sample magnetometer for continuous high-temperature magnetization measurements: Applications to paleo- and archeointensity determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Y.; Le Goff, M.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a new three-axis vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe) which allows continuous high-temperature magnetization measurements of individual cylindrical 0.75 cm3 samples up to 650°C, and the acquisition of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) in any direction with a field of up to 200 microT. This equipment offers many possibilities for investigating rock magnetic properties at high temperature. As a first application, we propose a fast (2 hours) automated experimental procedure based on a modified version of the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method revised by Coe (1967) which provides continuous intensity determinations over a large (typically 300°C) temperature interval for each sample. This procedure takes into account both the cooling rate dependence of the TRM acquisition and the anisotropy of TRM. Analyses of numerous pottery and baked brick fragments from Mesopotamia demonstrate the quality and the reliability of the data, and illustrate the potential of this new instrument for paleo- and archeomagnetism.

  9. Design and Integration of an Actuated Nose Strake Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flick, Bradley C.; Thomson, Michael P.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Wichman, Keith D.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Earls, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Aircraft flight characteristics at high angles of attack can be improved by controlling vortices shed from the nose. These characteristics have been investigated with the integration of the actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER) control system into the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Several hardware and software systems were developed to enable performance of the research goals. A strake interface box was developed to perform actuator control and failure detection outside the flight control computer. A three-mode ANSER control law was developed and installed in the Research Flight Control System. The thrust-vectoring mode does not command the strakes. The strakes and thrust-vectoring mode uses a combination of thrust vectoring and strakes for lateral- directional control, and strake mode uses strakes only for lateral-directional control. The system was integrated and tested in the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) simulation for testing before installation in the aircraft. Performance of the ANSER system was monitored in real time during the 89-flight ANSER flight test program in the DFRC Mission Control Center. One discrepancy resulted in a set of research data not being obtained. The experiment was otherwise considered a success with the majority of the research objectives being met.

  10. Strategic avionics technology definition studies. Subtask 3-1A3: Electrical Actuation (ELA) Systems Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. P.; Cureton, K. L.; Olsen, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Future aerospace vehicles will require use of the Electrical Actuator systems for flight control elements. This report presents a proposed ELA Test Facility for dynamic evaluation of high power linear Electrical Actuators with primary emphasis on Thrust Vector Control actuators. Details of the mechanical design, power and control systems, and data acquisition capability of the test facility are presented. A test procedure for evaluating the performance of the ELA Test Facility is also included.

  11. SERT 2 gimbal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.

    1971-01-01

    The gimbal system is described that was designed to mount the thruster and to reposition the thrust vector of a mercury ion bombardment thruster through the center of gravity of the SERT 2 assembly. The SERT 2 assembly was launched 3 February 1970. The gimbal ring, gimbal mounts, bearings, actuators, and environmental testing are described. Due to the accurate alinements provided, it was not necessary to use the gimbal for the intended function. However, the gimbals were operated successfully numerous times in space after 8 months of storage.

  12. Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T Systems Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems and operational summary of the Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T program is presented which describes vehicle assembly facilities, launch facilities, and management responsibilities, and also provides detailed information on the following separate systems: (1) mechanical systems, including structural components, insulation, propulsion units, reaction control, thrust vector control, hydraulic systems, and pneumatic equipment; (2) astrionics systems, such as instrumentation and telemetry, navigation and guidance, C-Band tracking system, and range safety command system; (3) digital computer unit software; (4) flight control systems; (5) electrical/electronic systems; and (6) ground support equipment, including checkout equipment.

  13. The Control System for the X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jerry E.; Espenschied, Erich; Klop, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage -to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control (TVC) by differential throttling of the engine combustion elements, rather than the more conventional approach of gimballing the entire engine. An analysis of the X-33 flight trajectories has shown that it is necessary to provide +/- 15% roll, pitch and yaw TVC authority with an optional capability of +/- 30% pitch at select times during the mission. The TVC performance requirements for X-33 engine became a major driver in the design of the engine control system. The thrust level of the X-33 engine as well as the amount of TVC are managed by a control system which consists of electronic, instrumentation, propellant valves, electro-mechanical actuators, spark igniters, and harnesses. The engine control system is responsible for the thrust control, mixture ratio control, thrust vector control, engine health monitoring, and communication to the vehicle during all operational modes of the engine (checkout, pre-start, start, main-stage, shutdown and post shutdown). The methodology for thrust vector control, the health monitoring approach which includes failure detection, isolation, and response, and the basic control system design are the topic of this paper. As an additional point of interest a brief description of the X-33 engine system will be included in this paper.

  14. A north-south stationkeeping ion thruster system for ATS-F.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worlock, R.; James, E.; Ramsey, W.; Trump, G.; Gant, G.; Jan, L.; Bartlett, R.

    1972-01-01

    An ion thruster system is being developed for the ATS-F satellite to demonstrate the application of ion thruster technology to the synchronous satellite north-south stationkeeping mission. The cesium bombardment ion thruster develops one millipound thrust at 2600 seconds specific impulse and provides thrust vectoring by accelerator electrode displacement. The propellant system is sized for two years operation at 25 percent duty cycle. Power conditioning circuitry is based on transistor inverters switching at 10 kHz. Thirteen command channels allow flexibility in operation; 12 telemetry channels provide information on system performance. Input power is less than 150 watts.

  15. System for imposing directional stability on a rocket-propelled vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved system for use in imposing directional stability on a rocket-propelled vehicle is described. The system includes a pivotally supported engine-mounting platform, a gimbal ring mounted on the platform and adapted to pivotally support a rocket engine and an hydraulic actuator connected to the platform for imparting selected pivotal motion. An accelerometer and a signal comparator circuit for providing error intelligence indicative of aberration in vehicle acceleration is included along with an actuator control circuit connected with the actuator and responsive to error intelligence for imparting pivotal motion to the platform. Relocation of the engine's thrust vector is thus achieved for imparting directional stability to the vehicle.

  16. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [for solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

  17. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronsus orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

  18. X-31 high angle of attack control system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Peter; Seamount, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    The design goals for the X-31 flight control system were: (1) level 1 handling qualities during post-stall maneuvering (30 to 70 degrees angle-of-attack); (2) thrust vectoring to enhance performance across the flight envelope; and (3) adequate pitch-down authority at high angle-of-attack. Additional performance goals are discussed. A description of the flight control system is presented, highlighting flight control system features in the pitch and roll axes and X-31 thrust vectoring characteristics. The high angle-of-attack envelope clearance approach will be described, including a brief explanation of analysis techniques and tools. Also, problems encountered during envelope expansion will be discussed. This presentation emphasizes control system solutions to problems encountered in envelope expansion. An essentially 'care free' envelope was cleared for the close-in-combat demonstrator phase. High angle-of-attack flying qualities maneuvers are currently being flown and evaluated. These results are compared with pilot opinions expressed during the close-in-combat program and with results obtained from the F-18 HARV for identical maneuvers. The status and preliminary results of these tests are discussed.

  19. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  20. SIT-5 system development.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A 5-cm structurally integrated ion thruster (SIT-5) has been developed for attitude control and stationkeeping of synchronous satellites. With two-dimension thrust-vectoring grids, a first generation unit has demonstrated a thrust of 0.56 mlb at a beam voltage of 1200 V, total mass efficiency of 64%, and electrical efficiency of 46.8%. Structural integrity is demonstrated with a dielectric-coated grid for shock (30 G), sinusoidal (9 G), and random (19.9 G rms) accelerations. System envelope is 31.8 cm long by 13.9 cm flange bolt circle, with a mass of 8.5 kg, including 6.2 kg mercury propellant. Characteristics of a second-generation unit indicate significant performance gains.

  1. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand at sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft on a test stand at sunrise. Not shown in this photograph are the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The aircraft was originally built as an F-15B (Serial #71-0290).

  2. Static internal performance of single expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust vectoring and reversing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Berrier, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of geometric design parameters on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to approximately 10. Forward-flight (cruise), vectored-thrust, and reversed-thrust nozzle operating modes were investigated.

  3. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  4. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  5. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  6. Advanced Launch System (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  7. Advanced launch system (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.R. . Lewis Research Center)

    1990-09-01

    To obtain the advanced launch system (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs ($300/lb earth to LEO) and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using electrical actuation integrated with a single vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. This paper reviews the ALS and its associated advanced development program to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the ALS goals (cryogenic fuel valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles and a multitude of commercial applications.

  8. Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

  9. Analysis of a Linear System for Variable-Thrust Control in the Terminal Phase of Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, Richard A.; Durling, Barbara J.

    1961-01-01

    A linear system for applying thrust to a ferry vehicle in the 3 terminal phase of rendezvous with a satellite is analyzed. This system requires that the ferry thrust vector per unit mass be variable and equal to a suitable linear combination of the measured position and velocity vectors of the ferry relative to the satellite. The variations of the ferry position, speed, acceleration, and mass ratio are examined for several combinations of the initial conditions and two basic control parameters analogous to the undamped natural frequency and the fraction of critical damping. Upon making a desirable selection of one control parameter and requiring minimum fuel expenditure for given terminal-phase initial conditions, a simplified analysis in one dimension practically fixes the choice of the remaining control parameter. The system can be implemented by an automatic controller or by a pilot.

  10. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

  11. Three-axis positional drift correction in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follin, Nathan D.; Musalo, Christopher J.; Trawick, Matthew L.

    2011-03-01

    Positional drift in scanning probe microscopy can cause image distortion and metrological errors of tens of nanometers or more. It can arise from thermal drift, due to thermal expansion of materials in the sample and microscope while scanning, or from piezo creep, particularly along the z axis. We present a technique for correcting positional drift errors in all three axes. Our method works by comparing each scanned topographical image to a second, partial scan, taken immediately afterwards, on which the fast and slow scan axes have been reversed. We model the positional distortion as a low-order polynomial function in three dimensions, searching for the set of correctional coefficients that minimizes the difference between the two scans. Using this technique we have successfully reduced positional errors from 50 nm to 0.5 nm in the z axis, and from 40 nm to 2 nm (about half of a single pixel) in the xy plane. Supported by an award from Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund through Grant number 46380-GB7.

  12. Performance characteristics of a three-axis superconducting rock magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienert, B. R.

    1977-01-01

    A series of measurements are carried out with the purpose of quantitatively determining the characteristics of a commercial 6.8 cm access superconducting rock magnetometer located in the magnetic properties laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The measurements show that although a considerable improvement in measurement speed and signal to noise ratios can be obtained using such an instrument, a number of precautions are necessary to obtain accuracies comparable with more conventional magnetometers. These include careful calibration of the sensor outputs, optimum positioning of the sample within the detection region and quantitatively establishing the degree of cross-coupling between the detector coils. In order to examine the uniformity of response for each detector, the responses are mapped as a function of position, using a small dipole.

  13. Three-axis electron-beam test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, J. A., Jr.; Ebihara, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    An electron beam test facility, which consists of a precision multidimensional manipulator built into an ultra-high-vacuum bell jar, was designed, fabricated, and operated at Lewis Research Center. The position within the bell jar of a Faraday cup which samples current in the electron beam under test, is controlled by the manipulator. Three orthogonal axes of motion are controlled by stepping motors driven by digital indexers, and the positions are displayed on electronic totalizers. In the transverse directions, the limits of travel are approximately + or - 2.5 cm from the center with a precision of 2.54 micron (0.0001 in.); in the axial direction, approximately 15.0 cm of travel are permitted with an accuracy of 12.7 micron (0.0005 in.). In addition, two manually operated motions are provided, the pitch and yaw of the Faraday cup with respect to the electron beam can be adjusted to within a few degrees. The current is sensed by pulse transformers and the data are processed by a dual channel box car averager with a digital output. The beam tester can be operated manually or it can be programmed for automated operation. In the automated mode, the beam tester is controlled by a microcomputer (installed at the test site) which communicates with a minicomputer at the central computing facility. The data are recorded and later processed by computer to obtain the desired graphical presentations.

  14. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  15. Durability tests of a five-centimeter diameter ion thruster system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.

    1972-01-01

    A modified Hughes SIT-5 system is being tested for durability at the Lewis Research Center. As of Oct. 1, 1972, the thruster subsystem has logged over 8000 hours of operation. The initial 2023 hours were run with a translating screen thrust vector grid. The thruster is currently operating with an electrostatic type vector grid. Profiles and maps taken at widely separated intervals show that performance and operating characteristics have remained essentially constant. Overall efficiency is about 32 per cent and power to thrust ratio is 170 watts per millipound at a specific impulse of 2500 seconds. Telescopic examination of the vector grid shows some sputtering erosion due to charge exchange and direct impingement ions. An independent test of the propellant storage and cathode-isolator-vaporizer subsystem has demonstrated good reliability under simulated thruster operating conditions.

  16. Solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion System developed under this program was designed to demonstrate all the thrust subsystem functions needed on an unmanned planetary vehicle. The demonstration included operation of the basic elements, power matching input and output voltage regulation, three-axis thrust vector control, subsystem automatic control including failure detection and correction capability (using a PDP-11 computer), operation of critical elements in thermal-vacuum-, zero-gravity-type propellant storage, and data outputs from all subsystem elements. The subsystem elements, functions, unique features, and test setup are described. General features and capabilities of the test-support data system are also presented. The test program culminated in a 1500-h computer-controlled, system-functional demonstration. This included simultaneous operation of two thruster/power conditioner sets. The results of this testing phase satisfied all the program goals.

  17. Aircraft ground test and subscale model results of axial thrust loss caused by thrust vectoring using turning vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA-Dryden F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle was modified to incorporate three independently controlled turning vanes located aft of the primary nozzle of each engine to vector thrust for pitch and yaw control. Ground measured axial thrust losses were compared with the results from a 14.25 pct. cold jet model for single and dual vanes inserted up to 25 degs into the engine exhaust. Data are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 and nozzle exit areas of 253 and 348 sq in. The results indicate that subscale nozzle test results properly predict trends but underpredict the full scale results by approx. 1 to 4.5 pct. in thrust loss.

  18. Evaluation of dual flow thrust vectored nozzles with exhaust stream impingement. MS Thesis Final Technical Report, Oct. 1990 - Jul. 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to predict the expansion wave/oblique shock wave structure in an under-expanded jet expanding from a convergent nozzle. The shock structure was predicted by combining the calculated curvature of the free pressure boundary with principles and governing equations relating to oblique shock wave and expansion wave interaction. The procedure was then continued until the shock pattern repeated itself. A mathematical model was then formulated and written in FORTRAN to calculate the oblique shock/expansion wave structure within the jet. In order to study shock waves in expanding jets, Schlieren photography, a form of flow visualization, was employed. Thirty-six Schlieren photographs of jets from both a straight and 15 degree nozzle were taken. An iterative procedure was developed to calculate the shock structure within the jet and predict the non-dimensional values of Prandtl primary wavelength (w/rn), distance to Mach Disc (Ld) and Mach Disc radius (rd). These values were then compared to measurements taken from Schlieren photographs and experimental results. The results agreed closely to measurements from Schlieren photographs and previously obtained data. This method provides excellent results for pressure ratios below that at which a Mach Disc first forms. Calculated values of non-dimensional distance to the Mach Disc (Ld) agreed closely to values measured from Schlieren photographs and published data. The calculated values of non-dimensional Mach Disc radius (rd), however, deviated from published data by as much as 25 percent at certain pressure ratios.

  19. Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Flight System Integration at Its Best

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, T. David; Kanner, Howard S.; Freeland, Donna M.; Olson, Derek T.

    2011-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) element integrates all the subsystems needed for ascent flight, entry, and recovery of the combined Booster and Motor system. These include the structures, avionics, thrust vector control, pyrotechnic, range safety, deceleration, thermal protection, and retrieval systems. This represents the only human-rated, recoverable and refurbishable solid rocket ever developed and flown. Challenges included subsystem integration, thermal environments and severe loads (including water impact), sometimes resulting in hardware attrition. Several of the subsystems evolved during the program through design changes. These included the thermal protection system, range safety system, parachute/recovery system, and others. Because the system was recovered, the SRB was ideal for data and imagery acquisition, which proved essential for understanding loads, environments and system response. The three main parachutes that lower the SRBs to the ocean are the largest parachutes ever designed, and the SRBs are the largest structures ever to be lowered by parachutes. SRB recovery from the ocean was a unique process and represented a significant operational challenge; requiring personnel, facilities, transportation, and ground support equipment. The SRB element achieved reliability via extensive system testing and checkout, redundancy management, and a thorough postflight assessment process. However, the in-flight data and postflight assessment process revealed the hardware was affected much more strongly than originally anticipated. Assembly and integration of the booster subsystems required acceptance testing of reused hardware components for each build. Extensive testing was done to assure hardware functionality at each level of stage integration. Because the booster element is recoverable, subsystems were available for inspection and testing postflight, unique to the Shuttle launch vehicle. Problems were noted and corrective actions were implemented as needed

  20. Dynamic interactions between hypersonic vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, G. A.; Roach, R. L.; Buschek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of a flexible simulation model for scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems. The primary goal is determination of sensitivity of the thrust vector and other system parameters to angle of attack changes of the vehicle. Such information is crucial in design and analysis of control system performance for hypersonic vehicles. The code is also intended to be a key element in carrying out dynamic interaction studies involving the influence of vehicle vibrations on propulsion system/control system coupling and flight stability. Simple models are employed to represent the various processes comprising the propulsion system. A method of characteristics (MOC) approach is used to solve the forebody and external nozzle flow fields. This results in a very fast computational algorithm capable of carrying out the vast number of simulation computations needed in guidance, stability, and control studies. The three-dimensional fore- and aft body (nozzle) geometry is characterized by the centerline profiles as represented by a series of coordinate points and body cross-section curvature. The engine module geometry is represented by an adjustable vertical grid to accommodate variations of the field parameters throughout the inlet and combustor. The scramjet inlet is modeled as a two-dimensional supersonic flow containing adjustable sidewall wedges and multiple fuel injection struts. The inlet geometry including the sidewall wedge angles, the number of injection struts, their sweepback relative to the vehicle reference line, and strut cross-section are user selectable. Combustion is currently represented by a Rayleigh line calculation including corrections for variable gas properties; improved models are being developed for this important element of the propulsion flow field. The program generates (1) variation of thrust magnitude and direction with angle of attack, (2) pitching moment and line of action of the thrust vector, (3) pressure and temperature

  1. The 3-axis Dynamic Motion Simulator (DMS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A three-axis dynamic motion simulator (DMS) consisting of a test table with three degrees of freedom and an electronics control system was designed, constructed, delivered, and tested. Documentation, as required in the Data Requirements List (DRL), was also provided.

  2. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  3. General equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system are examined. The system consists of the cargo attached by cables to the endpoints of a spreader bar which is suspended by cables below two helicopters. Results are given for the orientation angles of the suspension system and its internal forces, and for the helicopter thrust vector requirements under general circumstances, including nonidentical helicopters, any accelerating or static equilibrium reference flight condition, any system heading relative to the flight direction, and any distribution of the load to the two helicopters. Optimum tether angles which minimize the sum of the required thrust magnitudes are also determined. The analysis does not consider the attitude degrees of freedom of the load and helicopters in detail, but assumes that these bodies are stable, and that their aerodynamic forces in equilibrium flight can be determined independently as functions of the reference trajectory. The ranges of these forces for sample helicopters and loads are examined and their effects on the equilibrium characteristics are given parametrically in the results.

  4. Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, R. Mark

    1993-08-01

    The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

  5. Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

  6. Critical engine system design characteristics for SSTO vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanciullo, Thomas J.; Judd, D. C.; Obrien, C. J.

    1992-02-01

    Engine system design characteristics are summarized for typical vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles utilizing plug nozzle configurations. Power cycle selection trades involved the unique modular platelet engine (MPE) with the use of (1) LO2 and LH2 at fixed and variable mixture ratios, (2) LO2 and propane or RP-1, and (3) dual fuels (LO2 with LH2 and C3H8). The number of thrust cells and modules were optimized. Dual chamber bell and a cluster of conventional bell nozzle configurations were examined for comparison with the plug configuration. Thrust modulation (throttling) was selected for thrust vector control. Installed thrust ratings were established to provide an additional 20 percent overthrust capability for engine out operation. Turbopumps were designed to operate at subcritical speeds to facilitate a wide range of throttling and long life. A unique dual spool arrangement with hydrostatic bearings was selected for the LH2 turbopump. Controls and health monitoring with expert systems for diagnostics are critical subsystems to ensure minimum maintenance and supportability for a less than seven day turnaround. The use of an idle mode start, in conjunction with automated health condition monitoring, allows the rocket propulsion system to operate reliably in the manner of present day aircraft propulsion.

  7. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 3: Development program and budgetary estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft development program, budgetary estimates in CY 1976 dollars, and cost reduction program variants are presented. Detailed cost matrices are also provided for the mechanical transmission system, turbotip transmission system, and the thrust vector hoods and yaw doors.

  8. Attitude Determination Error Analysis System (ADEAS) mathematical specifications document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Mark; Markley, F.; Seidewitz, E.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical specifications of Release 4.0 of the Attitude Determination Error Analysis System (ADEAS), which provides a general-purpose linear error analysis capability for various spacecraft attitude geometries and determination processes, are presented. The analytical basis of the system is presented. The analytical basis of the system is presented, and detailed equations are provided for both three-axis-stabilized and spin-stabilized attitude sensor models.

  9. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  10. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    SciTech Connect

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  11. X-31 Herbst Turn - Duration: 29 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at ...

  12. X-31 Post Stall Maneuver - Duration: 51 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at ...

  13. A system for spacecraft attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design for a double-gimbal reaction-wheel energy-wheel device which has three-axis attitude control and electrical energy storage capability is given. A mathematical model for the three-axis gyroscope (TAG) was developed, and a system of multiple units is proposed for attitude control and energy storage for a class of spacecraft. Control laws were derived to provide the required attitude-control torques and energy transfer while minimizing functions of TAG gimbal angles, gimbal rates, reaction-wheel speeds, and energy-wheel speed differences. A control law is also presented for a magnetic torquer desaturation system. A computer simulation of a three-TAG system for an orbiting telescope was used to evaluate the concept. The results of the study indicate that all control and power requirements can be satisfied by using the TAG concept.

  14. Navy and the HARV: High angle of attack tactical utility issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will highlight results from the latest Navy evaluation of the HARV (March 1994) and focus primarily on the impressions from a piloting standpoint of the tactical utility of thrust vectoring. Issue to be addressed will be mission suitability of high AOA flight, visual and motion feedback cues associated with operating at high AOA, and the adaptability of a pilot to effectively use the increased control power provided by the thrust vectoring system.

  15. A Hydraulic Blowdown Servo System For Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anping; Deng, Tao

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduced a hydraulic blowdown servo system developed for a solid launch vehicle of the family of Chinese Long March Vehicles. It's the thrust vector control (TVC) system for the first stage. This system is a cold gas blowdown hydraulic servo system and consist of gas vessel, hydraulic reservoir, servo actuator, digital control unit (DCU), electric explosion valve, and pressure regulator etc. A brief description of the main assemblies and characteristics follows. a) Gas vessel is a resin/carbon fiber composite over wrapped pressure vessel with a titanium liner, The volume of the vessel is about 30 liters. b) Hydraulic reservoir is a titanium alloy piston type reservoir with a magnetostrictive sensor as the fluid level indicator. The volume of the reservoir is about 30 liters. c) Servo actuator is a equal area linear piston actuator with a 2-stage low null leakage servo valve and a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) feedback the piston position, Its stall force is about 120kN. d) Digital control unit (DCU) is a compact digital controller based on digital signal processor (DSP), and deployed dual redundant 1553B digital busses to communicate with the on board computer. e) Electric explosion valve is a normally closed valve to confine the high pressure helium gas. f) Pressure regulator is a spring-loaded poppet pressure valve, and regulates the gas pressure from about 60MPa to about 24MPa. g) The whole system is mounted in the aft skirt of the vehicle. h) This system delivers approximately 40kW hydraulic power, by contrast, the total mass is less than 190kg. the power mass ratio is about 0.21. Have finished the development and the system test. Bench and motor static firing tests verified that all of the performances have met the design requirements. This servo system is complaint to use of the solid launch vehicle.

  16. Neutron resonance spin-echo upgrade at the three-axis spectrometer FLEXX.

    PubMed

    Groitl, F; Keller, T; Quintero-Castro, D L; Habicht, K

    2015-02-01

    We describe the upgrade of the neutron resonance spin-echo setup at the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER II neutron source at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. The parameters of redesigned key components are discussed, including the radio frequency (RF) spin-flip coils, the magnetic shield, and the zero field coupling coils. The RF-flippers with larger beam windows allow for an improved neutron flux transfer from the source to the sample and further to the analyzer. The larger beam cross sections permit higher coil inclination angles and enable measurements on dispersive excitations with a larger slope of the dispersion. Due to the compact design of the spin-echo units in combination with the increased coil tilt angles, the accessible momentum-range in the Larmor diffraction mode is substantially enlarged. In combination with the redesigned components of the FLEXX spectrometer, including the guide, the S-bender polarizer, the double focusing monochromator, and a Heusler crystal analyzer, the count rate increased by a factor of 15.5, and the neutron beam polarization is enhanced. The improved performance extends the range of feasible experiments, both for inelastic scattering on excitation lifetimes in single crystals, and for high-resolution Larmor diffraction. The experimental characterization of the instrument components demonstrates the reliable performance of the new neutron resonance spin-echo option, now available for the scientific community at FLEXX. PMID:25725891

  17. Neutron resonance spin-echo upgrade at the three-axis spectrometer FLEXX

    SciTech Connect

    Groitl, F. Quintero-Castro, D. L.; Habicht, K.; Keller, T.

    2015-02-15

    We describe the upgrade of the neutron resonance spin-echo setup at the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER II neutron source at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. The parameters of redesigned key components are discussed, including the radio frequency (RF) spin-flip coils, the magnetic shield, and the zero field coupling coils. The RF-flippers with larger beam windows allow for an improved neutron flux transfer from the source to the sample and further to the analyzer. The larger beam cross sections permit higher coil inclination angles and enable measurements on dispersive excitations with a larger slope of the dispersion. Due to the compact design of the spin-echo units in combination with the increased coil tilt angles, the accessible momentum-range in the Larmor diffraction mode is substantially enlarged. In combination with the redesigned components of the FLEXX spectrometer, including the guide, the S-bender polarizer, the double focusing monochromator, and a Heusler crystal analyzer, the count rate increased by a factor of 15.5, and the neutron beam polarization is enhanced. The improved performance extends the range of feasible experiments, both for inelastic scattering on excitation lifetimes in single crystals, and for high-resolution Larmor diffraction. The experimental characterization of the instrument components demonstrates the reliable performance of the new neutron resonance spin-echo option, now available for the scientific community at FLEXX.

  18. Passive three-axis stabilization of the Long Duration Exposure Facility. [gravity gradient stabilized satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckins, E. K., III; Breedlove, W. J., Jr.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the attitude dynamics of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF is a large cylindrical gravity gradient stabilized earth satellite which is planned to be delivered to a 270-n mi circular orbit by the space shuttle. The fundamental linear stability, capture requirements, and pitch bias constraints generated by the Garber instability are discussed. Numerical simulations, based on the full nonlinear equations for the coupled orbital and attitude motion of the vehicle and the viscous magnetic damper, show stable behavior of the spacecraft and a damping time constant of 30 to 70 orbits.

  19. The vTAS suite: A simulator for classical and multiplexed three-axis neutron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, M.; Filhol, A.; Raoul, Y.; Kulda, J.; Schmidt, W.; Schmalzl, K.; Farhi, E.

    2013-01-01

    The vTAS suite provides graphical assistance to prepare and perform inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a TAS instrument, including latest multiplexed instrumental configurations, such as FlatCone, IMPS and UFO. The interactive display allows for flexible translation between instrument positions in real space and neutron scattering conditions represented in reciprocal space. It is a platform independent public domain software tool, available for download from the website of the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL).

  20. A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

  1. Calibration of QM-MOURA three-axis magnetometer and gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Michelena, M.; Sanz, R.; Cerdán, M. F.

    2014-08-01

    The MOURA instrument is a three axes magnetometer and gradiometer equipped with an inclinometer designed and developed for Mars MetNet Precursor mission. The qualification model (MOURA QM) is devoted to magnetic surveys on Earth with the aim to achieve some experience prior to the arrival to Mars. In this work it is presented a practical first approach for the calibration of the instrument for these preliminary field campaigns on Earth. Other works will describe the design, up-screening and qualification and full capabilities of the instrument in depth, giving some feedback on the development.

  2. A target location and pointing algorithm for a three-axis stabilized line scanner (AMIDARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    1990-09-01

    An algorithm is presented for calculating the location of a target and for pointing other imaging sensors to it, given the position of an aircraft, its attitude, and its altitude and the gimbal angles of the stabilized platform. The algorithm uses geometric relationships to define the line of sight (LOS) direction in inertial space and to determine the position of the center of a scan line where the LOS intersects the ground. The direction of a scale line passing through that point is also calculated completely defining the location of any target on a scan line. The ground dimensions obtained form this procedure are then related to a point of known latitude and longitude to define the overall target location.

  3. Three-axis accelerometer package for slimhole and microhole seismic monitoring and surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1997-01-07

    The development of microdrilling technology, nominally defined as drilling technology for 1-in.-diameter boreholes, shows potential for reducing the cost of drilling monitoring wells. A major question that arises in drilling microholes is if downhole logging and monitoring in general--and downhole seismic surveying in particular--can be conducted in such small holes since the inner working diameter of such a seismic tool could be as small as 0.31 in. A downhole three-component accelerometer package that fits within a 031-in. inner diameter tube has been designed, built, and tested. The package consists of three orthogonally mounted Entran EGA-125-5g piezoresistive silicon micromachined accelerometers with temperature compensation circuitry, downhole amplification, and line drivers mounted in a thin-walled aluminum tube. Accelerometers are commercially available in much smaller package sizes than conventional geophones, but the noise floor is significantly higher than that for the geophones. Cross-well tests using small explosives showed good signal-to-noise ratio in the recorded waveform at various receiver depths with a 1,50-ft source-receiver well separation. For some active downhole surveys, the accelerometer unit would clearly be adequate. It can be reasonably assumed, however, that for less energetic sources and for greater well separations, the high accelerometer noise floor is not acceptable. By expanding the inner working diameter of a microhole seismic tool to 0.5 in., other commercial accelerometers can be used with substantially lower noise floors.

  4. Design and Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect-Based Soft Skin Sensor.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tito Pradhono; Somlor, Sophon; Schmitz, Alexander; Jamone, Lorenzo; Huang, Weijie; Kristanto, Harris; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy means to produce a 3-axis Hall effect-based skin sensor for robotic applications. It uses an off-the-shelf chip and is physically small and provides digital output. Furthermore, the sensor has a soft exterior for safe interactions with the environment; in particular it uses soft silicone with about an 8 mm thickness. Tests were performed to evaluate the drift due to temperature changes, and a compensation using the integral temperature sensor was implemented. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the crosstalk between the 3-axis measurements were evaluated. The sensor is able to detect minimal forces of about 1 gf. The sensor was calibrated and results with total forces up to 1450 gf in the normal and tangential directions of the sensor are presented. The test revealed that the sensor is able to measure the different components of the force vector. PMID:27070604

  5. Design and Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect-Based Soft Skin Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, Tito Pradhono; Somlor, Sophon; Schmitz, Alexander; Jamone, Lorenzo; Huang, Weijie; Kristanto, Harris; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy means to produce a 3-axis Hall effect–based skin sensor for robotic applications. It uses an off-the-shelf chip and is physically small and provides digital output. Furthermore, the sensor has a soft exterior for safe interactions with the environment; in particular it uses soft silicone with about an 8 mm thickness. Tests were performed to evaluate the drift due to temperature changes, and a compensation using the integral temperature sensor was implemented. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the crosstalk between the 3-axis measurements were evaluated. The sensor is able to detect minimal forces of about 1 gf. The sensor was calibrated and results with total forces up to 1450 gf in the normal and tangential directions of the sensor are presented. The test revealed that the sensor is able to measure the different components of the force vector. PMID:27070604

  6. Construction of three-axis acceleration sensor using a cross-coupled vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Jiro; Ueha, Yusuke; Uetsuji, Yasutomo

    2016-07-01

    We describe an acceleration sensor composed of four vibration bars, with a detection mechanism in which the resonant frequencies of the four bars are brought close together. The bars are connected mechanically at the center, and a cross-shaped layout is used such that for any load direction, the sizes of the loads on the vibration bars mutually oppose each other. Using this structure, acceleration can be easily calculated by the differential detection of the oscillation amplitude signals of each of the four vibration bars. The acceleration sensor in these three axes realized high stability and highly sensitive detection by driving four coupled vibrators. The sensor characteristics are measured using the gravitational field, and the acceleration is changed by rotating the sensor around the axis along the length of the vibrator.

  7. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to robustly demonstrate stable and high performance flight. On its development path to preliminary design review (PDR), the stability of the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant dynamics. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm previously presented by Orr and VanZwieten, has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies for which the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria (e.g. gain & phase margin). In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  8. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  9. Space construction base control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaczynski, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several approaches for an attitude control system are studied and developed for a large space construction base that is structurally flexible. Digital simulations were obtained using the following techniques: (1) the multivariable Nyquist array method combined with closed loop pole allocation, (2) the linear quadratic regulator method. Equations for the three-axis simulation using the multilevel control method were generated and are presented. Several alternate control approaches are also described. A technique is demonstrated for obtaining the dynamic structural properties of a vehicle which is constructed of two or more submodules of known dynamic characteristics.

  10. A PC-based magnetometer-only attitude and rate determination system for gyroless spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challa, M.; Natanson, G.; Deutschmann, J.; Galal, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype PC-based system that uses measurements from a three-axis magnetometer (TAM) to estimate the state (three-axis attitude and rates) of a spacecraft given no a priori information other than the mass properties. The system uses two algorithms that estimate the spacecraft's state - a deterministic magnetic-field only algorithm and a Kalman filter for gyroless spacecraft. The algorithms are combined by invoking the deterministic algorithm to generate the spacecraft state at epoch using a small batch of data and then using this deterministic epoch solution as the initial condition for the Kalman filter during the production run. System input comprises processed data that includes TAM and reference magnetic field data. Additional information, such as control system data and measurements from line-of-sight sensors, can be input to the system if available. Test results are presented using in-flight data from two three-axis stabilized spacecraft: Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) (gyroless, Sun-pointing) and Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) (gyro-based, Earth-pointing). The results show that, using as little as 700 s of data, the system is capable of accuracies of 1.5 deg in attitude and 0.01 deg/s in rates; i.e., within SAMPEX mission requirements.

  11. V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft: A Tool for Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.; Tiffany, Geary (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion System. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift+Lift /Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to decouple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flight path and flight path acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision. has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flight path command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results will be used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  12. V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  13. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-11-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

  14. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

  15. A wireless swing angle measurement scheme using attitude heading reference system sensing units based on microelectromechanical devices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingtuan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jianguo; Huang, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS) sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload) and the jib (or base) of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system. PMID:25436657

  16. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bingtuan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jianguo; Huang, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS) sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload) and the jib (or base) of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system. PMID:25436657

  17. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneiderman, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) solar array system is described. It is an innovative approach to meet the missions requirements. The SWAS satellite provides a three axis stabilized platform to survey a variety of galactic cloud structures. This system includes highly reliable, lightweight launch latch, deployment, and lock mechanisms, and solar array panels that provide the maximum solar cell area. The design of the solar arrays are the result of system trades that included instrument and spacecraft thermal constraints, attitude control system maneuvering rates and pointing accuracies, the power system, and the spacecraft structure.

  18. A general-purpose balloon-borne pointing system for solar scientific instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    A general purpose balloonborne pointing system for accommodating a wide variety of solar scientific instruments is described. It is designed for precise pointing, low cost, and quick launch. It offers the option of three-axis control, pitch-yaw-roll, or two-axis control, pitch-yaw, depending on the needs of the solar instrument. Simulation results are presented that indicate good pointing capability at Sun elevation angles ranging from 10 to 80 deg.

  19. System Error Compensation Methodology Based on a Neural Network for a Micromachined Inertial Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi Qiang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Errors compensation of micromachined-inertial-measurement-units (MIMU) is essential in practical applications. This paper presents a new compensation method using a neural-network-based identification for MIMU, which capably solves the universal problems of cross-coupling, misalignment, eccentricity, and other deterministic errors existing in a three-dimensional integrated system. Using a neural network to model a complex multivariate and nonlinear coupling system, the errors could be readily compensated through a comprehensive calibration. In this paper, we also present a thermal-gas MIMU based on thermal expansion, which measures three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations using only three thermal-gas inertial sensors, each of which capably measures one-axis angular rate and one-axis acceleration simultaneously in one chip. The developed MIMU (100 × 100 × 100 mm3) possesses the advantages of simple structure, high shock resistance, and large measuring ranges (three-axes angular rates of ±4000°/s and three-axes accelerations of ±10 g) compared with conventional MIMU, due to using gas medium instead of mechanical proof mass as the key moving and sensing elements. However, the gas MIMU suffers from cross-coupling effects, which corrupt the system accuracy. The proposed compensation method is, therefore, applied to compensate the system errors of the MIMU. Experiments validate the effectiveness of the compensation, and the measurement errors of three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations are reduced to less than 1% and 3% of uncompensated errors in the rotation range of ±600°/s and the acceleration range of ±1 g, respectively. PMID:26840314

  20. X-31 Kiel Probe Side View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A photograph of the noseboom on the X-31 shows the Kiel air data probe angled at 10 degrees to better align the tip with the airflow at very high angles of attack. The devices were mounted on the nose of the X-31s to measure air pressure. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584), caused that aircraft to crash on January 19, 1995. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden

  1. X-31 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight

  2. X-31 in Banked Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight

  3. X-31 in Flight with F-18 Chase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A head-on view of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft (right), accompanied by a NASA F-18 chase aircraft during a research flight over the desert floor. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well

  4. X-31 in Flight with F-18 Chase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft (top), flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is seen here accompanied by a NASA F-18 chase aircraft during a research flight over the desert floor. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31

  5. X-31 Kiel Probe Close-up Showing Inside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A close-up photograph of the Kiel air data probe on the noseboom on the X-31 aircraft shows the orifices used to collect air pressure measurements. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) caused that aircraft to crash. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each has a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled

  6. X-31 Landing with Drag Chute Deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, deploys its drag chute upon landing after a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable flights of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled

  7. Development of a GPS-aided motion measurement, pointing, and stabilization system for a Synthetic Aperture Radar. [Global Positioning System (GPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.; Kohler, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Motion Compensation System has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The system includes a miniaturized high accuracy ring laser gyro inertial measurement unit, a three axis gimbal pointing and stabilization assembly, a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation aiding system, and a pilot guidance system. The system provides several improvements over previous SNL motion compensation systems and is capable of antenna stabilization to less than 0.01 degrees RMS and absolute position measurement to less than 5.0 meters RMS. These accuracies have been demonstrated in recent flight testing aboard a DHC-6-300 Twin Otter'' aircraft.

  8. Stability analysis of autonomous space systems in the presence of large disturbances: A Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H

    2016-03-01

    The research addresses a Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy to deal with the autonomous space system in the presence of large disturbances. The aforementioned autonomous space system under control is first represented through a dynamics model and subsequently the proposed control strategy is fully investigated with a focus on the three-axis detumbling and the corresponding pointing mode control approaches. The three-axis detumbling mode control approach is designed to deal with the unwanted angular rates of the system to be zero, while the saturations of the actuators are taken into consideration. Moreover, the three-axis pointing mode control approach is designed in the similar state to deal with the rotational angles of the system to be desirable. The contribution of the research is mathematically made to propose a control law in connection with a new candidate of Lyapunov function to deal with the rotational angles and the related angular rates of the present autonomous space system with respect to state-of-the-art. A series of experiments are carried out to consider the efficiency of the proposed control strategy, as long as a number of benchmarks are realized in the same condition to verify and guarantee the strategy performance in both modes of control approaches. PMID:26850751

  9. A novel single thruster control strategy for spacecraft attitude stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard; Kumar, Krishna Dev; Zou, An-Min

    2013-05-01

    Feasibility of achieving three axis attitude stabilization using a single thruster is explored in this paper. Torques are generated using a thruster orientation mechanism with which the thrust vector can be tilted on a two axis gimbal. A robust nonlinear control scheme is developed based on the nonlinear kinematic and dynamic equations of motion of a rigid body spacecraft in the presence of gravity gradient torque and external disturbances. The spacecraft, controlled using the proposed concept, constitutes an underactuated system (a system with fewer independent control inputs than degrees of freedom) with nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, using thruster gimbal angles as control inputs make the system non-affine (control terms appear nonlinearly in the state equation). This necessitates the control algorithms to be developed based on nonlinear control theory since linear control methods are not directly applicable. The stability conditions for the spacecraft attitude motion for robustness against uncertainties and disturbances are derived to establish the regions of asymptotic 3-axis attitude stabilization. Several numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed controller and validate the theoretical results. The control algorithm is shown to compensate for time-varying external disturbances including solar radiation pressure, aerodynamic forces, and magnetic disturbances; and uncertainties in the spacecraft inertia parameters. The numerical results also establish the robustness of the proposed control scheme to negate disturbances caused by orbit eccentricity.

  10. A Measuring System for Well Logging Attitude and a Method of Sensor Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°. PMID:24859028

  11. A measuring system for well logging attitude and a method of sensor calibration.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°. PMID:24859028

  12. Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  13. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  14. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  15. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  16. Characterization of in-flight performance of ion propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1993-01-01

    In-flight measurements of ion propulsion performance, ground test calibrations, and diagnostic performance measurements were reviewed. It was found that accelerometers provided the most accurate in-flight thrust measurements compared with four other methods that were surveyed. An experiment has also demonstrated that pre-flight alignment of the thrust vector was sufficiently accurate so that gimbal adjustments and use of attitude control thrusters were not required to counter disturbance torques caused by thrust vector misalignment. The effects of facility background pressure, facility enhanced charge-exchange reactions, and contamination on ground-based performance measurements are also discussed. Vacuum facility pressures for inert-gas ion thruster life tests and flight qualification tests will have to be less than 2 mPa to ensure accurate performance measurements.

  17. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  18. The Solid Rocket Booster Auxiliary Power Unit: Meeting the Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The thrust vector control systems of the solid rocket boosters are turbine-powered, electrically controlled hydraulic systems which function through hydraulic actuators to gimbal the nozzles of the solid rocket boosters and provide vehicle steering for the Space Shuttle. Turbine power for the thrust vector control systems is provided through hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units which drive the hydraulic pumps. The solid rocket booster auxiliary power unit resulted from trade studies which indicated significant advantages would result if an existing engine could be found to meet the program goal of 20 missions reusability and adapted to meet the seawater environments associated with ocean landings. During its maturation, the auxiliary power unit underwent many design iterations and provided its flight worthiness through full qualification programs both as a component and as part of the thrust vector control system. More significant, the auxiliary power unit has successfully completed six Shuttle missions.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  20. An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    A major effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt ot overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times. At NASA Lewis, we are building on this technology to develop our own in-house system capable of meeting the peak power requirements for an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) such as the Atlas. Our EMA will be capable of delivering 22.4 kW (30 hp) peak power with a nominal of 6.0 kW (8 hp). This system differs from the previous ones in two areas: (1) the use of advanced control methods, and (2) the incorporation of built-in-test. The advanced controls are essential for minimizing the controller size, while the built-in-test is necessary to enhance the system reliability and vehicle health monitoring. The ultimate goal of this program is to demonstrate an EMA which will be capable of self-test and easy integration into other projects. This paper will describe the effort underway at NASA Lewis to develop an EMA for an Atlas class ELV. An explanation will be given for each major technology block, and the status of each major technology block and the status of the overall program will be reported.

  1. [Design of Fall Detection System for Elderly People Based on MPU6050 Sensor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zheng, Dongxue; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a falling detection system based on MPU6050 senor. The system consists of a MPU6050 sensor, a STM32 MCU and a set of Bluetooth 4.0 device: collecting and parsing the falling data, transferring the result to a smartphone, the smartphone: receiving the result, alarming the elder's family and hospital. This paper presentes a new judging algorithm based on the threshold of three-axis acceleration and angle deviation of body, in order to differentiate AF and normal daily activity. The result proves that the accuracy of the system is higher than 95%, which strongly highlight the robustness and reliability. PMID:26904872

  2. A simulation of the instrument pointing system for the Astro-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, M.; West, M.; Rakoczy, J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has recently completed a shuttle-borne stellar ultraviolet astronomy mission known as Astro-1. A three axis instrument pointing system (IPS) was employed to accurately point the science instruments. In order to analyze the pointing control system and verify pointing performance, a simulation of the IPS was developed using the multibody dynamics software TREETOPS. The TREETOPS IPS simulation is capable of accurately modeling the multibody IPS system undergoing large angle, nonlinear motion. The simulation is documented and example cases are presented demonstrating disturbance rejection, fine pointing operations, and multiple target pointing and slewing of the IPS.

  3. Six-degree-of-freedom simulation of an astronaut detumble system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, W. T.; Neff, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of stabilizing the attitude of an untethered astronaut in a three-axis tumble is addressed. A simple six thruster detumbling system mounted on the astronaut's Portable Life Support System backpack is analyzed as a possible solution. A six-degree-of-freedom dynamical model is constructed using the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations, Euler's moment equations, and quaternions. The six thruster system produces both moments and forces when activated. However, it is shown that the thrust forces acting on the body during detumbling do not significantly affect the translational motion.

  4. CMG-Augmented Control of a Hovering VTOL Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) can be used for stability augmentation to a thrust vectoring system for a generic Vertical Take-Off and Landing platform. The response characteristics of the platform which uses only thrust vectoring and a second configuration which includes a single-gimbal CMG array are simulated and compared for hovering flight while subject to severe air turbulence. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of a CMG array in its ability to significantly reduce the agility requirement on the thrust vectoring system. Albeit simplifying physical assumptions on a generic CMG configuration, the numerical results also suggest that reasonably sized CMGs will likely be sufficient for a small hovering vehicle.

  5. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transpot project-demonstration act system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Crumb, C. B.; Flora, C. C.; Macdonald, K. A. B.; Smith, R. D.; Sassi, A. P.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 1985 ACT airplane is the Final Active Controls Technology (ACT) Airplane with the addition of three-axis fly by wire. Thus it retains all the efficiency features of the full ACT system plus the weight and cost savings accruing from deletion of the mechanical control system. The control system implements the full IAAC spectrum of active controls except flutter-mode control, judged essentially nonbeneficial, and incorporates new control surfaces called flaperons to make the most of wing-load alleviation. This redundant electronic system is conservatively designed to preserve the extreme reliability required of crucial short-period pitch augmentation, which provides more than half of the fuel savings.

  6. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  7. Attitude control system design of a satellite with a magnetically suspended momentum wheel based on two-degree-of-freedom control system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Hamasaki, T.; Nakatani, I.; Ninomiya, K.

    By adopting as an actuator a momentum wheel with fully actively controlled magnetic bearings, abbreviated as MBMW hereafter, three-axis-attitude of a satellite can be controlled efficiently by one single wheel. This usually contributes to the system-weight reduction. However, a magnetic bearing system is inherently nonlinear and bias current is normally required to linearize the bearing characteristics, causing increased power consumption in the suspension system. In this paper, by applying the so-called two-DOF control system theory and introducing complex state-variables to seemingly reduce the dimension of the system, we formulate and propose a design method of both an attitude control system of a satellite adopting a MBMW and a control scheme of the MBMW bearing-system, for which the nonlinearity of magnetic bearings is compensated by the robust controller. The proposed approach provides an explicit design method for a high-performance pointing control system for a class of three-axis stabilized satellites. The usefulness of the design method and the effectiveness of the control system are confirmed by computer simulations for a high energy solar physics observation mission.

  8. A marine direction finding system based on global positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dǎnişor, Alin; Izet-Ünsalan, Kunsel-Özel; Ünsalan, Deniz; Tamaş, Razvan; Dǎnişor, Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Direction finding and attitude determination is of utmost importance for marine, aerial, spatial and land-based navigation [1], as well as control of vehicles, in surveying and in target acquisition of tracking radars. These problems can be solved using dedicated sensors commonly named as compasses and rate gyros. Unfortunately, the classical means of attitude determination both by magnetic and gyrocompasses become unusable at extreme latitudes. Furthermore, gyrocompasses inherently yield erroneous results on high speed craft. Three-axis attitude of a vehicle can be determined using a GPS receiver with multiple antennas, by measuring carrier phases [2], signal strength [3], or integrated INS/GPS systems [4]. This paper proposes a new method of attitude determination using two low-cost GPS receivers.

  9. Testing the three axis magnetometer and gradiometer MOURA and data comparison on San Pablo de los Montes Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen Fernandez, Ana; Sanz, Ruy; Covisa, Pablo; Tordesillas, Jose Manuel; Diaz-Michelena, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A magnetometer and gradiometer named MOURA has been developed with the objective to measure the magnetic field on Mars in the frame of Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) [1]. MOURA is a compact, miniaturized, intelligent and low cost instrument, based on two sets of triaxial magnetometers separated one centimeter from each other to do gradiometry studies. It has a resolution of 2.2 nT, and a field range of + 65μT, which can be extended to +130 μT when sensors are saturated. [2] These sensor heads are Anisotropic MagnetoResistances (AMR) Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) by Honeywell, specifically HMC1043, which has been selected due to their relative low consumption, weight and size, factors very important for the mission with very limited mass and power budget (shared 150 g for three full payloads). Also, this technology has been previously successfully employed on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to perform geomagnetic surveys in extreme conditions areas [3], and in several space missions for different applications. [4] After the development of the MOURA Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) in November 2011, an exhaustive set of tests have been performed to validate and fully characterize the instrument. Compensation equations have been derived for the temperature corrections in the operation range (between -135 °C and 30 °C) in controlled environments. These compensation equations have been applied to field data, which have shown to follow the daily Earth's magnetic field variations as registered by San Pablo Geomagnetic Observatory (IAGA code: SPT) (available at www.ign.es and www.intermagnet.org) with deviations lower than 40 nT. These deviations were attributed to several error factors as the different locations between MOURA and SPT and other possible different geomagnetic conditions. Due to the above, a measurement campaign on SPT installations are been done. The main objective is to compare MOURA measurements on a relevant environment, with data obtained by SPT magnetometers. This is considered the last step prior to Mars in situ measurements. SPT employs for geomagnetic observations a fluxgate magnetometer FGE-Danish Meteorological Institute and a fluxgate vector magnetometer Geomag M390, both equipped with Overhauser effect magnetometers GSM90. The conditions into the rooms that contain these instruments are controlled. The equipments are situated on several pillars fixed strategically at Earth surface avoiding vibrations and other Earth movement that could affect measurement due to changes on the sensor position, the region is magnetically clean and the temperature variation is very low. Magnetic measurements are performed by MOURA for several days located on one of these pillars. These measurements are compared with SPT reference instrumentation with the aim to obtain a direct and very accurate evaluation of MOURA facing reference instrumentation. http://metnet.fmi.fi/index.php Development of miniaturized instrumentation for Planetary Exploration and its application to the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission. H. Guerrero et al. EGU General Assembly 2010, held 2-7 May, 2010 in Vienna, Austria, p.13330 Funaki, M.; Hirasawa, N.; and the Ant-Plane Group. Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antartic research. Polar Science 2008, 2, 129-142. M. Diaz-Michelena Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2271-2288

  10. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study. Phase B, appendix E: Attitude control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A study which consisted of a series of design analyses for an Attitude Control System (ACS) to be incorporated into the Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (RRS) was performed. The main thrust of the study was associated with defining the control laws and estimating the mass and power requirements of the ACS needed to meet the specified performance goals. The analyses concentrated on the different on-orbit control modes which start immediately after the separation of the RRS from the launch vehicle. The three distinct on-orbit modes considered for these analyses are as follows: (1) Mode 1 - A Gravity Gradient (GG) three-axis stabilized spacecraft with active magnetic control; (2) Mode 2 - A GG stabilized mode with a controlled yaw rotation rate ('rotisserie') using three-axis magnetic control and also incorporating a 10 N-m-s momentum wheel along the (Z) yaw axis; and (3) Mode 3 - A spin stabilized mode of operation with the spin about the pitch (Y) axis, incorporating a 20 N-m-s momentum wheel along the pitch (Y) axis and attitude control via thrusters. To investigate the capabilities of the different controllers in these various operational modes, a series of computer simulations and trade-off analyses have been made to evaluate the achievable performance levels, and the necessary mass and power requirements.

  11. Space Shuttle 1976 into mainstream development - Program commitments on schedule to insure careful progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malkin, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    A progress report is given on various systems, noting conformity to schedule or changes in design. The Orbiter thermal protection system, the Space Shuttle main engine, the intertank for the structural test article (STA), thrust vector control systems, the Kennedy Space Center launch processing system, and Orbiters No. 1 and No. 2 are discussed.

  12. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, Larry H.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  13. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Matthies, Larry H.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  14. Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS) system design and analysis. [for gimbaled experiment platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frew, A. M.; Eisenhut, D. F.; Farrenkopf, R. L.; Gates, R. F.; Iwens, R. P.; Kirby, D. K.; Mann, R. J.; Spencer, D. J.; Tsou, H. S.; Zaremba, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The precision pointing control system (PPCS) is an integrated system for precision attitude determination and orientation of gimbaled experiment platforms. The PPCS concept configures the system to perform orientation of up to six independent gimbaled experiment platforms to design goal accuracy of 0.001 degrees, and to operate in conjunction with a three-axis stabilized earth-oriented spacecraft in orbits ranging from low altitude (200-2500 n.m., sun synchronous) to 24 hour geosynchronous, with a design goal life of 3 to 5 years. The system comprises two complementary functions: (1) attitude determination where the attitude of a defined set of body-fixed reference axes is determined relative to a known set of reference axes fixed in inertial space; and (2) pointing control where gimbal orientation is controlled, open-loop (without use of payload error/feedback) with respect to a defined set of body-fixed reference axes to produce pointing to a desired target.

  15. Thermal design of the IUE hydrazine auxiliary propulsion system. [International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skladany, J. T.; Kelly, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer is a large astronomical observatory scheduled to be placed in a three-axis stabilized synchronous orbit in the fourth quarter of 1977. The Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System (HAPS) must perform a number of spacecraft maneuvers to achieve a successful mission. This paper describes the thermal design which accomplishes temperature control between 5 and 65 C for all orbital conditions by utilizing multilayer insulation and commandable component heaters. A primary design criteria was the minimization of spacecraft power by the selective use of the solar environment. The thermal design was carefully assessed and verified in both spacecraft thermal balance and subsystem solar simulation testing.

  16. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 1: Study summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and tradeoffs of a tracking and data relay satellite. The study emphasized the design of a three axis stabilized satellite and a telecommunications system optimized for support of low and medium data rate user spacecraft. Telecommunications support to low and high, or low medium, and high data rate users, considering launches with the Delta 2914, the Atlas/Centaur, and the space shuttle was also considered. The following subjects are presented: (1) launch and deployment profile, (2) spacecraft mechanical and structural design, (3) attitude stabilization and control subsystem, and (4) reliability analysis.

  17. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.; Swift, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes is described. A unique feature of the system is the use of a single sensor to provide information for the generation of three axis pointing error signals and for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization and the CRT display is used by an operator to facilitate target acquisition and to aid in manual positioning of the telescope optical axis. A model of the system using a low light level vidicon built and flown on a balloon-borne infrared telescope is briefly described from a state of the art charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The advanced system hardware is described and an analysis of the multi-star tracking and three axis error signal generation, along with an analysis and design of the gyro update filter, are presented. Results of a hybrid simulation are described in which the advanced VIP system hardware is driven by a digital simulation of the star field/CCD sensor and an analog simulation of the telescope and gyro stabilization dynamics.

  18. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  19. Simulation Based on Ion Propulsion Rocket System with Using Negative ion - Negative Ion Pair Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyavel, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because of their stimulated of low propellant, Design of Thrust range is 1N with low electric power and high efficiency. A Negative ion-Negative ion pair of ion propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work .Negative Ion Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.ionization chamber 2. Repulsion force and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negatively gas are produced by attachment of the gas ,such as chlorine with electron emitted from a Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). The electron affinity is a measure of the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion. When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a Cl- ion, it releases energy of 349 kJ/mol or 3.6 ev/atom. It is said to have an electron affinity of -349 kJ/mol ,the negative sign indicating that energy is released during this process .The mechanisms of attachment involve the formation of intermediate states. In that reason for , the highly repulsive force created between the same negative ions. The distance between same negative ions is important for the evaluate of the rocket thrust and is also determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. The mass flow rate of propellant is achieved by the ratio of total mass of the propellant (Kg) needed for operation to time period(s). Accelerate the Negative ions to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction with a significantly intense Magnetic field and the exhaust of negative ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we have found that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with estimated

  20. Vector magnetometry and lightwave defect imaging sensor technologies for internal pipe inspection systems: Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study, conceptual design, and prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Steven; Fowler, Thomas; Peters, Edward; Power, Wendy; Reed, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been sponsoring the development of a vehicle and sensors for an integrated nondestructive internal inspection system for natural gas distribution pipes. Arthur D. Little has developed two sensor technologies; Vector Magnetometry (VM) and Lightwave Defect Imaging (LDI) for the system.The Vector Magnetometry sensor utilizes multiple arrays of miniature detection coils (fluxgate magnetometer elements): a three-axis array measures both the amplitude and phase of the magnetic leakage field that occurs in the vicinity of pipe wall defects. This technology is applicable to both cast iron and steel pipe.

  1. Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

  2. Model-reference attitude control and reaction control jet engine placement for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    Analytical studies on the theoretical aspects of thrust vector control of large space vehicles were conducted. A system for attitude control of the space shuttle vehicle was developed. Major accomplishments of the project are: (1) investigation of a model-reference adaptive control scheme for controlling the space shuttle attitude and (2) determination of optimum placement of reaction control jet engines on space shuttles.

  3. Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

  4. Strapdown system performance optimization test evaluations (SPOT), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, R. J.; Gilmore, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A three axis inertial system was packaged in an Apollo gimbal fixture for fine grain evaluation of strapdown system performance in dynamic environments. These evaluations have provided information to assess the effectiveness of real-time compensation techniques and to study system performance tradeoffs to factors such as quantization and iteration rate. The strapdown performance and tradeoff studies conducted include: (1) Compensation models and techniques for the inertial instrument first-order error terms were developed and compensation effectivity was demonstrated in four basic environments; single and multi-axis slew, and single and multi-axis oscillatory. (2) The theoretical coning bandwidth for the first-order quaternion algorithm expansion was verified. (3) Gyro loop quantization was identified to affect proportionally the system attitude uncertainty. (4) Land navigation evaluations identified the requirement for accurate initialization alignment in order to pursue fine grain navigation evaluations.

  5. Restoring Redundancy to the MAP Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Due to the MAP project's limited mass, power, and financial resources, a traditional reliability concept including fully redundant components was not feasible. The MAP design employs selective hardware redundancy, along with backup software modes and algorithms, to improve the odds of mission success. In particular, MAP's propulsion system, which is used for orbit maneuvers and momentum management, uses eight thrusters positioned and oriented in such a way that its thruster-based attitude control modes can maintain three-axis attitude control in the event of the failure of any one thruster.

  6. Quaternion-Based Unscented Kalman Filter for Accurate Indoor Heading Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path. PMID:25961384

  7. Quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter for accurate indoor heading estimation using wearable multi-sensor system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path. PMID:25961384

  8. Image change detection using a SWIR active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Armin L.; Monnin, David; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2013-10-01

    We are currently developing a system consisting of a GPS receiver, a three-axis magnetic compass as well as a digital video camera in order to visualize changes occuring along a regularily used itinerary. This is done by comparing actual images with images from the same scene, which have been acquired during a previous measurement. The luminosity of images from two different passages however can be quite different (due to different meteorological conditions). Whereas the global luminosity can be adjusted using non-linear luminosity correction, the treatment of shadows is more di cult. Since meteorological conditions cannot be controlled, we are investigating the possibility of using a Laser Gated Viewing system in the SWIR domain to illuminate the scene. Using appropriate filters for the camera, we are completely independent of natural illumination and in addition, the system can also be used at night.

  9. Cosmic non-TEM radiation and synthetic feed array sensor system in ASIC mixed signal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centureli, F.; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.; Romano, F.; Cimmino, R.; Saitto, A.

    2014-08-01

    The paper deals with the opportunity to introduce "Not strictly TEM waves" Synthetic detection Method (NTSM), consisting in a Three Axis Digital Beam Processing (3ADBP), to enhance the performances of radio telescope and sensor systems. Current Radio Telescopes generally use the classic 3D "TEM waves" approximation Detection Method, which consists in a linear tomography process (Single or Dual axis beam forming processing) neglecting the small z component. The Synthetic FEED ARRAY three axis Sensor SYSTEM is an innovative technique using a synthetic detection of the generic "NOT strictly TEM Waves radiation coming from the Cosmo, which processes longitudinal component of Angular Momentum too. Than the simultaneous extraction from radiation of both the linear and quadratic information component, may reduce the complexity to reconstruct the Early Universe in the different requested scales. This next order approximation detection of the observed cosmologic processes, may improve the efficacy of the statistical numerical model used to elaborate the same information acquired. The present work focuses on detection of such waves at carrier frequencies in the bands ranging from LF to MMW. The work shows in further detail the new generation of on line programmable and reconfigurable Mixed Signal ASIC technology that made possible the innovative Synthetic Sensor. Furthermore the paper shows the ability of such technique to increase the Radio Telescope Array Antenna performances.

  10. GRATIS: Pointing and Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M. D.; Lubin, P. M.; Craig, W. W.; McLean, R.; Harrison, F.

    1992-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Arc Minute Telescope Imaging System (GRATIS; see companion paper by Harrison et al.) requires a balloon-borne stabilized platform capable of 20 arc second absolute pointing accuracy. We have developed a system which uses computer-based inertial-guidance control of an azimuth-elevation pointing mechanism for the telescope. An innovative computer-based star pattern recognition system automatically generates drift corrections from an image acquired by a Peltier cooled CCD camera. The inertial guidance system provides three axis pointing information with approximately 12 arc seconds precision. This is a true inertial guidance system with gyros, accelerometers, and an integral navigational processor. The gyros have high relative pointing precision, but a slow drift component degrades their absolute accuracy. Control of the elevation position is accomplished through a torque motor that is directly coupled to the telescope. Azimuth control is accomplished through an active zero-stiction bearing at the top of the gondola and a reaction wheel at the bottom. The pointing system has been fully constructed and tested and has been mated with the telescope. We present the results of an extensive series of tracking tests.

  11. A New Approach to Attitude Stability and Control for Low Airspeed Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Shin, Y-Y.; Moerder, D. D.; Cooper, E. G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for controlling the attitude of statically unstable thrust-levitated vehicles in hover or slow translation. The large thrust vector that characterizes such vehicles can be modulated to provide control forces and moments to the airframe, but such modulation is accompanied by significant unsteady flow effects. These effects are difficult to model, and can compromise the practical value of thrust vectoring in closed-loop attitude stability, even if the thrust vectoring machinery has sufficient bandwidth for stabilization. The stabilization approach described in this paper is based on using internal angular momentum transfer devices for stability, augmented by thrust vectoring for trim and other "outer loop" control functions. The three main components of this approach are: (1) a z-body axis angular momentum bias enhances static attitude stability, reducing the amount of control activity needed for stabilization, (2) optionally, gimbaled reaction wheels provide high-bandwidth control torques for additional stabilization, or agility, and (3) the resulting strongly coupled system dynamics are controlled by a multivariable controller. A flight test vehicle is described, and nonlinear simulation results are provided that demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  12. Vector magnetometry and lightwave defect imaging sensor technologies for internal pipe inspection systems. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study, conceptual design, and prototype development. Final report, March 1991-July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S.; Fowler, T.; Peters, E.; Power, W.; Reed, M.

    1994-01-05

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been sponsoring the development of a vehicle and sensors for an integrated nondestructive internal inspection system for natural gas distribution pipes. Arthur D. Little has developed two sensor technologies, Vector Magnetometry (VM) and Lightwave Defect Imaging (LDI) for the system. The Vector Magnetometry sensor utilizes multiple arrays of miniature detection coils (fluxgate magnetometer elements); a three-axis array measures both the amplitude and phase of the magnetic leakage field that occurs in the vicinity of pipe wall defects. This technology is applicable to both cast iron and steel pipe.

  13. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  14. Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  15. A novel sensor-assisted RFID-based indoor tracking system for the elderly living alone.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2011-01-01

    The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly in many developed nations. Providing safe and comfortable care to aging people is an important social goal. Moreover, obtaining correct activity and location information for an elderly person is an important research goal. This work proposes a novel intelligent RFID-based indoor tracking system for elderly people living alone. The proposed system uses environment information for inhabitants and received signal strength of an RFID reader to estimate the probable location of an inhabitant. The proposed system then coordinates with the wireless sensor node of a three-axis accelerometer and uses a genetic algorithm to compute the location of the inhabitant. The proposed system also uses context and gait information to improve inhabitant-tracking accuracy. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed system is better than that of existing RFID-based systems. PMID:22346631

  16. A Novel Sensor-Assisted RFID-Based Indoor Tracking System for the Elderly Living Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2011-01-01

    The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly in many developed nations. Providing safe and comfortable care to aging people is an important social goal. Moreover, obtaining correct activity and location information for an elderly person is an important research goal. This work proposes a novel intelligent RFID-based indoor tracking system for elderly people living alone. The proposed system uses environment information for inhabitants and received signal strength of an RFID reader to estimate the probable location of an inhabitant. The proposed system then coordinates with the wireless sensor node of a three-axis accelerometer and uses a genetic algorithm to compute the location of the inhabitant. The proposed system also uses context and gait information to improve inhabitant-tracking accuracy. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed system is better than that of existing RFID-based systems. PMID:22346631

  17. Wellborne inertial navigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A phototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimbaled inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of +- 100 to +- 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about +- 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

  18. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Murphy, J. P.; Swift, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. VIP employs a single video sensor to generate three-axis pointing error signals and to provide inputs for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals update the telescope's gyro stabilization system. The CRT display facilitates target acquisition and positioning of the telescope by a remote operator. The present paper describes the analysis, simulation, and hardware development of a prototype, advanced VIP system. An early model of the system utilizing a silicon-intensified target vidicon camera has flown on a balloon-borne telescope and is briefly described. The advanced system, which can employ either a vidicon camera or a charge-coupled device video sensor, has been tested using an analog/digital hybrid simulation. The advanced VIP hardware is described, and the simulation results presented.

  19. Attitude Dynamics and Control of Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, Evan

    Solar sails are space vehicles that rely on solar radiation pressure in order to generate forces for thrust and attitude control torques. They exhibit characteristics such as large moments of inertia, fragility of various system components, and long mission durations that make attitude control a particularly difficult engineering problem. Thrust vector control (TVC) is a family of sailcraft attitude control techniques that is on a short list of strategies thought to be suitable for the primary attitude control of solar sails. Every sailcraft TVC device functions by manipulating the relative locations of the composite mass center (cm) of the sailcraft and the center of pressure (cp) of at least one of its reflectors. Relative displacement of these two points results in body torques that can be used to steer the sailcraft. This dissertation presents a strategy for the large-angle reorientation of a sailcraft using TVC. Two forms of TVC, namely the panel and ballast mass translation methods are well represented in the literature, while rigorous studies regarding a third form, gimballed mass rotation, are conspicuously absent. The gimballed mass method is physically realized by placing a ballast mass, commonly the sailcraft's scientific payload, at the tip of a gimballed boom that has its base fixed at some point on the sailcraft. A TVC algorithm will then strategically manipulate the payload boom's gimbal angles, thereby changing the projection of the sailcraft cm in the plane of the sail. This research demonstrates effective three-axis attitude control of a model sailcraft using numerical simulation of its nonlinear equations of motion. The particular TVC algorithm developed herein involves two phases---the first phase selects appropriate gimbal rates with the objective that the sailcraft be placed in the neighborhood of its target orientation. It was discovered, however that concomitantly minimizing attitude error as well as residual body rate was not possible using

  20. Magnetic control systems for large spacecraft with applications to space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, H.; Machnick, J.; Nakashima, A.; Henry, J.; Tompetrini, K.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic control systems for large space vehicles offer the advantage of a simple, reliable, low cost augmentation to the primary control system. When used for momentum management, a magnetic torque source offers a long life and noncontaminant environment when compared to a mass expulsion torque source. These qualities make such systems suitable for employment with the Space Telescope, which is a long life, high performance vehicle with optics and scientific instruments which would be degraded by contamination due to mass expulsion products. The various applications of magnetic systems on the Space Telescope are considered. The future trend in magnetic control of large space vehicles lies in providing a known three axis reference for backup operations, such as recovery of the primary control mode.

  1. The evaluation system of the 2-D scanning mirror based on CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Gui-ying; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Jin-xing

    2010-10-01

    The high precision two-dimension scanning control technique is being developed for the next geosynchronous satellites FY-4 satellites which is using the three-axis stabilization stages. How to evaluate the point and scanning precision of the scanning mirror is one of the most important technologies. This paper describes the optoelectronic measure method based on CMOS sensors to evaluate the point and scanning precision of the scanning mirror in the laboratory, which is a 2-D dynamic angle measurement system. Some technologies, such as the sup-pixel orientation technology and the CMOS ROI technology, are used in the measurement system. The research shows that the angle measurement system based on IBIS-6600CMOS sensors can attain the 20°× 20° field of view, 2" accuracy, and 1Kframes/s speed. But the system is sensitive to the environment and it can only be worked in the laboratory.

  2. An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-08-01

    An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

  3. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  4. Multi-Channel Magnetocardiogardiography System Based on Low-Tc SQUIDs in an Unshielded Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyan; Zhang, Shulin; Wang, Yongliang; Zeng, Jia; Xie, Xiaoming

    Magnetocardiography (MCG) using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is a new medical diagnostic tool measuring biomagnetic signals that are generated by the electrical activity of the human heart. This technique is completely passive, contactless, and it has an advantage in the early diagnosis of heart diseases. We developed the first unshielded four-channel MCG system based on low-Tc DC SQUIDs in China. Instead of using a costly magnetically shielded room, the environmental noise suppression was realized by using second-order gradiometers and three-axis reference magnetometer. The measured magnetic field resolution of the system is better than 1 pT, and multi-cycle human heart signals can be recorded directly. Also, with the infrared positioning system, 48 points data collection can be realized by moving the non-magnetic bed nine times.

  5. Instrumentation and control system for an F-15 stall/spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.; Holmes, D. C. E.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    An instrumentation and control system is described that was used for radio-controlled F-15 airplane model stall/spin research at the NASA-Langley Research Center. This stall/spin research technique, using scale model aircraft, provides information on the post-stall and spin-entry characteristics of full-scale aircraft. The instrumentation described provides measurements of flight parameters such as angle of attack and sideslip, airspeed, control-surface position, and three-axis rotation rates; these data are recorded on an onboard magnetic tape recorder. The proportional radio control system, which utilizes analog potentiometric signals generated from ground-based pilot inputs, and the ground-based system used in the flight operation are also described.

  6. Controlling Attitude of a Solar-Sail Spacecraft Using Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Ahmet; Ploen, Scott

    2006-01-01

    A paper discusses a concept for controlling the attitude and thrust vector of a three-axis stabilized Solar Sail spacecraft using only four single degree-of-freedom articulated spar-tip vanes. The vanes, at the corners of the sail, would be turned to commanded angles about the diagonals of the square sail. Commands would be generated by an adaptive controller that would track a given trajectory while rejecting effects of such disturbance torques as those attributable to offsets between the center of pressure on the sail and the center of mass. The controller would include a standard proportional + derivative part, a feedforward part, and a dynamic component that would act like a generalized integrator. The controller would globally track reference signals, and in the presence of such control-actuator constraints as saturation and delay, the controller would utilize strategies to cancel or reduce their effects. The control scheme would be embodied in a robust, nonlinear algorithm that would allocate torques among the vanes, always finding a stable solution arbitrarily close to the global optimum solution of the control effort allocation problem. The solution would include an acceptably small angle, slow limit-cycle oscillation of the vanes, while providing overall thrust vector pointing stability and performance.

  7. High Speed, High Temperature, Fault Tolerant Operation of a Combination Magnetic-Hydrostatic Bearing Rotor Support System for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark; Montague, Gerald; Provenza, Andrew; Palazzolo, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Closed loop operation of a single, high temperature magnetic radial bearing to 30,000 RPM (2.25 million DN) and 540 C (1000 F) is discussed. Also, high temperature, fault tolerant operation for the three axis system is examined. A novel, hydrostatic backup bearing system was employed to attain high speed, high temperature, lubrication free support of the entire rotor system. The hydrostatic bearings were made of a high lubricity material and acted as journal-type backup bearings. New, high temperature displacement sensors were successfully employed to monitor shaft position throughout the entire temperature range and are described in this paper. Control of the system was accomplished through a stand alone, high speed computer controller and it was used to run both the fault-tolerant PID and active vibration control algorithms.

  8. A superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in aircraft aluminum structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, A.; Fellenstein, J. J.; Lucas, A. J.; Wikswo, J. P.

    1999-12-01

    We have designed and built a magnetic imaging system for quantitative analysis of the rate of ongoing hidden corrosion of aircraft aluminum alloys in planar structures such as intact aircraft lap joints. The system utilizes a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer that measures the magnetic field associated with corrosion currents. It consists of a three-axis (vector) SQUID differential magnetometer, magnetic, and rf shielding, a computer controlled x-y stage, sample registration, and positioning mechanisms, and data acquisition and analysis software. The system is capable of scanning planar samples with dimensions of up to 28 cm square, with a spatial resolution of 2 mm, and a sensitivity of 0.3 pT/Hz1/2 (at 10 Hz). In this article we report the design and technical issues related to this system, outline important data acquisition techniques and criteria for accurate measurements of the rate of corrosion, especially for weakly corroding samples, and present preliminary measurements.

  9. Computer simulation of aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics for the YF-12 aircraft at supersonic cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    A computer simulation of the YF-12 aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics is presented. The propulsion system was represented in sufficient detail so that interactions between aircraft motions and the propulsion system dynamics could be investigated. Six degree-of-freedom aircraft motions together with the three-axis stability augmentation system were represented. The mixed compression inlets and their controls were represented in the started mode for a range of flow conditions up to the inlet unstart boundary. Effects of inlet moving geometry on aircraft forces and movements as well as effects of aircraft motions on the inlet behavior were simulated. The engines, which are straight subjects, were represented in the afterburning mode, with effects of changes in aircraft flight conditions included. The simulation was capable of operating in real time.

  10. Development of a reaction wheel attitude control system for sounding rocket experiments and small Shuttle-based free flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    A three-axis reaction wheel control system is currently under development. Initial emphasis is on a magnetic field reference, although the system is easily adaptable to other positional references, e.g., the gyroscopic. The system is housed in a skin section 17.25 inches in diameter and approximately 10 inches long. Current weight estimate is 75 pounds. An orthogonal triad of dc motors forms the basis of the system. Power is provided by silver-zinc cells and controlled by an 8-bit microprocessor. The control law is presented and the dynamical equations derived. Simulation results show that a payload with a roll MOI of 4.1 sl/sq ft and a transverse MOI of 20.3 sl/sq ft can typically be reoriented 90 degrees in 20-35 seconds, depending upon the initial body rates.

  11. A wellbore inertial navigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    A prototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimballed inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of 100 to 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also, this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

  12. A comparison of position and rate control for telemanipulations with consideration of manipulator system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence W.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Position and rate control are the two common manual control modes in teleoperations. Human operator performance using the two modes is evaluated and compared. Simulated three-axis pick-and-place operations are used as the primary task for evaluation. First, ideal position and rate control are compared by considering several factors, such as joystick gain, joystick type, display mode, task, and manipulator work space size. Then the effects of the manipulator system dynamics are investigated by varying the natural frequency and speed limit. Experimental results show that ideal position control is superior to ideal rate control, regardless of joystick type or display mode, when the manipulation work space is small or comparable to the human operator's control space. Results also show that when the manipulator system is slow, the superiority of position control disappears. Position control is recommended for small-work-space telemanipulation tasks, while rate control is recommended for slow wide-work-space telemanipulation tasks.

  13. Large Angle Reorientation of a Solar Sail Using Gimballed Mass Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for the large angle reorientation of a solar sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector control cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis control authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The control algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.

  14. Large Angle Reorientation of a Solar Sail Using Gimballed Mass Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for the large angle reorientation of a solar sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector control cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis control authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The control algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.

  15. Integrated calibration of magnetic gradient tensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Yin; Yingtang, Zhang; Hongbo, Fan; GuoQuan, Ren; Zhining, Li

    2015-01-01

    Measurement precision of a magnetic gradient tensor system is not only connected with the imperfect performance of magnetometers such as bias, scale factor, non-orthogonality and misalignment errors, but also connected with the external soft-iron and hard-iron magnetic distortion fields when the system is used as a strapdown device. So an integrated scalar calibration method is proposed in this paper. In the first step, a mathematical model for scalar calibration of a single three-axis magnetometer is established, and a least squares ellipsoid fitting algorithm is proposed to estimate the detailed error parameters. For the misalignment errors existing at different magnetometers caused by the installation process and misalignment errors aroused by ellipsoid fitting estimation, a calibration method for combined misalignment errors is proposed in the second step to switch outputs of different magnetometers into the ideal reference orthogonal coordinate system. In order to verify effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation and experiment with a cross-magnetic gradient tensor system are performed, and the results show that the proposed method estimates error parameters and improves the measurement accuracy of magnetic gradient tensor greatly.

  16. Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

  17. Finite element based electric motor design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.

  18. Design and testing of the navigation model for three axis stabilized earth oriented satellites applied to the ATS-6 satellite image data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlow, W. W.; Chatters, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    An earth edge methodology has been developed to account for the relative attitude changes between successive ATS-6 images which allows reasonable high quality wind sets to be produced. The method consists of measuring the displacements of the right and left infrared earth edges between successive ATS-6 images as a function of scan line; from these measurements the attitude changes can be deduced and used to correct the apparent cloud displacement measurements. The wind data sets generated from ATS-6 using the earth-edge methodology were compared with those derived from the SMS-1 images (and model) covering the same time period. Quantitative comparisons for low level trade cumuli were made at interpolated uniformly spaced grid points and for selected individual comparison clouds. Selected individual comparison clouds, the root-mean-square differences for the U and V components were 1.0 and 1.2 meters per second with a maximum wind direction difference of 15 deg.

  19. AN EIGHT WEEK SEMINAR IN AN INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL CONTROL ON TWO- AND THREE-AXIS MACHINE TOOLS FOR VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL MACHINE TOOL INSTRUCTORS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOLDT, MILTON; POKORNY, HARRY

    THIRTY-THREE MACHINE SHOP INSTRUCTORS FROM 17 STATES PARTICIPATED IN AN 8-WEEK SEMINAR TO DEVELOP THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL FOR TEACHING THE OPERATION OF NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLS. THE SEMINAR WAS GIVEN FROM JUNE 20 TO AUGUST 12, 1966, WITH COLLEGE CREDIT AVAILABLE THROUGH STOUT STATE UNIVERSITY. THE PARTICIPANTS COMPLETED AN…

  20. Linear-Parameter-Varying Antiwindup Compensation for Enhanced Flight Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, Sung Wan

    2005-01-01

    Actuator saturation is one of the major issues of flight control in the high angle-of-attack region. This paper presents a saturation control scheme for linear parameter varyjing (LPV) systems from an antiwindup control perspective. The proposed control approach is advantageous from the implementation standpoint because it can be thought of as an augmented control algorithm to the existing control system. Moreover, the synthesis condition for an antiwindup compensator is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem and can be solved efficiently. We have applied te LPV antiwindup controller to an F-16 longitudinal autopilot control system design and compared it with the thrust vectoring control scheme. The nonlinear simulations show that an LPV antiwindup controller improves flight quality and offers advantages over thrust vectoring in a high angle-of-attack region.

  1. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the six Thrust Vector Control System access ports, three per hydraulic actuator. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  3. A multilevel control system for the large space telescope. [numerical analysis/optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Sundareshan, S. K.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A multilevel scheme was proposed for control of Large Space Telescope (LST) modeled by a three-axis-six-order nonlinear equation. Local controllers were used on the subsystem level to stabilize motions corresponding to the three axes. Global controllers were applied to reduce (and sometimes nullify) the interactions among the subsystems. A multilevel optimization method was developed whereby local quadratic optimizations were performed on the subsystem level, and global control was again used to reduce (nullify) the effect of interactions. The multilevel stabilization and optimization methods are presented as general tools for design and then used in the design of the LST Control System. The methods are entirely computerized, so that they can accommodate higher order LST models with both conceptual and numerical advantages over standard straightforward design techniques.

  4. Preliminary Design of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control System of the Altair Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Ely, Todd; Sostaric, Ronald; Strahan, Alan; Riedel, Joseph E.; Ingham, Mitch; Wincentsen, James; Sarani, Siamak

    2010-01-01

    provide landing site visibility for both the crew and the terrain hazard detection sensor system. One output of Guidance is the steering angle commands sent to the 2 degree-of-freedom (dof) gimbal actuation system of the descent engine. The engine gimbal actuation system is controlled by a Thrust Vector Control algorithm that is designed taking into account the large quantities of sloshing liquids in tanks mounted on Altair. In this early design phase of Altair, the GN&C system is described only briefly in this paper and the emphasis is on the GN&C architecture (that is still evolving). Multiple companion papers will provide details that are related to navigation, optical navigation, guidance, fuel sloshing, rendezvous and docking, machine-pilot interactions, and others. The similarities and differences of GN&C designs for Lunar and Mars landers are briefly compared.

  5. An analysis of cross-coupling of a multicomponent jet engine test stand using finite element modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Singnoi, W. N.

    1985-01-01

    A two axis thrust measuring system was analyzed by using a finite a element computer program to determine the sensitivities of the thrust vectoring nozzle system to misalignment of the load cells and applied loads, and the stiffness of the structural members. Three models were evaluated: (1) the basic measuring element and its internal calibration load cells; (2) the basic measuring element and its external load calibration equipment; and (3) the basic measuring element, external calibration load frame and the altitude facility support structure. Alignment of calibration loads was the greatest source of error for multiaxis thrust measuring systems. Uniform increases or decreases in stiffness of the members, which might be caused by the selection of the materials, have little effect on the accuracy of the measurements. It is found that the POLO-FINITE program is a viable tool for designing and analyzing multiaxis thrust measurement systems. The response of the test stand to step inputs that might be encountered with thrust vectoring tests was determined. The dynamic analysis show a potential problem for measuring the dynamic response characteristics of thrust vectoring systems because of the inherently light damping of the test stand.

  6. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  7. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Heath A; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  8. Piloted simulator assessments of agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has utilized piloted simulators for nearly two decades to study high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, agility, and air-to-air combat. These studies have included assessments of an F-16XL aircraft equipped with thrust vectoring, an assessment of the F-18 HARV maneuvering requirements to assist in thrust vectoring control system design, and an agility assessment of the F-18. The F-18 agility assessment was compared with in-flight testing. Open-loop maneuvers such as 180-deg rolls to measure roll rate showed favorable simulator/in-flight comparison. Closed-loop maneuvers such as rolls to 90 deg with precision stops or certain maximum longitudinal pitching maneuvers showed poorer performance due to reduced aggressiveness of pilot inputs in flight to remain within flight envelope limits.

  9. Hovering Dual-Spin Vehicle Groundwork for Bias Momentum Sizing Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Lim, Kyong B.

    2008-01-01

    Angular bias momentum offers significant stability augmentation for hovering flight vehicles. The reliance of the vehicle on thrust vectoring for agility and disturbance rejection is greatly reduced with significant levels of stored angular momentum in the system. A methodical procedure for bias momentum sizing has been developed in previous studies. This current study provides groundwork for experimental validation of that method using an experimental vehicle called the Dual-Spin Test Device, a thrust-levitated platform. Using measured data the vehicle's thrust vectoring units are modeled and a gust environment is designed and characterized. Control design is discussed. Preliminary experimental results of the vehicle constrained to three rotational degrees of freedom are compared to simulation for a case containing no bias momentum to validate the simulation. A simulation of a bias momentum dominant case is presented.

  10. Mathematical modeling and nonlinear attitude and trajectory tracking control of a one stage rocket with varying mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenili, André

    2014-12-01

    The thrust vector control (TVC) for a one-stage rocket with variable mass is considered. TVC control is used here to correct the rocket deviations from an intended parabolic trajectory and desired attitude angle during powered flight. A rigid body mathematical model with varying mass in the plane is presented. A nonlinear feedback controller together with a SDRE controller is designed. The effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model and control is illustrated through numerical simulations. By controlling the direction of the thrust vectors it is possible to control the angle of attack of the rocket. In this work only the pitch angle is considered. Only one liquid propellant thruster is used. It is also considered here only the flight period when the rocket propulsion system is firing and therefore the TVC is operative.

  11. An overview of autonomous rendezvous and docking system technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Kurt D.

    1991-01-01

    The Centaur upper stage was selected for an airborne avionics modernization program. The parts used in the existing avionics units were obsolete. Continued use of existing hardware would require substantial redesign, yet would result in the use of outdated hardware. Out of date processes, with very expensive and labor intensive technologies, were being used for manufacturing. The Atlas/Centaur avionics were to be procured at a fairly high rate that demanded the use of modern components. The new avionics also reduce size, weight, power, and parts count with a dramatic improvement in reliability. Finally, the cost leverage derived from upgrading the avionics as opposed to any other subsystem for the existing Atlas/Centaur was a very large consideration in the upgrade decision. The upgrade program is a multiyear effort that began in 1989. It includes telemetry, guidance and navigation, control electronics, thrust vector control, and redundancy levels.

  12. Static, noise, and transition tests of a combined-surface-blowing V/STOL lift/propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, A. H.; Kolesar, C. E.; Schaeffer, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    Efficient thrust vectoring and high levels of circulatory lift were obtained in tests of a half model V/STOL airplane by using a type of externally blown jet flap in which the jet exhaust from wing-mounted cruise fans is directed over both upper and lower surfaces of a flapped wing. Approximately 90% thrust recovery with 87 deg of thrust vectoring was achieved under static conditions using 89 deg of trailing edge flap deflection. The approximately 10% loss appears to be associated primarily with pressure losses due to the flap brackets or slot entries. The jet induced lift was shown to be 55% of the theoretical value for a fullspan jet-flapped wing, even though only 27.5% of the wingspan was immersed in the jet. Steady rate of descent capability in excess of 1,000 feet per minute is predicted. The possibility of significant aerodynamic-noise cancelling when blowing over both surfaces at high velocities is indicated.

  13. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  14. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  15. TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

  16. X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

    1997-01-01

    The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

  17. Comparison of X-31 flight, wind-tunnel, and water-tunnel yawing moment asymmetries at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.; Croom, Mark A.; Tamrat, B. F.

    1994-01-01

    The X-31 aircraft are being used in the enhanced fighter maneuverability (EFM) research program, which is jointly funded by the (U.S.) Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and Germany's Federal Ministry of Defense (FMOD). The flight test portion of the program, which involves two aircraft, is being conducted by an International Test Organization (ITO) comprising the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, and Deutsche Aerospace (DASA). The goals of the flight program are to demonstrate EFM technologies, investigate close-in-combat exchange ratios, develop design requirements, build a database for application to future fighter aircraft, and develop and validate low-cost prototype concepts. For longitudinal control the X-31 uses canards, symmetrical movement of the trailing-edge flaps, and pitch deflection of the thrust vectoring system. The trim, inertial coupling, and engine gyroscopic coupling compensation tasks are performed primarily by the trailing-edge flaps. For lateral-directional control the aircraft uses differential deflection of the trailing-edge flaps for roll coordination and a conventional rudder combined with the thrust vectoring system to provide yaw control. The rudder is only effective up to about 40 deg angle of attack (alpha), after which the thrust vectoring becomes the primary yaw control effector. Both the leading-edge flaps and the inlet lip are scheduled with the angle of attack to provide best performance.

  18. Simulation model of the F/A-18 high angle-of-attack research vehicle utilized for the design of advanced control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Mark E.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Messina, Michael D.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The 'f18harv' six degree-of-freedom nonlinear batch simulation used to support research in advanced control laws and flight dynamics issues as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is described in this report. This simulation models an F/A-18 airplane modified to incorporate a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and actuated forebody strakes for enhanced aerodynamic yaw control power. The modified configuration is known as the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The 'f18harv' simulation was an outgrowth of the 'f18bas' simulation which modeled the basic F/A-18 with a preliminary version of a thrust-vectoring system designed for the HARV. The preliminary version consisted of two thrust-vectoring vanes per engine nozzle compared with the three vanes per engine actually employed on the F/A-18 HARV. The modeled flight envelope is extensive in that the aerodynamic database covers an angle-of-attack range of -10 degrees to +90 degrees, sideslip range of -20 degrees to +20 degrees, a Mach Number range between 0.0 and 2.0, and an altitude range between 0 and 60,000 feet.

  19. Shuttle infrared telescope facility pointing and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Matsumoto, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is being designed as a 0.85 m cryogenically cooled telescope capable of a three order of magnitude improvement over currently available infrared instruments. The SIRTF requires that the image at the focal plane be stabilized to better than 0.25 arcsec with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 arcsec. Current pointing-mount performance simulations indicate that neither of these requirements can be met without additional stabilization. The SIRTF pointing and control system will utilize gyro outputs, star field position measurements from a focal plane fine guidance sensor, and a steerable secondary mirror to provide the necessary stabilization and pointing control. The charge coupled device fine guidance sensor tracks multiple stars simultaneously and, through the use of multistar processing algorithms in a high performance microcomputer, generates three-axis attitude errors and gyro-drift estimates to correct the pointing-mount gyros. A high-bandwidth feedforward loop, driven directly from the pointing-mount gyro package, controls the steering mirror in order to correct disturbances not compensated for by the pointing-mount control system. A prototype design for the SIRTF pointing and control system is described in detail. Performance analyses made using a digital simulation of the pointing and control system as well as experimental data obtained in laboratory and field test measurements are presented.

  20. Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

    1995-01-01

    During this year, we concentrated our efforts on the design of controllers for lateral/directional control using mu synthesis. This proved to be a more difficult task than we anticipated and we are still working on the designs. In the lateral-directional control problem, the inputs are pilot lateral stick and pedal commands and the outputs are roll rate about the velocity vector and side slip angle. The control effectors are ailerons, rudder deflection, and directional thrust vectoring vane deflection which produces a yawing moment about the body axis. Our math model does not contain any provision for thrust vectoring of rolling moment. This has resulted in limitations of performance at high angles of attack. During 1994-95, the following tasks for the lateral-directional controllers were accomplished: (1) Designed both inner and outer loop dynamic inversion controllers. These controllers are implemented using accelerometer outputs rather than an a priori model of the vehicle aerodynamics; (2) Used classical techniques to design controllers for the system linearized by dynamics inversion. These controllers acted to control roll rate and Dutch roll response; (3) Implemented the inner loop dynamic inversion and classical controllers on the six DOF simulation; (4) Developed a lateral-directional control allocation scheme based on minimizing required control effort among the ailerons, rudder, and directional thrust vectoring; and (5) Developed mu outer loop controllers combined with classical inner loop controllers.

  1. Linear parameter-varying control of an F-16 aircraft at high angle of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bei

    To improve the aircraft capability at high angle of attack and expand the flight envelope, advanced linear parameter-varying (LPV) control methodologies are studied in this thesis with particular applications of actuator saturation control and switching control. A standard two-step LPV antiwindup control scheme and a systematic switching LPV control approach are derived, and the advantages of LPV control techniques are demonstrated through nonlinear simulations of an F-16 longitudinal autopilot control system. The aerodynamic surface saturation is one of the major issues of flight control in the high angle of attack region. The incorporated unconventional actuators such as thrust vectoring can provide additional control power, but may have a potentially significant pay-off. The proposed LPV antiwindup control scheme is advantageous from the implementation standpoint because it can be thought of as an augmented control algorithm to the existing control system. Moreover, the synthesis condition for an antiwindup compensator is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem and can be solved efficiently. By treating the input saturation as a sector bounded nonlinearity with a tight sector bound, the synthesized antiwindup compensator can stabilize the open-loop exponentially unstable systems. The LPV antiwindup control scheme is applied to the nonlinear F-16 longitudinal model, and compared with the thrust vectoring control approach. The simulation results show that the LPV antiwindup compensator improves the flight quality, and offers advantages over thrust vectoring in a high angle of attack region. For a thrust vectoring augmented aircraft, the actuator sets may be different at low and high angles of attack. Also due to different control objectives, a single controller may not exist over a wide angle of attack region. The proposed switching LPV control approach based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions provides a flexible design

  2. Testing a satellite automatic nutation control system. [on synchronous meteorological satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrasiar, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of a particular nutation control system for the synchronous meteorological satellite (SMS) is described. The test method and principles are applicable to nutation angle control for other satellites with similar requirements. During its ascent to synchronous orbit, a spacecraft like the SMS spins about its minimum-moment-of-inertia axis. An uncontrolled spacecraft in this state is unstable because torques due to fuel motion increase the nutation angle. However, the SMS is equipped with an automatic nutation control (ANC) system which will keep the nutation angle close to zero. Because correct operation of this system is critical to mission success, it was tested on an air-bearing table. The ANC system was mounted on the three-axis air-bearing table which was scaled to the SMS and equipped with appropriate sensors and thrusters. The table was spun up in an altitude chamber and nutation induced so that table motion simulated spacecraft motion. The ANC system was used to reduce the nutation angle. This dynamic test of the ANC system met all its objectives and provided confidence that the ANC system will control the SMS nutation angle.

  3. Individual Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Force, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) to terrestrial users, GPS is currently used to provide for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will be possible to provide these services by using other GNSS constellations. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to 70,000 km. This paper will report a similar analysis of the performance of each of the additional GNSS and compare them with GPS alone. The Space Service Volume, defined as the volume between 3,000 km altitude and geosynchronous altitude, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between the surface and 3,000 km. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance will be similar to performance on the Earth's surface. The GPS system has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume. A separate paper presented at the conference covers the use of multiple GNSS in the Space Service Volume.

  4. Low-power portable geophysical data acquisition system and its use in geomagnetic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medford, L. V.; Maclennan, C. G.; Rosenfeld, P. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A low-power portable data acquisition system presently in use for geomagnetic measurements is described. The system is composed of a data-processing system containing a low-power microprocessor, a 9-track digital tape recorder, and a rechargeable battery pack. The magnetometer is a low-power three axis fluxgate design. Under program control the data processing system keeps track of time of day and date, samples three analog magnetometer outputs at intervals of either 0.4 or 2 s, digitizes the data to 15-bit resolution, and, depending upon relative magnetic activity, decides upon data compression to increase the tape storage capacity. It also monitors and records internal voltages and provides self-checking functions which may be monitored through a visual readout on the control panel. The system is mounted in a rugged, weather-tight carrying case suitable for use outdoors with minimal protection. The system, including magnetometer, uses 1.6-W power and can store 5.7 Mbytes of data.

  5. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  6. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will

  7. Analytical design and simulation evaluation of an approach flight director system for a jet STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Hofmann, L. G.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    A program was undertaken to develop design criteria and operational procedures for STOL transport aircraft. As part of that program, a series of flight tests shall be performed in an Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Aircraft. In preparation for the flight test programs, an analytical study was conducted to gain an understanding of the characteristics of the vehicle for manual control, to assess the relative merits of the variety of manual control techniques available with attitude and thrust vector controllers, and to determine what improvements can be made over manual control of the bare airframe by providing the pilot with suitable command guidance information and by augmentation of the bare airframe dynamics. The objective of the study is to apply closed-loop pilot/vehicle analysis techniques to the analysis of manual flight control of powered-lift STOL aircraft in the landing approach and to the design and experimental verification of an advanced flight director display.

  8. Development of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) forceps for intraocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhisitkul, R B; Keller, C G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To develop silicon microforceps for intraocular surgery using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, the application of microchip fabrication techniques for the production of controllable three dimensional devices on the micrometre scale. Methods: Prototype MEMS forceps were designed and manufactured for intraocular surgery. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate device tip construction. Designs using both thermal expansion actuators and conventional mechanical activation were tested in human cadaver eyes and in vivo rabbit eyes to assess functionality in standard vitreoretinal surgery. Results: MEMS forceps were constructed with various tip designs ranging from 100 μm to 2 mm in length. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed accurate construction of micro features such as forceps teeth as small as tens of micrometres. In surgical testing, the silicon forceps tips were effective in surgical manoeuvres, including grasping retinal membranes and excising tissue. The mechanical actuator design on a 20 gauge handle was more operational in the intraocular environment than the thermal expansion actuator design. While handheld operation was possible, the precision of the forceps was best exploited when mounted on a three axis micromanipulator. Conclusion: MEMS microforceps are feasible for conventional vitreoretinal surgery, and offer advances in terms of small scale, operating precision, and construction tolerance. PMID:16299136

  9. Adaptive control system for large annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Johnson, C. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A dual momentum vector control concept, consisting of two counterrotating rings (each designated as an annular momentum control device), was studied for pointing and slewing control of large spacecraft. In a disturbance free space environment, the concept provides for three axis pointing and slewing capabilities while requiring no expendables. The approach utilizes two large diameter counterrotating rings or wheels suspended magnetically in many race supports distributed around the antenna structure. When the magnets are energized, attracting the two wheels, the resulting gyroscopic torque produces a rate along the appropriate axis. Roll control is provided by alternating the radiative rotational velocity of the two wheels. Wheels with diameters of 500 to 800 m and with sufficient momentum storage capability require rims only a few centimeters thick. The wheels are extremely flexible; therefore, it is necessary to account for the distributed nature of the rings in the design of the bearing controllers. Also, ring behavior is unpredictably sensitive to ring temperature, spin rate, manufacturing imperfections, and other variables. An adaptive control system designed to handle these problems is described.

  10. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) component research and development for army missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Tracy D.; McMillen, Deanna K.; Ashley, Paul R.; Ruffin, Paul B.; Baeder, Janet

    1999-07-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Command Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center has identified MEMS as an emerging technology with high potential for fulfilling the mission of future missiles. The technology holds the promise of reducing the size, weight, cost, and power requirements for performing existing functions in Army missile systems, as well las providing opportunities for new computing, sensing, and actuation functions that cannot be achieved with conventional electromechanical technology. MEMS will enable the Army's next generation of smaller and lighter missiles. The military market drives the thrust for development of miniature sensor with applications such as: competent and smart munitions, aircraft and missile autopilots, tactical missile guidance, fire control system, platform stabilization, smart structures with embedded inertial sensors, missile system health monitoring, missile and ground-based radar, radio frequency seekers, aerodynamic flow control, IR imagers, and multiple intelligent small projectiles. Current efforts at AMCOM include the development of MEMS-based inertial components to include accelerometers with wide dynamic range, tactical grade gyros with high rate range, and miniature three-axis inertial measurement unit with common interface electronics. Performance requirements of such components will be presented in terms of current and future Army missile systems. Additional MEMS based efforts under investigation at AMCOM include missile storage health monitoring, RF MEMS components, encoders for actuators, and aerodynamic flow control will also be discussed.

  11. Initial development of direct interaction for a transfer robotic Arm system for caregivers.

    PubMed

    Jeannis, Hervens; Grindle, Garrett G; Kelleher, Annmarie; Wang, Hongwu; Brewer, Bambi; Cooper, Rory

    2013-06-01

    The most common injuries in healthcare are related to transfers. The Strong Arm system assists caregivers in providing fully dependent transfers from an electric power wheelchair to a bed, shower bench, toilet or other surface. However, this system currently controlled by buttons could be more successful with a more intuitive method during use. This paper presents the initial development of direct interaction for a robotic transfer system called Strong Arm. Direct interaction was used to make a transfer system more intuitive to operate using a three-axis load cell. To move Strong Arm, the user must apply intentional force on any of the given axes by surpassing the axis threshold. Unintentional movement could lead to injury. The results indicate that the thresholds for each axis were at least 3.5 N in X, 16.9 N in Y and 5.3N in Z in order to prevent unintentional forces from a human hand that would cause the robot to move. PMID:24187209

  12. Accuracy improvement in a calibration test bench for accelerometers by a vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Emilia, Giulio; Di Gasbarro, David; Gaspari, Antonella; Natale, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    A procedure is described in this paper for the accuracy improvement of calibration of low-cost accelerometers in a prototype rotary test bench, driven by a brushless servo-motor and operating in a low frequency range of vibrations (0 to 5 Hz). Vibration measurements by a vision system based on a low frequency camera have been carried out, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the real acceleration evaluation at the installation point of the sensor to be calibrated. A preliminary test device has been realized and operated in order to evaluate the metrological performances of the vision system, showing a satisfactory behavior if the uncertainty measurement is taken into account. A combination of suitable settings of the control parameters of the motion control system and of the information gained by the vision system allowed to fit the information about the reference acceleration at the installation point to the needs of the procedure for static and dynamic calibration of three-axis accelerometers.

  13. Attitude control system design using a flywheel suspended by two gimbals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, R. W.; Ricci, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the attitude control system design procedures for a three axis stabilized satellite in geostationary orbit, which contains a flywheel suspended by two gimbals. The use of a flywheel with two DOFs is an interesting option because with only one device it's possible to control the torques about vehicle's three axes; through the wheel speed control and gyrotorquing phenomenon with two DOFs. If the wheel size and speed are determined properly it's possible to cancel cyclic torques using gas jets only periodically to cancel secular disturbance torques. The system, based on a flywheel, takes only one pitch/roll (earth) sensor to maintain precise attitude, unlike mass expulsion based control systems, which uses propellants continuously, beyond roll, pitch and yaw sensors. It is considered the satellite is in nominal orbit and, therefore, that the attitude's acquisition phase has already elapsed. Control laws and system parameters are determined in order to cancel the solar pressure radiation disturbance torque and the torque due to misalignment of the thrusters. Stability is analyzed and step and cyclic responses are obtained.

  14. Current technology in ion and electrothermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Murch, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The state of the art and projected developmental trends in the fields of ion and electrothermal propulsion systems intended for use in long and complex earth-orbital missions and interplanetary spacecraft missions are reviewed. The characteristics of existing thrust vectoring systems are outlined, together with data on the 5-cm and 8-cm electron bombardment thrusters, the cesium bombardment ion thruster, and the 8-cm, 15-cm, and 30-cm thruster using xenon propellant. The electrothermal ammonia system and the electrothermal hydrazine system are described, and the principles of propulsion system selection are examined.

  15. Multi-star processing and gyro filtering for the video inertial pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The video inertial pointing (VIP) system is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. The VIP system uses a single video sensor to provide star position information that can be used to generate three-axis pointing error signals (multi-star processing) and for input to a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization system (gyro filtering). The CRT display facilitates target acquisition and positioning of the telescope by a remote operator. Linearized small angle equations are used for the multistar processing and a consideration of error performance and singularities lead to star pair location restrictions and equation selection criteria. A discrete steady-state Kalman filter which uses the integration of the gyros is developed and analyzed. The filter includes unit time delays representing asynchronous operations of the VIP microprocessor and video sensor. A digital simulation of a typical gyro stabilized gimbal is developed and used to validate the approach to the gyro filtering.

  16. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  17. System cost/performance analysis (study 2.3). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazangey, T.

    1973-01-01

    The relationships between performance, safety, cost, and schedule parameters were identified and quantified in support of an overall effort to generate program models and methodology that provide insight into a total space vehicle program. A specific space vehicle system, the attitude control system (ACS), was used, and a modeling methodology was selected that develops a consistent set of quantitative relationships among performance, safety, cost, and schedule, based on the characteristics of the components utilized in candidate mechanisms. These descriptive equations were developed for a three-axis, earth-pointing, mass expulsion ACS. A data base describing typical candidate ACS components was implemented, along with a computer program to perform sample calculations. This approach, implemented on a computer, is capable of determining the effect of a change in functional requirements to the ACS mechanization and the resulting cost and schedule. By a simple extension of this modeling methodology to the other systems in a space vehicle, a complete space vehicle model can be developed. Study results and recommendations are presented.

  18. Redundancy management of electrohydraulic servoactuators by mathematical model referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    A description of a mathematical model reference system is presented which provides redundancy management for an electrohydraulic servoactuator. The mathematical model includes a compensation network that calculates reference parameter perturbations induced by external disturbance forces. This is accomplished by using the measured pressure differential data taken from the physical system. This technique was experimentally verified by tests performed using the H-1 engine thrust vector control system for Saturn IB. The results of these tests are included in this report. It was concluded that this technique improves the tracking accuracy of the model reference system to the extent that redundancy management of electrohydraulic servosystems may be performed using this method.

  19. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

  20. Altitude testing of the 2D V/STOL ADEN demonstrator on an F404 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blozy, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Augmented Deflector Exhaust Nozzle (ADEN) exhaust system was tested in the PSL-3 altitude chamber at the NASA Lewis Research Center in order to evaluate aerodynamic performance, cooling-system effectiveness, and mechanical operation at flight-type conditions. The ADEN, a flight-weight, two-dimensional, thrust-vectoring nozzle, was successfully tested on the F404 engine using a remote engine control system for automatic or manual setting of the throat-area control and available fan air for the nozzle internal cooling system. Throughout the test, the ADEN performed with no adverse effects on the engine or augmentor operation.

  1. Combined Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Force, Dale A.; Miller, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) services to traditional terrestrial and airborne users, GPS is also being increasingly used as a tool to enable precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis attitude control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) constellations being replenished and coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will become possible to benefit from greater signal availability and robustness by using evolving multi-constellation receivers. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to seventy thousand kilometers. This paper will report a similar analysis of the signal coverage of GPS in the space domain; however, the analyses will also consider signal coverage from each of the additional GNSS constellations noted earlier to specifically demonstrate the expected benefits to be derived from using GPS in conjunction with other foreign systems. The Space Service Volume is formally defined as the volume of space between three thousand kilometers altitude and geosynchronous altitude circa 36,000 km, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between 3,000 km and the surface of the Earth. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance is the same as on or near the Earth's surface due to satellite vehicle availability and geometry similarities. The core GPS system has thereby established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume as part of technical Capability Development Documentation (CDD) that specifies system performance. Besides the technical discussion, we also present diplomatic efforts to extend the GPS Space Service Volume concept to other PNT service providers in an effort to assure that all space users will benefit from the enhanced

  2. Helicopters and VTOL. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Performance projections into the next half-century of VTOL aircraft design are presently made on the basis of recent design trends. Attention is given to the technology-development and commercial prospects for tilt-rotor, thrust-vectoring hover, lighter-than-air, and speculative electromagnetic-propulsion, remotely-beamed power systems. Highly automated air traffic control systems are envisioned which will incorporate AI, satellite positioning, synthetic vision, obstacle detection/avoidance and fiber-optic transmission to safely manage giant airborne mass-transit commuter systems. It is expected that tilt-rotor aircraft will become the dominant VTOL configuration as time passes.

  3. The Implementation of Satellite Attitude Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, W. Mark; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom; Anderson, Mark O.; Drury, Derek

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SNMX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions. The SMEX program has produced five satellites, three of which have been successfully launched. The remaining two spacecraft are scheduled for launch within the coming year. NASA has recently developed a prototype for the next generation Small Explorer spacecraft (SMEX-Lite). This paper describes the object-oriented design (OOD) of the SMEX-Lite Attitude Control System (ACS) software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. This paper first describes high level requirements governing the SMEX-Lite ACS software architecture. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will also discuss the design of several ACS software components. Specifically, object-oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, and failure detection. Finally, this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects.

  4. A Direct and Non-Singular UKF Approach Using Euler Angle Kinematics for Integrated Navigation Systems.

    PubMed

    Ran, Changyan; Cheng, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a direct and non-singular approach based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for the integration of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINSs) with the aid of velocity. The state vector includes velocity and Euler angles, and the system model contains Euler angle kinematics equations. The measured velocity in the body frame is used as the filter measurement. The quaternion nonlinear equality constraint is eliminated, and the cross-noise problem is overcome. The filter model is simple and easy to apply without linearization. Data fusion is performed by an UKF, which directly estimates and outputs the navigation information. There is no need to process navigation computation and error correction separately because the navigation computation is completed synchronously during the filter time updating. In addition, the singularities are avoided with the help of the dual-Euler method. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by road test data from a land vehicle equipped with an odometer aided SINS, and a singularity turntable test is conducted using three-axis turntable test data. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve higher navigation accuracy than the commonly-used indirect approach, and the singularities can be efficiently removed as the result of dual-Euler method. PMID:27598169

  5. Development of measuring system to measure standing pose of the foot using distributed triaxial force sensor.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akimi; Tanaka, Noriko; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Oshima, Hiroko; Minato, Kotaro; Yoshida, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Yotaro

    2006-01-01

    The bottom of a person's foot grips the floor for balance, and the action force and action moment work at the foot bottom when he maintains posture and when he moves. They are important indices in the evaluation and the medical attention of standing pose balance and gait disturbances. A lot of equipments to measure the floor reaction force have been researched. However, no floor reaction force meter exists that can measure distribution information force in three directions. This paper aims at the development of a system that can measure the standing pose of the foot that exists from a measuring instrument and that can measure the standing pose of foot distributed 6times4 three axis force sensors and software that displays and preserves the output of the sensor element. A time change of force that worked at the foot bottom is sought as a vector by outputting each sensor element. Moreover, an action vector is three dimensionally displayed whose data can be intuitively understood. The results of experiments show that the measuring system can measure the action force of the foot bottom as distribution information on force in three directions. PMID:17945646

  6. Mass comparisons of electric propulsion systems for NSSK of geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Majcher, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed and exercised to allow wet mass comparisons of three axis stabilized communication satellites delivered to geosynchronous transfer orbit. The mass benefits of using advanced chemical propulsion for apogee injection and north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) functions or electric propulsion (hydrazine arcjets and xenon ion thrusters) for NSSK functions are documented. A large derated ion thrusters is proposed which minimizes thruster lifetime concerns and qualification test times when compared to those of smaller ion thrusters planned for NSSK applications. The mass benefits, which depend on the spacecraft mass and mission duration, increase dramatically with arcjet specific impulse in the 500 to 600 s range, but are nearly constant for the derated ion thruster operated in the 2300 to 3000 s range. For a given mission, the mass benefits with an ion system are typically double those of the arcjet system; however, the total thrusting time with arcjets is less than 1/3 that with ion thrusters for the same thruster power. The mass benefits may permit increases in revenue producing payload or reduce launch costs by allowing a move to a smaller launch vehicle.

  7. Mass comparisons of electric propulsion systems for NSSK of geosynchronous spacecraft. [North-South Station Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Majcher, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed and exercised to allow wet mass comparisons of three-axis stabilized communications satellites delivered to geosynchronous transfer orbit. The mass benefits of using advanced chemical propulsion for apogee injection and north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) functions or electric propulsion (hydrazine arcjets and xenon ion thrusters) for NSSK functions are documented. A large derated ion thruster is proposed which minimizes thruster lifetime concerns and qualification test times when compared to those of smaller ion thrusters planned for NSSK applications. The mass benefits, which depend on the spacecraft mass and mission duration, increase dramatically with arcjet specific impulse in the 500-600 s range, but are nearly constant for the derated ion thruster operated in the 2300-3000 s range. For a given mission, the mass benefits with an ion system are typically double those of the arcjet system; however, the total thrusting time with arcjets is less than one-third that with ion thrusters for the same thruster power.

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  9. SSME/side loads analysis for flight configuration, revision A. [structural analysis of space shuttle main engine under side load excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, W.

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the dynamic loads analysis accomplished for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) considering the side load excitation associated with transient flow separation on the engine bell during ground ignition. The results contained herein pertain only to the flight configuration. A Monte Carlo procedure was employed to select the input variables describing the side load excitation and the loads were statistically combined. This revision includes an active thrust vector control system representation and updated orbiter thrust structure stiffness characteristics. No future revisions are planned but may be necessary as system definition and input parameters change.

  10. General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center, being prepared to be mated with the Aft Skirt. In this view you can see the attach brackets where the Thrust Vector Control System actuators connect to the nozzle which can swivel the nozzle up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Dynamical Modeling and Control Simulation of a Large Flexible Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Wei; Wie, Bong; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents dynamical models of a large flexible launch vehicle. A complete set of coupled dynamical models of propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, structural dynamics, fuel sloshing, and thrust vector control dynamics are described. Such dynamical models are used to validate NASA s SAVANT Simulink-based program which is being used for the preliminary flight control systems analysis and design of NASA s Ares-1 Crew Launch Vehicle. SAVANT simulation results for validating the performance and stability of an ascent phase autopilot system of Ares-1 are also presented.

  12. Structure and properties of nano-hydroxypatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with a selective laser sintering system.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Shuping

    2011-07-15

    In this study, nano-hydroxypatite (n-HAP) bone scaffolds are prepared by a homemade selective laser sintering (SLS) system based on rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The SLS system consists of a precise three-axis motion platform and a laser with its optical focusing device. The implementation of arbitrary complex movements based on the non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) theory is realized in this system. The effects of the sintering processing parameters on the microstructure of n-HAP are tested with x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles of n-HAP grow gradually and tend to become spherical-like from the initial needle-like shape, but still maintain a nanoscale structure at scanning speeds between 200 and 300 mm min(-1) when the laser power is 50 W, the light spot diameter 4 mm, and the layer thickness 0.3 mm. In addition, these changes do not result in decomposition of the n-HAP during the sintering process. The results suggest that the newly developed n-HAP scaffolds have the potential to serve as an excellent substrate in bone tissue engineering. PMID:21642759

  13. The SushiBar: An automated system for paleomagnetic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wack, M.; Gilder, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a new, automated system based on a three-axis superconducting magnetometer and a custom-made coil designed to experiment on cylindrical specimens used in typical paleomagnetic investigations. The system, which resembles a sushi bar, facilitates stepwise alternating field demagnetization of up to 99 samples per loaded track. It also enables researchers to explore magnetic properties using an anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) in any coercivity window up to peak alternating fields of 95 mT with direct current bias fields up to 0.17 mT. For example, partial ARM (pARM) spectra characterize magnetic grain size distributions in rocks, yet rarely are pARM spectra measured because the complete curve for one sample takes at least two hours to acquire manually. The SushiBar achieves 99 such curves in slightly less than 100 hours. Using the SushiBar, we measured the pARM sprectra, as well as the viscosity and anisotropy of ARM in three discrete switching field windows, of continental sediments from the Xishuigou section (western China). The average grain size remains constant along the 2200 m-thick section, yet magnetic viscosity varies systematically from bottom to top of the section; samples with high magnetic viscosities also have higher proportions of non-viscous material on average. Principal anisotropy axis directions from the lowest switching fields correlate well with principal axis directions from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. Principal axis directions defined at higher switching fields systematically deviate from those at lower switching fields, perhaps defining the fabric of the remanence carrying grains.

  14. The SushiBar: An automated system for paleomagnetic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wack, Michael R.; Gilder, Stuart A.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new, automated system based on a three-axis superconducting magnetometer and a custom-made coil designed to experiment on cylindrical specimens used in typical paleomagnetic investigations. The system, which resembles a sushi bar, facilitates stepwise alternating field demagnetization of up to 99 samples per loaded track. It also enables researchers to explore magnetic properties using an anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) in any coercivity window up to peak alternating fields of 95 mT with direct current bias fields up to 0.17 mT. For example, partial ARM (pARM) spectra characterize magnetic grain size distributions in rocks, yet rarely are pARM spectra measured because the complete curve for one sample takes at least two hours to acquire manually. The SushiBar achieves 99 such curves in slightly less than 100 hours. Using the SushiBar, we measured the pARM sprectra, as well as the viscosity and anisotropy of ARM in three discrete switching field windows, of continental sediments from the Xishuigou section (western China). The average grain size remains constant along the 2200 m-thick section, yet magnetic viscosity varies systematically from bottom to top of the section; samples with high magnetic viscosities also have higher proportions of non-viscous material on average. Principal anisotropy axis directions from the lowest switching fields correlate well with principal axis directions from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. Principal axis directions defined at higher switching fields systematically deviate from those at lower switching fields, perhaps defining the fabric of the remanence-carrying grains.

  15. Navigation Performance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Force, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the results I reported at this year's ION International Technical Meeting on multi-constellation GNSS coverage by showing how the use of multi-constellation GNSS improves Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). Originally developed to provide position, navigation, and timing for terrestrial users, GPS has found increasing use for in space for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis attitude control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Galileo, and Beidou) and the development of Satellite Based Augmentation Services, it is possible to obtain improved precision by using evolving multi-constellation receiver. The Space Service Volume formally defined as the volume of space between three thousand kilometers altitude and geosynchronous altitude ((is) approximately 36,500 km), with the volume below three thousand kilometers defined as the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV). The USA has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume (SSV) as part of the GPS Capability Development Documentation (CDD). Diplomatic efforts are underway to extend Space service Volume commitments to the other Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) service providers in an effort to assure that all space users will benefit from the enhanced capabilities of interoperating GNSS services in the space domain.

  16. Piloting considerations for terminal area operations of civil tiltwing and tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, William S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Tucker, George E.; Decker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing body of research to investigate airworthiness, performance, handling, and operational requirements for STOL and V/STOL aircraft was reviewed for its applicability to the tiltrotor and tiltwing design concepts. The objective of this study was to help determine the needs for developing civil certification criteria for these aircraft concepts. Piloting tasks that were considered included configuration and thrust vector management, glidepath control, deceleration to hover, and engine failure procedures. Flight control and cockpit display systems that have been found necessary to exploit the low-speed operating characteristics of these aircraft are described, and beneficial future developments are proposed.

  17. Statistical error model for a solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bantell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem statistical error model was developed as a tool for investigating the effects of thrust subsystem parameter uncertainties on navigation accuracy. The model is currently being used to evaluate the impact of electric engine parameter uncertainties on navigation system performance for a baseline mission to Encke's Comet in the 1980s. The data given represent the next generation in statistical error modeling for low-thrust applications. Principal improvements include the representation of thrust uncertainties and random process modeling in terms of random parametric variations in the thrust vector process for a multi-engine configuration.

  18. A multiple thruster array for 30-cm thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Mantenieks, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The 3.0-m diameter chamber of the 7.6-m diameter by 21.4-m long vacuum tank at NASA LeRC was modified to permit testing of an array of up to six 30-cm thrusters with a variety of laboratory and thermal vacuum bread-board power systems. A primary objective of the Multiple Thruster Array (MTA) program is to assess the impact of multiple thruster operation on individual thruster and power processor requirements. The areas of thruster startup, steady-state operation, throttling, high voltage recycle, thrust vectoring, and shutdown are of special concern. The results of initial tests are reported.

  19. F-18 HARV smoke flow visualization of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During the final phase of tests with the HARV, Dryden technicians installed nose strakes, which were panels that fitted flush against the sides of the forward nose. When the HARV was at a high alpha, the aerodynamics of the nose caused a loss of directional stability. Extending one or both of the strakes results in strong side forces that, in turn, generated yaw control. This approach, along with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring Control system, proved to be stability under flight conditions in which conventional surfaces, such as the vertical tails, were ineffective.

  20. Parameter Identification Flight Test Maneuvers for Closed Loop Modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G. (Technical Monitor); Morelli, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for longitudinal and lateral linear model parameter estimation at 5,20,30,45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Thrust Vectoring (TV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time / amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  1. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

  2. A simple 5-DoF MR-compatible motion signal measurement system.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Yang, Jae-Woong; Lee, Su-Jeong; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Yeon, Hong-Won; Park, Jang-Yeon; Yi, Jeong-Han; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple motion measurement system with magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility and safety. The motion measurement system proposed here can measure 5-DoF motion signals without deteriorating the MR images, and it has no effect on the intense and homogeneous main magnetic field, the temporal-gradient magnetic field (which varies rapidly with time), the transceiver radio frequency (RF) coil, and the RF pulse during MR data acquisition. A three-axis accelerometer and a two-axis gyroscope were used to measure 5-DoF motion signals, and Velcro was used to attach a sensor module to a finger or wrist. To minimize the interference between the MR imaging system and the motion measurement system, nonmagnetic materials were used for all electric circuit components in an MR shield room. To remove the effect of RF pulse, an amplifier, modulation circuit, and power supply were located in a shielded case, which was made of copper and aluminum. The motion signal was modulated to an optic signal using pulse width modulation, and the modulated optic signal was transmitted outside the MR shield room using a high-intensity light-emitting diode and an optic cable. The motion signal was recorded on a PC by demodulating the transmitted optic signal into an electric signal. Various kinematic variables, such as angle, acceleration, velocity, and jerk, can be measured or calculated by using the motion measurement system developed here. This system also enables motion tracking by extracting the position information from the motion signals. It was verified that MR images and motion signals could reliably be measured simultaneously. PMID:21487903

  3. Single-computer HWIL simulation facility for real-time vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Simon; Werner, Stefan; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1998-07-01

    UBM is working on autonomous vision systems for aircraft for more than one and a half decades by now. The systems developed use standard on-board sensors and two additional monochrome cameras for state estimation of the aircraft. A common task is to detect and track a runway for an autonomous landing approach. The cameras have different focal lengths and are mounted on a special pan and tilt camera platform. As the platform is equipped with two resolvers and two gyros it can be stabilized inertially and the system has the ability to actively focus on the objects of highest interest. For verification and testing, UBM has a special HWIL simulation facility for real-time vision systems. Central part of this simulation facility is a three axis motion simulator (DBS). It is used to realize the computed orientation in the rotational degrees of freedom of the aircraft. The two-axis camera platform with its two CCD-cameras is mounted on the inner frame of the DBS and is pointing at the cylindrical projection screen with a synthetic view displayed on it. As the performance of visual perception systems has increased significantly in recent years, a new, more powerful synthetic vision system was required. A single Onyx2 machine replaced all the former simulation computers. This computer is powerful enough to simulate the aircraft, to generate a high-resolution synthetic view, to control the DBS and to communicate with the image processing computers. Further improvements are the significantly reduced delay times for closed loop simulations and the elimination of communication overhead.

  4. An Overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Wilson, R. Joseph; Flick, Bradley C.; Rood, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The three flight phases of the program are introduced, along with the specific goals and data examples taken during each phase. The aircraft configuration and systems needed to perform the disciplinary and inter-disciplinary research are discussed. The specific disciplines involved with the flight research are introduced, including aerodynamics, controls, propulsion, systems, and structures. Decisions that were made early in the planning of the aircraft project and the results of those decisions are briefly discussed. Each of the three flight phases corresponds to a particular aircraft configuration, and the research dictated the configuration to be flown. The first phase gathered data with the baseline F-18 configuration. The second phase was the thrust-vectoring phase. The third phase used a modified forebody with deployable nose strakes. Aircraft systems supporting these flights included extensive instrumentation systems, integrated research flight controls using flight control hardware and corresponding software, analog interface boxes to control forebody strakes, a thrust-vectoring system using external post-exit vanes around axisymmetric nozzles, a forebody vortex control system with strakes, and backup systems using battery-powered emergency systems and a spin recovery parachute.

  5. Accuracy Studies of a Magnetometer-Only Attitude-and-Rate-Determination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challa, M. (Editor); Wheeler, C. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A personal computer based system was recently prototyped that uses measurements from a three axis magnetometer (TAM) to estimate the attitude and rates of a spacecraft using no a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's state. Past studies using in-flight data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particles Explorer focused on the robustness of the system and demonstrated that attitude and rate estimates could be obtained accurately to 1.5 degrees (deg) and 0.01 deg per second (deg/sec), respectively, despite limitations in the data and in the accuracies of te truth models. This paper studies the accuracy of the Kalman filter in the system using several orbits of in-flight Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) data and attitude and rate truth models obtained from high precision sensors to demonstrate the practical capabilities. This paper shows the following: Using telemetered TAM data, attitude accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 deg and rate accuracies of 0.002 to 0.005 deg/sec (within ERBS attitude control requirements of 1 deg and 0.0005 deg/sec) can be obtained with minimal tuning of the filter; Replacing the TAM data in the telemetry with simulated TAM data yields corresponding accuracies of 0.1 to 0.2 deg and 0.002 to 0.005 deg/sec, thus demonstrating that the filter's accuracy can be significantly enhanced by further calibrating the TAM. Factors affecting the fillter's accuracy and techniques for tuning the system's Kalman filter are also presented.

  6. Trial by Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The NASa/ATK Thiokol space shuttle solid rocket motor program has doubled ground test firings and enhanced manufacturing quality and process control to increase safety for Discovery's return to flight. There are a number of places where we've strengthened our engineering and our processes, says Mike Kahn, ATK Thiokol vice president of space launch systems. Protecting the booster against corrosion in the humid Florida environment is one area that has been addressed. Since the loss of Columbia, ATK Thiokol and the Marshall Space Flight Center have completely reevaluated the shuttle solid rocket motor's design certification and found no major problems, Kahn said. The Thiokol solid motors did not play a role in the 2003 Columbia accident, but the motor's older field joint design (since replaced) was the primary cause of the 1986 Challenger accident that killed seven astronauts. The 129 X 12-ft. ATK Thiokol reusable solid rocket motor forms the core of the shuttle's two solid rocket boosters (SRBs). United Space Alliance (USA) has overall responsibility for the booster's nose-mounted systems such as recovery parachutes and aft-mounted thrust vector control systems that increase the length to 149 ft. USA and its subcontractors have also reaffirmed quality control on systems such as the booster's Hamilton Sundstrand hydraulic power units for critical thrust vector control. And to ensure greater safeguards against booster debris jeopardizing the orbiter, a bolt-catcher system to restrain the large bolts, severed at booster separation, was also redesigned.

  7. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  8. Real-time visual sensing system achieving high-speed 3D particle tracking with nanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a real-time visual sensing system, which is created to achieve high-speed three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking of microscopic spherical particles in aqueous solutions with nanometer resolution. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera, a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and real-time image processing programs. The CMOS camera has high photosensitivity and superior SNR. It acquires images of 128×120 pixels at a frame rate of up to 10,000 frames per second (fps) under the white light illumination from a standard 100 W halogen lamp. The real-time image stream is downloaded from the camera directly to the FPGA, wherein a 3D particle-tracking algorithm is implemented to calculate the 3D positions of the target particle in real time. Two important objectives, i.e., real-time estimation of the 3D position matches the maximum frame rate of the camera and the timing of the output data stream of the system is precisely controlled, are achieved. Two sets of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the system. First, the visual sensing system was used to track the motion of a 2 μm polystyrene bead, whose motion was controlled by a three-axis piezo motion stage. The ability to track long-range motion with nanometer resolution in all three axes is demonstrated. Second, it was used to measure the Brownian motion of the 2 μm polystyrene bead, which was stabilized in aqueous solution by a laser trapping system. PMID:24216655

  9. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements While Performing Orbit Maintenance Maneuvers Containing an Orbit Normal Delta-V Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Megan R.; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Aura's Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Aura's frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under noslew operations.

  11. Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, May 1993-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 2 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

  12. Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, May 1992-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Papas, P.N.; Steiner, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system, and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 1 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

  13. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  14. Acoustic containerless experiment system: A non-contact surface tension measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G.; Barmatz, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES) was flown on STS 41-B in February 1984 and was scheduled to be reflown in 1986. The primary experiment that was to be conducted with the ACES module was the containerless melting and processing of a fluoride glass sample. A second experiment that was to be conducted was the verification of a non-contact surface tension measurement technique using the molten glass sample. The ACES module consisted of a three-axis acoustic positioning module that was inside an electric furnace capable of heating the system above the melting temperature of the sample. The acoustic module is able to hold the sample with acoustic forces in the center of the chamber and, in addition, has the capability of applying a modulating force on the sample along one axis of the chamber so that the molten sample or liquid drop could be driven into one of its normal oscillation modes. The acoustic module could also be adjusted so that it could place a torque on the molten drop and cause the drop to rotate. In the ACES, a modulating frequency was applied to the drop and swept through a range of frequencies that would include the n = 2 mode. A maximum amplitude of the drop oscillation would indicate when resonance was reached and from that data the surface tension could be calculated. For large viscosity samples, a second technique for measuring surface tension was developed. The results of the ACES experiment and some of the problems encountered during the actual flight of the experiment will be discussed.

  15. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  16. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  17. Warm gas TVC design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

  18. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  19. Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters.

    PubMed

    Nagao, N; Yokota, S; Komurasaki, K; Arakawa, Y

    2007-11-01

    A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors [axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts] of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of +/-2.3 degrees was measured with the error of +/-0.2 degrees under the typical operating conditions for the thruster. PMID:18052505

  20. Bias Momentum Sizing for Hovering Dual-Spin Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Moerder, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    An atmospheric flight vehicle in hover is typically controlled by varying its thrust vector. Achieving both levitation and attitude control with the propulsion system places considerable demands on it for agility and precision, particularly if the vehicle is statically unstable, or nearly so. These demands can be relaxed by introducing an appropriately sized angular momentum bias aligned with the vehicle's yaw axis, thus providing an additional margin of attitude stability about the roll and pitch axes. This paper describes a methodical approach for trading off angular momentum bias level needed with desired levels of vehicle response due to the design disturbance environment given a vehicle's physical parameters. It also describes several simplifications that provide a more physical and intuitive understanding of dual-spin dynamics for hovering atmospheric vehicles. This approach also mitigates the need for control torques and inadvertent actuator saturation difficulties in trying to stabilize a vehicle via control torques produced by unsteady aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, and unsteady throttling. Simulation results, based on a subscale laboratory test flying platform, demonstrate significant improvements in the attitude control robustness of the vehicle with respect to both wind disturbances and off-center of gravity payload changes during flight.

  1. Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y.

    2007-11-15

    A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors (axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts) of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of {+-}2.3 deg. was measured with the error of {+-}0.2 deg. under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

  2. Estimating Thruster Impulses From IMU and Doppler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program implements a thrust impulse measurement (TIM) filter, which processes data on changes in velocity and attitude of a spacecraft to estimate the small impulsive forces and torques exerted by the thrusters of the spacecraft reaction control system (RCS). The velocity-change data are obtained from line-of-sight-velocity data from Doppler measurements made from the Earth. The attitude-change data are the telemetered from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) aboard the spacecraft. The TIM filter estimates the threeaxis thrust vector for each RCS thruster, thereby enabling reduction of cumulative navigation error attributable to inaccurate prediction of thrust vectors. The filter has been augmented with a simple mathematical model to compensate for large temperature fluctuations in the spacecraft thruster catalyst bed in order to estimate thrust more accurately at deadbanding cold-firing levels. Also, rigorous consider-covariance estimation is applied in the TIM to account for the expected uncertainty in the moment of inertia and the location of the center of gravity of the spacecraft. The TIM filter was built with, and depends upon, a sigma-point consider-filter algorithm implemented in a Python-language computer program.

  3. Propulsion Flight Research at NASA Dryden From 1967 to 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.; Conners, Timothy R.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1997-01-01

    From 1967 to 1997, pioneering propulsion flight research activities have been conceived and conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Many of these programs have been flown jointly with the United States Department of Defense, industry, or the Federal Aviation Administration. Propulsion research has been conducted on the XB-70, F-111 A, F-111E, YF-12, JetStar, B-720, MD-11, F-15, F- 104, Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology, F-14, F/A-18, SR-71, and the hypersonic X-15 airplanes. Research studies have included inlet dynamics and control, in-flight thrust computation, integrated propulsion controls, inlet and boattail drag, wind tunnel-to-flight comparisons, digital engine controls, advanced engine control optimization algorithms, acoustics, antimisting kerosene, in-flight lift and drag, throttle response criteria, and thrust-vectoring vanes. A computer-controlled thrust system has been developed to land the F-15 and MD-11 airplanes without using any of the normal flight controls. An F-15 airplane has flown tests of axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzles. A linear aerospike rocket experiment has been developed and tested on the SR-71 airplane. This paper discusses some of the more unique flight programs, the results, lessons learned, and their impact on current technology.

  4. System requirements. [Space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    Requirements of future space systems, including large space systems, that operate beyond the space shuttle are discussed. Typical functions required of propulsion systems in this operational regime include payload placement, retrieval, observation, servicing, space debris control and support to large space systems. These functional requirements are discussed in conjunction with two classes of propulsion systems: (1) primary or orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) and (2) secondary or systems that generally operate within or relatively near an operational base orbit. Three propulsion system types are described in relation to these requirements: cryogenic OTV, teleoperator maneuvering system and a solar electric OTV.

  5. Electron arc therapy: design, implementation and evaluation of a dynamic multi-vane collimator system.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, D D; Stewart, J R; Moeller, J H; Lee, W L; Takach, G A

    1989-11-01

    Innovative techniques in motion control technology have been applied to the design and implementation of a portable computer-controlled multi-vane collimator for use in electron arc therapy. The collimator, consisting of 18 independently controlled vanes, is inserted into the standard accessory mount assembly of a linear accelerator, in the same fashion as standard field shaping blocks. Power is supplied to the collimator vane motors via a self-contained battery system. The range of motion of the vanes, symmetrically mounted nine on each side, provides a variable aperture width projected to isocenter of 2 cm minimum to 8 cm maximum. The projected length of the aperture at isocenter is 38 cm. The transition time between vane positions is less than 1 second, corresponding to gantry movement of less than 1 degree. The movement of each of the 18 vanes is monitored and controlled by six individually addressed three axis processors that are shielded from the electron beam. A table of collimator vane positions versus gantry angle, as determined by dose optimization calculations, is stored in a data file. The desired collimator vane position corresponding to the current arc segment is conveyed from the control console to each vane controller via packets within a token passing network. Communication between the computer in the console area and the vane controllers is accomplished through encoded infra-red pulse transmission, eliminating the need for additional communication lines between the console and the accelerator. This dynamic collimator offers improved dose uniformity while simplifying the delivery of electron arc therapy. PMID:2808043

  6. Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

    1999-01-01

    Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into

  8. Clustered engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Kyle; Sager, Paul; Kusunoki, Sid; Porter, John; Campion, AL; Mouritzan, Gunnar; Glunt, George; Vegter, George; Koontz, Rob

    1993-01-01

    Several topics are presented in viewgraph form which together encompass the preliminary assessment of nuclear thermal rocket engine clustering. The study objectives, schedule, flow, and groundrules are covered. This is followed by the NASA groundrules mission and our interpretation of the associated operational scenario. The NASA reference vehicle is illustrated, then the four propulsion system options are examined. Each propulsion system's preliminary design, fluid systems, operating characteristics, thrust structure, dimensions, and mass properties are detailed as well as the associated key propulsion system/vehicle interfaces. A brief series of systems analysis is also covered including: thrust vector control requirements, engine out possibilities, propulsion system failure modes, surviving system requirements, and technology requirements. An assessment of vehicle/propulsion system impacts due to the lessons learned are presented.

  9. Autonomous Operation of the Nanosatellite URSA MAIOR Micropropulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, F.

    Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Via Eudossiana 16, 00184 At Università di Roma "La Sapienza" a nanosatellite bus is under development, with one liter target volume and one kilogram target weight. This nanosatellite, called URSA MAIOR (Università di Roma "la SApienza" Micro Autonomous Imager in ORbit) has a micro camera on board to take pictures of the Earth. The nanosatellite is three axis stabilized, using a micro momentum wheel, with magnetic coils for active nutation damping and pointing control. An experimental micropropulsion system is present on-board, together with the magnetic attitude control system. The design, construction and testing of the satellite is carried on by academic personnel and by students, which are directly involved in the whole process, as it is in the spirit of in the microsatellite program at Università di Roma "La Sapienza". Few technological payloads are present on-board: an Earth imaging experiment, using a few grams commercial-off-the-shelf microcamera; commercial Li-Ion batteries are the only energy storage device; a microwheel developed at our University laboratories provides for attitude stabilization. In addition, a micropropulsion experiment is planned on-board. The Austrian Company Mechatronic, and INFM, an Italian Research Institute at Trieste are developing a microthruster for nanosatelite applications. In the frame of a cooperation established between these two Institutions and Università di Roma "La Sapienza", this newly developed hardware will be tested in orbit. The thruster is made basically of an integrated microvalve, built on a silicon chip, and a micronozzle, etched on the same silicon chip, to get supersonic expansion of the gas flow. The nominal thrust of the system is about 100microN. The throat section is about 100 micron diameter. The first phase in the construction of the microthruster has been the construction of the micronozzle on a silicon chip. A

  10. Kinematics of Hooke universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The singularity problem associated with wrist mechanisms commonly found on industrial manipulators can be alleviated by redesigning the wrist so that it functions as a three-axis gimbal system. This paper discussess the kinematics of gimbal robot wrists made of one and two Hooke universal joints. Derivations of the resolved rate motion control equations for the single and double Hooke universal joint wrists are presented using the three-axis gimbal system as a theoretical wrist model.

  11. Development of the command data system and ground software for the SEDSAT-1 microsatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl

    1996-01-01

    SEDSAT-1 is designed to be a low cost scientific satellite which is to be used to perform a minimum of five tasks which include: (1) the acquisition of a number of important parameters associated with the tethering processes from the payloads perspective (such as accelerations incurred and imaging data of the tether during deployment), (2) to act as a remote sensing platform for making measurements of the Earth's Atmosphere (allowing research to be performed in such areas as vertical lightning observation, visible light spectrography, and cloud cover studies, (3) to act as a general purpose amateur radio communication satellite relaying information back to earth, (4) to demonstrate the feasibility of the deployment in low earth orbit of advanced technology such as the Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells, Nickel Metal Hydride batteries, and multi-chip module technology and, (5) to support student's active participation in applying the disciplines of engineering and science to space-based hardware platforms. The project includes the Three-axis Accelerometer System, TAS, Experiment which is designed to report the accelerations that the satellite undergoes during the tethering operations and during the second phase of the mission when the free floating satellite comes in contact with orbit debris. The SEASIS (SEDS Earth, Atmosphere, and Space Imaging System) is another SEDSAT experiment designed to provide images of the tether during its deployment and the earth during the second phase of the mission. To control these experiments and virtually all other satellite operations the Command Data System, CDS is employed. This system utilizes a moderate complexity micro-controller controlled by tasks operating under a real-time operating system to dynamically monitor and control the satellite. The scope of this researchers efforts has been in the general area of coordinating and assisting the student researchers with the development of the CDS and ground station interfaces. This

  12. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  13. Closeup view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being tested and prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view is showing the SRB Thrust Vector Control (TVC) System which includes independent auxiliary power units for each actuator to pressurize their respective hydraulic systems. When the Nozzle is mated with the Aft Skirt the two actuators, located on the left and right side of the TVC System in this view, can swivel it up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Space Shuttle Propulsion Safety Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, William Randy, Jr.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the proposed upgrades to the Space Shuttle Propulsion system, to improve safety, and reduce significant hazards. The goals of the program are to reduce the risk of a catastrophe in ascent, to achieve significant reduction in orbital and entry systems, and to improve the crew cockpit situational awareness for managing the critical operational situations. The document reviews the upgrades to the propulsion system which are planned to improve the safety. These include modifications to the Advanced Thrust Vector Control, modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine Block III, improvement in the Advanced Health Management System, the use of Friction Stir welding on the external tank, which is expected to improve mechanical properties, and reduce defect rate, and the modification of the propellant grains geometry.

  15. Feasibility of patient dose reduction based on various noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography in an image-guided patient positioning system.

    PubMed

    Kamezawa, Hidemi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shirieda, Katsutoshi; Kameda, Noboru; Ohki, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of patient dose reduction based on six noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image-guided patient positioning (IGPP) system. A midpoint dose was employed as a patient dose index. First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT images were acquired with a reference dose and various low doses. Second, an automated rigid registration was performed for three axis translations to estimate patient setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters (averaging filter, median filter, Gaussian filter, edge-preserving smoothing filter, bilateral filter, and adaptive partial median filter (AMF)). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as Euclidean distances between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT and RD-CBCT images. Finally, the residual errors as a function of the patient dose index were estimated for LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters, and then the patient dose indices for the filtered LD-CBCT images were obtained at the same residual error as the RD-CBCT image. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic phantom and four cancer patients. The patient dose for the LD-CBCT images was reduced to 19% of that for the RD-CBCT image for the phantom by using AMF, while keeping a same residual error of 0.47 mm as the RD-CBCT image by applying the noise suppression filters to the LD-CBCT images. The average patient dose was reduced to 31.1% for prostate cancer patients, and it was reduced to 82.5% for a lung cancer patient by applying the AMF. These preliminary results suggested that the proposed approach based on noise suppression filters could decrease the patient dose in IGPP systems. PMID:27065312

  16. Feasibility of patient dose reduction based on various noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography in an image-guided patient positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamezawa, Hidemi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shirieda, Katsutoshi; Kameda, Noboru; Ohki, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of patient dose reduction based on six noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image-guided patient positioning (IGPP) system. A midpoint dose was employed as a patient dose index. First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT images were acquired with a reference dose and various low doses. Second, an automated rigid registration was performed for three axis translations to estimate patient setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters (averaging filter, median filter, Gaussian filter, edge-preserving smoothing filter, bilateral filter, and adaptive partial median filter (AMF)). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as Euclidean distances between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT and RD-CBCT images. Finally, the residual errors as a function of the patient dose index were estimated for LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters, and then the patient dose indices for the filtered LD-CBCT images were obtained at the same residual error as the RD-CBCT image. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic phantom and four cancer patients. The patient dose for the LD-CBCT images was reduced to 19% of that for the RD-CBCT image for the phantom by using AMF, while keeping a same residual error of 0.47 mm as the RD-CBCT image by applying the noise suppression filters to the LD-CBCT images. The average patient dose was reduced to 31.1% for prostate cancer patients, and it was reduced to 82.5% for a lung cancer patient by applying the AMF. These preliminary results suggested that the proposed approach based on noise suppression filters could decrease the patient dose in IGPP systems.

  17. Systems autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

  18. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  19. Robust control of hypersonic vehicles considering propulsive and aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of propulsion system variations and elastic fuselage behavior on the flight control system of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle is investigated. Thrust vector magnitude and direction changes due to angle of attack variations affect the pitching moment. Low structural vibration frequencies may occur close to the rigid body modes influencing the angle of attack and lead to possible cross coupling. These effects are modeled as uncertainties in the context of a robust control study of a hypersonic vehicle model accelerating through Mach 8 using H-infinity and mu synthesis techniques. Various levels of uncertainty are introduced into the system. Both individual and simultaneous appearance of uncertainty are considered. The results indicate that the chosen design technique is suitable for this kind of problem provided that a fairly good knowledge of the effects mentioned above is available. The order of the designed controller is reduced but robust performance is lost which shows the need for fixed order design techniques.

  20. Evaluation of aperture cover tank vent nozzles for the IRAS spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of coefficients for the three axes of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) were established to determine the maximum allowable thrust difference between the two vent nozzles of the aperture cover tank low thrust vent system and their maximum misalignment. Test data generated by flow and torque measurements permitted the selection of two nozzles whose thrust differential was within the limit of the attitude control capability. Based on thrust stand data, a thrust vector misalignment was indicated that was slightly higher than permissible for the worst case, i.e., considerable degradation of the torque capacity of the attitude control system combined with venting of helium at its upper limit. The probability of destabilizing the IRAS spacecraft by activating the venting system appeared to be very low. The selection and mounting of the nozzles have satisfied all the requirements for the safe venting of helium.

  1. Analysis of airframe/engine interactions - An integrated control perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.; Garg, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for the analysis of the dynamic interactions between airframe/engine dynamical systems are presented. Critical coupling terms are developed that determine the significance of these interactions with regard to the closed loop stability and performance of the feedback systems. A conceptual model is first used to indicate the potential sources of the coupling, how the coupling manifests itself, and how the magnitudes of these critical coupling terms are used to quantify the effects of the airframe/engine interactions. A case study is also presented involving an unstable airframe with thrust vectoring for attitude control. It is shown for this system with classical, decentralized control laws that there is little airframe/engine interaction, and the stability and performance with those control laws is not affected. Implications of parameter uncertainty in the coupling dynamics is also discussed, and effects of these parameter variations are also demonstrated to be small for this vehicle configuration.

  2. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  3. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  4. Technical Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.R.; Robinson, K.F.; Flynn, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I-X will be NASA's first test flight for a new human-rated launch vehicle since 1981, and the team is well on its way toward completing the vehicle's design and hardware fabrication for an April 2009 launch. This uncrewed suborbital development test flight gives NASA its first opportunities to: gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the stage separation environments during future flight; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) incorporates a mix of flight and mockup hardware. It is powered by a four-segment solid rocket booster, and will be modified to include a fifth, spacer segment; the upper stage, Orion crew exploration vehicle, and launch abort system are simulator hardware to make the FTV aerodynamically similar to the same size, shape, and weight of Ares I. The Ares IX first stage includes an existing Shuttle solid rocket motor and thrust vector control system controlled by an Ascent Thrust Vector Controller (ATVC) designed and built by Honeywell International. The avionics system will be tested in a dedicated System Integration Laboratory located at Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS) in Denver, Colorado. The Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is made up of cylindrical segments that will be stacked and integrated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for launch. Glenn Research Center is already building these segments, along with their internal access structures. The active Roll Control System (RoCS) includes two thruster units harvested from Peacekeeper missiles. Duty cycle testing for RoCS was conducted, and fuel tanking and detanking tests will occur at KSC in early 2008. This important flight will provide valuable experience for the ground operations team in integrating, stacking, and launching Ares I. Data from Ares I-X will ensure the safety and reliability of America's newest launch vehicle.

  5. F-18 high alpha research vehicle: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Flick, Bradley C.

    1994-01-01

    The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle has proven to be a useful research tool with many unique capabilities. Many of these capabilities are to assist in characterizing flight at high angles of attack, while some provide significant research in their own right. Of these, the thrust vectoring system, the unique ability to rapidly reprogram flight controls, the reprogrammable mission computer, and a reprogrammable onboard excitation system have allowed an increased utility and versatility of the research being conducted. Because of this multifaceted approach to research in the high angle of attack regime, the capabilities of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were designed to cover as many high alpha technology bases as the program would allow. These areas include aerodynamics, controls, handling qualities, and propulsion.

  6. Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, J. P.

    The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

  7. Xenon ion propulsion for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Patterson, M. J.; Gruber, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The status of critical ion propulsion system elements is reviewed. Electron bombardment ion thrusters for primary propulsion have evolved to operate on xenon in the 5-10 kW power range. Thruster efficiencies of 0.7 and specific impulse values of 4000 s have been documented. The baseline thruster currently under development by NASA LeRC includes ring-cusp magnetic field plasma containment and dished two-grid ion optics. Based on past experience and demonstrated simplifications, power processors for these thrusters should have approximately 500 parts, a mass of 40 kg, and an efficiency near 0.94. Thrust vector control, via individual thruster gimbals, is a mature technology. High pressure, gaseous xenon propellant storage and control schemes, using flight qualified hardware, result in propellant tankage fractions between 0.1 and 0.2. In-space and ground integration testing has demonstrated that ion propulsion systems can be successfully integrated with their host spacecraft.

  8. Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

  9. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  10. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the CGLSS and NLDN Systems Based on Two Years of Ground-Truth Data from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Hill, Jonathan D.; Mata, Angel G.; Cummins, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    From May 2011 through July 2013, the lightning instrumentation at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, has obtained high-speed video records and field change waveforms (dE/dt and three-axis dH/dt) for 54 negative polarity return strokes whose strike termination locations and times are known with accuracy of the order of 10 m or less and 1 µs, respectively. A total of 18 strokes terminated directly to the LC39B lighting protection system (LPS), which contains three 181 m towers in a triangular configuration, an overhead catenary wire system on insulating masts, and nine down conductors. An additional 9 strokes terminated on the 106 m lightning protection mast of Launch Complex 39A (LC39A), which is located about 2.7 km southeast of LC39B. The remaining 27 return strokes struck either on the ground or attached to low-elevation grounded objects within about 500 m of the LC39B LPS. Leader/return stroke sequences were imaged at 3200 frames/sec by a network of six Phantom V310 high-speed video cameras. Each of the three towers on LC39B had two high-speed cameras installed at the 147 m level with overlapping fields of view of the center of the pad. The locations of the strike points of 54 return strokes have been compared to time-correlated reports of the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and the results of this comparison will be presented and discussed.

  11. The Implementation of Satellite Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Reid, Mark; Drury, Derek; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SMEX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions that can be launched into low earth orbit by small expendable vehicles. The development schedule for each SMEX spacecraft was three years from start to launch. The SMEX program has produced five satellites; Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE). SAMPEX and FAST are on-orbit, TRACE is scheduled to be launched in April of 1998, WIRE is scheduled to be launched in September of 1998, and SWAS is scheduled to be launched in January of 1999. In each of these missions, the Attitude Control System (ACS) software was written using a modular procedural design. Current program goals require complete spacecraft development within 18 months. This requirement has increased pressure to write reusable flight software. Object-Oriented Design (OOD) offers the constructs for developing an application that only needs modification for mission unique requirements. This paper describes the OOD that was used to develop the SMEX-Lite ACS software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled, momentum stabilized, and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. The paper first describes the high level requirements which governed the architecture of the SMEX-Lite ACS software. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the benefits of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will discuss the design of several software components that comprise the ACS software. Specifically, Object-Oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude control, attitude determination and failure detection. The paper addresses

  12. Optomechanical design of near-null subaperture test system based on counter-rotating CGH plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yepeng; Chen, Shanyong; Song, Bing; Li, Shengyi

    2014-09-01

    In off-axis subapertures of most convex aspheres, astigmatism and coma dominate the aberrations with approximately quadratic and linear increase as the off-axis distance increases. A pair of counter-rotating computer generated hologram (CGH) plates is proposed to generate variable amount of Zernike terms Z4 and Z6, correcting most of the astigmatism and coma for subapertures located at different positions on surfaces of various aspheric shapes. The residual subaperture aberrations are then reduced within the vertical range of measurement of the interferometer, which enables near-null test of aspheres flexibly. The alignment tolerances for the near-null optics are given with optomechanical analysis. Accordingly a novel design for mounting and aligning the CGH plates is proposed which employs three concentric rigid rings. The CGH plate is mounted in the inner ring which is supported by two couples of ball-end screws in connection with the middle ring. The CGH plate along with the inner ring is hence able to be translated in X-axis and tipped by adjusting the screws. Similarly the middle ring is able to be translated in Y-axis and tilted by another two couples of screws orthogonally arranged and connected to the outer ring. This design is featured by the large center-through hole, compact size and capability of four degrees-of-freedom alignment (lateral shift and tip-tilt). It reduces the height measured in the direction of optical axis as much as possible, which is particularly advantageous for near-null test of convex aspheres. The CGH mounts are then mounted on a pair of center-through tables realizing counter-rotation. Alignment of the interferometer, the CGHs, the tables and the test surface is also discussed with a reasonable layout of the whole test system. The interferometer and the near-null optics are translated by a three-axis stage while the test mirror is rotated and tilted by two rotary tables. Experimental results are finally given to show the near

  13. Attitude Ground System (AGS) For The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, Juan C.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Vint, Babak

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission consisting of four identically instrumented spin-stabilized spacecraft flying in an adjustable pyramid-like formation around the Earth. The formation of the MMS spacecraft allows for three-dimensional study of the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection, which is the primary objective of the mission. The MMS spacecraft were launched early on March 13, 2015 GMT. Due to the challenging and very constricted attitude and orbit requirements for performing the science, as well as the need to maintain the spacecraft formation, multiple ground functionalities were designed to support the mission. These functionalities were incorporated into a ground system known as the Attitude Ground System (AGS). Various AGS configurations have been used widely to support a variety of three-axis-stabilized and spin-stabilized spacecraft missions within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The original MMS operational concept required the AGS to perform highly accurate predictions of the effects of environmental disturbances on the spacecraft orientation and to plan the attitude maneuvers necessary to stay within the science attitude tolerance. The orbit adjustment requirements for formation control drove the need also to perform calibrations that have never been done before in support of NASA GSFC missions. The MMS mission required support analysts to provide fast and accurately calibrated values of the inertia tensor, center of mass, and accelerometer bias for each MMS spacecraft. During early design of the AGS functionalities, a Kalman filter for estimating the attitude, body rates, center of mass, and accelerometer bias, using only star tracker and accelerometer measurements, was heavily analyzed. A set of six distinct filters was evaluated and considered for estimating the spacecraft attitude and body rates using star tracker data only. Four of the six filters are closely related and were compared

  14. Effects of internal yaw-vectoring devices on the static performance of a pitch-vectoring nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.

  15. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  16. An 8-cm electron bombardment thruster for auxiliary propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Banks, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster size, beam current level, and specific impulse trade-offs are considered for mercury electron bombardment ion thrusters to be used for north-south station keeping of geosynchronous spacecraft. An 8-cm diameter thruster operating at 2750 seconds specific impulse at thrust levels of 4.4 mN (1 m1b) to 8.9 mN (2 m6b) with a design life of 20,000 hours and 10,000 cycles is being developed. The thruster will have a dished two-grid system capable of thrust vectoring of + or - 10 degrees in two orthogonal directions. A preliminary thruster has been fabricated and tested; thruster performance characteristics have been determined at 4.45, 6.68, and 8.90 millinewtons.

  17. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-eulerian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  18. Preparations for flight research to evaluate actuated forebody strakes on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Shah, Gautam H.; Dicarlo, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), flight tests are currently being conducted with a multi-axis thrust vectoring system applied to the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A follow-on series of flight tests with the NASA F-18 HARV will be focusing on the application of actuated forebody strake controls. These controls are designed to provide increased levels of yaw control at high angles of attack where conventional aerodynamic controls become ineffective. The series of flight tests are collectively referred to as the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) Flight Experiment. The development of actuated forebody strake controls for the F-18 HARV is discussed and a summary of the ground tests conducted in support of the flight experiment is provided. A summary of the preparations for the flight tests is also provided.

  19. The development of space solid rocket motors in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianding, Huang; Dingyou, Ye

    1997-01-01

    China has undertaken to research and develop composite solid propellant rocket motors since 1958. At the request of the development of space technology, composite solid propellant rocket motor has developed from small to large, step by step. For the past thirty eight years, much progress has made, many technical obstacles, such as motor design, case materials and their processing technology, propellant formulations and manufacture, nozzles and thrust vector control, safe ignition, environment tests, nondestructive inspection and quality assurance, static firing test and measurement etc. have been solved. A serial of solid rocket motors have been offered for China's satellites launch. The systems of research, design, test and manufacture of solid rocket motors have been formed.

  20. Nozzle Side Load Testing and Analysis at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Realistic estimates of nozzle side loads, the off-axis forces that develop during engine start and shutdown, are important in the design cycle of a rocket engine. The estimated magnitude of the nozzle side loads has a large impact on the design of the nozzle shell and the engine s thrust vector control system. In 2004 Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began developing a capability to quantify the relative magnitude of side loads caused by different types of nozzle contours. The MSFC Nozzle Test Facility was modified to measure nozzle side loads during simulated nozzle start. Side load results from cold flow tests on two nozzle test articles, one with a truncated ideal contour and one with a parabolic contour are provided. The experimental approach, nozzle contour designs and wall static pressures are also discussed