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1

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

2

Experimental investigations of thrust vectoring systems for VTOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a summary of two technology programs sponsored by NASA to investigate the characteristics of two thrust vectoring schemes for V/STOL aircraft. The operational capability of the VTOL aircraft is dependent on maximum utilization of the installed thrust in both the cruise and powered lift modes of flight. An effective thrust vectoring system on the cruise propulsion unit is therefore essential to provide maximum payload in hover and STOL plus minimum specific fuel consumption in loiter and cruise. Introducing a high by-pass ratio fan system, augmenting the gas generator thrust, as the propulsion system for VTOL aircraft places increased significance on the performance of the relatively short coupled thrust vectoring systems. The two programs discussed herein include both large-scale and small-scale tests of a vectoring hood system with a vented, internal-lip and swivel nozzle systems. These tests indicated that a satisfactory thrust vectoring system can be developed.

Rolls, L. S.; Aoyagi, K.

1977-01-01

3

Design of an ion thruster movable grid thrust vectoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several reasons justify the development of an ion propulsion system thrust vectoring system. Spacecraft launched to date have used ion thrusters mounted on gimbals to control the thrust vector within a range of about ±5°. Such devices have large mass and dimensions, hence the need exists for a more compact system, preferably mounted within the thruster itself. Since the 1970s several thrust vectoring systems have been developed, with the translatable accelerator grid electrode being considered the most promising. Laboratory models of this system have already been built and successfully tested, but there is still room for improvement in their mechanical design. This work aims to investigate possibilities of refining the design of such movable grid thrust vectoring systems. Two grid suspension designs and three types of actuators were evaluated. The actuators examined were a micro electromechanical system, a NanoMuscle shape memory alloy actuator and a piezoelectric driver. Criteria used for choosing the best system included mechanical simplicity (use of the fewest mechanical parts), accuracy, power consumption and behaviour in space conditions. Designs of systems using these actuators are proposed. In addition, a mission to Mercury using the system with piezoelectric drivers has been modelled and its performance presented.

Kural, Aleksander; Leveque, Nicolas; Welch, Chris; Wolanski, Piotr

2004-08-01

4

Three axis velocity probe system  

DOEpatents

A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Jr., Nelson S. (Morgantown, WV); Utt, Carroll E. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01

5

Three axis attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

Studer, Philip A. (inventor)

1988-01-01

6

Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

2012-01-01

7

Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system  

DOEpatents

A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

Martini, Mario Pierangelo (Oak Ridge, TN); Gedcke, Dale A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raudorf, Thomas W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sangsingkeow, Pat (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

8

Omni-axis secondary injection thrust vector control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept, development, design study and preliminary analysis and layout of the required digital logic scheme to be used for injection valve control are presented. An application and optimization study of an Omni-Axis Secondary Injection Control System applicable to the proposed Space Shuttle Pressure Fed Engine is reported. Technical definition and analysis control procedures and test routines, as well as a supporting set of drawing sketches and reference manual, are enclosed.

Kirkley, D. J.

1973-01-01

9

The digital autopilot for thrust vector control of the Shuttle Orbital maneuvering system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the requirements for and the design, development and performance of the digital autopilots (DAPs) for thrust vector control, utilizing the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The hardware and software requirements which caused the design to assume its current form are described. Also, the design synthesis, which considered rigid body stability margins, bending and slosh stabilization, guidance loop compensation, off-nominal performance and hardware and software limitations is presented. The performance of the OMS control system is summarized utilizing flight data from the first three Space Transportation System (STS) flights.

Penchuk, A.; Croopnick, S.

1982-01-01

10

Preliminary design study of a lateral-directional control system using thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design of a lateral-directional control system for a fighter airplane capable of controlled operation at extreme angles of attack is developed. The subject airplane is representative of a modern twin-engine high-performance jet fighter, is equipped with ailerons, rudder, and independent horizontal-tail surfaces. Idealized bidirectional thrust-vectoring engine nozzles are appended to the mathematic model of the airplane to provide additional control moments. Optimal schedules for lateral and directional pseudo control variables are calculated. Use of pseudo controls results in coordinated operation of the aerodynamic and thrust-vectoring controls with minimum coupling between the lateral and directional airplane dynamics. Linear quadratic regulator designs are used to specify a preliminary flight control system to improve the stability and response characteristics of the airplane. Simulated responses to step pilot control inputs are stable and well behaved. For lateral stick deflections, peak stability axis roll rates are between 1.25 and 1.60 rad/sec over an angle-of-attack range of 10 deg to 70 deg. For rudder pedal deflections, the roll rates accompanying the sideslip responses can be arrested by small lateral stick motions.

Lallman, F. J.

1985-01-01

11

Design of a mixer for the thrust-vectoring system on the high-alpha research vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the advanced control concepts being investigated on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) is multi-axis thrust vectoring using an experimental thrust-vectoring (TV) system consisting of three hydraulically actuated vanes per engine. A mixer is used to translate the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands into the appropriate TV-vane commands for distribution to the vane actuators. A computer-aided optimization process was developed to perform the inversion of the thrust-vectoring effectiveness data for use by the mixer in performing this command translation. Using this process a new mixer was designed for the HARV and evaluated in simulation and flight. An important element of the Mixer is the priority logic, which determines priority among the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands.

Pahle, Joseph W.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

1996-01-01

12

Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

Millard, Jon

2014-01-01

13

A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

1992-01-01

14

Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

Huff, Ronald G.

1989-02-01

15

Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

Huff, Ronald G.

1989-01-01

16

Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

1989-01-01

17

Miniature image guided three-axis scanning and positioning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a high precision three axes scanning and positioning system for integration with Multifunctional Image Guided Surgical (MIGS) Platform. The stage integrates three main components: an optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe, laser scalpel and suction cup. The requirements for this stage were to provide scanning area of 400mm2, resolution of less than 10 microns and scanning velocity in the range of 10 - 40 mm/s. The stage was modeled using computer aided design software NX Unigraphics. In addition to the parameters mentioned above, additional boundary conditions for the stage were set as low volume and modularity. Optimized stage model was fabricated by using rapid prototyping technique that integrates low cost stepper motors, threaded rod drive train and a stepper motor controller. The EZ4axis stepper motor controller was able to provide 1/8th microstep resolution control over the motors, which met the criterion desired for the MIGS platform. Integration of computer controlled three-axis stage with MIGS platform provides the opportunity for conducting intricate surgical procedures using remote control or joystick. The device is image guided using the OCT probe and it is able to pin point any location requiring a laser scalpel incision. Due to the scanning capabilities, a high quality threedimensional image of the tissue topography is obtained which allows the surgeon to make a confident decision of where to apply the laser scalpel and make an incision.

Avirovik, Dragan; Dave, Digant; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

18

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of

Mary Ellen Roth

1990-01-01

19

Thrust vector control using electric actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are

Robert T. Bechtel; David K. Hall

1995-01-01

20

A Change of Inertia-Supporting the Thrust Vector Control of the Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is America's next launch vehicle. To utilize the vehicle more economically, heritage hardware from the Space Transportation System (STS) will be used when possible. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) actuators could possibly be used in the core stage of the SLS. The dynamic characteristics of the SRB actuator will need to be tested on an Inertia Load Stand (ILS) that has been converted to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The inertia on the pendulum of the ILS will need to be changed to match the SSME inertia. In this testing environment an SRB actuator can be tested with the equivalent resistence of an SSME.

Dziubanek, Adam J.

2012-01-01

21

Conceptual design of a thrust-vectoring tailcone for underwater robotics  

E-print Network

Thrust-vectoring on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles is an appealing directional-control solution because it improves turning radius capabilities. Unfortunately, thrust-vectoring requires the entire propulsion system be ...

Nawrot, Michael T

2012-01-01

22

Thrust vector control using electric actuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles.

Bechtel, Robert T.; Hall, David K.

1995-01-01

23

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

24

The Magsat three axis arc second precision attitude transfer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magsat Attitude Transfer System (ATS), which provides attitude alteration in pitch, yaw, and roll is described. A remote vector magnetometer extends from Magsat on a 20 ft boom, requiring vector orientation by reference to coordinate axes determined by a set of star mapping cameras. The ATS was designed to perform in a solar illuminated environment by using an optically narrow bandwidth with synchronous demodulation at 9300 A. The pitch/yaw optical design, the electrooptics, and signal and switching diagrams are provided. Simple mirrors with no moving parts are placed on the magnetometer to reflect a collimated beam from the ATS for attitude indication, which is accurate to one part in 96. Alignment was completed within 24 hr after launch.

Schenkel, F. W.; Heins, R. J.

1981-01-01

25

Thrust vector control using electric actuation  

SciTech Connect

Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Bechtel, R.T.; Hall, D.K. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama 35812 (United States)

1995-01-25

26

Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

1999-01-01

27

Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

2014-12-01

28

Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation.  

PubMed

A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system. PMID:25554333

Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

2014-12-01

29

A vector autopilot system. [aircraft attitude determination with three-axis magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current technology has evolved low cost, highly reliable solid state vector magnetometers with excellent angular resolution. This paper discusses the role of a three-axis magnetometer as a new instrument for aircraft attitude determination. Using flight data acquired by an instrumented aircraft, attitude is calculated using the earth's magnetic field vector and compared to measured attitudes. The magnetic field alone is not adequate to resolve all attitude variations and the need for a second reference angle or vector is discussed. A system combining the functions of heading determination and attitude measurement is presented to show that both functions can be implemented with essentially the same component count required to measure heading alone. It is concluded that with the correlation achieved in calculated and measured attitude there is a potential application of vector magnetometry in attitude measurement systems.

Pietila, R.; Dunn, W. R., Jr.

1976-01-01

30

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

Roth, Mary Ellen

1990-01-01

31

Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

2013-01-01

32

Ground test of the D shaped vented thrust vectoring nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static ground tests of a large scale lift/cruise thrust vectoring nozzle were conducted to establish: (1) vectoring performance 'in' and 'out' of ground effect; (2) thrust spoilage capability; (3) compatibility of the nozzle with a turbotip fan; and (4) the nozzle structural temperature distribution. Vectoring performance of a short coupled, vented nozzle design on a large scale, (60%) basis was compared with small scale (4.5%) test nozzle results. The test nozzle was a "boilerplate" model of the MCAIR "D" vented nozzle configured for operation with the LF336/J85 turbotip lift fan system. Calibration of the LF336/J85 test fan with a simple convergent nozzle was performed with four different nozzle exit areas to establish reference thrust, nozzle pressure ratio, and nozzle corrected flow characteristics for comparison with the thrust vectoring nozzle data. Thrust vectoring tests with the 'D' vented nozzle were conducted over the range of vector angles between 0 and 117 deg for several different nozzle exit areas.

Esker, D. W.

1976-01-01

33

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

Roth, Mary Ellen

1990-01-01

34

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

Roth, Mary Ellen

35

Design of high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Marshall has undertaken the development of electromechanical actuators (EMAs) for thrust vector control (TVC) augmentation system implementation. The TVC EMA presented has as its major components two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two-pass gear-reduction system, and a roller screw for rotary-to-linear motion conversion. System control is furnished by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply; a pair of resolvers deliver position feedback to the controller, such that precise positioning is achieved. Peformance comparisons have been conducted between the EMA and comparable-performance hydraulic systems applicable to TVCs.

Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

1991-01-01

36

Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

1993-01-01

37

Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

1990-01-01

38

Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude determination support with a multimission three-axis stabilized spacecraft flight dynamics support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) was launched June 7, 1992 by an expendable Delta 2 launch vehicle. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used a multimission three-axis stabilized spacecraft (MTASS) Flight Dynamics Support System (FDSS) to support the EUVE launch and mission operations. For EUVE, MTASS has been used to monitor attitude sensor performance, study OBC attitude determination performance, and study attitude perturbations. The current status of these efforts are summarized. After its successful implementation for EUVE, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), MTASS has demonstrated multimission flight dynamics support systems can effectively bridge the gap between single-mission support systems of the past and future generic systems.

Harman, Richard; Lee, Michael

1993-01-01

39

Gyroless yaw control system for a three axis stabilized, zero-momentum spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A satellite attitude control system is usable in the absence of any inertial yaw attitude reference, such as a gyroscope, and in the absence of a pitch bias momentum. Both the roll-yaw rigid body dynamics and the roll-yaw orbit kinematics are modelled. Pitch and roll attitude control are conventional. The model receives inputs from a roll sensor, and roll and yaw torques from reaction wheel monitors. The model produces estimated yaw which controls the spacecraft yaw attitude.

Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

40

Feedback control for counterflow thrust vectoring with a turbine engine: Experiment design and robust control design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering research over the last few years has successfully demonstrated the potential of thrust vector control using counterflow at conditions up to Mach 2. Flow configurations that include the pitch vectoring of rectangular jets and multi-axis vector control in diamond and axisymmetric nozzle geometries have been studied. Although bistable (on-off) fluid-based control has been around for some time, the present counterflow thrust vector control is unique because proportional and continuous jet response can be achieved in the absence of moving parts, while avoiding jet attachment, which renders most fluidic approaches unacceptable for aircraft and missile control applications. However, before this study, research had been limited to open-loop studies of counterflow thrust vectoring. For practical implementation it was vital that the counterflow scheme be used in conjunction with feedback control. Hence, the focus of this research was to develop and experimentally demonstrate a feedback control design methodology for counterflow thrust vectoring. This research focused on 2-D (pitch) thrust vectoring and addresses four key modeling issues. The first issue is to determine the measured variable to be commanded since the thrust vector angle is not measurable in real time. The second related issue is to determine the static mapping from the thrust vector angle to this measured variable. The third issue is to determine the dynamic relationship between the measured variable and the thrust vector angle. The fourth issue is to develop dynamic models with uncertainty characterizations. The final and main goal was the design and implementation of robust controllers that yield closed-loop systems with fast response times, and avoid overshoot in order to aid in the avoidance of attachment. These controllers should be simple and easy to implement in real applications. Hence, PID design has been chosen. Robust control design is accomplished by using ?1 control theory in conjunction with the Popov-Tsypkin multiplier. The resulting optimization problem was solved using a real coded genetic-algorithm.

Dores, Delfim Zambujo Das

2005-11-01

41

Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

1996-01-01

42

Development of a Low-Cost Attitude and Heading Reference System Using a Three-Axis Rotating Platform  

PubMed Central

A development procedure for a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) with a self-developed three-axis rotating platform has been proposed. The AHRS consists of one 3-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, and one 3-axis digital compass. Both the accelerometer and gyroscope triads are based on micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, and the digital compass is based on anisotropic-magnetoresistive (AMR) technology. The calibrations for each sensor triad are readily accomplished by using the scalar calibration and the least squares methods. The platform is suitable for the calibration and validation of the low-cost AHRS and it is affordable for most laboratories. With the calibrated parameters and data fusion algorithm for the orientation estimation, the self-developed AHRS demonstrates the capabilities of compensating for the sensor errors and outputting the estimated orientation in real-time. The validation results show that the estimated orientations of the developed AHRS are within the acceptable region. This verifies the practicability of the proposed development procedure. PMID:22319258

Lai, Ying-Chih; Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsiao, Fei-Bin

2010-01-01

43

Thrust and mass flow characteristics of four 36 inch diameter tip turbine fan thrust vectoring systems in and out of ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration tests carried out on the propulsion system components of a 70 percent scale, powered model of a NASA 3-fan V/STOL aircraft configuration are described. The three X3/6B/T58 turbotip fan units used in the large scale powered model were tested on an isolated basis over a range of ground heights from H/D of 1.02 to infinity. A higher pressure ratio LF336/J85 fan unit was tested over a range of ground heights from 1.55 to infinity. The results of the test program demonstrated that: (1) the thrust and mass flow performance of the X376B/T58 nose lift unit is essentially constant for H/D variations down to 1.55; at H/D 1.02 back pressurization of the fan exit occurs and is accompanied by an increase in thrust of five percent; (2) a change in nose fan exit hub shape from flat plate to hemispherical produces no significant difference in louvered lift nozzle performance for height variations from H/D = 1.02 to infinity; (3) operation of the nose lift nozzle at the higher fan pressure ratio generated by the LF336/J85 fan system causes no significant change in ground proximity performance down to an H/D of 1.55, the lowest height tested with this unit; and (4) the performance of the left and right X376B/T58 lift/cruise units in the vertical lift mode remains unchanged, within plus or minus two percent for the range of ground heights from H/D = 1.02 to infinity.

Esker, D. W.; Roddiger, H. A.

1979-01-01

44

An MRI-compatible three-axis focused ultrasound system for performing drug delivery studies in small animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided focused-ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that can enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents. The objective of this work was to develop a focused-ultrasound system for preclinical research in small animals that is capable of sonicating with high spatial precision within a closed-bore MRI. The system features a computer-controlled, non-magnetic, three-axis positioning system that uses piezoelectric actuators and linear optical encoders to position a focused-ultrasound transducer to targeted tissues under MRI guidance. The actuator and encoder signals are transmitted through low-pass-filtered connectors on a grounded RF-penetration panel to prevent artifacts during image acquisition. The transducer is attached to the positioning system by a rigid arm and is submerged within a closed water tank. The arm passes into the tank through flexible bellows to ensure that the system remains sealed. An RF coil acquires high-resolution images in the vicinity of the target tissue. An aperture on the water tank, centered about the RF coil, provides an access point for target sonication. Registration between ultrasound and MRI coordinates involves sonicating a temperature-sensitive phantom and measuring the centroid of the thermal focal zone in 3D with MR thermometry. Linear distances of 5 cm with a positioning resolution of 0.05 mm can be achieved for each axis. The system was operated successfully on MRI scanners from different vendors at both 1.5 and 3.0 T, and simultaneous motion and imaging was possible without any mutual interference or imaging artifacts. This system is used for high-throughput small-animal experiments to study the efficacy of ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery.

Waspe, Adam C.; Chau, Anthony; Kukic, Aleksandra; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

2010-03-01

45

Reduction of machining errors of a three-axis machine tool by on-machine measurement and error compensation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a method to reduce the machining errors of a three-axis machine tool by implementing an on-machine measurement with a touch probe. Probing errors of a touch probe and positioning errors of a machine tool, inevitably included in the measurement data, are compensated for to obtain the true machining errors for the repeated machining process. Positioning errors of

J. P. Choi; B. K. Min; S. J. Lee

2004-01-01

46

Design and test of a high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Marshall is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for thrust-vector control (TVC) system testing and implementation in spacecraft control/gimballing systems, with a view to the replacement of hydraulic hardware. TVC system control is furnished by solid state controllers and power supplies; a pair of resolvers supply position feedback to the controller for precise positioning. Performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulic TVC systems are performed.

Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

1992-01-01

47

Analysis of Thrust Vectoring Capabilities for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strategy to mitigate the impact of the trajectory design of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) on the attitude control design is described in this paper. This paper shows how the thrust vectoring control torques, i.e. the torques required to steer the vehicle, depend on various parameters (thrust magnitude, thrust pod articulation angles, and thrust moment arms). Rather than using the entire reaction control system (RCS) system to steer the spacecraft, we investigate the potential utilization of only thrust vectoring of the main ion engines for the required attitude control to follow the representative trajectory. This study has identified some segments of the representative trajectory where the required control torque may exceed the designed ion engine capability, and how the proposed mitigation strategy succeeds in reducing the attitude control torques to within the existing capability.

Quadrelli, Marco B .; Gromov, Konstantin; Murray, Emmanuell

2005-01-01

48

Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

Lamb, Milton

1995-01-01

49

Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

Brenner, Martin J.

1996-01-01

50

Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Characteristics of a Model Representative of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 70 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.

Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.

1995-01-01

51

Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

1974-01-01

52

Attitude control of a spinning rocket via thrust vectoring  

SciTech Connect

Two controllers are developed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that has a thrust vectoring capability. The first controller has a single-input/single-output design that ignores the gyroscopic coupling between the control channels. The second controller has a multi-input/multi-output structure that is specifically intended to account for the gyroscopic coupling effects. A performance comparison between the two approached is conducted for a range of roll rates. Each controller is tested for the ability to track step commands, and for the amount of coupling impurity. Both controllers are developed via a linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis procedure, which is motivated by the multi-input/multi-output nature of second controller. Time responses and a singular value analysis are used to evaluate controller performance. This paper describes the development and comparison of two controllers that are designed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that is equipped with thrust vector control. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

White, J.E.

1990-12-19

53

Test stand for precise measurement of impulse and thrust vector of small attitude control jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test stand which accurately measures the impulse bit and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters used in the attitude control system of space vehicles has been developed. It can be used to measure, in a vacuum or ambient environment, both impulse and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters using hydrazine or inert gas propellants. The ballistic pendulum configuration was selected because of its accuracy, simplicity, and versatility. The pendulum is mounted on flexure pivots rotating about a vertical axis at the center of its mass. The test stand has the following measurement capabilities: impulse of 0.00004 to 4.4 N-sec (0.00001 to 1.0 lb-sec) with a pulse duration of 0.5 msec to 1 sec; static thrust of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) with a 5 percent resolution; and thrust angle alinement of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) thrusters with 0.01 deg accuracy.

Woodruff, J. R.; Chisel, D. M.

1973-01-01

54

An MRI-compatible three-axis focused ultrasound system for performing drug delivery studies in small animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to develop an MRI-compatible focused-ultrasound system for preclinical research in small animal models capable of delivering exposures with high spatial precision in a closed-bore clinical imager. A computer-controlled, non-magnetic, 3-axis positioning system was developed using ceramic actuators and linear encoders to position a focused-ultrasound transducer within a clinical MR scanner. Registration between ultrasound and MRI coordinates involves sonicating a tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom and measuring the centroid of the thermal focal zone with MR thermometry. Linear distances of 5 cm with a positioning resolution of 0.1 mm were achieved for each axis. The system was operated successfully in MR imagers from different vendors at both 1.5 and 3.0 T, and simultaneous motion and imaging was possible without any mutual interference or imaging artifacts. Initial experiments involving opening of the blood-brain barrier at specific targets within the brain suggest a targeting accuracy of 0.4 mm.

Waspe, Adam C.; Chau, Anthony; Kukic, Aleksandra; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

2010-03-01

55

Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

Miller, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

56

Multiaxis thrust vectoring using axisymmetric nozzles and postexit vanes on an F/A-18 configuration vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based investigation was conducted on an operational system of multiaxis thrust vectoring using postexit vanes around an axisymmetric nozzle. This thrust vectoring system will be tested on the NASA F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. The system provides thrust vectoring capability in both pitch and yaw. Ground based data were gathered from two separate tests at NASA Langley Research Center. The first was a static test in the 16-foot Transonic Tunnel Cold-Jet Facility with a 14.25 percent scale model of the axisymmetric nozzle and the postexit vanes. The second test was conducted in the 30 by 60 foot wind tunnel with a 16 percent F/A-18 complete configuration model. Data from the two sets are being used to develop models of jet plume deflection and thrust loss as a function of vane deflection. In addition, an aerodynamic interaction model based on plume deflection angles will be developed. Results from the scale model nozzle test showed that increased vane deflection caused exhaust plume turning. Aerodynamic interaction effects consisted primarily of favorable interaction of moments and unfavorable interaction of forces caused by the vectored jet plume.

Bowers, Albion H.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Grafton, Sue B.; Mason, Mary L.; Peron, Lee R.

1991-01-01

57

Static calibration of a two-dimensional wedge nozzle with thrust vectoring and spanwise blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a static calibration of the two dimensional wedge nozzles on a STOL configuration of a large-scale fighter model are reported. These nozzles internally turn the efflux produced by two turbojets down 25 degrees and exhaust it over the deflected trailing edge of the wing. This arrangement provides direct thrust lift, enhances wing lift by producting supercirculation, and provides thrust vectoring by varying the deflection of the wing's trailing edge. The thrust is vectored from 10 deg to 38 deg. This system was calibrated with spanwise blowing for augmentation of the leading-edge vortex. When 16% of the turbojet efflux is blown spanwise, the thrust recovered is 92% of the thrust produced when the total efflux is exhausted longitudinally.

Harris, M. J.; Falarski, M. D.

1980-01-01

58

Static performance of an axisymmetric nozzle with post-exit vanes for multiaxis thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the flow-turning capability and the nozzle internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle with post-exit vanes installed for multiaxis thrust vectoring. The effects of vane curvature, vane location relative to the nozzle exit, number of vanes, and vane deflection angle were determined. A comparison of the post-exit-vane thrust-vectoring concept with other thrust-vectoring concepts is provided. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.6 to 6.0.

Berrier, Bobby L.; Mason, Mary L.

1988-01-01

59

Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

1997-01-01

60

Static internal performance of an axisymmetric nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring axisymmetric nozzle. Thrust vectoring for this nozzle was achieved by deflection of only the divergent section of this nozzle. The effects of nozzle power setting and divergent flap length were studied at nozzle deflection angles of 0 to 30 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

Carson, George T., Jr.; Capone, Francis J.

1991-01-01

61

Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated and the location of the sonic plane may be further stabilized.

Wing, David J.

1994-01-01

62

Static performance of a cruciform nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring and reverse-thrust capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiaxis thrust vectoring nozzle designed to have equal flow turning capability in pitch and yaw was conceived and experimentally tested for internal, static performance. The cruciform-shaped convergent-divergent nozzle turned the flow for thrust vectoring by deflecting the divergent surfaces of the nozzle, called flaps. Methods for eliminating physical interference between pitch and yaw flaps at the larger multiaxis deflection angles was studied. These methods included restricting the pitch flaps from the path of the yaw flaps and shifting the flow path at the throat off the nozzle centerline to permit larger pitch-flap deflections without interfering with the operation of the yaw flaps. Two flap widths were tested at both dry and afterburning settings. Vertical and reverse thrust configurations at dry power were also tested. Comparison with two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles showed lower but still competitive thrust performance and thrust vectoring capability.

Wing, David J.; Asbury, Scott C.

1992-01-01

63

Static Investigation of a Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle With Variable Internal Contouring Ability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust efficiency and vectoring performance of a convergent-divergent nozzle were investigated at static conditions in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The diamond-shaped nozzle was capable of varying the internal contour of each quadrant individually by using cam mechanisms and retractable drawers to produce pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. Pitch thrust vectoring was achieved by either retracting the lower drawers to incline the throat or varying the internal flow-path contours to incline the throat. Yaw thrust vectoring was achieved by reducing flow area left of the nozzle centerline and increasing flow area right of the nozzle centerline; a skewed throat deflected the flow in the lateral direction.

Wing, David J.; Mills, Charles T. L.; Mason, Mary L.

1997-01-01

64

Fluidic Thrust Vectoring of an Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle at Static Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sub-scale experimental static investigation of an axisymmetric nozzle with fluidic injection for thrust vectoring was conducted at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. Fluidic injection was introduced through flush-mounted injection ports in the divergent section. Geometric variables included injection-port geometry and location. Test conditions included a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 10 and a range of injection total pressure ratio from no-flow to 1.5. The results indicate that fluidic injection in an axisymmetric nozzle operating at design conditions produced significant thrust-vector angles with less reduction in thrust efficiency than that of a fluidically-vectored rectangular jet. The axisymmetric geometry promoted a pressure relief mechanism around the injection slot, thereby reducing the strength of the oblique shock and the losses associated with it. Injection port geometry had minimal effect on thrust vectoring.

Wing, David J.; Giuliano, Victor J.

1997-01-01

65

Direction finding and antenna calibration through analytical inversion of radio measurements performed using a system of two or three electric dipole antennas on a three-axis stabilized spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analytical inversion method to achieve direction-finding (DF) (i.e., retrieve the direction of arrival of an incoming electromagnetic wave, its flux, and its full polarization state) using radio measurements performed using a system of two or three electric dipole antennas on a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) radio receiver on board Cassini includes

B. Cecconi; P. Zarka

2005-01-01

66

An Experimental/Modeling Study of Jet Attachment during Counterflow Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have shown the applicability of vectoring rectangular jets using asymmetrically applied counterflow in the presence of a short collar. This novel concept has applications in the aerospace industry where counterflow can be used to vector the thrust of a jet's exhaust, shortening take-off and landing distances and enhancing in-flight maneuverability of the aircraft. Counterflow thrust vectoring, 'CFTV' is desirable due to its fast time response, low thrust loss, and absence of moving parts. However, implementation of a CFTV system is only possible if bistable jet attachment can be prevented. This can be achieved by properly designing the geometry of the collar. An analytical model is developed herein to predict the conditions under which a two-dimensional jet will attach to an offset curved wall. Results from this model are then compared with experiment; for various jet exit Mach numbers, collar offset distances, and radii of curvature. Their excellent correlation permits use of the model as a tool for designing a CFTV system.

Strykowski, Paul J.

1997-01-01

67

Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Foster, John V.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Connelly, Patrick J.; Kelly, John W.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thomas, Michael; Wichman, Keith D.; Wilson, R. Joseph

1996-01-01

68

A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

1998-01-01

69

Attitude Determination for NPS Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator  

E-print Network

three-axis motion of a spacecraft and has an optical system emulating a bifocal space telescope. 1, is designed for developing and validating acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies telescopes. The telescopes are used to redirect the laser light from the ground (or space) to a distant

70

MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model predictive control (MPC) is applied to the Caltech ducted fan, a thrust-vectored ?ight experiment. A real-time trajectory generation software based on spline theory and sequential quadratic programming is used to implement the MPC controllers. Timing issues related to the computation and implementation of repeatedly updated optimal trajectories are discussed. Results show computational speeds greater than 10 Hz, 2.5 times

William B. Dunbar; Mark B. Milam; Ryan Franz; Richard M. Murray

2002-01-01

71

Multiaxis aircraft control power from thrust vectoring at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive research programs conducted at the Langley Research Center have shown that thrust vectoring can be provided by multifunction (nonaxisymmetric) nozzles. Most of this research has been conducted on pitch vectoring at both static and forward flight conditions. Recent efforts have been aimed at evaluating yaw vectoring concepts at static (wind off) conditions. This paper summarizes results for three different twin-engine fighter configurations tested over a Mach number range of 0.15 to 2.47 at angles of attack up to 35 deg. The objective of these investigations was to determine the multiaxis control power characteristics provided by thrust vectoring. All three configurations employed two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles which provided pitch vectoring by differential deflection of the upper and lower nozzle divergent flaps. Three different means of yaw vectoring were tested: (1) a translating nozzle sidewall; (2) yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls; and (3) canted nozzles. These investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10x10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. Longitudinal and direction control power from thrust vectoring was greater than that provided by aerodynamic control effectors at low speed or at high angles of attack.

Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.

1986-01-01

72

Effect of thrust vectoring and wing maneuver devices on transonic aeropropulsive characteristics of a supersonic fighter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced fighter designed for supersonic cruise were determined in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the interactive effects of thrust vectoring and wing maneuver devices on lift and drag and to determine trim characteristics. The wing maneuver devices consisted of a drooped leading edge and a trailing-edge flap. Thrust vectoring was accomplished with two dimensional (nonaxisymmetric) convergent-divergent nozzles located below the wing in two single-engine podded nacelles. A canard was utilized for trim. Thrust vector angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, and 30 deg were tested in combination with a drooped wing leading edge and with wing trailing-edge flap deflections up to 30 deg. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, at angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg, and at nozzle pressure ratios from about 1 (jet off) to 10. Reynolds number based on mean aerodynamic chord varied from 9.24 x 10 to the 6th to 10.56 x 10 to the 6th.

Capone, F. J.; Reubush, D. E.

1983-01-01

73

Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

Haag, Thomas

2002-01-01

74

Dryden/Edwards 1994 Thrust-Vectoring Aircraft Fleet - F-18 HARV, X-31, F-16 MATV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three thrust-vectoring aircraft at Edwards, California, each capable of flying at extreme angles of attack, cruise over the California desert in formation during flight in March 1994. They are, from left, NASA's F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; the X-31, flown by the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) at Dryden; and the Air Force F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) aircraft. All three aircraft were flown in different programs and were developed independently. The NASA F-18 HARV was a testbed to produce aerodynamic data at high angles of attack to validate computer codes and wind tunnel research. The X-31 was used to study thrust vectoring to enhance close-in air combat maneuvering, while the F-16 MATV was a demonstration of how thrust vectoring could be applied to operational aircraft.

1994-01-01

75

GRADIO three-axis electrostatic accelerometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dedicated accelerometers for satellite gravity gradiometry (GRADIO project) are described. The design profits from experience acquired with the CACTUS accelerometer payload of the satellite CASTOR-D5B and studies of highly accurate accelerometers for inertial navigation. The principle of operation, based on a three-axis electrostatic suspension of a cubic proof mass, is well suited for the measurements of accelerations less than 0.0001 m/sec/sec. A resolution better than 10 to the minus 11th power m/sec/sec/sq root Hz is expected.

Bernard, A.

1987-01-01

76

Evaluation of dual flow thrust vector nozzles with exhaust stream impingement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To supplement previous work performed by NASA, a cold-jet facility was established at the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo campus. The purpose of this facility is to continue the studies of cold flow multiaxis thrust vectoring conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. A single nozzle test apparatus was completed and is presently operational. Included are the results of the single flow test envelope that was requested by NASA personnel. Details about the test apparatus are included in the Cal Poly Semi-Annual Progress report.

Carpenter, Thomas W.; Dobbins, Sean; Vaccarezza, Steven

1992-01-01

77

Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric investigation of the static internal performance of multifunction two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles has been made in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. All nozzles had a constant throat area and aspect ratio. The effects of upper and lower flap angles, divergent flap length, throat approach angle, sidewall containment, and throat geometry were determined. All nozzles were tested at a thrust vector angle that varied from 5.60 tp 23.00 deg. The nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for all configurations.

Bare, E. Ann; Reubush, David E.

1987-01-01

78

Performance characteristics of two multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzles at Mach numbers up to 1.28  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust-vectoring axisymmetric (VA) nozzle and a spherical convergent flap (SCF) thrust-vectoring nozzle were tested along with a baseline nonvectoring axisymmetric (NVA) nozzle in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.28 and nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 8. Test parameters included geometric yaw vector angle and unvectored divergent flap length. No pitch vectoring was studied. Nozzle drag, thrust minus drag, yaw thrust vector angle, discharge coefficient, and static thrust performance were measured and analyzed, as well as external static pressure distributions. The NVA nozzle and the VA nozzle displayed higher static thrust performance than the SCF nozzle throughout the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) range tested. The NVA nozzle had higher overall thrust minus drag than the other nozzles throughout the NPR and Mach number ranges tested. The SCF nozzle had the lowest jet-on nozzle drag of the three nozzles throughout the test conditions. The SCF nozzle provided yaw thrust angles that were equal to the geometric angle and constant with NPR. The VA nozzle achieved yaw thrust vector angles that were significantly higher than the geometric angle but not constant with NPR. Nozzle drag generally increased with increases in thrust vectoring for all the nozzles tested.

Wing, David J.; Capone, Francis J.

1993-01-01

79

Static investigation of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap rotation of thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and deflection of flat yaw flaps hinged at the end of the sidewalls for yaw thrust vectoring. The hinge location of the yaw flaps was varied at four positions from the nozzle exit plane to the throat plane. The yaw flaps were designed to contain the flow laterally independent of power setting. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the yaw flap deflected into the exhaust stream and the divergent flaps, the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw flap deflection. The impact of varying the nozzle pitch vector angle, throat area, yaw flap hinge location, yaw flap length, and yaw flap deflection angle on nozzle internal performance characteristics, was studied. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.0. Static results indicate that configurations with the yaw flap hinge located upstream of the exit plane provide relatively high levels of thrust vectoring efficiency without causing large losses in resultant thrust ratio. Therefore, these configurations represent a viable concept for providing simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring.

Taylor, John G.

1990-01-01

80

Three-axis particle impact probe  

DOEpatents

Three-axis particle impact probes detect particle impact vectors along x-, y-, and z-axes by spherical probe head mounted on the outer end of a shaft that is flexibly mounted in silicone rubber at the top of a housing so as to enable motion imparted to the head upon impact to be transmitted to a grounded electrode secured to the shaft within the housing. Excitable electrodes are mounted in the housing in a fixed position, spaced apart from the ground electrode and forming, with the ground electrode, capacitor pairs. Movement of the ground electrode results in changes in capacitance, and these difference in capacitance are used for measurement or derivation of momentum vectors along each of the three axes. In one embodiment, the ground electrode is mounted at the base of the shaft and is secured to a silicone rubber layer at the top of the housing, providing for cantilevered movement. In another embodiment, the shaft is mounted at its mid point in a flexible bushing so that it undergoes pivotal movement around that point.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Jr., Nelson S. (Morgantown, WV); Utt, Carroll E. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01

81

A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple dynamic engine model was developed for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. This paper includes a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring and the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000-ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000-ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

Johnson, Steven A.

1990-01-01

82

Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted at wind-off conditions in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with a thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg. Vectoring was accomplished by a downward rotation of a hinged upper convergent flap and a corresponding rotation of a center-pivoted lower convergent flap. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle and upper-rotating-flap geometry on internal nozzle performance characteristics were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 5.0.

Leavitt, L. D.

1985-01-01

83

Static internal performance of single-expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted at static conditions (wind off) in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle, sidewall containment, ramp curvature, lower-flap lip angle, and ramp length on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single-expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated. Geometric thrust-vector angle was varied from -20 deg. to 60 deg., and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 10.0.

Berrier, B. L.; Leavitt, L. D.

1984-01-01

84

Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

2010-01-01

85

PAB3D Simulations of a Nozzle with Fluidic Injection for Yaw Thrust-Vector Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and computational study was conducted on an exhaust nozzle with fluidic injection for yaw thrust-vector control. The nozzle concept was tested experimentally in the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility (JETF) at nozzle pressure ratios up to 4 and secondary fluidic injection flow rates up to 15 percent of the primary flow rate. Although many injection-port geometries and two nozzle planforms (symmetric and asymmetric) were tested experimentally, this paper focuses on the computational results of the more successful asymmetric planform with a slot injection port. This nozzle concept was simulated with the Navier-Stokes flow solver, PAB3D, invoking the Shih, Zhu, and Lumley algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (ASM) at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) of 2,3, and 4 with secondary to primary injection flow rates (w(sub s)/w(sub p)) of 0, 2, 7 and 10 percent.

Deere, Karen A.

1998-01-01

86

Static internal performance of a single expansion ramp nozzle with multiaxis thrust vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted at static conditions in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle. Yaw vectoring was achieved by deflecting yaw flaps in the nozzle sidewall into the nozzle exhaust flow. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the variable angle yaw flap deflected into the exhaust flow and the nozzle upper ramp and lower flap which were deflected for pitch vectoring, the downstream corners of both the nozzle ramp and lower flap were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw vectoring. The effects of nozzle upper ramp and lower flap cutout, yaw flap hinge line location and hinge inclination angle, sidewall containment, geometric pitch vector angle, and geometric yaw vector angle were studied. This investigation was conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

Capone, Francis J.; Schirmer, Alberto W.

1993-01-01

87

Fiber-optic three axis magnetometer prototype development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research program was to develop a high sensitivity, fiber optic, interferometric, three-axis magnetometer for interplanetary spacecraft applications. Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) has successfully integrated a low noise, high bandwidth interferometer with high sensitivity metallic glass transducers. Also, DTI has developed sophisticated signal processing electronics and complete data acquisition, filtering, and display software. The sensor was packaged in a compact, low power and weight unit which facilitates deployment. The magnetic field sensor had subgamma sensitivity and a dynamic range of 10(exp 5) gamma in a 10 Hz bandwidth. Furthermore, the vector instrument exhibited the lowest noise level when only one axis was in operation. A system noise level of 1 gamma rms was observed in a 1 Hz bandwidth. However, with the other two channels operating, the noise level increased by about one order of magnitude. Higher system noise was attributed to cross-channel interference among the dither fields.

Wang, Thomas D.; Mccomb, David G.; Kingston, Bradley R.; Dube, C. Michael; Poehls, Kenneth A.; Wanser, Keith

1989-01-01

88

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem FMEA/CIL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuator (ATVD) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATVC hardware. The IOA product for the ATVC actuator analysis consisted of 25 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 16 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 21 FMEAs and 13 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

Wilson, R. E.

1988-01-01

89

A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

Johnson, Steven A.

1990-01-01

90

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Multiple Injection Ports in a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle for Fluidic Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational and experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple injection ports in a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle, for fluidic thrust vectoring. The concept of multiple injection ports was conceived to enhance the thrust vectoring capability of a convergent-divergent nozzle over that of a single injection port without increasing the secondary mass flow rate requirements. The experimental study was conducted at static conditions in the Jet Exit Test Facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex at NASA Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary nozzle pressure ratios up to 1 for five configurations. The computational study was conducted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Internal nozzle performance was predicted for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with a secondary nozzle pressure ratio of 0.7 for two configurations. Results from the experimental study indicate a benefit to multiple injection ports in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In general, increasing the number of injection ports from one to two increased the pitch thrust vectoring capability without any thrust performance penalties at nozzle pressure ratios less than 4 with high secondary pressure ratios. Results from the computational study are in excellent agreement with experimental results and validates PAB3D as a tool for predicting internal nozzle performance of a two dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle with multiple injection ports.

Waithe, Kenrick A.; Deere, Karen A.

2003-01-01

91

Attitude determination of small spinning spacecraft using three axis magnetometer and solar panels data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for attitude determination of a spinning spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit using three axis magnetometer and solar panels data is proposed. With this algorithm, the solar panels necessary for power generation are also used as a sensing system for attitude determination. The algorithm employs voltage, current and temperature measurements from all of the solar panels to reconstruct the

F. Santoni; F. Bolotti

2000-01-01

92

Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers.

Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

2013-11-01

93

Three-axis attitude determination via Kalman filtering of magnetometer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis Magnetometer/Kalman Filter attitude determination system for a spacecraft in low-altitude Earth orbit is developed, analyzed, and simulation tested. The motivation for developing this system is to achieve light weight and low cost for an attitude determination system. The extended Kalman filter estimates the attitude, attitude rates, and constant disturbance torques. Accuracy near that of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model is achieved. Covariance computation and simulation testing demonstrate the filter's accuracy. One test case, a gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft with a pitch momentum wheel and a magnetically-anchored damper, is a real satellite on which this attitude determination system will be used. The application to a nadir pointing satellite and the estimation of disturbance torques represent the significant extensions contributed by this paper. Beyond its usefulness purely for attitude determination, this system could be used as part of a low-cost three-axis attitude stabilization system.

Martel, Francois; Pal, Parimal K.; Psiaki, Mark L.

1988-01-01

94

Stable Three-Axis Nuclear Spin Gyroscope in Diamond  

E-print Network

We propose a sensitive and stable three-axis gyroscope in diamond. We achieve high sensitivity by exploiting the long coherence time of the N14 nuclear spin associated with the Nitrogen-Vacancy center in diamond, and the efficient polarization and measurement of its electronic spin. While the gyroscope is based on a simple Ramsey interferometry scheme, we use coherent control of the quantum sensor to improve its coherence time as well as its robustness against long-time drifts, thus achieving a very robust device with a resolution of 0.5mdeg/s/(Hz mm^3)^(1/2). In addition, we exploit the four axes of delocalization of the Nitrogen-Vacancy center to measure not only the rate of rotation, but also its direction, thus obtaining a compact three-axis gyroscope.

Ajoy, Ashok

2012-01-01

95

Stable Three-Axis Nuclear Spin Gyroscope in Diamond  

E-print Network

We propose a sensitive and stable three-axis gyroscope in diamond. We achieve high sensitivity by exploiting the long coherence time of the N14 nuclear spin associated with the Nitrogen-Vacancy center in diamond, and the efficient polarization and measurement of its electronic spin. While the gyroscope is based on a simple Ramsey interferometry scheme, we use coherent control of the quantum sensor to improve its coherence time as well as its robustness against long-time drifts, thus achieving a very robust device with a resolution of 0.5mdeg/s/(Hz mm^3)^(1/2). In addition, we exploit the four axes of delocalization of the Nitrogen-Vacancy center to measure not only the rate of rotation, but also its direction, thus obtaining a compact three-axis gyroscope.

Ashok Ajoy; Paola Cappellaro

2012-05-07

96

An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

1990-01-01

97

Thrust vectoring effects of a transverse gas injection into a supersonic cross flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transverse gas injection into the main supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent (C-D) propulsive nozzle is investigated for the fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) possibilities as the segment part of the CNES "Perseus" project. Truncated ideal contour and conical C-D nozzles with different position and angle of the secondary circular injection port are selected as test models in the current numerical and experimental study. Analytical approach revealed parameters which affect the FTV efficiency, these criterions are further numerically explored and results data of the conical nozzle test cases are compared and coupled with the ones from experiments. It is found that upstream inclined injection has positive effect on vectoring capabilities and that with moderate secondary to primary mass-flow ratios, ranging around 5%, pertinent vector side force is possible to be achieved.

Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Leger, L.; Depussay, E.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.

2013-03-01

98

Design and Modeling of a Three-axis Piezoresistive Microelectronic Accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for automotive industry and biomedical applications (BioMEMS) have the fastest growth rate within the MEMS market. The Microsystems job market imposes to research laboratories and universities to respond by increasing the quality of MEMS engineering and informatics interdisciplinary training programs. In this fact, our work consists to study and develop a three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer having uniform sensitivities along to three axes. This sensor which is made of a heavy proof mass and four long beams, allow us to obtain high sensitivities, by reducing the resonant frequencies. Uniform axial sensitivities, with a transverse sensitivity, could be obtained using a three-axis sensor. The stress analysis of this sensor was performed in order to determine the positions of the piezoresistances, in the four flexure beams.

Benmoussa, N.; Benichou, A.; Ghaffour, K.; Benyoucef, B.

99

Method for spinning up a three-axis controlled spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis controlled spacecraft (1), typically a satellite, is spun up about its roll axis (20) prior to firing a motor (2), i.e., a perigee kick motor, to achieve the requisite degree of angular momentum stiffness. Thrusters (21) for imparting rotation about the roll axis (20) are activated in open-loop fashion, typically at less than full duty cycle. Cross-axis torques induced by this rotational motion are compensated for by means of closed control loops for each of the pitch and yaw axes (30, 40, respectively). Each closed control loop combines a prebias torque (72) with torques (75, 74) representative of position and rate feedback information, respectively. A deadband (52) within each closed control loop can be widened during the spinup, to conserve fuel. Position feedback information (75) in each of the control loops is disabled upon saturation of the gyroscope associated with the roll axis (20).

Vorlicek, Preston L. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

100

Static internal performance of a thrust vectoring and reversing two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with an aft flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static internal performance of a multifunction nozzle having some of the geometric characteristics of both two-dimensional convergent-divergent and single expansion ramp nozzles has been investigated in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The internal expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of two symmetrical flat surfaces of equal length, and the external expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of a single aft flap. The aft flap could be varied in angle independently of the upper internal expansion surface to which it was attached. The effects of internal expansion ratio, nozzle thrust-vector angle (-30 deg. to 30 deg., aft flap shape, aft flap angle, and sidewall containment were determined for dry and afterburning power settings. In addition, a partial afterburning power setting nozzle, a fully deployed thrust reverser, and four vertical takeoff or landing nozzle, configurations were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for the dry power nozzles and 7 for the afterburning power nozzles.

Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

1986-01-01

101

Novel calibration algorithm for a three-axis strapdown magnetometer.  

PubMed

A complete error calibration model with 12 independent parameters is established by analyzing the three-axis magnetometer error mechanism. The said model conforms to an ellipsoid restriction, the parameters of the ellipsoid equation are estimated, and the ellipsoid coefficient matrix is derived. However, the calibration matrix cannot be determined completely, as there are fewer ellipsoid parameters than calibration model parameters. Mathematically, the calibration matrix derived from the ellipsoid coefficient matrix by a different matrix decomposition method is not unique, and there exists an unknown rotation matrix R between them. This paper puts forward a constant intersection angle method (angles between the geomagnetic field and gravitational field are fixed) to estimate R. The Tikhonov method is adopted to solve the problem that rounding errors or other errors may seriously affect the calculation results of R when the condition number of the matrix is very large. The geomagnetic field vector and heading error are further corrected by R. The constant intersection angle method is convenient and practical, as it is free from any additional calibration procedure or coordinate transformation. In addition, the simulation experiment indicates that the heading error declines from ±1° calibrated by classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.2° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method, and the signal-to-noise ratio is 50 dB. The actual experiment exhibits that the heading error is further corrected from ±0.8° calibrated by the classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.3° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method. PMID:24831110

Liu, Yan Xia; Li, Xi Sheng; Zhang, Xiao Juan; Feng, Yi Bo

2014-01-01

102

Novel Calibration Algorithm for a Three-Axis Strapdown Magnetometer  

PubMed Central

A complete error calibration model with 12 independent parameters is established by analyzing the three-axis magnetometer error mechanism. The said model conforms to an ellipsoid restriction, the parameters of the ellipsoid equation are estimated, and the ellipsoid coefficient matrix is derived. However, the calibration matrix cannot be determined completely, as there are fewer ellipsoid parameters than calibration model parameters. Mathematically, the calibration matrix derived from the ellipsoid coefficient matrix by a different matrix decomposition method is not unique, and there exists an unknown rotation matrix R between them. This paper puts forward a constant intersection angle method (angles between the geomagnetic field and gravitational field are fixed) to estimate R. The Tikhonov method is adopted to solve the problem that rounding errors or other errors may seriously affect the calculation results of R when the condition number of the matrix is very large. The geomagnetic field vector and heading error are further corrected by R. The constant intersection angle method is convenient and practical, as it is free from any additional calibration procedure or coordinate transformation. In addition, the simulation experiment indicates that the heading error declines from ±1° calibrated by classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.2° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method, and the signal-to-noise ratio is 50 dB. The actual experiment exhibits that the heading error is further corrected from ±0.8° calibrated by the classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.3° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method. PMID:24831110

Liu, Yan Xia; Li, Xi Sheng; Zhang, Xiao Juan; Feng, Yi Bo

2014-01-01

103

Three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting differential accelerometers have been used to test Newton's inverse square law and have been proposed for other sensitive experiments. These include searches for spin-mass coupling, detecting Earth's gravitomagnetic field, and testing the Equivalence Principle. This article discusses the principle and performance of a sensitive three-axis gravity gradiometer. This device utilizes quantized flux and the Meissner effect to provide stable test mass levitation and signal coupling, and superconducting quantum interference devices to provide very low-noise amplification of the signals. The instrument comprises a total of nine superconducting accelerometers, six linear and three angular. This configuration permits simultaneous measurement of the diagonal components of the gravity gradient tensor as well as platform acceleration in all six degrees of freedom. An analysis of this instrument is presented along with experimental results. Methods to correct for various motion-induced errors are demonstrated. Other error sources are also discussed. The resulting performance of the superconducting gravity gradiometer is 2 x10-11 s-2 Hz-1/2.

Moody, M. Vol; Paik, Ho Jung; Canavan, Edgar R.

2002-11-01

104

Real-Time Attitude Independent Three Axis Magnetometer Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic-reference vectors into an attitude independent observation by using scalar checking. The goal of the full calibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors and non-orthogonality corrections. Although the actual solution to this full calibration problem involves the minimization of a quartic loss function, the problem can be converted into a quadratic loss function by a centering approximation. This leads to a simple batch linear least squares solution. In this paper we develop alternative real-time algorithms based on both the extended Kalman filter and Unscented filter. With these real-time algorithms, a full magnetometer calibration can now be performed on-orbit during typical spacecraft mission-mode operations. Simulation results indicate that both algorithms provide accurate integer resolution in real time, but the Unscented filter is more robust to large initial condition errors than the extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are also tested using actual data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE).

Crassidis, John L.; Lai, Kok-Lam; Harman, Richard R.

2003-01-01

105

Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

1987-01-01

106

ThALES—three axis low energy spectroscopy at the Institut Laue Langevin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on the strength of the present cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN14, but using state-of-the-art neutron optics, we conceived the next generation three-axis instrument for low energy spectroscopy (ThALES) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). The main aims of the new instrument are: (i) to increase the overall data collection rate by rebuilding the neutron optics of the primary spectrometer achieving a higher incident neutron flux as well as by multiplexing the analyser-detector system, (ii) to provide an efficient and easy-to-use polarized neutron option, (iii) to extend the incident neutron range towards higher energies bridging the gap with thermal instruments, and (iv) to be able to use high-field magnets—such as the currently available 15 T cryomagnet—under all possible experimental conditions, i.e. in a wider range of incident energies. The expected increase in count rate by at least one order of magnitude allows for new experiments such as high pressure experiments on small sample sizes or investigations of magnetic excitations in thin films. Polarized inelastic neutron measurements should equal count rates of the present IN14 in unpolarized mode. The implementation of various optical elements enhances the flexibility of the instrument and allows trading momentum resolution for high neutron intensity.

Boehm, M.; Hiess, A.; Kulda, J.; Roux, S.; Saroun, J.

2008-03-01

107

Real-Time Attitude-Independent Three-Axis Magnetometer Calibration  

E-print Network

Real-Time Attitude-Independent Three-Axis Magnetometer Calibration John L. Crassidis Kok-Lam Lai Richard R. Harman Abstract In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic

Crassidis, John L.

108

Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor ?-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; Cuenca, M.; Higuera, J. A.; Díaz, N.; Pazos, M.; García-Hernandez, M.; Buendía, A.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

2015-01-01

109

Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy.  

PubMed

We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor ?-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert. PMID:25638089

Galvis, J A; Herrera, E; Guillamón, I; Azpeitia, J; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Cuenca, M; Higuera, J A; Díaz, N; Pazos, M; García-Hernandez, M; Buendía, A; Vieira, S; Suderow, H

2015-01-01

110

Stable three-axis nuclear-spin gyroscope in diamond  

E-print Network

Gyroscopes find wide applications in everyday life from navigation and inertial sensing to rotation sensors in hand-held devices and automobiles. Current devices, based on either atomic or solid-state systems, impose a ...

Ajoy, Ashok

111

Performance of twin two-dimensional wedge nozzles including thrust vectoring and reversing effects at speeds up to Mach 2.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transonic tunnel and supersonic pressure tunnel tests were reformed to determine the performance characteristics of twin nonaxisymmetric or two-dimensional nozzles with fixed shrouds and variable-geometry wedges. The effects of thrust vectoring, reversing, and installation of various tails were also studied. The investigation was conducted statically and at flight speeds up to a Mach number of 2.20. The total pressure ratio of the simulated jet exhaust was varied up to approximately 26 depending on Mach number. The Reynolds number per meter varied up to 13.20 x 1 million. An analytical study was made to determine the effect on calculated wave drag by varying the mathematical model used to simulate nozzle jet-exhaust plume.

Capone, F. J.; Maiden, D. L.

1977-01-01

112

Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuing challenge for modern instrument pointing control systems is to meet the increasingly stringent pointing performance requirements imposed by emerging advanced scientific, defense, and civilian payloads. Instruments such as adaptive optics telescopes, space interferometers, and optical communications make unprecedented demands on precision pointing capabilities. A cost-effective method was developed for increasing the pointing performance for this class of NASA applications. The solution was to develop an attitude estimator that fuses star tracker and gyro measurements with a high-bandwidth angular rotation sensor (ARS). An ARS is a rate sensor whose bandwidth extends well beyond that of the gyro, typically up to 1,000 Hz or higher. The most promising ARS sensor technology is based on a magnetohydrodynamic concept, and has recently become available commercially. The key idea is that the sensor fusion of the star tracker, gyro, and ARS provides a high-bandwidth attitude estimate suitable for supporting pointing control with a fast-steering mirror or other type of tip/tilt correction for increased performance. The ARS is relatively inexpensive and can be bolted directly next to the gyro and star tracker on the spacecraft bus. The high-bandwidth attitude estimator fuses an ARS sensor with a standard three-axis suite comprised of a gyro and star tracker. The estimation architecture is based on a dual-complementary filter (DCF) structure. The DCF takes a frequency- weighted combination of the sensors such that each sensor is most heavily weighted in a frequency region where it has the lowest noise. An important property of the DCF is that it avoids the need to model disturbance torques in the filter mechanization. This is important because the disturbance torques are generally not known in applications. This property represents an advantage over the prior art because it overcomes a weakness of the Kalman filter that arises when fusing more than one rate measurement. An additional advantage over prior art is that, computationally, the DCF requires significantly fewer real-time calculations than a Kalman filter formulation. There are essentially two reasons for this: the DCF state is not augmented with angular rate, and measurement updates occur at the slower gyro rate instead of the faster ARS sampling rate. Finally, the DCF has a simple and compelling architecture. The DCF is exactly equivalent to flying two identical attitude observers, one at low rate and one at high rate. These attitude observers are exactly of the form currently flown on typical three-axis spacecraft.

Bayard, David S.; Green, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

113

Unshielded three-axis vector operation of a spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer  

E-print Network

the Larmor spin precession in a magnetic field using an optically pumped vapor of alkali-metal3,4 or helium5Unshielded three-axis vector operation of a spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer S. J to spin-exchange collisions. The resonance linewidth and signal strength of the magnetometer compare

Romalis, Mike

114

High performance three-axis actuator in super-multi optical pickup with low crosstalk force  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method to reduce the crosstalk force in main movement, and improve the sensitivity of the three-axis actuator in super-multi optical pickup. A novel magnetic circuit adopting symmetric driving coils and permanent magnets with special placement is developed. Then, the magnetic circuit is optimized with the help of Taguchi method, so as to dramatically improve the

Buqing Zhang; Jianshe Ma; Longfa Pan; Xuemin Cheng; Yi Tang

2008-01-01

115

A new piezoresistive high pressure sensor utilizing combination of three-axis normal stress components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoresistive high pressure sensor utilizing a combination of three-axis normal stress components has been developed. Firstly, the principle, FEM analysis, fabrication and characteristics of a newly developed piezoresistive force sensor are briefly summarized. Secondly, the force sensor is adopted as the sensing unit of a high pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is composed of an embedded force sensor unit,

Toshipki Toriyama; Kazuya Sawa; Yasutada Tanimoto; Susumu Sugiyama

1999-01-01

116

Gait analyzer based on a cell phone with a single three-axis accelerometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a fuss-free gait analyzer based on a single three- axis accelerometer mounted on a cell phone for health care and presence services. It is not necessary for users not to wear sensors on any part of their bodies; all they need to do is to carry the cell phone. Our algorithm has two main functions; one is to

Toshiki Iso; Kenichi Yamazaki

2006-01-01

117

REAL-TIME ATTITUDE-INDEPENDENT THREE-AXIS MAGNETOMETER CALIBRATION  

E-print Network

REAL-TIME ATTITUDE-INDEPENDENT THREE-AXIS MAGNETOMETER CALIBRATION John L. Crassidis and Kok-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are de- rived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer of the full cal- ibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors

Crassidis, John L.

118

Three-axis magnetic flux leakage in-line inspection simulation based on finite-element analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase of pipelines, corrosion leakage accidents happen frequently. Therefore, nondestructive testing technology is important for ensuring the safe operation of the pipelines and energy mining. In this paper, the structure and principle of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection system is introduced first. Besides, a mathematic model of the system according to the ampere circuit rule, flux continuity theorem, and column coordinate transform is built, and the magnetic flux density in every point of space is calculated based on the theory of finite element analysis. Then we analyze and design the disposition of measurement section probes and sensors combining both three-axis MFL in-line inspection and multi-sensor fusion technology. Its advantage is that the three-axis changes of magnetic flux leakage field are measured by the multi-probes at the same time, so we can determine various defects accurately. Finally, the theory of finite element analysis is used to build a finite element simulation model, and the relationship between defects and MFL inspection signals is studied. Simulation and experiment results verify that the method not only enhances the detection ability to different types of defects but also improves the precision and reliability of the inspection system.

Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Lu, Sen-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Ma, Rui-Ze

2013-01-01

119

Static thrust-vectoring performance of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles with post-exit yaw vanes. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Aug. 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the 16-ft transonic tunnel to determine the performance and turning effectiveness of post-exit yaw vanes installed on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles. One nozzle design that was previously tested was used as a baseline, simulating dry power and afterburning power nozzles at both 0 and 20 degree pitch vectoring conditions. Vanes were installed on these four nozzle configurations to study the effects of vane deflection angle, longitudinal and lateral location, size, and camber. All vanes were hinged at the nozzle sidewall exit, and in addition, some were also hinged at the vane quarter chord (double-hinged). The vane concepts tested generally produced yaw thrust vectoring angles much less than the geometric vane angles, for (up to 8 percent) resultant thrust losses. When the nozzles were pitch vectored, yawing effectiveness decreased as the vanes were moved downstream. Thrust penalties and yawing effectiveness both decreased rapidly as the vanes were moved outboard (laterally). Vane length and height changes increased yawing effectiveness and thrust ratio losses, while using vane camber, and double-hinged vanes increased resultant yaw angles by 50 to 100 percent.

Foley, Robert J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

1991-01-01

120

Optimal Three-Axis Attitude Control Design, Simulation and Experimental Verification for Small Satellites Using Magnetic Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on experience with the small satellite BIRD BIRD (Bispectral Infra-Red Detection) of German Aerospace Center (DLR), this paper proposes a mathematical and numerical approach to compute the most effective dipole moment while taking into account the spatial dipole characteristic of the magnetic actuator system. The control torque is obtained via quaternion feedback control. The control algorithm is tested and verified by orbit simulation. A three-axis pointing accuracy of better than 5 deg and a more efficient utilization of the actuator are achieved. The proposed control algorithm will also be implemented in the upcoming TET-1 on-orbit verification (OOV) mission and the DLR "Compactsat". The algorithm as well as the full attitude control system will be verified via the introduced state-of-art air attitude control test bed.

Yoon, Z.; Terzibaschian, T.; Raschke, C.

2008-08-01

121

Robust three-axis attitude stabilization for inertial pointing spacecraft using magnetorquers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work feedback control laws are designed for achieving three-axis attitude stabilization of inertial pointing spacecraft using only magnetic torquers. The designs are based on an almost periodic model of geomagnetic field along the spacecraft's orbit. Both attitude plus attitude rate feedback and attitude only feedback are proposed. Both feedback laws achieve local exponential stability robustly with respect to large uncertainties in the spacecraft's inertia matrix. The latter properties are proved using general averaging and Lyapunov stability. Simulations are included to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

Celani, Fabio

2015-02-01

122

Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three-axis manual tracking tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal presentation of three-dimensional information on a two-dimensional display screen requires careful design of the projection to the display surface. Monoscopic perspective projection alone is usually not sufficient to represent three-dimensional spatial information. It can, however, be improved by the adjustment of perspective parameters and by geometric visual enhancements such as reference lines and a background grid. Stereoscopic display is another method of providing three-dimensional information to the human operator. Two experiments are performed with three-axis manual tracking tasks. The first experiment investigates the effects of perspective parameters on tracking performance. The second experiment investigates the effects of visual enhancements for both monoscopic and stereoscopic displays. Results indicate that, although stereoscopic displays do generally permit superior tracking performance, monoscopic displays can allow equivalent performance when they are defined with optimal perspective parameters and provided with adequate visual enhancements.

Ellis, Stephen R.; Tyler, Mitchelle E.; Hannaford, Blake; Stark, Lawrence W.; Kim, Won S.

1987-01-01

123

A Three-Axis Force Sensor for Dual Finger Haptic Interfaces  

PubMed Central

In this work we present the design process, the characterization and testing of a novel three-axis mechanical force sensor. This sensor is optimized for use in closed-loop force control of haptic devices with three degrees of freedom. In particular the sensor has been conceived for integration with a dual finger haptic interface that aims at simulating forces that occur during grasping and surface exploration. The sensing spring structure has been purposely designed in order to match force and layout specifications for the application. In this paper the design of the sensor is presented, starting from an analytic model that describes the characteristic matrix of the sensor. A procedure for designing an optimal overload protection mechanism is proposed. In the last part of the paper the authors describe the experimental characterization and the integrated test on a haptic hand exoskeleton showing the improvements in the controller performances provided by the inclusion of the force sensor. PMID:23202012

Fontana, Marco; Marcheschi, Simone; Salsedo, Fabio; Bergamasco, Massimo

2012-01-01

124

Study on grinding of free-form optics surface in three-axis CNC machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the glass is a type of brittle material, so the high-precision free-form optics of glass material is usually machined by the technical of grinding. In this paper, for the characteristics of the diamond grinding wheel, analyzing the grinding path of free-form optics and mathematical model of the path is established based on the three-axis CNC grinding device. Moreover, the cause of the interference in the process of grinding is analyzed and the methods of avoiding. Finally, based on the above analysis results, through the experiment, the free-form optics surface accuracy was reached to 3.6um, realize the machining of the free-form optics.

Yang, Haicheng; Zhang, Yun-long; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Zhibin; Bao, Long-xiang; Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Liu, Xuan-min

2014-08-01

125

Thermomechanical Actuator-Based Three-Axis Optical Scanner for High-Speed Two-Photon Endomicroscope Imaging  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design and characterization of a three-axis thermomechanical actuator-based endoscopic scanner for obtaining ex vivo two-photon images. The scanner consisted of two sub-systems: 1) an optical system (prism, gradient index lens, and optical fiber) that was used to deliver and collect light during imaging and 2) a small-scale silicon electromechanical scanner that could raster scan the focal point of the optics through a specimen. The scanner can be housed within a 7 mm Ø endoscope port and can scan at the speed of 3 kHz × 100 Hz × 30 Hz along three axes throughout a 125 × 125 × 100 ?m3 volume. The high-speed thermomechanical actuation was achieved through the use of geometric contouring, pulsing technique, and mechanical frequency multiplication (MFM), where MFM is a new method for increasing the device cycling speed by pairing actuators of unequal forward and returning stroke speeds. Sample cross-sectional images of 15-?m fluorescent beads are presented to demonstrate the resolution and optical cross-sectioning capability of the two-photon imaging system.

Chen, Shih-Chi; Choi, Heejin; So, Peter T. C.; Culpepper, Martin L.

2015-01-01

126

An accurate calibration method for accelerometer nonlinear scale factor on a low-cost three-axis turntable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) requirements are very demanding on gyroscopes and accelerometers as well as on calibration. To improve the accuracy of SINS, high-accuracy calibration is needed. Adding the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor into the model and reducing estimation errors is essential for improving calibration methods. In this paper, the inertial navigation error model is simplified, including only velocity and tilt errors. Based on the simplified error model, the relationship between the navigation errors (the rates of change of velocity errors) and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration parameters is presented. A tracking model is designed to estimate the rates of change of velocity errors. With a special calibration procedure consisting of six rotation sequences, the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor errors can be computed by the estimates of the rates of change of velocity errors. Simulation and laboratory test results show that the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor can be calibrated with satisfactory accuracy on a low-cost three-axis turntable in several minutes. The comparison with the traditional calibration method highlights the superior performance of the proposed calibration method without precise orientation control. In addition, the proposed calibration method saves a lot of time in comparison with the multi-position calibration method.

Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi; Cai, Qingzhong

2014-02-01

127

Ultrahigh vacuum three-axis cryogenic sample manipulator for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrahigh vacuum three-axis cryogenic sample manipulator suitable for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments was developed. The sample manipulator is constructed by combining three modules with translation, polar rotation, and azimuthal-tilt rotation capabilities. Polar rotation and the azimuthal-tilt rotation are performed using a differentially pumped rotary stage and a sample goniometer, respectively. Continuous 360° rotation around the polar axis is possible. The sample goniometer is capable of azimuthal rotation of up to ±180° and tilt rotation from +95° to -5°, measured from the plane normal to the polar axis. Nonmagnetic materials are used near the sample holder of the goniometer. The sample holder can be cooled using a continuous-flow cryostat. To serve as a radiation shield, the lower portion of the goniometer surrounding the sample holder is cooled separately by another cell filled with liquid nitrogen. With liquid nitrogen or liquid helium for the cryostat, the sample holder can be cooled down to 90 or 12.5 K, respectively.

Aiura, Y.; Bando, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Chiba, A.; Kitagawa, R.; Maruyama, S.; Nishihara, Y.

2003-06-01

128

Three-axis optical force plate for studies in small animal locomotor mechanics  

SciTech Connect

The use of force plates to measure whole-body locomotor mechanics is a well-established technique. However, commercially available force plates are not sensitive enough for use on small-bodied vertebrates or invertebrates. The standard design for single- and multiple-axis, high-sensitivity force plates built by individual research groups uses semiconductor foil strain gauges to measure deflections; yet foil strain gauges are highly temperature and position sensitive, resulting in a drifting base line and nonlinear responses. I present here a design for a three-axis optical force plate that was successfully calibrated to measure forces as small as 1.5 mN and is capable of determining the position of center of pressure with a mean error of 0.07 cm along the X axis and 0.13 cm along the Y axis. Using optical sensors instead of foil strain gauges to measure deflection, this force plate is not subject to temperature-related drift and is more robust against slight positioning inaccuracies. This force plate was used to measure forces produced by amphibious fishes weighing less than 2 g as they jumped off the force platform.

Hsieh, S. Tonia [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2006-05-15

129

3-Axis Magnetic Sensor Hybrid The Honeywell HMC2003 is a high sensitivity, three-axis magnetic sensor hybrid  

E-print Network

3-Axis Magnetic Sensor Hybrid HMC2003 The Honeywell HMC2003 is a high sensitivity, three-axis magnetic sensor hybrid assembly used to measure low magnetic field strengths. Honeywell's most sensitive magneto-resistive sensors (HMC1001 and HMC1002) are utilized to provide the reliability and precision

Kleinfeld, David

130

Diffraction by rectangular parallelepiped, hexagonal cylinder, and three-axis ellipsoid: Some analytic solutions and numerical results  

E-print Network

Diffraction by rectangular parallelepiped, hexagonal cylinder, and three-axis ellipsoid: Some diffraction Nonspherical particles Light scattering a b s t r a c t Analytical solutions are presented for Fraunhofer diffraction by the following non- spherical particles: rectangular parallelepiped, hexagonal

Takano, Yoshihide

131

Diffraction by rectangular parallelepiped, hexagonal cylinder, and three-axis ellipsoid: Some analytic solutions and numerical results  

E-print Network

Diffraction by rectangular parallelepiped, hexagonal cylinder, and three-axis ellipsoid: Some Received in revised form 6 May 2012 Accepted 7 May 2012 Keywords: Fraunhofer diffraction Nonspherical particles Light scattering a b s t r a c t Analytical solutions are presented for Fraunhofer diffraction

Liou, K. N.

132

Three Axis Control of the Hubble Space Telescope Using Two Reaction Wheels and Magnetic Torquer Bars for Science Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is renowned for its superb pointing accuracy of less than 10 milli-arcseconds absolute pointing error. To accomplish this, the HST relies on its complement of four reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) for attitude control and four magnetic torquer bars (MTBs) for momentum management. As with most satellites with reaction wheel control, the fourth RWA provides for fault tolerance to maintain three-axis pointing capability should a failure occur and a wheel is lost from operations. If an additional failure is encountered, the ability to maintain three-axis pointing is jeopardized. In order to prepare for this potential situation, HST Pointing Control Subsystem (PCS) Team developed a Two Reaction Wheel Science (TRS) control mode. This mode utilizes two RWAs and four magnetic torquer bars to achieve three-axis stabilization and pointing accuracy necessary for a continued science observing program. This paper presents the design of the TRS mode and operational considerations necessary to protect the spacecraft while allowing for a substantial science program.

Hur-Diaz, Sun; Wirzburger, John; Smith, Dan

2008-01-01

133

Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

1999-01-01

134

Fully Printed Flexible Fingerprint-like Three-Axis Tactile and Slip Force and Temperature Sensors for Artificial Skin.  

PubMed

A three-axis tactile force sensor that determines the touch and slip/friction force may advance artificial skin and robotic applications by fully imitating human skin. The ability to detect slip/friction and tactile forces simultaneously allows unknown objects to be held in robotic applications. However, the functionalities of flexible devices have been limited to a tactile force in one direction due to difficulties fabricating devices on flexible substrates. Here we demonstrate a fully printed fingerprint-like three-axis tactile force and temperature sensor for artificial skin applications. To achieve economic macroscale devices, these sensors are fabricated and integrated using only printing methods. Strain engineering enables the strain distribution to be detected upon applying a slip/friction force. By reading the strain difference at four integrated force sensors for a pixel, both the tactile and slip/friction forces can be analyzed simultaneously. As a proof of concept, the high sensitivity and selectivity for both force and temperature are demonstrated using a 3 × 3 array artificial skin that senses tactile, slip/friction, and temperature. Multifunctional sensing components for a flexible device are important advances for both practical applications and basic research in flexible electronics. PMID:25437513

Harada, Shingo; Kanao, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

2014-12-23

135

Attitude control study for a large flexible spacecraft using a Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude control performance of the solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) was evaluated. A thrust vector control system for powered flight control was examined along with a gas jet reaction control system, and a reaction wheel system, both of which have been proposed for nonpowered flight control. Comprehensive computer simulations of each control system were made and evaluated using a 30 mode spacecraft model. Results obtained indicate that thrust vector control and reaction wheel systems offer acceptable smooth proportional control. The gas jet control system is shown to be risky for a flexible structure such as SEPS, and is therefore, not recommended as a primary control method.

Tolivar, A. F.; Key, R. W.

1980-01-01

136

Research flight-control system development for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The F-18 high alpha research vehicle was recently modified by adding a thrust vectoring control system. A key element in the modification was the development of a research flight control system integrated with the basic F-18 flight control system. Discussed here are design requirements, system development, and research utility of the resulting configuration as an embedded system for flight research in the high angle of attack regime. Particular emphasis is given to control system modifications and control law features required for high angle of attack flight. Simulation results are used to illustrate some of the thrust vectoring control system capabilities and predicted maneuvering improvements.

Pahle, Joseph W.; Powers, Bruce; Regenie, Victoria; Chacon, Vince; Degroote, Steve; Murnyak, Steven

1991-01-01

137

Operations with the new FUSE observatory: three-axis control with one reaction wheel  

E-print Network

the prime scientific instrument continues to perform well, numerous hardware failures on the attitude data. Keywords: FUSE, satellite operations, attitude control 1. INTRODUCTION The Far Ultraviolet-516-8503; fax 410-516-5494; http://fuse.pha.jhu.edu #12;The FUSE Attitude Control System (ACS) contains two sets

138

Three-axis attitude and direction reference instrument has only one moving part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar vehicle instrument combines the functions of attitude reference, direction reference, and display in a unit having only one moving part. The device, using bubble levels and a calibrated dial, is used as a sextant prior to takeoff, and as a backup navigation system during flight.

Bossler, F. B.

1966-01-01

139

Three-axis stabilization of spacecraft using parameter-independent nonlinear quaternion feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the problem of rigid spacecraft. A nonlinear control law which uses the feedback of the unit quaternion and the measured angular velocities is proposed and is shown to provide global asymptotic stability. The control law does not require the knowledge of the system parameters, and is therefore robust to modeling errors. The significance of the control law is that it can be used for large-angle maneuvers with guaranteed stability.

Joshi, Suresh M.; Kelkar, Atul G.

1994-01-01

140

Fluid slosh dynamics of surface tension tanks in three axis stabilized spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for investigating propellant-tank interaction, satellite-tank interaction, and dynamic behavior of propellant in the tank is summarized. Sloshing with small and large amplitudes, and movement in bulks are considered. The ERNO MAUS tank experiment (EMTE) is described. The EMTE is a spaceborne experiment to study the dynamic behavior, orientation, and stability of liquids in tanks in reduced gravity. The sinusoidal excitation setup, and measurement and observation systems are outlined. Integration in a TEXUS rocket is illustrated.

Beig, H. G.; Hornung, E.

141

Toothbrushing region detection using three-axis accelerometer and magnetic sensor.  

PubMed

Due to the possible occurrence of periodontal disease at an early age, it is important to have proper toothbrushing habits as early as possible. With this aim, the feasibility and concept of a smart toothbrush (ST) capable of tracing toothbrushing motion and orientation information was suggested. In this study, we proposed the advanced ST system and brushing region classification algorithm. In order to trace the brushing region and the orientation of a toothbrush in the mouth, we required the absolute coordinate information of ST. By using tilt-compensated azimuth (heading) algorithm, we found the inclination and orientation information of the toothbrush, and the orientation information while brushing inner tooth surfaces showed specific heading features that could be reliably discriminated from other brushing patterns. In order to evaluate the feasibility of clinical usage of the proposed ST, 16 brushing regions were investigated by 15 individual healthy subjects. The proposed ST system demonstrated 97.1%(±0.91) of the region detection accuracy and 15 brushing regions could be classified. This study also showed that the proposed ST system may be helpful for dental care personnel in patient education and instruction for oral hygiene regarding brushing habits. PMID:22203701

Lee, Young-Jae; Lee, Pil-Jae; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Park, Wonse; Kim, Kee-Deog; Hwang, Dosik; Lee, Jeong-Whan

2012-03-01

142

Attitude determination with three-axis accelerometer for emergency atmospheric entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two algorithms are disclosed that, with the use of a 3-axis accelerometer, will be able to determine the angles of attack, sideslip and roll of a capsule-type spacecraft prior to entry (at very high altitudes, where the atmospheric density is still very low) and during entry. The invention relates to emergency situations in which no reliable attitude and attitude rate are available. Provided that the spacecraft would not attempt a guided entry without reliable attitude information, the objective of the entry system in such case would be to attempt a safe ballistic entry. A ballistic entry requires three controlled phases to be executed in sequence: First, cancel initial rates in case the spacecraft is tumbling; second, maneuver the capsule to a heat-shield-forward attitude, preferably to the trim attitude, to counteract the heat rate and heat load build up; and third, impart a ballistic bank or roll rate to null the average lift vector in order to prevent prolonged lift down situations. Being able to know the attitude, hence the attitude rate, will allow the control system (nominal or backup, automatic or manual) to cancel any initial angular rates. Also, since a heat-shield forward attitude and the trim attitude can be specified in terms of the angles of attack and sideslip, being able to determine the current attitude in terms of these angles will allow the control system to maneuver the vehicle to the desired attitude. Finally, being able to determine the roll angle will allow for the control of the roll ballistic rate during entry.

Garcia-Llama, Eduardo (Inventor)

2012-01-01

143

Three axis pulsed plasma thruster with angled cathode and anode strip lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft attitude and altitude control system utilizes sets of three pulsed plasma thrusters connected to a single controller. The single controller controls the operation of each thruster in the set. The control of a set of three thrusters in the set makes it possible to provide a component of thrust along any one of three desired axes. This configuration reduces the total weight of a spacecraft since only one controller and its associated electronics is required for each set of thrusters rather than a controller for each thruster. The thrusters are positioned about the spacecraft such that the effect of the thrusters is balanced.

Cassady, R. Joseph (Inventor); Myers, Roger M. (Inventor); Osborne, Robert D. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

144

OPMILL - MICRO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC MILLING MACHINES THREE AXIS EQUATION PLOTTING CAPABILITIES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo BASIC and Turbo C are trademarks of Borland International.

Ray, R. B.

1994-01-01

145

Data generator for a satellite-borne three-axis accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric drag has a significant effect on low altitude trajectories. To measure this force, an accelerometer will be tested which senses this nonconservative acceleration. The information obtained will then be used to improve the orbit and obtain a more accurate gravity field model. When the raw data is first received, all known systematic effects will be removed. These include gravity gradient and pitch-rate induced accelerations. However, the preprocessed data will still contain anomalies of which there is little or no a priori knowledge. Satellite attitude thruster-induced vibrations are a major source of unmodeled noise. As for the instrument itself, each axis of the accelerometer adds an undetermined bias to the output accelerations. In addition, the conversion of the digital output to engineering units introduces a scale factor error. Other effects may take the form of additive correlated noise and white noise. The first instrument to be flown is the miniature electrostatic accelerometer (MESA). The MESA senses accelerations along the vehicle pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Relying on the accuracy of the vehicle's attitude control system, these axes are assumed to be along the R,R X V, and -R vectors, respectively. Hence, any attitude errors will be reflected in the measurements. The MESA also introduces undetermined scale factor errors and biases. Consequently, a computer program was designed which applies a filter to the processed accelerations. This filter should statistically remove most of the unmodeled corruptions. The filtered data is then input to a special version of the Celest orbit determination program.

Branch, C. G.

1980-03-01

146

Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

2015-02-01

147

Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.

1972-01-01

148

Experience with a three-axis side-located controller during a static and centrifuge simulation of the piloted launch of a manned multistage vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine a human pilot's ability to control a multistage vehicle through the launch trajectory. The simulation was performed statically and dynamically by utilizing a human centrifuge. An interesting byproduct of the program was the three-axis side-located controller incorporated for pilot control inputs. This method of control proved to be acceptable for the successful completion of the tracking task during the simulation. There was no apparent effect of acceleration on the mechanical operation of the controller, but the pilot's control feel deteriorated as his dexterity decreased at high levels of acceleration. The application of control in a specific control mode was not difficult. However, coordination of more than one mode was difficult, and, in many instances, resulted in inadvertent control inputs. The acceptable control harmony at an acceleration level of 1 g became unacceptable at higher acceleration levels. Proper control-force harmony for a particular control task appears to be more critical for a three-axis controller than for conventional controllers. During simulations in which the pilot wore a pressure suit, the nature of the suit gloves further aggravated this condition.

Andrews, William H.; Holleman, Euclid C.

1960-01-01

149

Fluid slosh studies. Volume 1: Study of slosh dynamics of fluid filled containers on three-axis stabilized spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of the localization of fluid monopropellants in spacecraft tanks are documented. A mathematical formulation and an approximate solution of the cross section of the equilibrium shapes of the liquid surfaces is given. Sample calculations are performed on a tank of type TV-SAT, and guidelines for propellant management devices are derived. In order to obtain mechanical analogs for the dynamic calculation of coupling between liquid motion and spacecraft motion, as input for the attitude control system, use of simplified models of liquid motion was considered. However, the low degree of accuracy because of necessary approximations, and the difficulty in estimating model accuracy, make comparison with experiment necessary. Experiment designs for low gravity tests are given.

Beig, H. G.

1984-11-01

150

Taking low-temperature measurements of remanence beyond the state-of-the-art: new three-axis data from Umkondo Province sills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature cycling of paleomagnetic specimens across the Verwey transition is a common technique used to preferentially remove remanence associated with multi-domain magnetite grains. This low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) step is gaining increasing use in both paleodirectional and paleointensity protocols making it imperative to understand the mechanism, efficiency and possible limitations of LTD. A recently developed cryogenic probe used in conjunction with a superconducting rock magnetometer at the Institute for Rock Magnetism allows for three-axis measurements to be made during cycling to and from low-temperatures in a low-field environment. In this study, we targeted a suite of well-characterized samples from the Umkondo Large Igneous Province of Botswana that displayed large (~50%) demagnetization of the natural remanence after cooling to 77 K including some samples that underwent large directional changes. Three-axis data were continuously collected during low-temperature cycling experiments on both natural remanence and lab-induced anhysteretic remanent magnetization (pARM). Experiments were designed with orthogonal pARMs to observe the behavior and efficiency of demagnetization of remanence carried by low coercivity (multi-domain grains). These experiments revealed high efficiency of demagnetization (>95%) of a pARM imparted to low coercivity grains (AF fields of 0 to 5 mT) with a return to the direction of a pARM imparted to higher coercivity grains (AF fields of 5 to 200 mT). The data also demonstrate that low-temperature demagnetization of such a pARM upon cooling is dominated by changes prior to the Verwey transition or the isotropic point. These results suggests that it is changes in magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K1) at temperatures above the isotropic point that are responsible for the majority of low-temperature demagnetization of multidomain magnetite grains. The low-temperature probe is available for community use at the Institute for Rock Magnetism and we encourage fellowship applications to use it for experiments that continue to take low-temperature measurements of remanence beyond the state-of-the-art.

Swanson-Hysell, N.; Solheid, P.; Feinberg, J. M.

2013-12-01

151

Optimal design and experiment of a three-axis out-of-plane nano positioning stage using a new compact bridge-type displacement amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a new compact three-axis compliant stage employing piezoelectric actuators and a new flexure structure. A proposed stage works out-of-plane (Z, ?x, ?y) direction. The stage consists of 4 amplification flexures mounted piezoelectric actuators. New structure of flexure reduces height and enhances dynamic performance of stage. To certify excellent performance of the stage, comparison accomplished between conventional amplification flexure and new compact bridge type flexure. Modeling and optimal design of new type nano positioning stage performed. The optimal design is executed on the geometric parameters of the proposed flexure structure using Sequential Quadratic Programming. Experiments are carried out to verify the static and dynamic performance of the stage. The proposed out-of-plane nano-positioning stage has a Z-directional motion range 190 ?m and a ?x, ?y-directional motion range ±2 mrad. The resolution of the stage is 4 nm, 40 nrad, and 40 nrad in the Z-, ?x-, and ?y-directional motions, respectively. The size of stage is 150 × 150 × 30 mm3.

Lee, Hak-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hyo-Young; Gweon, Dae-Gab

2013-11-01

152

Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge  

E-print Network

1 Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge John L measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude

Crassidis, John L.

153

SERT 2 gimbal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gimbal system is described that was designed to mount the thruster and to reposition the thrust vector of a mercury ion bombardment thruster through the center of gravity of the SERT 2 assembly. The SERT 2 assembly was launched 3 February 1970. The gimbal ring, gimbal mounts, bearings, actuators, and environmental testing are described. Due to the accurate alinements provided, it was not necessary to use the gimbal for the intended function. However, the gimbals were operated successfully numerous times in space after 8 months of storage.

Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.

1971-01-01

154

Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T Systems Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems and operational summary of the Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T program is presented which describes vehicle assembly facilities, launch facilities, and management responsibilities, and also provides detailed information on the following separate systems: (1) mechanical systems, including structural components, insulation, propulsion units, reaction control, thrust vector control, hydraulic systems, and pneumatic equipment; (2) astrionics systems, such as instrumentation and telemetry, navigation and guidance, C-Band tracking system, and range safety command system; (3) digital computer unit software; (4) flight control systems; (5) electrical/electronic systems; and (6) ground support equipment, including checkout equipment.

1973-01-01

155

Three-axis anisotropic exchange coupling in the single-molecule magnets NEt4[Mn(III)2(5-Brsalen)2(MeOH)2M(III)(CN)6] (M=Ru, Os).  

PubMed

We have investigated the single-molecule magnets [Mn(III)2 (5-Brsalen)2 (MeOH)2 M(III) (CN)6 ]NEt4 (M=Os (1) and Ru (2); 5-Brsalen=N,N'-ethylenebis(5-bromosalicylidene)iminate) by frequency-domain Fourier-transform terahertz electron paramagnetic resonance (THz-EPR), inelastic neutron scattering, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The combination of all three techniques allows for the unambiguous experimental determination of the three-axis anisotropic magnetic exchange coupling between Mn(III) and Ru(III) or Os(III) ions, respectively. Analysis by means of a spin-Hamiltonian parameterization yields excellent agreement with all experimental data. Furthermore, analytical calculations show that the observed exchange anisotropy is due to the bent geometry encountered in both 1 and 2, whereas a linear geometry would lead to an Ising-type exchange coupling. PMID:23386431

Dreiser, Jan; Pedersen, Kasper S; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Sigrist, Marc; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip; Mutka, Hannu; Weihe, Høgni; Mironov, Vladimir S; Bendix, Jesper; Waldmann, Oliver

2013-03-11

156

Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

Obrien, W. J.

1976-01-01

157

SIT-5 system development.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 5-cm structurally integrated ion thruster (SIT-5) has been developed for attitude control and stationkeeping of synchronous satellites. With two-dimension thrust-vectoring grids, a first generation unit has demonstrated a thrust of 0.56 mlb at a beam voltage of 1200 V, total mass efficiency of 64%, and electrical efficiency of 46.8%. Structural integrity is demonstrated with a dielectric-coated grid for shock (30 G), sinusoidal (9 G), and random (19.9 G rms) accelerations. System envelope is 31.8 cm long by 13.9 cm flange bolt circle, with a mass of 8.5 kg, including 6.2 kg mercury propellant. Characteristics of a second-generation unit indicate significant performance gains.

Hyman, J., Jr.

1972-01-01

158

An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major effort at NASA-Lewis in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt to overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times.

Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary E.

1992-01-01

159

A numerical and experimental investigation of the thrust vector control by secondary gas injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical and experimental analysis of the cross injection of secondary gas stream into a supersonic flow is presented. The two dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the explicit Runge-Kutta finite volume method. The equations describing the turbulent flow are closed by an algebraic turbulence model. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with experimental results performed in a rectangular expansion nozzle with a two dimensional injector. Shadow graphs, wall pressure, and side thrust measurements were used as diagnostic tools. A parametric study concerning the influence of different injection conditions and gas media delivers the best injection conditions for a maximal side thust. The effect of the different jet injection conditions is discussed in connection with the corresponding flow structure.

Waidmann, Winfried

1991-07-01

160

Advanced solid rocket motor nozzle thrust vector control flexseal development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced solid rocket motor (ASRM) flexseal development status is reviewed focusing on design goals and requirements, design configuration, analysis activities, and verification tests. It is concluded that the ASRM flexseal incorporates flight-proven materials in an innovative design configuration. Variable thickness shims and efficient packaging of the flexseal make it possible to achieve a significant weight reduction. A flexseal insulator design derived from strategic solid rocket motor experience will provide the necessary bearing thermal protection while minimizing vectoring torque variability.

Prins, William S.; Meyer, Scott A.; Cox, Paul D.

1992-07-01

161

Static internal performance of single expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust vectoring and reversing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of geometric design parameters on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to approximately 10. Forward-flight (cruise), vectored-thrust, and reversed-thrust nozzle operating modes were investigated.

Re, R. J.; Berrier, B. L.

1982-01-01

162

Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of control integration for propulsion are reviewed giving practical illustrations of its use to demonstrate the advantages of integration. Attention is given to the first integration propulsion-control systems (IPCSs) which was developed for the F-111E, and the integrated controller design is described that NASA developed for the YF-12C aircraft. The integrated control systems incorporate a range of aircraft components including the engine, inlet controls, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and/or stability-augmentation systems. Also described are emergency-control systems, onboard engine optimization, and thrust-vectoring control technologies developed for the F-18A and the F-15. Integrated flight-propulsion control systems are shown to enhance the thrust, range, and survivability of the aircraft while reducing fuel consumption and maintenance.

Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

1992-01-01

163

On the M-V attitude control system, Part 2: Hardware design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hardware design of the attitude control systems of the Institute of Space and Astronomical Science's (ISAS's) newest version of launch vehicle M-V will be reviewed in this paper with a special emphasis on the technologically newly developed items. The third stage rocket, which has been simply spin-stabilized through the launches of the scientific satellites of the ISAS, will be now controlled by a movable nozzle thrust vector control (MNTVC) system together with the side jet (SJ) engines for more maneuverability of the upper stage. To improve the control characteristics, the first stage rocket will be stabilized by another version of MNTVC system. A liquid injection TVC (LITVC) system, of the newly developed chamber bleed hot gas blow down type, is also expected to have enhanced control capability.

Mortia, Yasuhiro; Kohno, Masahiro; Matsuo, Hiroki; Okaya, Shunichi; Maruizumi, Haruki

164

Analysis of a Linear System for Variable-Thrust Control in the Terminal Phase of Rendezvous  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear system for applying thrust to a ferry vehicle in the 3 terminal phase of rendezvous with a satellite is analyzed. This system requires that the ferry thrust vector per unit mass be variable and equal to a suitable linear combination of the measured position and velocity vectors of the ferry relative to the satellite. The variations of the ferry position, speed, acceleration, and mass ratio are examined for several combinations of the initial conditions and two basic control parameters analogous to the undamped natural frequency and the fraction of critical damping. Upon making a desirable selection of one control parameter and requiring minimum fuel expenditure for given terminal-phase initial conditions, a simplified analysis in one dimension practically fixes the choice of the remaining control parameter. The system can be implemented by an automatic controller or by a pilot.

Hord, Richard A.; Durling, Barbara J.

1961-01-01

165

Three-axis electron-beam test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron beam test facility, which consists of a precision multidimensional manipulator built into an ultra-high-vacuum bell jar, was designed, fabricated, and operated at Lewis Research Center. The position within the bell jar of a Faraday cup which samples current in the electron beam under test, is controlled by the manipulator. Three orthogonal axes of motion are controlled by stepping motors driven by digital indexers, and the positions are displayed on electronic totalizers. In the transverse directions, the limits of travel are approximately + or - 2.5 cm from the center with a precision of 2.54 micron (0.0001 in.); in the axial direction, approximately 15.0 cm of travel are permitted with an accuracy of 12.7 micron (0.0005 in.). In addition, two manually operated motions are provided, the pitch and yaw of the Faraday cup with respect to the electron beam can be adjusted to within a few degrees. The current is sensed by pulse transformers and the data are processed by a dual channel box car averager with a digital output. The beam tester can be operated manually or it can be programmed for automated operation. In the automated mode, the beam tester is controlled by a microcomputer (installed at the test site) which communicates with a minicomputer at the central computing facility. The data are recorded and later processed by computer to obtain the desired graphical presentations.

Dayton, J. A., Jr.; Ebihara, B. T.

1981-01-01

166

Automatic Balancing for a Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ground-based spacecraft simulator is useful for experimental validation of advanced control laws. The minimization of the offset between the center of gravity and the center of rotation of the simulator is necessary for accurate simulation of a zero-gravity space environment. This study focuses on the automatic balancing of a ground-based spacecraft simulator on which moving masses required for the balancing are installed. We propose a novel automatic balancing method based on the recursive least squares approach. The proposed method is tested on a spacecraft simulator equipped with spherical air bearing. Experimental results show that accurate offset compensation and accurate space environment simulation are achieved using the proposed method.

Shima, Takeya; Saito, Mitsunori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiko

167

Solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Electric Propulsion System developed under this program was designed to demonstrate all the thrust subsystem functions needed on an unmanned planetary vehicle. The demonstration included operation of the basic elements, power matching input and output voltage regulation, three-axis thrust vector control, subsystem automatic control including failure detection and correction capability (using a PDP-11 computer), operation of critical elements in thermal-vacuum-, zero-gravity-type propellant storage, and data outputs from all subsystem elements. The subsystem elements, functions, unique features, and test setup are described. General features and capabilities of the test-support data system are also presented. The test program culminated in a 1500-h computer-controlled, system-functional demonstration. This included simultaneous operation of two thruster/power conditioner sets. The results of this testing phase satisfied all the program goals.

Masek, T. D.

1973-01-01

168

Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

1991-01-01

169

Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Flight System Integration at Its Best  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) element integrates all the subsystems needed for ascent flight, entry, and recovery of the combined Booster and Motor system. These include the structures, avionics, thrust vector control, pyrotechnic, range safety, deceleration, thermal protection, and retrieval systems. This represents the only human-rated, recoverable and refurbishable solid rocket ever developed and flown. Challenges included subsystem integration, thermal environments and severe loads (including water impact), sometimes resulting in hardware attrition. Several of the subsystems evolved during the program through design changes. These included the thermal protection system, range safety system, parachute/recovery system, and others. Because the system was recovered, the SRB was ideal for data and imagery acquisition, which proved essential for understanding loads, environments and system response. The three main parachutes that lower the SRBs to the ocean are the largest parachutes ever designed, and the SRBs are the largest structures ever to be lowered by parachutes. SRB recovery from the ocean was a unique process and represented a significant operational challenge; requiring personnel, facilities, transportation, and ground support equipment. The SRB element achieved reliability via extensive system testing and checkout, redundancy management, and a thorough postflight assessment process. However, the in-flight data and postflight assessment process revealed the hardware was affected much more strongly than originally anticipated. Assembly and integration of the booster subsystems required acceptance testing of reused hardware components for each build. Extensive testing was done to assure hardware functionality at each level of stage integration. Because the booster element is recoverable, subsystems were available for inspection and testing postflight, unique to the Shuttle launch vehicle. Problems were noted and corrective actions were implemented as needed. The postflight assessment process was quite detailed and a significant portion of flight operations. The SRBs provided fully redundant critical systems including thrust vector control, mission critical pyrotechnics, avionics, and parachute recovery system. The design intent was to lift off with full redundancy. On occasion, the redundancy management scheme was needed during flight operations. This paper describes some of the design challenges and technical issues, how the design evolved with time, and key areas where hardware reusability contributed to improved system level understanding.

Wood, T. David; Kanner, Howard S.; Freeland, Donna M.; Olson, Derek T.

2011-01-01

170

A New Algorithm for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals  

E-print Network

A New Algorithm for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals John L-by-point (deterministic) attitude solution of a vehicle using Global Positioning System phase difference measurements Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude determination

Crassidis, John L.

171

Evaluation of dual flow thrust vectored nozzles with exhaust stream impingement. MS Thesis Final Technical Report, Oct. 1990 - Jul. 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this project was to predict the expansion wave/oblique shock wave structure in an under-expanded jet expanding from a convergent nozzle. The shock structure was predicted by combining the calculated curvature of the free pressure boundary with principles and governing equations relating to oblique shock wave and expansion wave interaction. The procedure was then continued until the shock pattern repeated itself. A mathematical model was then formulated and written in FORTRAN to calculate the oblique shock/expansion wave structure within the jet. In order to study shock waves in expanding jets, Schlieren photography, a form of flow visualization, was employed. Thirty-six Schlieren photographs of jets from both a straight and 15 degree nozzle were taken. An iterative procedure was developed to calculate the shock structure within the jet and predict the non-dimensional values of Prandtl primary wavelength (w/rn), distance to Mach Disc (Ld) and Mach Disc radius (rd). These values were then compared to measurements taken from Schlieren photographs and experimental results. The results agreed closely to measurements from Schlieren photographs and previously obtained data. This method provides excellent results for pressure ratios below that at which a Mach Disc first forms. Calculated values of non-dimensional distance to the Mach Disc (Ld) agreed closely to values measured from Schlieren photographs and published data. The calculated values of non-dimensional Mach Disc radius (rd), however, deviated from published data by as much as 25 percent at certain pressure ratios.

Carpenter, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

172

Dynamic interactions between hypersonic vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion system performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is the development of a flexible simulation model for scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems. The primary goal is determination of sensitivity of the thrust vector and other system parameters to angle of attack changes of the vehicle. Such information is crucial in design and analysis of control system performance for hypersonic vehicles. The code is also intended to be a key element in carrying out dynamic interaction studies involving the influence of vehicle vibrations on propulsion system/control system coupling and flight stability. Simple models are employed to represent the various processes comprising the propulsion system. A method of characteristics (MOC) approach is used to solve the forebody and external nozzle flow fields. This results in a very fast computational algorithm capable of carrying out the vast number of simulation computations needed in guidance, stability, and control studies. The three-dimensional fore- and aft body (nozzle) geometry is characterized by the centerline profiles as represented by a series of coordinate points and body cross-section curvature. The engine module geometry is represented by an adjustable vertical grid to accommodate variations of the field parameters throughout the inlet and combustor. The scramjet inlet is modeled as a two-dimensional supersonic flow containing adjustable sidewall wedges and multiple fuel injection struts. The inlet geometry including the sidewall wedge angles, the number of injection struts, their sweepback relative to the vehicle reference line, and strut cross-section are user selectable. Combustion is currently represented by a Rayleigh line calculation including corrections for variable gas properties; improved models are being developed for this important element of the propulsion flow field. The program generates (1) variation of thrust magnitude and direction with angle of attack, (2) pitching moment and line of action of the thrust vector, (3) pressure and temperature distributions throughout the system, and (4) performance parameters such as thrust coefficient, specific impulse, mass flow rates, and equivalence ratio. Preliminary results are in good agreement with available performance data for systems resembling the NASP vehicle configuration.

Flandro, G. A.; Roach, R. L.; Buschek, H.

1992-01-01

173

Motion capture of a pad measured with accelerometers during squeal noise in a real brake system  

E-print Network

Motion capture of a pad measured with accelerometers during squeal noise in a real brake system during squeal noise is measured on a real brake system with three-axis ac- celerometers. A time Brakes - 126 Rue de Stalingrad - 93700 DRANCY - FRANCE Abstract The operating deflection shape of a pad

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. VIP employs a single video sensor to generate three-axis pointing error signals and to provide inputs for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals update the telescope's gyro stabilization system. The CRT display facilitates

K. R. Lorell; J. P. Murphy; C. D. Swift

1976-01-01

175

Advanced communications satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

Sivo, J. N.

1983-01-01

176

Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

Nelms, R. Mark

1993-01-01

177

General equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system are examined. The system consists of the cargo attached by cables to the endpoints of a spreader bar which is suspended by cables below two helicopters. Results are given for the orientation angles of the suspension system and its internal forces, and for the helicopter thrust vector requirements under general circumstances, including nonidentical helicopters, any accelerating or static equilibrium reference flight condition, any system heading relative to the flight direction, and any distribution of the load to the two helicopters. Optimum tether angles which minimize the sum of the required thrust magnitudes are also determined. The analysis does not consider the attitude degrees of freedom of the load and helicopters in detail, but assumes that these bodies are stable, and that their aerodynamic forces in equilibrium flight can be determined independently as functions of the reference trajectory. The ranges of these forces for sample helicopters and loads are examined and their effects on the equilibrium characteristics are given parametrically in the results.

Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

1986-01-01

178

Transition of a technology base for advanced aircraft gas turbine control systems  

SciTech Connect

Technology assessments during the 1980s projected the development of advanced military fighter aircraft that would require propulsion systems that could accommodate multimission capability with super maneuverability. These propulsion systems would be required to provide significantly improved thrust to weight, reduced thrust specific fuel consumption, and up and away thrust vectoring capabilities. Digital electronic control systems with significantly expanded capabilities would be required to handle these multifunction control actuation systems, to integrate them with flight control systems, and to provide fail-operational capability. This paper will discuss the challenges that were presented to propulsion system control designers, the innovation of technology to address these challenges, and the transition of that technology to production readiness. Technology advancements will be discussed in the area of digital electronic control capability and packaging, advanced fuel management systems, high pressure fuel hydraulic actuation systems for multifunction nozzles, integrated flight propulsion controls, and higher-order language software development tools. Each of these areas provided unique opportunities where technology development programs and flight prototyping carried concepts to reality.

McGlone, M.E. [Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

1998-07-01

179

Critical engine system design characteristics for SSTO vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine system design characteristics are summarized for typical vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles utilizing plug nozzle configurations. Power cycle selection trades involved the unique modular platelet engine (MPE) with the use of (1) LO2 and LH2 at fixed and variable mixture ratios, (2) LO2 and propane or RP-1, and (3) dual fuels (LO2 with LH2 and C3H8). The number of thrust cells and modules were optimized. Dual chamber bell and a cluster of conventional bell nozzle configurations were examined for comparison with the plug configuration. Thrust modulation (throttling) was selected for thrust vector control. Installed thrust ratings were established to provide an additional 20 percent overthrust capability for engine out operation. Turbopumps were designed to operate at subcritical speeds to facilitate a wide range of throttling and long life. A unique dual spool arrangement with hydrostatic bearings was selected for the LH2 turbopump. Controls and health monitoring with expert systems for diagnostics are critical subsystems to ensure minimum maintenance and supportability for a less than seven day turnaround. The use of an idle mode start, in conjunction with automated health condition monitoring, allows the rocket propulsion system to operate reliably in the manner of present day aircraft propulsion.

Fanciullo, Thomas J.; Judd, D. C.; Obrien, C. J.

1992-02-01

180

Attitude Determination Error Analysis System (ADEAS) mathematical specifications document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical specifications of Release 4.0 of the Attitude Determination Error Analysis System (ADEAS), which provides a general-purpose linear error analysis capability for various spacecraft attitude geometries and determination processes, are presented. The analytical basis of the system is presented. The analytical basis of the system is presented, and detailed equations are provided for both three-axis-stabilized and spin-stabilized attitude sensor models.

Nicholson, Mark; Markley, F.; Seidewitz, E.

1988-01-01

181

Spin free analytic platform type guidance and control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The components of the spin free analytic satellite guidance and control system (SFAP) used for attitude reference on the M-3S Japanese launch vehicles are described. SFAP consists of attitude reference, control electronics, and actuators for each of three rocket stages. The attitude reference is performed with a single axis stabilized platform and three rate integrating gyroscopes mounted orthogonally to each other on the table. One gyro, aligned with the table axis, serves as the torque signal source. The gyros have a pulse output, each corresponding to a 2 x 10 to the -16th radian pitch/yaw attitude change. The electronic compare pitch, roll, and yaw angles with preset values, that are amenable to changes through ground control signals. The actuators include linear thrust vector controls (TVC) on the side of the first stage nozzle and an on/off system on the side of the second stage nozzle, together with hydrogen peroxide jets. Separate programs control each stage, and performance has been nominal in flight testing.

Higashiguchi, M.; Ishitani, H.

182

X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

Boehmer, Steven C.

1994-06-01

183

Aristoteles magnetometer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetometer system capable of meeting the stringent requirements of the Aristoteles mission is described. The system will comprise a three axis or Vector Flux gas Magnetometer (VFM) and a highly accurate resonance magnetometer, the Scalar Helium Magnetometer (SHM). Basic operational features of these instruments are described and their performance is related to the scientific objectives of the mission appropriate to the geomagnetic field measurements. The major requirements imposed on the spacecraft are summarized. Photographs and diagrams of both instruments are presented along with graphs of the sensitivity of the SHM to magnetic field orientation.

Smith, Edward J.; Marquedant, Roy J.; Langel, Robert; Acuna, Mario

1991-01-01

184

X-31 Post Stall Maneuver - Duration: 0:51.  

NASA Video Gallery

The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at ...

185

Navy and the HARV: High angle of attack tactical utility issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will highlight results from the latest Navy evaluation of the HARV (March 1994) and focus primarily on the impressions from a piloting standpoint of the tactical utility of thrust vectoring. Issue to be addressed will be mission suitability of high AOA flight, visual and motion feedback cues associated with operating at high AOA, and the adaptability of a pilot to effectively use the increased control power provided by the thrust vectoring system.

Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.

1994-01-01

186

A PC-based magnetometer-only attitude and rate determination system for gyroless spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a prototype PC-based system that uses measurements from a three-axis magnetometer (TAM) to estimate the state (three-axis attitude and rates) of a spacecraft given no a priori information other than the mass properties. The system uses two algorithms that estimate the spacecraft's state - a deterministic magnetic-field only algorithm and a Kalman filter for gyroless spacecraft. The algorithms are combined by invoking the deterministic algorithm to generate the spacecraft state at epoch using a small batch of data and then using this deterministic epoch solution as the initial condition for the Kalman filter during the production run. System input comprises processed data that includes TAM and reference magnetic field data. Additional information, such as control system data and measurements from line-of-sight sensors, can be input to the system if available. Test results are presented using in-flight data from two three-axis stabilized spacecraft: Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) (gyroless, Sun-pointing) and Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) (gyro-based, Earth-pointing). The results show that, using as little as 700 s of data, the system is capable of accuracies of 1.5 deg in attitude and 0.01 deg/s in rates; i.e., within SAMPEX mission requirements.

Challa, M.; Natanson, G.; Deutschmann, J.; Galal, K.

1995-01-01

187

Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

2014-01-01

188

Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to robustly demonstrate stable and high performance flight. On its development path to preliminary design review (PDR), the stability of the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant dynamics. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm previously presented by Orr and VanZwieten, has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies for which the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria (e.g. gain & phase margin). In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.

2014-01-01

189

A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

Mason, M. G.

1975-01-01

190

Calibration of QM-MOURA three-axis magnetometer and gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOURA instrument is a three axes magnetometer and gradiometer equipped with an inclinometer designed and developed for Mars MetNet Precursor mission. The qualification model (MOURA QM) is devoted to magnetic surveys on Earth with the aim to achieve some experience prior to the arrival to Mars. In this work it is presented a practical first approach for the calibration of the instrument for these preliminary field campaigns on Earth. Other works will describe the design, up-screening and qualification and full capabilities of the instrument in depth, giving some feedback on the development.

Díaz-Michelena, M.; Sanz, R.; Cerdán, M. F.

2014-08-01

191

The vTAS suite: A simulator for classical and multiplexed three-axis neutron spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vTAS suite provides graphical assistance to prepare and perform inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a TAS instrument, including latest multiplexed instrumental configurations, such as FlatCone, IMPS and UFO. The interactive display allows for flexible translation between instrument positions in real space and neutron scattering conditions represented in reciprocal space. It is a platform independent public domain software tool, available for download from the website of the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL).

Boehm, M.; Filhol, A.; Raoul, Y.; Kulda, J.; Schmidt, W.; Schmalzl, K.; Farhi, E.

2013-01-01

192

EXCALIBUR, A THREE-AXIS FORCE DISPLAY Richard J. Adams * Manuel R. Moreyra  

E-print Network

by Haptic Technologies Inc. of Seattle, WA. The Boeing Company is using Excalibur to develop CAD and virtual * * Department of Electrical Engineering Haptic Technologies Inc. University of Washington, Box 352500 4729 40th Avenue NE Seattle, WA 98195-2500 Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract In haptic simulation, a force feedback device

193

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Three-axis Attitude Control with Two Reaction Wheels and  

E-print Network

Wheels and Magnetic Torquer Bars Bryce A. Roberts* , Jeffrey W. Kruk , Thomas B. Ake , Tom S. Englar = magnetic torque vector S^ = "symmetric" body axis A^ = "anti-symmetric" (magnetic) body axis k = unloading the yaw, pitch and roll body axes, and a fourth redundant skew wheel provides equal torque components

194

A wireless swing angle measurement scheme using attitude heading reference system sensing units based on microelectromechanical devices.  

PubMed

Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS) sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload) and the jib (or base) of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system. PMID:25436657

Gao, Bingtuan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jianguo; Huang, Boran

2014-01-01

195

A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices  

PubMed Central

Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS) sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload) and the jib (or base) of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system. PMID:25436657

Gao, Bingtuan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jianguo; Huang, Boran

2014-01-01

196

A general-purpose balloon-borne pointing system for solar scientific instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general purpose balloonborne pointing system for accommodating a wide variety of solar scientific instruments is described. It is designed for precise pointing, low cost, and quick launch. It offers the option of three-axis control, pitch-yaw-roll, or two-axis control, pitch-yaw, depending on the needs of the solar instrument. Simulation results are presented that indicate good pointing capability at Sun elevation angles ranging from 10 to 80 deg.

Polites, M. E.

1990-01-01

197

X-31 in Flight with F-18 Chase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A head-on view of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft (right), accompanied by a NASA F-18 chase aircraft during a research flight over the desert floor. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

198

X-31 in Flight with F-18 Chase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft (top), flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is seen here accompanied by a NASA F-18 chase aircraft during a research flight over the desert floor. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

199

X-31 in Banked Flight over Edwards AFB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

200

X-31 Landing with Drag Chute Deploy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, deploys its drag chute upon landing after a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable flights of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1995-01-01

201

X-31 Kiel Probe Side View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photograph of the noseboom on the X-31 shows the Kiel air data probe angled at 10 degrees to better align the tip with the airflow at very high angles of attack. The devices were mounted on the nose of the X-31s to measure air pressure. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584), caused that aircraft to crash on January 19, 1995. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1993-01-01

202

X-31 Kiel Probe Close-up Showing Inside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A close-up photograph of the Kiel air data probe on the noseboom on the X-31 aircraft shows the orifices used to collect air pressure measurements. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) caused that aircraft to crash. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each has a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1993-01-01

203

X-31 in Flight over Edwards AFB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

204

Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

1994-01-01

205

Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

206

Guiding of a balloon-borne coronagraph. [IR solar tracking by pointing control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the guidance system of a balloon-borne coronagraph designed for IR solar corona observations at an altitude of 36 km. The coronagraph has two telescopes, measures 6 m in length, weighs 73 kg, is stabilized by a three-axis system, and has a pointing precision of plus or minus 10 sec of arc. Three torque motors are used to activate the tracking servo system of the coronagraph. An integral control system is used to prevent a permanent instrumental error. The coronagraph has been tested in two balloon missions.

Li, T.-C.

1973-01-01

207

Flight experience with a fail-operational digital fly-by-wire control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is flight testing a triply redundant digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) control system installed in an F-8 aircraft. The full-time, full-authority system performs three-axis flight control computations, including stability and command augmentation, autopilot functions, failure detection and isolation, and self-test functions. Advanced control law experiments include an active flap mode for ride smoothing and maneuver drag reduction. This paper discusses research being conducted on computer synchronization, fault detection, fault isolation, and recovery from transient faults. The F-8 DFBW system has demonstrated immunity from nuisance fault declarations while quickly identifying truly faulty components.

Brown, S. R.; Szalai, K. J.

1977-01-01

208

Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

2007-01-01

209

CMG-Augmented Control of a Hovering VTOL Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes how Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) can be used for stability augmentation to a thrust vectoring system for a generic Vertical Take-Off and Landing platform. The response characteristics of the platform which uses only thrust vectoring and a second configuration which includes a single-gimbal CMG array are simulated and compared for hovering flight while subject to severe air turbulence. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of a CMG array in its ability to significantly reduce the agility requirement on the thrust vectoring system. Albeit simplifying physical assumptions on a generic CMG configuration, the numerical results also suggest that reasonably sized CMGs will likely be sufficient for a small hovering vehicle.

Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

2007-01-01

210

NASA's Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS Program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

211

SCI Hazard Report Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

Mitchell, Michael S.

2010-01-01

212

An electromechanical actuation system for an expendable launch vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center in recent years has been to develop electro-mechanical actuators (EMA's) to replace the hydraulic systems used for thrust vector control (TVC) on launch vehicles. This is an attempt ot overcome the inherent inefficiencies and costs associated with the existing hydraulic structures. General Dynamics Space Systems Division, under contract to NASA Lewis, is developing 18.6 kW (25 hp), 29.8 kW (40 hp), and 52.2 kW (70 hp) peak EMA systems to meet the power demands for TVC on a family of vehicles developed for the National Launch System. These systems utilize a pulse population modulated converter and field-oriented control scheme to obtain independent control of both the voltage and frequency. These techniques allow an induction motor to be operated at its maximum torque at all times. At NASA Lewis, we are building on this technology to develop our own in-house system capable of meeting the peak power requirements for an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) such as the Atlas. Our EMA will be capable of delivering 22.4 kW (30 hp) peak power with a nominal of 6.0 kW (8 hp). This system differs from the previous ones in two areas: (1) the use of advanced control methods, and (2) the incorporation of built-in-test. The advanced controls are essential for minimizing the controller size, while the built-in-test is necessary to enhance the system reliability and vehicle health monitoring. The ultimate goal of this program is to demonstrate an EMA which will be capable of self-test and easy integration into other projects. This paper will describe the effort underway at NASA Lewis to develop an EMA for an Atlas class ELV. An explanation will be given for each major technology block, and the status of each major technology block and the status of the overall program will be reported.

Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen

1992-01-01

213

Motion capture of a pad measured with accelerometers during squeal noise in a real brake system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating deflection shape of a pad during squeal noise is measured on a real brake system with three-axis accelerometers. A time-frequency analysis is performed that highlights the dependency of squeal on the hydraulic pressure of the system and shows that squeal occurs simultaneously with harmonic components. The operating deflection shape of this pad before and during squeal is then visualized using interpolation, showing the predominance of bending motion. Finally, the pad motions observed are compared to the real modal basis of a detailed Finite Element model.

Renaud, Franck; Chevallier, Gaël; Dion, Jean-Luc; Taudière, Guillaume

2012-11-01

214

A high-resolution magnetic imaging system based on a SQUID magnetometer  

SciTech Connect

We have recently developed a high-resolution magnetic imaging system based on an array of five superconducting pickup coils located within 1 mm of room temperature. The pickup coils are 1.70 mm in diameter and spaced 2.5 mm apart allowing spatial resolution of order 1 mm. They are each connected to an rf SQUID and have a magnetic field sensitivity of 3 pT/{radical}Hz. The system includes a three axis nonmagnetic translation table for mounting the sample, a stage for temperature control, and complete computer control of all functions.

Hibbs, A.D.; Sager, R.E.; Cox, D.W.; Aukerman, T.H.; Sage, T.A.; Landis, R.S. (Quantum Magnetics, Incorporated, 11578 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 30, San Diego, California 92121 (United States))

1992-07-01

215

Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study. Phase B, appendix E: Attitude control system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study which consisted of a series of design analyses for an Attitude Control System (ACS) to be incorporated into the Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (RRS) was performed. The main thrust of the study was associated with defining the control laws and estimating the mass and power requirements of the ACS needed to meet the specified performance goals. The analyses concentrated on the different on-orbit control modes which start immediately after the separation of the RRS from the launch vehicle. The three distinct on-orbit modes considered for these analyses are as follows: (1) Mode 1 - A Gravity Gradient (GG) three-axis stabilized spacecraft with active magnetic control; (2) Mode 2 - A GG stabilized mode with a controlled yaw rotation rate ('rotisserie') using three-axis magnetic control and also incorporating a 10 N-m-s momentum wheel along the (Z) yaw axis; and (3) Mode 3 - A spin stabilized mode of operation with the spin about the pitch (Y) axis, incorporating a 20 N-m-s momentum wheel along the pitch (Y) axis and attitude control via thrusters. To investigate the capabilities of the different controllers in these various operational modes, a series of computer simulations and trade-off analyses have been made to evaluate the achievable performance levels, and the necessary mass and power requirements.

1991-01-01

216

Near real-time stereo vision system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

Anderson, Charles H. (inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (inventor)

1993-01-01

217

Thermal design of the IUE hydrazine auxiliary propulsion system. [International Ultraviolet Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer is a large astronomical observatory scheduled to be placed in a three-axis stabilized synchronous orbit in the fourth quarter of 1977. The Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System (HAPS) must perform a number of spacecraft maneuvers to achieve a successful mission. This paper describes the thermal design which accomplishes temperature control between 5 and 65 C for all orbital conditions by utilizing multilayer insulation and commandable component heaters. A primary design criteria was the minimization of spacecraft power by the selective use of the solar environment. The thermal design was carefully assessed and verified in both spacecraft thermal balance and subsystem solar simulation testing.

Skladany, J. T.; Kelly, W. H.

1977-01-01

218

Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 1: Study summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the configuration and tradeoffs of a tracking and data relay satellite. The study emphasized the design of a three axis stabilized satellite and a telecommunications system optimized for support of low and medium data rate user spacecraft. Telecommunications support to low and high, or low medium, and high data rate users, considering launches with the Delta 2914, the Atlas/Centaur, and the space shuttle was also considered. The following subjects are presented: (1) launch and deployment profile, (2) spacecraft mechanical and structural design, (3) attitude stabilization and control subsystem, and (4) reliability analysis.

Hill, T. E.

1973-01-01

219

Testing the three axis magnetometer and gradiometer MOURA and data comparison on San Pablo de los Montes Observatory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetometer and gradiometer named MOURA has been developed with the objective to measure the magnetic field on Mars in the frame of Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) [1]. MOURA is a compact, miniaturized, intelligent and low cost instrument, based on two sets of triaxial magnetometers separated one centimeter from each other to do gradiometry studies. It has a resolution of 2.2 nT, and a field range of + 65?T, which can be extended to +130 ?T when sensors are saturated. [2] These sensor heads are Anisotropic MagnetoResistances (AMR) Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) by Honeywell, specifically HMC1043, which has been selected due to their relative low consumption, weight and size, factors very important for the mission with very limited mass and power budget (shared 150 g for three full payloads). Also, this technology has been previously successfully employed on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to perform geomagnetic surveys in extreme conditions areas [3], and in several space missions for different applications. [4] After the development of the MOURA Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) in November 2011, an exhaustive set of tests have been performed to validate and fully characterize the instrument. Compensation equations have been derived for the temperature corrections in the operation range (between -135 °C and 30 °C) in controlled environments. These compensation equations have been applied to field data, which have shown to follow the daily Earth's magnetic field variations as registered by San Pablo Geomagnetic Observatory (IAGA code: SPT) (available at www.ign.es and www.intermagnet.org) with deviations lower than 40 nT. These deviations were attributed to several error factors as the different locations between MOURA and SPT and other possible different geomagnetic conditions. Due to the above, a measurement campaign on SPT installations are been done. The main objective is to compare MOURA measurements on a relevant environment, with data obtained by SPT magnetometers. This is considered the last step prior to Mars in situ measurements. SPT employs for geomagnetic observations a fluxgate magnetometer FGE-Danish Meteorological Institute and a fluxgate vector magnetometer Geomag M390, both equipped with Overhauser effect magnetometers GSM90. The conditions into the rooms that contain these instruments are controlled. The equipments are situated on several pillars fixed strategically at Earth surface avoiding vibrations and other Earth movement that could affect measurement due to changes on the sensor position, the region is magnetically clean and the temperature variation is very low. Magnetic measurements are performed by MOURA for several days located on one of these pillars. These measurements are compared with SPT reference instrumentation with the aim to obtain a direct and very accurate evaluation of MOURA facing reference instrumentation. http://metnet.fmi.fi/index.php Development of miniaturized instrumentation for Planetary Exploration and its application to the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission. H. Guerrero et al. EGU General Assembly 2010, held 2-7 May, 2010 in Vienna, Austria, p.13330 Funaki, M.; Hirasawa, N.; and the Ant-Plane Group. Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antartic research. Polar Science 2008, 2, 129-142. M. Diaz-Michelena Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2271-2288

Belen Fernandez, Ana; Sanz, Ruy; Covisa, Pablo; Tordesillas, Jose Manuel; Diaz-Michelena, Marina

2013-04-01

220

Eclipse II: a new parallel mechanism enabling continuous 360-degree spinning plus three-axis translational motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Eclipse II, a new six-degrees-of-freedom parallel mechanism, which can be used as a basis for general motion simulators. The Eclipse II is capable of x, y, and z axes translations, and a, b, and c axes rotations. In particular, it has the advantage of enabling continuous 360° spinning of the platform. We first describe the computational

Jongwon Kim; Jae-Chul Hwang; Jin-Sung Kim; Cornel C. Iurascu; Frank Chongwoo Park; Young Man Cho

2002-01-01

221

Combined three-axis surface magneto-optical Kerr effects in the study of surface and ultrathin-film magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and ultrathin-film magnetocrystalline anisotropy in epitaxial fcc Fe thin films grown on room-temperature Cu(100) single crystals has been investigated, insitu, by the combined surface magneto-optical Kerr effects (SMOKE). In polar, longitudinal, and transverse Kerr effects, the direction of the applied magnetic field must be distinguished from the direction of magnetization during the switching process. For arbitrary orientations of the

Z. J. Yang; M. R. Scheinfein

1993-01-01

222

A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes is described. A unique feature of the system is the use of a single sensor to provide information for the generation of three axis pointing error signals and for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization and the CRT display is used by an operator to facilitate target acquisition and to aid in manual positioning of the telescope optical axis. A model of the system using a low light level vidicon built and flown on a balloon-borne infrared telescope is briefly described from a state of the art charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The advanced system hardware is described and an analysis of the multi-star tracking and three axis error signal generation, along with an analysis and design of the gyro update filter, are presented. Results of a hybrid simulation are described in which the advanced VIP system hardware is driven by a digital simulation of the star field/CCD sensor and an analog simulation of the telescope and gyro stabilization dynamics.

Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.; Swift, C. D.

1975-01-01

223

Erosion effects on TVC vane heat transfer characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the effects of erosion on the heat transfer characteristics on thrust vector control vanes exposed to aluminized propellant exhaust flows. This was accomplished using an inverse heat transfer parameter identification of quarter scale models. The model is based on a four node lumped parameter system with two heat energy inputs. The erosion is modeled as decreasing the

Steven R. Gardner

1994-01-01

224

A force sink in classically defined non-inertial space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates analytically that an accelerating closed system - called the 'reactionless space drive' - is possible by means of relativistic electrodynamics. The propulsion model and the force transformation are outlined yielding a thrust vector equation. Linear momentum conservation is shown to be a special case of the more generalized relativistic model in which an anomaly is inherent in

James H. Vance

1992-01-01

225

Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

1975-01-01

226

Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

1987-01-01

227

Strapdown system performance optimization test evaluations (SPOT), volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three axis inertial system was packaged in an Apollo gimbal fixture for fine grain evaluation of strapdown system performance in dynamic environments. These evaluations have provided information to assess the effectiveness of real-time compensation techniques and to study system performance tradeoffs to factors such as quantization and iteration rate. The strapdown performance and tradeoff studies conducted include: (1) Compensation models and techniques for the inertial instrument first-order error terms were developed and compensation effectivity was demonstrated in four basic environments; single and multi-axis slew, and single and multi-axis oscillatory. (2) The theoretical coning bandwidth for the first-order quaternion algorithm expansion was verified. (3) Gyro loop quantization was identified to affect proportionally the system attitude uncertainty. (4) Land navigation evaluations identified the requirement for accurate initialization alignment in order to pursue fine grain navigation evaluations.

Blaha, R. J.; Gilmore, J. P.

1973-01-01

228

Description of the Space Shuttle Reaction Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle RCS (reaction control system) is required to provide propulsion thrust for precise attitude control and three-axis translation. This capability must be provided for external tank separation, on-orbit operation, deorbit, and reentry. In order to meet these requirements a bipropellant, pressure-fed system utilizing monomethylhydrazine as fuel, and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer has been selected. The RCS engines include 38 primary thrusters rated at 870 lbf thrust and 6 vernier thrusters rated at 25 lbf thrust. The system is divided into three removable modules (one forward and two aft) to achieve maintenance and turnaround requirements. In order to provide additional mission flexibility, the aft modules can be connected together or interconnected with the OMS (orbital maneuvering system).

Blevins, D. R.; Hohmann, C. W.

1975-01-01

229

Restoring Redundancy to the MAP Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Due to the MAP project's limited mass, power, and financial resources, a traditional reliability concept including fully redundant components was not feasible. The MAP design employs selective hardware redundancy, along with backup software modes and algorithms, to improve the odds of mission success. In particular, MAP's propulsion system, which is used for orbit maneuvers and momentum management, uses eight thrusters positioned and oriented in such a way that its thruster-based attitude control modes can maintain three-axis attitude control in the event of the failure of any one thruster.

O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

230

Cosmic non-TEM radiation and synthetic feed array sensor system in ASIC mixed signal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the opportunity to introduce "Not strictly TEM waves" Synthetic detection Method (NTSM), consisting in a Three Axis Digital Beam Processing (3ADBP), to enhance the performances of radio telescope and sensor systems. Current Radio Telescopes generally use the classic 3D "TEM waves" approximation Detection Method, which consists in a linear tomography process (Single or Dual axis beam forming processing) neglecting the small z component. The Synthetic FEED ARRAY three axis Sensor SYSTEM is an innovative technique using a synthetic detection of the generic "NOT strictly TEM Waves radiation coming from the Cosmo, which processes longitudinal component of Angular Momentum too. Than the simultaneous extraction from radiation of both the linear and quadratic information component, may reduce the complexity to reconstruct the Early Universe in the different requested scales. This next order approximation detection of the observed cosmologic processes, may improve the efficacy of the statistical numerical model used to elaborate the same information acquired. The present work focuses on detection of such waves at carrier frequencies in the bands ranging from LF to MMW. The work shows in further detail the new generation of on line programmable and reconfigurable Mixed Signal ASIC technology that made possible the innovative Synthetic Sensor. Furthermore the paper shows the ability of such technique to increase the Radio Telescope Array Antenna performances.

Centureli, F.; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.; Romano, F.; Cimmino, R.; Saitto, A.

2014-08-01

231

A New Approach to Attitude Stability and Control for Low Airspeed Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach for controlling the attitude of statically unstable thrust-levitated vehicles in hover or slow translation. The large thrust vector that characterizes such vehicles can be modulated to provide control forces and moments to the airframe, but such modulation is accompanied by significant unsteady flow effects. These effects are difficult to model, and can compromise the practical value of thrust vectoring in closed-loop attitude stability, even if the thrust vectoring machinery has sufficient bandwidth for stabilization. The stabilization approach described in this paper is based on using internal angular momentum transfer devices for stability, augmented by thrust vectoring for trim and other "outer loop" control functions. The three main components of this approach are: (1) a z-body axis angular momentum bias enhances static attitude stability, reducing the amount of control activity needed for stabilization, (2) optionally, gimbaled reaction wheels provide high-bandwidth control torques for additional stabilization, or agility, and (3) the resulting strongly coupled system dynamics are controlled by a multivariable controller. A flight test vehicle is described, and nonlinear simulation results are provided that demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

Lim, K. B.; Shin, Y-Y.; Moerder, D. D.; Cooper, E. G.

2004-01-01

232

A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. VIP employs a single video sensor to generate three-axis pointing error signals and to provide inputs for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals update the telescope's gyro stabilization system. The CRT display facilitates target acquisition and positioning of the telescope by a remote operator. The present paper describes the analysis, simulation, and hardware development of a prototype, advanced VIP system. An early model of the system utilizing a silicon-intensified target vidicon camera has flown on a balloon-borne telescope and is briefly described. The advanced system, which can employ either a vidicon camera or a charge-coupled device video sensor, has been tested using an analog/digital hybrid simulation. The advanced VIP hardware is described, and the simulation results presented.

Lorell, K. R.; Murphy, J. P.; Swift, C. D.

1976-01-01

233

Wellborne inertial navigation system  

SciTech Connect

A phototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimbaled inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of +- 100 to +- 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about +- 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

Kelsey, J.R.

1983-01-01

234

Instrumentation and control system for an F-15 stall/spin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation and control system is described that was used for radio-controlled F-15 airplane model stall/spin research at the NASA-Langley Research Center. This stall/spin research technique, using scale model aircraft, provides information on the post-stall and spin-entry characteristics of full-scale aircraft. The instrumentation described provides measurements of flight parameters such as angle of attack and sideslip, airspeed, control-surface position, and three-axis rotation rates; these data are recorded on an onboard magnetic tape recorder. The proportional radio control system, which utilizes analog potentiometric signals generated from ground-based pilot inputs, and the ground-based system used in the flight operation are also described.

Pitts, F. L.; Holmes, D. C. E.; Zaepfel, K. P.

1974-01-01

235

Multi-Channel Magnetocardiogardiography System Based on Low-Tc SQUIDs in an Unshielded Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetocardiography (MCG) using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is a new medical diagnostic tool measuring biomagnetic signals that are generated by the electrical activity of the human heart. This technique is completely passive, contactless, and it has an advantage in the early diagnosis of heart diseases. We developed the first unshielded four-channel MCG system based on low-Tc DC SQUIDs in China. Instead of using a costly magnetically shielded room, the environmental noise suppression was realized by using second-order gradiometers and three-axis reference magnetometer. The measured magnetic field resolution of the system is better than 1 pT, and multi-cycle human heart signals can be recorded directly. Also, with the infrared positioning system, 48 points data collection can be realized by moving the non-magnetic bed nine times.

Kong, Xiangyan; Zhang, Shulin; Wang, Yongliang; Zeng, Jia; Xie, Xiaoming

236

An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

2014-08-01

237

Computer simulation of aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics for the YF-12 aircraft at supersonic cruise conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer simulation of the YF-12 aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics is presented. The propulsion system was represented in sufficient detail so that interactions between aircraft motions and the propulsion system dynamics could be investigated. Six degree-of-freedom aircraft motions together with the three-axis stability augmentation system were represented. The mixed compression inlets and their controls were represented in the started mode for a range of flow conditions up to the inlet unstart boundary. Effects of inlet moving geometry on aircraft forces and movements as well as effects of aircraft motions on the inlet behavior were simulated. The engines, which are straight subjects, were represented in the afterburning mode, with effects of changes in aircraft flight conditions included. The simulation was capable of operating in real time.

Brown, S. C.

1973-01-01

238

The control of satellites with microgravity constraints: The COMET Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COMET attitude determination and control system, using inverse dynamics and a novel torque distribution/momentum management technique, has shown great flexibility, performance, and robustness. Three-axis control with two wheels is an inherent consequence of inverse dynamics control which allows for reduction in spacecraft weight and cost, or alternatively, provides a simple means of failure-redundancy for three-wheel spacecraft. The control system, without modification, has continued to perform well in spite of large changes in spacecraft mass properties and mission orbit altitude that have occurred during development. This flexibility has obviated imposition of early stringent ADACS design constraints and has greatly reduced commonly incurred ADACS modification costs and delay associated with program maturation.

Grossman, Walter; Freesland, Douglas

1994-01-01

239

A wellbore inertial navigation system  

SciTech Connect

A prototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimballed inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of 100 to 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also, this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

Kelsey, J.R.

1983-02-01

240

Finite element based electric motor design optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.

Campbell, C. Warren

1993-01-01

241

Integrated calibration of magnetic gradient tensor system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement precision of a magnetic gradient tensor system is not only connected with the imperfect performance of magnetometers such as bias, scale factor, non-orthogonality and misalignment errors, but also connected with the external soft-iron and hard-iron magnetic distortion fields when the system is used as a strapdown device. So an integrated scalar calibration method is proposed in this paper. In the first step, a mathematical model for scalar calibration of a single three-axis magnetometer is established, and a least squares ellipsoid fitting algorithm is proposed to estimate the detailed error parameters. For the misalignment errors existing at different magnetometers caused by the installation process and misalignment errors aroused by ellipsoid fitting estimation, a calibration method for combined misalignment errors is proposed in the second step to switch outputs of different magnetometers into the ideal reference orthogonal coordinate system. In order to verify effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation and experiment with a cross-magnetic gradient tensor system are performed, and the results show that the proposed method estimates error parameters and improves the measurement accuracy of magnetic gradient tensor greatly.

Gang, Yin; Yingtang, Zhang; Hongbo, Fan; GuoQuan, Ren; Zhining, Li

2015-01-01

242

Linear-Parameter-Varying Antiwindup Compensation for Enhanced Flight Control Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Actuator saturation is one of the major issues of flight control in the high angle-of-attack region. This paper presents a saturation control scheme for linear parameter varyjing (LPV) systems from an antiwindup control perspective. The proposed control approach is advantageous from the implementation standpoint because it can be thought of as an augmented control algorithm to the existing control system. Moreover, the synthesis condition for an antiwindup compensator is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem and can be solved efficiently. We have applied te LPV antiwindup controller to an F-16 longitudinal autopilot control system design and compared it with the thrust vectoring control scheme. The nonlinear simulations show that an LPV antiwindup controller improves flight quality and offers advantages over thrust vectoring in a high angle-of-attack region.

Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, Sung Wan

2005-01-01

243

Variable structure-based nonlinear missile guidance\\/autopilot design with highly maneuverable actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief, we propose a variable structure based nonlinear missile guidance\\/autopilot system with highly maneuverable actuators, mainly consisting of thrust vector control and divert control system, for the task of intercepting of a theater ballistic missile. The aim of the present work is to achieve bounded target interception under the mentioned 5 degree-of-freedom (DOF) control such that the distance

Fu-Kuang Yeh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Li-Chen Fu

2004-01-01

244

A multilevel control system for the large space telescope. [numerical analysis/optimal control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilevel scheme was proposed for control of Large Space Telescope (LST) modeled by a three-axis-six-order nonlinear equation. Local controllers were used on the subsystem level to stabilize motions corresponding to the three axes. Global controllers were applied to reduce (and sometimes nullify) the interactions among the subsystems. A multilevel optimization method was developed whereby local quadratic optimizations were performed on the subsystem level, and global control was again used to reduce (nullify) the effect of interactions. The multilevel stabilization and optimization methods are presented as general tools for design and then used in the design of the LST Control System. The methods are entirely computerized, so that they can accommodate higher order LST models with both conceptual and numerical advantages over standard straightforward design techniques.

Siljak, D. D.; Sundareshan, S. K.; Vukcevic, M. B.

1975-01-01

245

The F-18 high alpha research vehicle: A high-angle-of-attack testbed aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is the first thrust-vectoring testbed aircraft used to study the aerodynamics and maneuvering available in the poststall flight regime and to provide the data for validating ground prediction techniques. The aircraft includes a flexible research flight control system and full research instrumentation. The capability to control the vehicle at angles of attack up to 70 degrees is also included. This aircraft was modified by adding a pitch and yaw thrust-vectoring system. No significant problems occurred during the envelope expansion phase of the program. This aircraft has demonstrated excellent control in the wing rock region and increased rolling performance at high angles of attack. Initial pilot reports indicate that the increased capability is desirable although some difficulty in judging the size and timing of control inputs was observed. The aircraft, preflight ground testing and envelope expansion flight tests are described.

Regenie, Victoria; Gatlin, Donald; Kempel, Robert; Matheny, Neil

1992-01-01

246

Design, construction, and calibration of a three-axis, high-frequency magnetic probe ,,B-dot probe... as a diagnostic for exploding plasmas  

E-print Network

or surrounding plasma environments,2­4 nonlinear Alfvén waves,5 and many other nonlinear phenomena. Measuring's internal resistance, internal capacitance, self-inductance, load resistance, and noise levels

California at Los Angles, University of

247

A new approach for determining the contact indentation of the wire race ball bearing in a three-axis simulating rotary table  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper developed a new approach to determine the contact indentation between the wire and the ball in the wire race ball bearing with a diameter of 1000 mm used in a missile simulating rotary table. The material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity was considerer in the contact analysis by using the real stress-strain curve of the wire race tested on

Xiaobiao Shan; Jiangbo Yuan; Tao Xie; Haiqun Qi

2009-01-01

248

Agile missile autopilot design via time-varying eigenvalue assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with control allocation strategies with two-time scale dynamic inversion which generate nominal control input trajectories. In addition, a robust flight control design method is proposed by using a time-varying control technique which is time-varying version of the pole placement of linear time-invariant system for an agile missile with aerodynamic fin, thrust vectoring control, and side-jet thruster.

Ho Chul Lee; Jae Weon Choi; Taek Lyul Song; Chan Ho Song

2004-01-01

249

Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement\\/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis:

Matthew E. Melis

2003-01-01

250

Mathematical modeling and nonlinear attitude and trajectory tracking control of a one stage rocket with varying mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrust vector control (TVC) for a one-stage rocket with variable mass is considered. TVC control is used here to correct the rocket deviations from an intended parabolic trajectory and desired attitude angle during powered flight. A rigid body mathematical model with varying mass in the plane is presented. A nonlinear feedback controller together with a SDRE controller is designed. The effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model and control is illustrated through numerical simulations. By controlling the direction of the thrust vectors it is possible to control the angle of attack of the rocket. In this work only the pitch angle is considered. Only one liquid propellant thruster is used. It is also considered here only the flight period when the rocket propulsion system is firing and therefore the TVC is operative.

Fenili, André

2014-12-01

251

Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-10

252

Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

1996-01-01

253

Hybrid fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems using neural parameter estimators.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel integrated hybrid approach for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear systems taking advantage of both the system's mathematical model and the adaptive nonlinear approximation capability of computational intelligence techniques. Unlike most FD techniques, the proposed solution simultaneously accomplishes fault detection, isolation, and identification (FDII) within a unified diagnostic module. At the core of this solution is a bank of adaptive neural parameter estimators (NPEs) associated with a set of single-parameter fault models. The NPEs continuously estimate unknown fault parameters (FPs) that are indicators of faults in the system. Two NPE structures, series-parallel and parallel, are developed with their exclusive set of desirable attributes. The parallel scheme is extremely robust to measurement noise and possesses a simpler, yet more solid, fault isolation logic. In contrast, the series-parallel scheme displays short FD delays and is robust to closed-loop system transients due to changes in control commands. Finally, a fault tolerant observer (FTO) is designed to extend the capability of the two NPEs that originally assumes full state measurements for systems that have only partial state measurements. The proposed FTO is a neural state estimator that can estimate unmeasured states even in the presence of faults. The estimated and the measured states then comprise the inputs to the two proposed FDII schemes. Simulation results for FDII of reaction wheels of a three-axis stabilized satellite in the presence of disturbances and noise demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FDII solutions under partial state measurements. PMID:24239987

Sobhani-Tehrani, E; Talebi, H A; Khorasani, K

2014-02-01

254

Simulation model of the F/A-18 high angle-of-attack research vehicle utilized for the design of advanced control laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'f18harv' six degree-of-freedom nonlinear batch simulation used to support research in advanced control laws and flight dynamics issues as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is described in this report. This simulation models an F/A-18 airplane modified to incorporate a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and actuated forebody strakes for enhanced aerodynamic yaw control power. The modified configuration is known as the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The 'f18harv' simulation was an outgrowth of the 'f18bas' simulation which modeled the basic F/A-18 with a preliminary version of a thrust-vectoring system designed for the HARV. The preliminary version consisted of two thrust-vectoring vanes per engine nozzle compared with the three vanes per engine actually employed on the F/A-18 HARV. The modeled flight envelope is extensive in that the aerodynamic database covers an angle-of-attack range of -10 degrees to +90 degrees, sideslip range of -20 degrees to +20 degrees, a Mach Number range between 0.0 and 2.0, and an altitude range between 0 and 60,000 feet.

Strickland, Mark E.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Messina, Michael D.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

1996-01-01

255

Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.

2014-01-01

256

Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

2014-01-01

257

TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

1999-01-01

258

Static, noise, and transition tests of a combined-surface-blowing V/STOL lift/propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient thrust vectoring and high levels of circulatory lift were obtained in tests of a half model V/STOL airplane by using a type of externally blown jet flap in which the jet exhaust from wing-mounted cruise fans is directed over both upper and lower surfaces of a flapped wing. Approximately 90% thrust recovery with 87 deg of thrust vectoring was achieved under static conditions using 89 deg of trailing edge flap deflection. The approximately 10% loss appears to be associated primarily with pressure losses due to the flap brackets or slot entries. The jet induced lift was shown to be 55% of the theoretical value for a fullspan jet-flapped wing, even though only 27.5% of the wingspan was immersed in the jet. Steady rate of descent capability in excess of 1,000 feet per minute is predicted. The possibility of significant aerodynamic-noise cancelling when blowing over both surfaces at high velocities is indicated.

Schoen, A. H.; Kolesar, C. E.; Schaeffer, E. G.

1977-01-01

259

Portable activity monitoring system for temporal parameters of gait cycles.  

PubMed

A portable and wireless activity monitoring system was developed for the estimation of temporal gait parameters. The new system was built using three-axis accelerometers to automatically detect walking steps with various walking speeds. The accuracy of walking step-peak detection algorithm was assessed by using a running machine with variable speeds. To assess the consistency of gait parameter analysis system, estimated parameters, such as heel-contact and toe-off time based on accelerometers and footswitches were compared for consecutive 20 steps from 19 individual healthy subjects. Accelerometers and footswitches had high consistency in the temporal gait parameters. The stance, swing, single-limb support, and double-limb support time of gait cycle revealed ICCs values of 0.95, 0.93, 0.86, and 0.75 on the right and 0.96, 0.86, 0.93, 0.84 on the left, respectively. And the walking step-peak detection accuracy was 99.15% (±0.007) for the proposed method compared to 87.48% (±0.033) for a pedometer. Therefore, the proposed activity monitoring system proved to be a reliable and useful tool for identification of temporal gait parameters and walking pattern classification. PMID:20703612

Lee, Jung-Ah; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Young-Jae; Yang, Heui-Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Whan

2010-10-01

260

Shuttle infrared telescope facility pointing and control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is being designed as a 0.85 m cryogenically cooled telescope capable of a three order of magnitude improvement over currently available infrared instruments. The SIRTF requires that the image at the focal plane be stabilized to better than 0.25 arcsec with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 arcsec. Current pointing-mount performance simulations indicate that neither of these requirements can be met without additional stabilization. The SIRTF pointing and control system will utilize gyro outputs, star field position measurements from a focal plane fine guidance sensor, and a steerable secondary mirror to provide the necessary stabilization and pointing control. The charge coupled device fine guidance sensor tracks multiple stars simultaneously and, through the use of multistar processing algorithms in a high performance microcomputer, generates three-axis attitude errors and gyro-drift estimates to correct the pointing-mount gyros. A high-bandwidth feedforward loop, driven directly from the pointing-mount gyro package, controls the steering mirror in order to correct disturbances not compensated for by the pointing-mount control system. A prototype design for the SIRTF pointing and control system is described in detail. Performance analyses made using a digital simulation of the pointing and control system as well as experimental data obtained in laboratory and field test measurements are presented.

Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Matsumoto, Y. T.

1981-01-01

261

Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During this year, we concentrated our efforts on the design of controllers for lateral/directional control using mu synthesis. This proved to be a more difficult task than we anticipated and we are still working on the designs. In the lateral-directional control problem, the inputs are pilot lateral stick and pedal commands and the outputs are roll rate about the velocity vector and side slip angle. The control effectors are ailerons, rudder deflection, and directional thrust vectoring vane deflection which produces a yawing moment about the body axis. Our math model does not contain any provision for thrust vectoring of rolling moment. This has resulted in limitations of performance at high angles of attack. During 1994-95, the following tasks for the lateral-directional controllers were accomplished: (1) Designed both inner and outer loop dynamic inversion controllers. These controllers are implemented using accelerometer outputs rather than an a priori model of the vehicle aerodynamics; (2) Used classical techniques to design controllers for the system linearized by dynamics inversion. These controllers acted to control roll rate and Dutch roll response; (3) Implemented the inner loop dynamic inversion and classical controllers on the six DOF simulation; (4) Developed a lateral-directional control allocation scheme based on minimizing required control effort among the ailerons, rudder, and directional thrust vectoring; and (5) Developed mu outer loop controllers combined with classical inner loop controllers.

Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

1995-01-01

262

Thrust shock vector control of an axisymmetric conical supersonic nozzle via secondary transverse gas injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse secondary gas injection into the supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle is investigated to describe the effects of the fluidic thrust vectoring within the framework of a small satellite launcher. Cold-flow dry-air experiments are performed in a supersonic wind tunnel using two identical supersonic conical nozzles with the different transverse injection port positions. The complex three-dimensional flow field generated by the supersonic cross-flows in these test nozzles was examined. Valuable experimental data were confronted and compared with the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Different nozzle models are numerically simulated under experimental conditions and then further investigated to determine which parameters significantly affect thrust vectoring. Effects which characterize the nozzle and thrust vectoring performances are established. The results indicate that with moderate secondary to primary mass flow rate ratios, ranging around 5 %, it is possible to achieve pertinent vector side forces. It is also revealed that injector positioning and geometry have a strong effect on the shock vector control system and nozzle performances.

Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.

2014-01-01

263

System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the anionic structures of the molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The results show that the average first nearest-neighbor distances for Si-O and P-O pairs are 1.61 and 1.53 Å, respectively. As expected, above 98 pct P and 95 pct Si show fourfold coordination and form tetrahedral structures. Due to the high basicity, nonbridging oxygen occupies a predominant position in Si and P tetrahedron. Based on the oxygen number of different types, the structures of both Si and P tetrahedron were classified as Q 0, Q 1, Q 2, Q 3, and Q 4, where the superscript referred to the number of bridging oxygen atoms. With the substitution of P2O5 for SiO2, Q 0 decreased and other type of Q i units increased. For Si tetrahedron, Q 2 and Q 3 show most notable change, for P tetrahedron, Q 1and Q 2 show the most notable change. The change of Q i units for Si tetrahedron is larger than that for P tetrahedron. The concentration of free oxygen decreases remarkably with the increase of P2O5 content. The Si-O-P linkage is energetically more favorable than Si-O-Si and P-O-P linkages. P ion has a tendency to promote the polymerization of phosphosilicate melts.

Diao, Jiang; Fan, Guozheng; Liu, Xuan; Xie, Bing

2014-10-01

264

Linear parameter-varying control of an F-16 aircraft at high angle of attack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the aircraft capability at high angle of attack and expand the flight envelope, advanced linear parameter-varying (LPV) control methodologies are studied in this thesis with particular applications of actuator saturation control and switching control. A standard two-step LPV antiwindup control scheme and a systematic switching LPV control approach are derived, and the advantages of LPV control techniques are demonstrated through nonlinear simulations of an F-16 longitudinal autopilot control system. The aerodynamic surface saturation is one of the major issues of flight control in the high angle of attack region. The incorporated unconventional actuators such as thrust vectoring can provide additional control power, but may have a potentially significant pay-off. The proposed LPV antiwindup control scheme is advantageous from the implementation standpoint because it can be thought of as an augmented control algorithm to the existing control system. Moreover, the synthesis condition for an antiwindup compensator is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem and can be solved efficiently. By treating the input saturation as a sector bounded nonlinearity with a tight sector bound, the synthesized antiwindup compensator can stabilize the open-loop exponentially unstable systems. The LPV antiwindup control scheme is applied to the nonlinear F-16 longitudinal model, and compared with the thrust vectoring control approach. The simulation results show that the LPV antiwindup compensator improves the flight quality, and offers advantages over thrust vectoring in a high angle of attack region. For a thrust vectoring augmented aircraft, the actuator sets may be different at low and high angles of attack. Also due to different control objectives, a single controller may not exist over a wide angle of attack region. The proposed switching LPV control approach based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions provides a flexible design method with improved performance. A family of LPV controllers are designed, each suitable for a specific angle of attack region. They are switched according to the trajectory of angle of attack so that the closed-loop system remains stable and its performance is optimized. Two switching logics, hysteresis switching and switching with average dwell time, are examined. The control synthesis conditions for both switching logics are formulated as generally non-convex matrix optimization problems. To make the switching LPV control approach more applicable, two convexified methods are given according to the state of the controller is reset or not at switching time. The thrust vectoring augmented F-16 longitudinal model with different control objectives at low and high angles of attack is used to validate the results of the switching control scheme.

Lu, Bei

265

Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

266

Low-power portable geophysical data acquisition system and its use in geomagnetic measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-power portable data acquisition system presently in use for geomagnetic measurements is described. The system is composed of a data-processing system containing a low-power microprocessor, a 9-track digital tape recorder, and a rechargeable battery pack. The magnetometer is a low-power three axis fluxgate design. Under program control the data processing system keeps track of time of day and date, samples three analog magnetometer outputs at intervals of either 0.4 or 2 s, digitizes the data to 15-bit resolution, and, depending upon relative magnetic activity, decides upon data compression to increase the tape storage capacity. It also monitors and records internal voltages and provides self-checking functions which may be monitored through a visual readout on the control panel. The system is mounted in a rugged, weather-tight carrying case suitable for use outdoors with minimal protection. The system, including magnetometer, uses 1.6-W power and can store 5.7 Mbytes of data.

Medford, L. V.; Maclennan, C. G.; Rosenfeld, P. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Acuna, M. H.

1981-01-01

267

Magnetic Position and Orientation Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-axis generation and sensing of quasi-static magneticdipole fields provide information sufficient to determine both the position and orientation of the sensor relative to the source. Linear rotation transformations based upon the previous measurements are applied to both the source excitation and sensor output vectors, yielding quantities that are linearly propotional to small changes in the position and orientation. Changes are

Frederick Raab; Ernest Blood; Terry Steiner; Herbert Jones

1979-01-01

268

Analytical design and simulation evaluation of an approach flight director system for a jet STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was undertaken to develop design criteria and operational procedures for STOL transport aircraft. As part of that program, a series of flight tests shall be performed in an Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Aircraft. In preparation for the flight test programs, an analytical study was conducted to gain an understanding of the characteristics of the vehicle for manual control, to assess the relative merits of the variety of manual control techniques available with attitude and thrust vector controllers, and to determine what improvements can be made over manual control of the bare airframe by providing the pilot with suitable command guidance information and by augmentation of the bare airframe dynamics. The objective of the study is to apply closed-loop pilot/vehicle analysis techniques to the analysis of manual flight control of powered-lift STOL aircraft in the landing approach and to the design and experimental verification of an advanced flight director display.

Klein, R. H.; Hofmann, L. G.; Mcruer, D. T.

1974-01-01

269

An MRI-compatible system for focused ultrasound experiments in small animal models  

PubMed Central

The development of novel MRI-guided therapeutic ultrasound methods including potentiated drug delivery and targeted thermal ablation requires extensive testing in small animals such as rats and mice due to the widespread use of these species as models of disease. An MRI-compatible, computer-controlled three-axis positioning system was constructed to deliver focused ultrasound exposures precisely to a target anatomy in small animals for high-throughput preclinical drug delivery studies. Each axis was constructed from custom-made nonmagnetic linear ball stages driven by piezoelectric actuators and optical encoders. A range of motion of 5×5×2.5 cm3 was achieved, and initial bench top characterization demonstrated the ability to deliver ultrasound to the brain with a spatial accuracy of 0.3 mm. Operation of the positioning system within the bore of a clinical 3 T MR imager was feasible, and simultaneous motion and MR imaging did not result in any mutual interference. The system was evaluated in its ability to deliver precise sonications within the mouse brain, linear scanned exposures in a rat brain for blood barrier disruption, and circular scans for controlled heating under MR temperature feedback. Initial results suggest that this is a robust and precise apparatus for use in the investigation of novel ultrasound-based therapeutic strategies in small animal preclinical models. PMID:19544806

Chopra, Rajiv; Curiel, Laura; Staruch, Robert; Morrison, Laetitia; Hynynen, Kullervo

2009-01-01

270

Multi-star processing and gyro filtering for the video inertial pointing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The video inertial pointing (VIP) system is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. The VIP system uses a single video sensor to provide star position information that can be used to generate three-axis pointing error signals (multi-star processing) and for input to a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization system (gyro filtering). The CRT display facilitates target acquisition and positioning of the telescope by a remote operator. Linearized small angle equations are used for the multistar processing and a consideration of error performance and singularities lead to star pair location restrictions and equation selection criteria. A discrete steady-state Kalman filter which uses the integration of the gyros is developed and analyzed. The filter includes unit time delays representing asynchronous operations of the VIP microprocessor and video sensor. A digital simulation of a typical gyro stabilized gimbal is developed and used to validate the approach to the gyro filtering.

Murphy, J. P.

1976-01-01

271

System cost/performance analysis (study 2.3). Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationships between performance, safety, cost, and schedule parameters were identified and quantified in support of an overall effort to generate program models and methodology that provide insight into a total space vehicle program. A specific space vehicle system, the attitude control system (ACS), was used, and a modeling methodology was selected that develops a consistent set of quantitative relationships among performance, safety, cost, and schedule, based on the characteristics of the components utilized in candidate mechanisms. These descriptive equations were developed for a three-axis, earth-pointing, mass expulsion ACS. A data base describing typical candidate ACS components was implemented, along with a computer program to perform sample calculations. This approach, implemented on a computer, is capable of determining the effect of a change in functional requirements to the ACS mechanization and the resulting cost and schedule. By a simple extension of this modeling methodology to the other systems in a space vehicle, a complete space vehicle model can be developed. Study results and recommendations are presented.

Kazangey, T.

1973-01-01

272

IRECIN Nano-satellite communication system and ground segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On board resources necessary to perform the mission tasks are very limited in nano-satellites. This paper proposes a real-time multi-processing system for the communication system between ground segment and IRECIN nano-satellite. The first microprocessor is devoted to interface to the rice-transceiver subsystem decoding packet information and the second one is in charge to communicate with the other subsystems through I 2C bus. It uses UHF band and less than 1 W in RF. All electronic components are SMD technology in order to reduce weight and size. The realized electronic boards are completely developed, realized and tested at the Vitrociset S.P.A. under control of Research and Develop Group. This multi-processor system even allows managing the tasks of the microprocessor eventually damaged, the microprocessor still working takes the functionalities of the first one using simpler algorithms. This choice assures an increasing nano-satellite life time. Moreover, the depicted method allows to free the on-board main microprocessor from the control functions of the communication data, increasing its communication capabilities with the other subsystems. The proposed system is implemented on the IRECIN, a modular nano-satellite weighing less than 1.5 kg, constituted by 16 external sides with surface-mounted solar cells and three internal Al plates, kept together by four steel bars. Lithium-ion batteries are added for eclipse operations. Attitude is determined by two three-axis magnetometers and the solar panel data. Control is provided by an active magnetic control system. The spacecraft will be spin-stabilized with the spin-axis normal to the orbit.

Ferrante, M.; Povia, M.; Di Ciolo, L.; Ortenzi, A.; Petrozzi, M.

2005-01-01

273

Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

1991-01-01

274

Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

2003-01-01

275

The Implementation of Satellite Attitude Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA established the Small Explorer (SNMX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions. The SMEX program has produced five satellites, three of which have been successfully launched. The remaining two spacecraft are scheduled for launch within the coming year. NASA has recently developed a prototype for the next generation Small Explorer spacecraft (SMEX-Lite). This paper describes the object-oriented design (OOD) of the SMEX-Lite Attitude Control System (ACS) software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. This paper first describes high level requirements governing the SMEX-Lite ACS software architecture. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will also discuss the design of several ACS software components. Specifically, object-oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, and failure detection. Finally, this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects.

Reid, W. Mark; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom; Anderson, Mark O.; Drury, Derek

1998-01-01

276

The attitude control of a solar electric propulsion /SEP/ spacecraft for an out-of-the-ecliptic mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-controlled attitude and articulation control system is proposed for a spacecraft of extremely soft structure that uses two 8-kW solar arrays with an area of nearly 100 sq m each to power six electric propulsion thrusters. The purpose of the articulation control is to point the scientific instruments, to orient the antenna toward the earth, and to reorient the thrust vector as required for trajectory control. The attitude control system provides control both during the low-thrust phase of the mission and during long-term spinning modes.

Marsh, E. L.

1975-01-01

277

Structure and properties of nano-hydroxypatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with a selective laser sintering system.  

PubMed

In this study, nano-hydroxypatite (n-HAP) bone scaffolds are prepared by a homemade selective laser sintering (SLS) system based on rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The SLS system consists of a precise three-axis motion platform and a laser with its optical focusing device. The implementation of arbitrary complex movements based on the non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) theory is realized in this system. The effects of the sintering processing parameters on the microstructure of n-HAP are tested with x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles of n-HAP grow gradually and tend to become spherical-like from the initial needle-like shape, but still maintain a nanoscale structure at scanning speeds between 200 and 300 mm min(-1) when the laser power is 50 W, the light spot diameter 4 mm, and the layer thickness 0.3 mm. In addition, these changes do not result in decomposition of the n-HAP during the sintering process. The results suggest that the newly developed n-HAP scaffolds have the potential to serve as an excellent substrate in bone tissue engineering. PMID:21642759

Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Shuping

2011-07-15

278

Structure and properties of nano-hydroxypatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with a selective laser sintering system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, nano-hydroxypatite (n-HAP) bone scaffolds are prepared by a homemade selective laser sintering (SLS) system based on rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The SLS system consists of a precise three-axis motion platform and a laser with its optical focusing device. The implementation of arbitrary complex movements based on the non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) theory is realized in this system. The effects of the sintering processing parameters on the microstructure of n-HAP are tested with x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles of n-HAP grow gradually and tend to become spherical-like from the initial needle-like shape, but still maintain a nanoscale structure at scanning speeds between 200 and 300 mm min - 1 when the laser power is 50 W, the light spot diameter 4 mm, and the layer thickness 0.3 mm. In addition, these changes do not result in decomposition of the n-HAP during the sintering process. The results suggest that the newly developed n-HAP scaffolds have the potential to serve as an excellent substrate in bone tissue engineering.

Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Shuping

2011-07-01

279

X-31 at High Agle of Attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircraft's unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent.

1994-01-01

280

Piloting considerations for terminal area operations of civil tiltwing and tiltrotor aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existing body of research to investigate airworthiness, performance, handling, and operational requirements for STOL and V/STOL aircraft was reviewed for its applicability to the tiltrotor and tiltwing design concepts. The objective of this study was to help determine the needs for developing civil certification criteria for these aircraft concepts. Piloting tasks that were considered included configuration and thrust vector management, glidepath control, deceleration to hover, and engine failure procedures. Flight control and cockpit display systems that have been found necessary to exploit the low-speed operating characteristics of these aircraft are described, and beneficial future developments are proposed.

Hindson, William S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Tucker, George E.; Decker, William A.

1993-01-01

281

F-18 HARV smoke flow visualization of actuated nose strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the final phase of tests with the HARV, Dryden technicians installed nose strakes, which were panels that fitted flush against the sides of the forward nose. When the HARV was at a high alpha, the aerodynamics of the nose caused a loss of directional stability. Extending one or both of the strakes results in strong side forces that, in turn, generated yaw control. This approach, along with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring Control system, proved to be stability under flight conditions in which conventional surfaces, such as the vertical tails, were ineffective.

1996-01-01

282

Flight test maneuvers for closed loop lateral-directional modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) using forebody strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for lateral linear model parameter estimation at 30, 45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Strake (S) model and Strake/Thrust Vectoring (STV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specification of the time/amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

Morelli, E. A.

1996-01-01

283

Parameter Identification Flight Test Maneuvers for Closed Loop Modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for longitudinal and lateral linear model parameter estimation at 5,20,30,45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Thrust Vectoring (TV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time / amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

Batterson, James G. (Technical Monitor); Morelli, E. A.

1996-01-01

284

An Overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The three flight phases of the program are introduced, along with the specific goals and data examples taken during each phase. The aircraft configuration and systems needed to perform the disciplinary and inter-disciplinary research are discussed. The specific disciplines involved with the flight research are introduced, including aerodynamics, controls, propulsion, systems, and structures. Decisions that were made early in the planning of the aircraft project and the results of those decisions are briefly discussed. Each of the three flight phases corresponds to a particular aircraft configuration, and the research dictated the configuration to be flown. The first phase gathered data with the baseline F-18 configuration. The second phase was the thrust-vectoring phase. The third phase used a modified forebody with deployable nose strakes. Aircraft systems supporting these flights included extensive instrumentation systems, integrated research flight controls using flight control hardware and corresponding software, analog interface boxes to control forebody strakes, a thrust-vectoring system using external post-exit vanes around axisymmetric nozzles, a forebody vortex control system with strakes, and backup systems using battery-powered emergency systems and a spin recovery parachute.

Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Wilson, R. Joseph; Flick, Bradley C.; Rood, Richard L.

1996-01-01

285

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

Chichester, F. D.

1982-01-01

286

Trial by Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASa/ATK Thiokol space shuttle solid rocket motor program has doubled ground test firings and enhanced manufacturing quality and process control to increase safety for Discovery's return to flight. There are a number of places where we've strengthened our engineering and our processes, says Mike Kahn, ATK Thiokol vice president of space launch systems. Protecting the booster against corrosion in the humid Florida environment is one area that has been addressed. Since the loss of Columbia, ATK Thiokol and the Marshall Space Flight Center have completely reevaluated the shuttle solid rocket motor's design certification and found no major problems, Kahn said. The Thiokol solid motors did not play a role in the 2003 Columbia accident, but the motor's older field joint design (since replaced) was the primary cause of the 1986 Challenger accident that killed seven astronauts. The 129 X 12-ft. ATK Thiokol reusable solid rocket motor forms the core of the shuttle's two solid rocket boosters (SRBs). United Space Alliance (USA) has overall responsibility for the booster's nose-mounted systems such as recovery parachutes and aft-mounted thrust vector control systems that increase the length to 149 ft. USA and its subcontractors have also reaffirmed quality control on systems such as the booster's Hamilton Sundstrand hydraulic power units for critical thrust vector control. And to ensure greater safeguards against booster debris jeopardizing the orbiter, a bolt-catcher system to restrain the large bolts, severed at booster separation, was also redesigned.

Covault, Craig

2005-01-01

287

Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode, the software aligns the precision navigation sensors and initializes the communications interfaces with the sensor and the remote computing system. It also monitors the navigation data state for quality and ensures that the system maintains the required fidelity for attitude and positional information. In the operational mode, the software runs at 12.5 Hz and gathers the required navigation/attitude data, computes the required sensor correction values, and then commands the sensor to the required roll correction. In this manner, the sensor will stay very near to vertical at all times, greatly improving the resulting collected data and imagery. CANS greatly improves quality of resulting imagery and data collected. In addition, the software component of the system outputs a concisely formatted, high-speed data stream that can be used for further science data processing. This precision, time-stamped data also can benefit other instruments on the same aircraft platform by providing extra information from the mission flight.

Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

2013-01-01

288

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

289

Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements While Performing Orbit Maintenance Maneuvers Containing an Orbit Normal Delta-V Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Aura's Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Aura's frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under noslew operations.

Johnson, Megan R.; Petersen, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

290

Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

291

Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, May 1993-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 2 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

Dietrich, F.M.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-04-01

292

Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, May 1992-March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system, and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 1 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Papas, P.N.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-04-01

293

International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 A Self Calibrating Attitude Determination System for  

E-print Network

include increased yield from crops, reduced input costs due to overlap, reduced driver fatigue and reduced gyros, a three axis accelerometer package and a digital compass. In addition to these sensors) Dual Frequency GPS/GLONASS Single Frequency GPS 400MHz PowerPC CPU 2-Axis Digital Compass Y Gyro (MEMS

294

Experiments on Ion Beam Deflection Using Ion Optics with Slit Apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation on ion beam deflection by grid translation was performed. The ion beam deflection in ion optics is a desired technology for ion thrusters because thrust vector control utilizing this technique can eliminate the need for conventional gimbaling devices and thus reduce propulsion system mass. A grid translation mechanism consisting of a piezoelectric motor, a ceramic lever, and carbon-based grids with slit apertures was fabricated and high repeatability in beam deflection characteristics was obtained using this mechanism. Results showed that the beam deflection angle was proportional to the grid translation distance and independent of slit width and grid voltage. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the beam deflection characteristics in a qualitative and quantitative sense. A maximum beam deflection angle of approximately plus or minus 6 degrees, which was comparable to that of the ordinary gimbaling devices used in space, was obtained without a severe drain current. Therefore, the beam deflection by grid translation is promising as a thrust vectoring method in ion thrusters.

Okawa, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Yukio; Kitamura, Shoji

2004-03-01

295

Propulsion Flight Research at NASA Dryden From 1967 to 1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 1967 to 1997, pioneering propulsion flight research activities have been conceived and conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Many of these programs have been flown jointly with the United States Department of Defense, industry, or the Federal Aviation Administration. Propulsion research has been conducted on the XB-70, F-111 A, F-111E, YF-12, JetStar, B-720, MD-11, F-15, F- 104, Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology, F-14, F/A-18, SR-71, and the hypersonic X-15 airplanes. Research studies have included inlet dynamics and control, in-flight thrust computation, integrated propulsion controls, inlet and boattail drag, wind tunnel-to-flight comparisons, digital engine controls, advanced engine control optimization algorithms, acoustics, antimisting kerosene, in-flight lift and drag, throttle response criteria, and thrust-vectoring vanes. A computer-controlled thrust system has been developed to land the F-15 and MD-11 airplanes without using any of the normal flight controls. An F-15 airplane has flown tests of axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzles. A linear aerospike rocket experiment has been developed and tested on the SR-71 airplane. This paper discusses some of the more unique flight programs, the results, lessons learned, and their impact on current technology.

Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.; Conners, Timothy R.; Walsh, Kevin R.

1997-01-01

296

Bias Momentum Sizing for Hovering Dual-Spin Platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric flight vehicle in hover is typically controlled by varying its thrust vector. Achieving both levitation and attitude control with the propulsion system places considerable demands on it for agility and precision, particularly if the vehicle is statically unstable, or nearly so. These demands can be relaxed by introducing an appropriately sized angular momentum bias aligned with the vehicle's yaw axis, thus providing an additional margin of attitude stability about the roll and pitch axes. This paper describes a methodical approach for trading off angular momentum bias level needed with desired levels of vehicle response due to the design disturbance environment given a vehicle's physical parameters. It also describes several simplifications that provide a more physical and intuitive understanding of dual-spin dynamics for hovering atmospheric vehicles. This approach also mitigates the need for control torques and inadvertent actuator saturation difficulties in trying to stabilize a vehicle via control torques produced by unsteady aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, and unsteady throttling. Simulation results, based on a subscale laboratory test flying platform, demonstrate significant improvements in the attitude control robustness of the vehicle with respect to both wind disturbances and off-center of gravity payload changes during flight.

Lim, Kyong B.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Moerder, Daniel D.

2006-01-01

297

Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors (axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts) of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of {+-}2.3 deg. was measured with the error of {+-}0.2 deg. under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2007-11-15

298

Generating high DOF light by using tapered hollow tube in a lithography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we proposed a tapered hollow tube which can produce a near diffraction-limit spot and focus the incident light in far-field region. From previous researches, the sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA) made on metallic film generates a Bessel beam in far-field region. Also, the traditional tapered fiber has been widely used in near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) to achieve super-resolution in near-field. Combining these two concepts, tapered hollow tube was shown to have great potential in creating a small sub-micron spot size and long depth of focus (DOF) emitted light beam. By using the commercially available capillary and fiber heat-pulling method, it was found that tube processed per design to be disclosed in this paper can achieve Bessel beam as well. It will be shown that the SAA-like structure was actually implemented by the geometry of the tube tip. From FDTD simulation and experiment, the emitted beam was identified to have more than 10 ?m DOF and 250-300 nm focal spot excited by using the 408 nm laser source. These results not only can help us pursue lithography applied to create through silicon via (TSV) process in far-field region while maintaining near diffraction-limit spot size. The high throughput and side lobe became a serious problem when continuous incident light was used. To circumvent this problem, the incident light from was changed from continuous to pulse type and a suitable lithography experimental system designed by using three-axis displacement platform was developed. All results will be detailed in this paper.

Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Yu-Hsun; Chien, Chih-Jen; Yu, Yuh-Yan; Lee, Chih-Kung

2012-03-01

299

Autonomous Operation of the Nanosatellite URSA MAIOR Micropropulsion System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Via Eudossiana 16, 00184 At Università di Roma "La Sapienza" a nanosatellite bus is under development, with one liter target volume and one kilogram target weight. This nanosatellite, called URSA MAIOR (Università di Roma "la SApienza" Micro Autonomous Imager in ORbit) has a micro camera on board to take pictures of the Earth. The nanosatellite is three axis stabilized, using a micro momentum wheel, with magnetic coils for active nutation damping and pointing control. An experimental micropropulsion system is present on-board, together with the magnetic attitude control system. The design, construction and testing of the satellite is carried on by academic personnel and by students, which are directly involved in the whole process, as it is in the spirit of in the microsatellite program at Università di Roma "La Sapienza". Few technological payloads are present on-board: an Earth imaging experiment, using a few grams commercial-off-the-shelf microcamera; commercial Li-Ion batteries are the only energy storage device; a microwheel developed at our University laboratories provides for attitude stabilization. In addition, a micropropulsion experiment is planned on-board. The Austrian Company Mechatronic, and INFM, an Italian Research Institute at Trieste are developing a microthruster for nanosatelite applications. In the frame of a cooperation established between these two Institutions and Università di Roma "La Sapienza", this newly developed hardware will be tested in orbit. The thruster is made basically of an integrated microvalve, built on a silicon chip, and a micronozzle, etched on the same silicon chip, to get supersonic expansion of the gas flow. The nominal thrust of the system is about 100microN. The throat section is about 100 micron diameter. The first phase in the construction of the microthruster has been the construction of the micronozzle on a silicon chip. A micropropulsion system realized with this micronozzle and with commercial valves, not integrated on a silicon chip, will be tested on board the microsatelite UNISAT-2, to be launched within 2002. A step further with respect to the system configuration to be flown on UNISAT-2 is the miniaturized microvalve, allowing to reduce the system volume and weight. As a matter of fact, the complete micropropulsion system fits in the one liter nanosatellite URSA MAIOR attitude control needs. The microvalve and nozzle occupy few squared millimiters of the external satellite surface, while the gas tank is about one tenth of the nanosatellite volume. One of the goals of the experiment is testing the micropropulsion hardware in space and assessing the microthruster performance in orbit. Another part of the experiment is devoted to the use of the micropropulsion system for autonomous spacecraft attitude maneuvers. One of these is the momentum wheel desaturation. When using the magnetic desaturation, some commands are sent to the satellite in order to perform the maneuver in the most efficient part of the orbit, depending on the magnetic field direction. When the micropropulsion system is active, the maneuver is performed autonomously, without any intervention from the ground. The on-board system monitors the maneuver evolution and stops when the maneuver is complete, sending a message to the ground station. To evaluate the autonomous system performance, attitude telemetry is stored during the maneuver and downloaded to the ground station. In the paper the nanosatellite URSA MAIOR is briefly described. The micropropulsion system is shown in detail and the ground test results discussed. The attitude control hardware is described and the numerical simulation results of the micropropulsion maneuvers described. Particular attention is given to the telemetry analysis performed autonomously on-board to make decision about the maneuver success.

Santoni, F.

300

F-18 HARV in flight refueling with KC-135 tanker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust vectoring system can be seen mounted on the aft end of this NASA F-18 research aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during an inflight refueling stop with a KC-135A (Serial #55-3135) tanker. The system was used to enhance its maneuverability and control at high angles of attack (high alpha) when conventional aerodynamic controls - ailerons, rudders, and elevators - are ineffective. The system features three spoon-shaped paddles mounted around the exhaust nozzles of each engine. The system, linked to the aircraft's flight control system, moves the paddles into the exhaust flow to redirect thrust for directional control and increased maneuverability at angles of attack near 70 degrees. First research flights with the system operating began during the spring of 1991. Data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) program produced information to validate computer codes and wind tunnel results and led to design methods providing better performance in future aircraft.

1995-01-01

301

Development of the command data system and ground software for the SEDSAT-1 microsatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SEDSAT-1 is designed to be a low cost scientific satellite which is to be used to perform a minimum of five tasks which include: (1) the acquisition of a number of important parameters associated with the tethering processes from the payloads perspective (such as accelerations incurred and imaging data of the tether during deployment), (2) to act as a remote sensing platform for making measurements of the Earth's Atmosphere (allowing research to be performed in such areas as vertical lightning observation, visible light spectrography, and cloud cover studies, (3) to act as a general purpose amateur radio communication satellite relaying information back to earth, (4) to demonstrate the feasibility of the deployment in low earth orbit of advanced technology such as the Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells, Nickel Metal Hydride batteries, and multi-chip module technology and, (5) to support student's active participation in applying the disciplines of engineering and science to space-based hardware platforms. The project includes the Three-axis Accelerometer System, TAS, Experiment which is designed to report the accelerations that the satellite undergoes during the tethering operations and during the second phase of the mission when the free floating satellite comes in contact with orbit debris. The SEASIS (SEDS Earth, Atmosphere, and Space Imaging System) is another SEDSAT experiment designed to provide images of the tether during its deployment and the earth during the second phase of the mission. To control these experiments and virtually all other satellite operations the Command Data System, CDS is employed. This system utilizes a moderate complexity micro-controller controlled by tasks operating under a real-time operating system to dynamically monitor and control the satellite. The scope of this researchers efforts has been in the general area of coordinating and assisting the student researchers with the development of the CDS and ground station interfaces. This included the low level CDS hardware design and the formulization of a general software plan and schedule for both the CDS and ground station portions of the project.

Wells, B. Earl

1996-01-01

302

Evaluation of aperture cover tank vent nozzles for the IRAS spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of coefficients for the three axes of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) were established to determine the maximum allowable thrust difference between the two vent nozzles of the aperture cover tank low thrust vent system and their maximum misalignment. Test data generated by flow and torque measurements permitted the selection of two nozzles whose thrust differential was within the limit of the attitude control capability. Based on thrust stand data, a thrust vector misalignment was indicated that was slightly higher than permissible for the worst case, i.e., considerable degradation of the torque capacity of the attitude control system combined with venting of helium at its upper limit. The probability of destabilizing the IRAS spacecraft by activating the venting system appeared to be very low. The selection and mounting of the nozzles have satisfied all the requirements for the safe venting of helium.

Richter, R.

1983-01-01

303

Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

Hammond, Monica (compiler); Sharkey, John (compiler)

1993-01-01

304

Technical Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I-X will be NASA's first test flight for a new human-rated launch vehicle since 1981, and the team is well on its way toward completing the vehicle's design and hardware fabrication for an April 2009 launch. This uncrewed suborbital development test flight gives NASA its first opportunities to: gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the stage separation environments during future flight; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) incorporates a mix of flight and mockup hardware. It is powered by a four-segment solid rocket booster, and will be modified to include a fifth, spacer segment; the upper stage, Orion crew exploration vehicle, and launch abort system are simulator hardware to make the FTV aerodynamically similar to the same size, shape, and weight of Ares I. The Ares IX first stage includes an existing Shuttle solid rocket motor and thrust vector control system controlled by an Ascent Thrust Vector Controller (ATVC) designed and built by Honeywell International. The avionics system will be tested in a dedicated System Integration Laboratory located at Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS) in Denver, Colorado. The Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is made up of cylindrical segments that will be stacked and integrated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for launch. Glenn Research Center is already building these segments, along with their internal access structures. The active Roll Control System (RoCS) includes two thruster units harvested from Peacekeeper missiles. Duty cycle testing for RoCS was conducted, and fuel tanking and detanking tests will occur at KSC in early 2008. This important flight will provide valuable experience for the ground operations team in integrating, stacking, and launching Ares I. Data from Ares I-X will ensure the safety and reliability of America's newest launch vehicle.

Davis, S.R.; Robinson, K.F.; Flynn, K.C.

2008-01-01

305

The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel 80386 processor with 80387 coprocessor running under the VRTX operating system). The mode manager organizes and controls all the software modules used to accomplish these goals, and in particular, the FDH module is tightly coupled with the mode manager.

Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

1998-01-01

306

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

307

Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the CGLSS and NLDN Systems Based on Two Years of Ground-Truth Data from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From May 2011 through July 2013, the lightning instrumentation at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, has obtained high-speed video records and field change waveforms (dE/dt and three-axis dH/dt) for 54 negative polarity return strokes whose strike termination locations and times are known with accuracy of the order of 10 m or less and 1 µs, respectively. A total of 18 strokes terminated directly to the LC39B lighting protection system (LPS), which contains three 181 m towers in a triangular configuration, an overhead catenary wire system on insulating masts, and nine down conductors. An additional 9 strokes terminated on the 106 m lightning protection mast of Launch Complex 39A (LC39A), which is located about 2.7 km southeast of LC39B. The remaining 27 return strokes struck either on the ground or attached to low-elevation grounded objects within about 500 m of the LC39B LPS. Leader/return stroke sequences were imaged at 3200 frames/sec by a network of six Phantom V310 high-speed video cameras. Each of the three towers on LC39B had two high-speed cameras installed at the 147 m level with overlapping fields of view of the center of the pad. The locations of the strike points of 54 return strokes have been compared to time-correlated reports of the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and the results of this comparison will be presented and discussed.

Mata, Carlos T.; Hill, Jonathan D.; Mata, Angel G.; Cummins, Kenneth L.

2014-01-01

308

F-18 high alpha research vehicle: Lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle has proven to be a useful research tool with many unique capabilities. Many of these capabilities are to assist in characterizing flight at high angles of attack, while some provide significant research in their own right. Of these, the thrust vectoring system, the unique ability to rapidly reprogram flight controls, the reprogrammable mission computer, and a reprogrammable onboard excitation system have allowed an increased utility and versatility of the research being conducted. Because of this multifaceted approach to research in the high angle of attack regime, the capabilities of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were designed to cover as many high alpha technology bases as the program would allow. These areas include aerodynamics, controls, handling qualities, and propulsion.

Bowers, Albion H.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Flick, Bradley C.

1994-01-01

309

Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

1992-04-01

310

Data Systems vs. Information Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

Amatayakul, Margret K.

1982-01-01

311

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

312

Effects of internal yaw-vectoring devices on the static performance of a pitch-vectoring nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.

Asbury, Scott C.

1993-01-01

313

Systems autonomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1988-01-01

314

The Implementation of Satellite Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA established the Small Explorer (SMEX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions that can be launched into low earth orbit by small expendable vehicles. The development schedule for each SMEX spacecraft was three years from start to launch. The SMEX program has produced five satellites; Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE). SAMPEX and FAST are on-orbit, TRACE is scheduled to be launched in April of 1998, WIRE is scheduled to be launched in September of 1998, and SWAS is scheduled to be launched in January of 1999. In each of these missions, the Attitude Control System (ACS) software was written using a modular procedural design. Current program goals require complete spacecraft development within 18 months. This requirement has increased pressure to write reusable flight software. Object-Oriented Design (OOD) offers the constructs for developing an application that only needs modification for mission unique requirements. This paper describes the OOD that was used to develop the SMEX-Lite ACS software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled, momentum stabilized, and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. The paper first describes the high level requirements which governed the architecture of the SMEX-Lite ACS software. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the benefits of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will discuss the design of several software components that comprise the ACS software. Specifically, Object-Oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude control, attitude determination and failure detection. The paper addresses the benefits of the OOD versus a conventional procedural design. The final discussion in this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects, saving production time and costs.

Anderson, Mark O.; Reid, Mark; Drury, Derek; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom

1998-01-01

315

Development of the Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (MUPHyN) miniature thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (MUPHyN) prototype thruster incorporates solutions to several major challenges that have traditionally limited the deployment of chemical propulsion systems on small spacecraft. The MUPHyN thruster offers several features that are uniquely suited for small satellite applications. These features include 1) a non-explosive ignition system, 2) non-mechanical thrust vectoring using secondary fluid injection on an aerospike nozzle cooled with the oxidizer flow, 3) a non-toxic, chemically-stable combination of liquid and inert solid propellants, 4) a compact form factor enabled by the direct digital manufacture of the inert solid fuel grain. Hybrid rocket motors provide significant safety and reliability advantages over both solid composite and liquid propulsion systems; however, hybrid motors have found only limited use on operational vehicles due to 1) difficulty in modeling the fuel flow rate 2) poor volumetric efficiency and/or form factor 3) significantly lower fuel flow rates than solid rocket motors 4) difficulty in obtaining high combustion efficiencies. The features of the MUPHyN thruster are designed to offset and/or overcome these shortcomings. The MUPHyN motor design represents a convergence of technologies, including hybrid rocket regression rate modeling, aerospike secondary injection thrust vectoring, multiphase injector modeling, non-pyrotechnic ignition, and nitrous oxide regenerative cooling that address the traditional challenges that limit the use of hybrid rocket motors and aerospike nozzles. This synthesis of technologies is unique to the MUPHyN thruster design and no comparable work has been published in the open literature.

Eilers, Shannon

316

Control aspects of the launch phase of a vertically-launched short-range surface-to-air missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two dimensional mathematical model of a thrust vector controlled, vertically-launched missile suitable for use in a computer simulation is described. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 to run on the DEC-20 digital computer. The results obtained from this model are used to discover the design features necessary in a control system to make such a missile assume a horizontal trajectory. An autopilot is designed using classical methods to control the pitch attitude of the missile. The use of bang-bang rather than proportional control in the pitch autopilot loop is also investigated. A means of estimating the flight path angle from the pitch attitude is derived to allow control of flight path angle. The velocity control autopilot incorporating this estimator is examined as to the accuracy of the estimator and the retardation experienced during turning. Improvements on the original design are made. Slew rate limitation, gain scheduling, and incidence limitation are introduced.

West, S. P.

317

Solar Sail Control Actuator Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust produced by a solar sail is a direct function of its attitude. Thus, solar sail thrust vector control is a key technology that must be developed for sailcraft to become a viable form of deep-space transportation. The solar sail community has been studying various sail Attitude Control System (ACS) actuator designs for near Earth orbit as well as deep space missions. These actuators include vanes, spreader bars, two-axis gimbals, floating/locking gimbals with wheels, and translating masses. This paper documents the various concepts and performs an assessment at the highest level. This paper will only compare the various ACS actuator concepts as they stand at the publication time. This is not an endorsement of any particular concept. As concepts mature, the assessments will change.

Mangus, David; Heaton, Andy

2004-01-01

318

Pulsed Plasma Thruster Plume Study: Symmetry and Impact on Spacecraft Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four witness plates were positioned on perpendicular arrays near a breadboard Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to collect plume constituents for analysis. Over one million shots were fired during the experiment at 43 J using fluorocarbon polymer propellant. The asymmetry of the film deposition on the witness plates was investigated with mass and thickness measurements and correlated with off-axis thrust vector measurements. The composition of the films was determined. The transmittance and reflectance of the films were measured and the absorption coefficients were calculated in the wavelength range from 350 to 1200 mn. These data were applied to calculate the loss in signal intensity through the films, which will impact the visibility of spaceborne interferometer systems positioned by these thrusters.

Arrington, Lynn A.; Marrese, Colleen M.; Blandino, John J.

2000-01-01

319

F-18 HARV in flight close-up of actuated nose strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. This is a closer look at the set of control surfaces called strakes that were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

1995-01-01

320

F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the current phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

1995-01-01

321

Preparations for flight research to evaluate actuated forebody strakes on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), flight tests are currently being conducted with a multi-axis thrust vectoring system applied to the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A follow-on series of flight tests with the NASA F-18 HARV will be focusing on the application of actuated forebody strake controls. These controls are designed to provide increased levels of yaw control at high angles of attack where conventional aerodynamic controls become ineffective. The series of flight tests are collectively referred to as the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) Flight Experiment. The development of actuated forebody strake controls for the F-18 HARV is discussed and a summary of the ground tests conducted in support of the flight experiment is provided. A summary of the preparations for the flight tests is also provided.

Murri, Daniel G.; Shah, Gautam H.; Dicarlo, Daniel J.

1994-01-01

322

F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third and final phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

1995-01-01

323

F-18 HARV on ramp close-up of actuated nose strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlined with gold stripes are the hinged nose strakes, modifications made to NASA's F-18 HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) were installed to fly the third and final phase in the HARV flight test project. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Early wind tunnel tests indicated that the strakes would be as effective in yaw control at high angles of attack as rudders are at lower angles. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

1995-01-01

324

F-18 HARV in flight close-up of actuated nose strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. This is a closer look at the set of control surfaces called strakes that were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, are expected to provide improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

1995-01-01

325

Experimental results for a two-dimensional supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all supersonic V/STOL aircraft concepts are dependent on the thrust deflecting capability of a nozzle. In one unique concept, referred to as the reverse flow dual fan, not only is there a thrust deflecting nozzle for the fan and core engine exit flow, but because of the way the propulsion system operates during vertical takeoff and landing, the supersonic inlet is also used as a thrust deflecting nozzle. This paper presents results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of a supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle for this reverse flow dual fan concept. Results are presented in terms of nozzle thrust coefficient and thrust vector angle for a number of inlet/nozzle configurations. Flow visualization and nozzle exit flow survey results are also shown.

Johns, Albert L.; Burstadt, Paul L.

1984-01-01

326

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih- myoon ) system, which ... Continue Things That Can Go Wrong With the Immune System Disorders of the immune system can be broken ...

327

SYSTEMS BIOM BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS,  

E-print Network

and communication, cost-effective in vitro diagnostics, and continuous in vivo diagnostics. Metabolic Systems exercise studies under normal and diseased conditions. Cellular metabolic changes are quantitatively artificial joints, prosthetic limbs, dental implants, bone healing, and meth- ods to counteract loss of bone

Rollins, Andrew M.

328

X-31 at High Angle of Attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircrafts unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

329

X-31 Loaded in C-5 Cargo Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is secured inside the fuselage of an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport. The C-5 was used to ferry the X-31 from Europe back to Edwards, after being flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995. The X-31's right wing, removed so the aircraft could fit inside the C-5, is in the shipping container in the foreground. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1995-01-01

330

X-31 at High Angle of Attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 aircraft on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircrafts unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

331

X-31 at High Angle of Attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircraft's unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

332

X-31 Being Loaded into C-5 Cargo Plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, begins rolling aboard an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport which ferried it on May 22, 1995 to Europe where it was flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995. To fit in the C-5 the right wing of the X-31 had to be removed. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1995-01-01

333

X-31 Demonstrating High Angle of Attack - Herbst Maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-31 aircraft on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircraft's unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

334

X-31 Unloading Returning from Paris Air Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After being flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995, the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is off-loaded from an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport after the ferry flight back to Edwards. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1995-01-01

335

Operating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

1984-01-01

336

Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

2011-08-11

337

X-31 in flight - Herbst Turn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust-vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. This 32-second clip shows the aircraft at the top of a stall and then thrust vectoring itself around to attain a new heading, thereby allowing the aircraft to gain the advantage over a putative opponent in air-to-air combat. This maneuver is also known as a 'J turn.'

1995-01-01

338

X-31 Quasi-Tailless (Artist Concept)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a computer enhanced artist's concept of a semi-tailless X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in flight. In 1994, software was installed in the X-31 to demonstrate the feasibility of stabilizing a tailless aircraft at supersonic speed, using thrust vectoring. This software allowed destabilization through the control laws of the aircraft in incremental steps to the goal of simulation 100 percent tail-off. Quasi-tailless tests began in 1994. The first phase started with supersonic evaluations at Mach 1.2. Later subsonic evaluations were performed. During the flights the aircraft was destabilized with the rudder to stability levels that would be encountered if the aircraft had a reduced size vertical tail. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1994-01-01

339

X-31 in flight - Post Stall Maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at Rockwell International's Palmdale, Calif., facility and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on Oct. 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the X-31's exhaust nozzle directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31s were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplyied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This is expected to lead to design methods providing better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at Dryden, to which flight research was moved in February 1992 at the request of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In addition to ARPA and NASA, the International Test Organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident Jan. 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. This 34-second movie clip shows the aircraft as it slides backwards, thrust vectoring the tail over the top, turning the stall into a loop in which the aircraft then reverses it's heading and resumes level flight.

1995-01-01

340

X-31 in flight - Post Stall Maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an aircraft with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that can provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. This movie clip runs 1 minute, 6 seconds in length and shows the X-31 rotating at takeoff and climbing into a stall maneuver. The aircraft then slides backwards thrust vectoring the tail over the top, turning the stall into a loop in which the aircraft then reverses its heading and resumes level flight.

1995-01-01

341

X-31 in flight - Double Reversal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while he aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust-vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident Jan. 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. This 39-second clip begins as the X-31 performs a short loop at the top of a stall maneuver, then quickly reverses its course first left, then right by means of thrust vectoring -- thereby gaining a tactical advantage over a putative opponent in air-to-air combat.

1995-01-01

342

X-31 Quasi-Tailless (Artist Concept)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a computer enhanced artist's concept of a semi-tailless X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in flight. In 1994, software was installed in the X-31 to demonstrate the feasibility of stabilizing a tailless aircraft at supersonic speed, using thrust vectoring. This software allowed destabilization through the control laws of the aircraft in incremental steps to the goal of simulation 100 percent tail-off. Quasi-tailless tests began in 1994. The first phase started with supersonic evaluations at Mach 1.2. Later subsonic evaluations were performed. During the flights the aircraft was destabilized with the rudder to stability levels that would be encountered if the aircraft had a reduced-size vertical tail. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1993-01-01

343

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Dr Clayton Ferner

344

Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Attitude Ground System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the attitude ground system (AGS) design to be used for support of the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission. The AGS exists as one component of the mission operations control center. It has responsibility for validating the onboard attitude and accelerometer bias estimates, calibrating the attitude sensors and the spacecraft inertia tensor, and generating a definitive attitude history for use by the science teams. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland is responsible for developing the MMS spacecraft, for the overall management of the MMS mission, and for mission operations. MMS is scheduled for launch in 2014 for a planned two-year mission. The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation in an eccentric Earth orbit. The relatively tight formation, ranging from 10 to 400 km, will provide coordinated observations giving insight into small-scale magnetic field reconnection processes. By varying the size of the tetrahedron and the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity, and making use of the changing solar phase, this geometry allows for the study of both bow shock and magnetotail plasma physics, including acceleration, reconnection, and turbulence. The mission divides into two phases for science; these phases will have orbit dimensions of 1.2 x 12 Earth radii in the first phase and 1.2x25 Earth radii in the second in order to study the dayside magnetopause and the nightside magnetotail, respectively. The orbital periods are roughly one day and three days for the two mission phases. Each of the four MMS spacecraft will be spin stabilized at 3 revolutions per minute (rpm), with the spin axis oriented near the ecliptic north pole but tipped approximately 2.5 deg towards the Sun line. The main body of each spacecraft will be an eight-sided platform with diameter of 3.4 m and height of 1.2 m. Several booms are attached to this central core: two axial booms of 14.9 m length, two radial magnetometer booms of 5 m length, and four radial wire booms of 60 m length. Attitude and orbit control will use a set of axial and radial thrusters. A four-head star tracker and a slit-type digital Sun sensor (DSS) provide input for attitude determination. In addition, an accelerometer will be used for closed-loop orbit maneuver control. The primary AGS product will be a daily definitive attitude history. Due to power limitations, the star tracker and accelerometer data will not be available at all times. However, tracker data from at least 10 percent of each orbit and continuous DSS data will be provided. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) will be used to estimate the three-axis attitude (i.e., spin axis orientation and spin phase) and rotation rate for all times when the tracker data is valid. For other times, the attitude is generated by assuming a constant angular momentum vector in the inertial frame. The DSS sun pulse will provide a timing signal to maintain an accurate spin phase. There will be times when the Sun is occulted and DSS data is not available. If this occurs at the start or end of a definitive attitude product, then the spin phase will be extrapolated using the mean rate determined by the EKF.

Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil; Raymond, Juan C.

2010-01-01

345

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

346

Crystal Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

1985-01-01

347

Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of the universe in which we live, the Solar System, is but one of many clusters of stars and planets in space. Our Solar System lies in a particular region of the universe called the `Milky Way Galaxy'....

P. Masson

2000-01-01

348

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ... the anus as a bowel movement. Back Continue Digestive System Problems Nearly everyone has a digestive problem at ...

349

Micrographic Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The micrographic system utilizes microimaging in the areas of space saving, reproducibility, durability, file integrity, and automated retrieval. This manual about micrographics is organized into 10 chapters, each covers a major facet of the system. The first chapters cover the basics of the system: objectives, classification, searching and…

Costigan, Daniel M.

350

Linked Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

351

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

352

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

353

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics APPLICATION OF VECTORIZED ATTITUDE DETERMINATION  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SIGNALS John L. Crassidis Senior Member AIAA Assistant Professor-by-point (deterministic) attitude solution of a vehicle using Global Positioning System phase difference measurements Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude determination

Crassidis, John L.

354

Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

EEL4461 EEL5462 Fall 2014 Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems Instructor Dr. Jenshan Lin://lss.at.ufl.edu/) Textbooks Required: Balanis, Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. 2005 Prerequisite EEL3472 principles of antenna and to apply them to the design and analysis of antenna systems. Students will learn

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

355

Systems Thinking 2: Thermodynamic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains thermodynamic systems, open and closed systems, and the four key properties of a system. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives, Assessment, and Activities.

Linda Vanasupa

356

Geothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

Mohl, C.

1978-01-01

357

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

Bin Muhammad, Rashid

2009-06-24

358

Systemic Darwinism  

PubMed Central

Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

2008-01-01

359

Carbon Systems  

SciTech Connect

The electronic states of a 'quantum dot-graphene monolayer-SiO{sub 2} + n{sup +}-Si substrate' system in an external magnetic field are studied. An analytical expression for charge transfer in this system is obtained. The electronic states of a 'quantum dot-graphene bilayer-SiO{sub 2} + n{sup +}-Si substrate' system are considered. The systems under study are interesting from the viewpoint of controlling the optical properties of a quantum dot by means of an applied electric field.

Alisultanov, Z. Z., E-mail: zaur0102@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-06-15

360

Feasibility of small animal cranial irradiation with the microRT system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and validate methods for small-animal CNS radiotherapy using the microRT system. Materials and Methods: A custom head immobilizer was designed and built to integrate with a pre-existing microRT animal couch. The Delrin couch-immobilizer assembly, compatible with multiple imaging modalities (CT, microCT, microMR, microPET, microSPECT, optical), was first imaged via CT in order to verify the safety and reproducibility of the immobilization method. Once verified, the subject animals were CT-scanned while positioned within the couch-immobilizer assembly for treatment planning purposes. The resultant images were then imported into CERR, an in-house-developed research treatment planning system, and registered to the microRTP treatment planning space using rigid registration. The targeted brain was then contoured and conformal radiotherapy plans were constructed for two separate studies: (1) a whole-brain irradiation comprised of two lateral beams at the 90 degree sign and 270 degree sign microRT treatment positions and (2) a hemispheric (left-brain) irradiation comprised of a single A-P vertex beam at the 0 degree sign microRT treatment position. During treatment, subject animals (n=48) were positioned to the CERR-generated treatment coordinates using the three-axis microRT motor positioning system and were irradiated using a clinical Ir-192 high-dose-rate remote after-loading system. The radiation treatment course consisted of 5 Gy fractions, 3 days per week. 90% of the subjects received a total dose of 30 Gy and 10% received a dose of 60 Gy. Results: Image analysis verified the safety and reproducibility of the immobilizer. CT scans generated from repeated reloading and repositioning of the same subject animal in the couch-immobilizer assembly were fused to a baseline CT. The resultant analysis revealed a 0.09 mm average, center-of-mass translocation and negligible volumetric error in the contoured, murine brain. The experimental use of the head immobilizer added {+-}0.1 mm to microRT spatial uncertainty along each axis. Overall, the total spatial uncertainty for the prescribed treatments was {+-}0.3 mm in all three axes, a 0.2 mm functional improvement over the original version of microRT. Subject tolerance was good, with minimal observed side effects and a low procedure-induced mortality rate. Throughput was high, with average treatment times of 7.72 and 3.13 min/animal for the whole-brain and hemispheric plans, respectively (dependent on source strength). Conclusions: The method described exhibits conformality more in line with the size differential between human and animal patients than provided by previous prevalent approaches. Using pretreatment imaging and microRT-specific treatment planning, our method can deliver an accurate, conformal dose distribution to the targeted murine brain (or a subregion of the brain) while minimizing excess dose to the surrounding tissue. Thus, preclinical animal studies assessing the radiotherapeutic response of both normal and malignant CNS tissue to complex dose distributions, which closer resemble human-type radiotherapy, are better enabled. The procedural and mechanistic framework for this method logically provides for future adaptation into other murine target organs or regions.

Kiehl, Erich L.; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Limbrick, David; Jost, Sarah C.; Garbow, Joel R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Khullar, Divya; Izaguirre, Enrique W.; Parikh, Parag J.; Low, Daniel A.; Hope, Andrew J. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

2008-10-15

361

Feasibility of small animal cranial irradiation with the microRT system  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop and validate methods for small-animal CNS radiotherapy using the microRT system. Materials and Methods: A custom head immobilizer was designed and built to integrate with a pre-existing microRT animal couch. The Delrin® couch-immobilizer assembly, compatible with multiple imaging modalities (CT, microCT, microMR, microPET, microSPECT, optical), was first imaged via CT in order to verify the safety and reproducibility of the immobilization method. Once verified, the subject animals were CT-scanned while positioned within the couch-immobilizer assembly for treatment planning purposes. The resultant images were then imported into CERR, an in-house-developed research treatment planning system, and registered to the microRTP treatment planning space using rigid registration. The targeted brain was then contoured and conformal radiotherapy plans were constructed for two separate studies: (1) a whole-brain irradiation comprised of two lateral beams at the 90° and 270° microRT treatment positions and (2) a hemispheric (left-brain) irradiation comprised of a single A-P vertex beam at the 0° microRT treatment position. During treatment, subject animals (n=48) were positioned to the CERR-generated treatment coordinates using the three-axis microRT motor positioning system and were irradiated using a clinical Ir-192 high-dose-rate remote after-loading system. The radiation treatment course consisted of 5 Gy fractions, 3 days per week. 90% of the subjects received a total dose of 30 Gy and 10% received a dose of 60 Gy. Results: Image analysis verified the safety and reproducibility of the immobilizer. CT scans generated from repeated reloading and repositioning of the same subject animal in the couch-immobilizer assembly were fused to a baseline CT. The resultant analysis revealed a 0.09 mm average, center-of-mass translocation and negligible volumetric error in the contoured, murine brain. The experimental use of the head immobilizer added ±0.1 mm to microRT spatial uncertainty along each axis. Overall, the total spatial uncertainty for the prescribed treatments was ±0.3 mm in all three axes, a 0.2 mm functional improvement over the original version of microRT. Subject tolerance was good, with minimal observed side effects and a low procedure-induced mortality rate. Throughput was high, with average treatment times of 7.72 and 3.13 min?animal for the whole-brain and hemispheric plans, respectively (dependent on source strength). Conclusions: The method described exhibits conformality more in line with the size differential between human and animal patients than provided by previous prevalent approaches. Using pretreatment imaging and microRT-specific treatment planning, our method can deliver an accurate, conformal dose distribution to the targeted murine brain (or a subregion of the brain) while minimizing excess dose to the surrounding tissue. Thus, preclinical animal studies assessing the radiotherapeutic response of both normal and malignant CNS tissue to complex dose distributions, which closer resemble human-type radiotherapy, are better enabled. The procedural and mechanistic framework for this method logically provides for future adaptation into other murine target organs or regions. PMID:18975718

Kiehl, Erich L.; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Limbrick, David; Jost, Sarah C.; Garbow, Joel R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Khullar, Divya; Izaguirre, Enrique W.; Parikh, Parag J.; Low, Daniel A.; Hope, Andrew J.

2008-01-01

362

Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the implication that anticipatory behavior can only partially be described in a computer language and, furthermore, it shows that only a restricted class of anticipatory systems can be transferred to computers.

Ekdahl, Bertil

2000-05-01

363

Systems Librarianship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SYSLIB-L list serves as a vehicle for the discussion of topics related to systems librarianship and for the collection of information related to systems librarianship. Postings may include, but are not limited to, job postings, technical questions, philosophical discussions, and education.

364

Systems Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the General Systems Model and how consider the entire system when performing aerospace work. This three and a half minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

365

Multimedia Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 304. Multimedia Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 121. Introduction to technologies of the Internet and networked multimedia systems. Issues in web page design; Internet client/server programming; collaborative computing and group work; network publishing; security and encryption; audio and video compression; ethical issues and privacy; e-commerce; and distributed object computing. Open only to students of junior or senior standing.

Patterson, Ms L.

2003-04-21

366

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim

367

Organ Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Organ Systems" module has five units of instruction that focus on the main classes of functions that a body must perform. Rather than just naming organs of the body and what they do, they present a perspective on the body as a coordinated group of systems that must do certain things correctly in order to survive and thrive.

Klemm, W. R.

2001-01-01

368

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

369

Iterative Magnetometer Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

Sedlak, Joseph

2006-01-01

370

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

371

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

372

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... together to protect the body from infection. The human body provides an ideal environment for many microbes, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and the immune system prevents and limits their entry and growth to ...

373

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

374

Microelectromechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

Gabriel, Kaigham J.

1995-01-01

375

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

376

Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) - Evolution and Lessons Learned During the Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) element integrates all the subsystems needed for ascent flight, entry, and recovery of the combined Booster and Motor system. These include the structures, avionics, thrust vector control, pyrotechnic, range safety, deceleration, thermal protection, and retrieval systems. This represents the only human-rated, recoverable and refurbishable solid rocket ever developed and flown. Challenges included subsystem integration, thermal environments and severe loads (including water impact), sometimes resulting in hardware attrition. Several of the subsystems evolved during the program through design changes. These included the thermal protection system, range safety system, parachute/recovery system, and others. Obsolescence issues occasionally required component recertification. Because the system was recovered, the SRB was ideal for data and imagery acquisition, which proved essential for understanding loads and system response. The three main parachutes that lower the SRBs to the ocean are the largest parachutes ever designed, and the SRBs are the largest structures ever to be lowered by parachutes. SRB recovery from the ocean was a unique process and represented a significant operational challenge; requiring personnel, facilities, transportation, and ground support equipment. The SRB element achieved reliability via extensive system testing and checkout, redundancy management, and a thorough postflight assessment process. Assembly and integration of the booster subsystems was a unique process and acceptance testing of reused hardware components was required for each build. Extensive testing was done to assure hardware functionality at each level of stage integration. Because the booster element is recoverable, subsystems were available for inspection and testing postflight, unique to the Shuttle launch vehicle. Problems were noted and corrective actions were implemented as needed. The postflight assessment process was quite detailed and a significant portion of flight operations. The SRBs provided fully redundant critical systems including thrust vector control, mission critical pyrotechnics, avionics, and parachute recovery system. The design intent was to lift off with full redundancy. On occasion, the redundancy management scheme was needed during flight operations. This paper describes some of the design challenges, how the design evolved with time, and key areas where hardware reusability contributed to improved system level understanding.

Kanner, Howard S.; Freeland, Donna M.; Olson, Derek T.; Wood, T. David; Vaccaro, Mark V.

2011-01-01

377

Solar Dynamics Observatory Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was designed and built at the Goddard Space Flight Center, launched from Cape Canaveral on February 11, 2010, and reached its final geosynchronous science orbit on March 16, 2010. The purpose of SDO is to observe the Sun and continuously relay data to a dedicated ground station. SDO remains Sun-pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system (ACS) is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes sixteen coarse Sun sensors (CSSs), a digital Sun sensor (DSS), three two-axis inertial reference units (IRUs), and two star trackers (STs). The ACS also makes use of the four guide telescopes included as a part of one of the science instruments. Attitude actuation is performed using four reaction wheels assemblies (RWAs) and eight thrusters, with a single main engine used to provide velocity-change thrust for orbit raising. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes, three wheel-based modes and two thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. This paper details the final overall design of the SDO guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system and how it was used in practice during SDO launch, commissioning, and nominal operations. This overview will include the ACS control modes, attitude determination and sensor calibration, the high gain antenna (HGA) calibration, and jitter mitigation operation. The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission is part of the NASA Living With a Star program, which seeks to understand the changing Sun and its effects on the Solar System, life, and society. To this end, the SDO spacecraft carries three Sun-observing instruments: Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), led by Stanford University; Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), led by Lockheed Martin Space and Astrophysics Laboratory; and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), led by the University of Colorado. The basic mission is to observe the Sun for a very high percentage of the 5-year mission (10-year goal) with long stretches of uninterrupted observations and with constant, high-data-rate transmission to a dedicated ground station to be located in White Sands, New Mexico. These goals guided the design of the spacecraft bus that will carry and service the three-instrument payload. Overarching design goals for the bus are geosynchronous orbit, near-constant Sun observations with the ability to fly through eclipses, and constant HGA contact with the dedicated ground station. A three-axis stabilized ACS is needed both to point at the Sun accurately and to keep the roll about the Sun vector correctly positioned with respect to the solar north pole. This roll control is especially important for the magnetic field imaging of HM I. The mission requirements have several general impacts on the ACS design. Both the AIA and HMI instruments are very sensitive to the blurring caused by jitter. Each has an image stabilization system (ISS) with some ability to filter out high frequency motion, but below the bandwidth of the ISS the control system must compensate for disturbances within the ACS bandwidth or avoid exciting jitter at higher frequencies. Within the ACS bandwidth, the control requirement imposed by AIA is to place the center of the solar disk no more than 2 arc sec, 3 , from a body-defined target based on one of the GTs that accompany the instrument. This body-defined target, called the science reference boresight (SRB), was determined from the postlaunch orientation of the GTs by averaging the bounding telescope boresights for pitch to get a pitch SRB coordinate, and by averaging the bounding boresights for yaw toet the yaw SRB coordinate. The location of this SRB in the 0.5-deg field-of-view for each GT then

Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.

2011-01-01

378

Systemic trauma.  

PubMed

Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

2014-01-01

379

A Tactile Recognition System Mimicking Human Mechanism for Recognizing Surface Roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model was formulated on the basis of results from psychophysical experiments in which human subjects discriminated fine steps on aluminum plates. The mathematical model emulated the real neuron discharge caused when a membrane potential exceeds a threshold. This membrane potential was determined by spatial and temporal summations of postsynaptic potential. To evaluate the mathematical model for surface texture recognition by robots, we performed a series of surface-detection experiments using a robotic manipulator equipped with an optical three-axis tactile sensor. The single sensor cell of this sensor consisted of a columnar feeler and a 2-by-2 array of conical feelers. The three-axis force was calculated from the area-sum and area-difference of the conical feelers’ contact areas. The robotic manipulator rubbed the tactile sensor on four brass plates with step heights of 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2mm. Results showed that the mathematical model could distinguish these step heights in real time.

Ohka, Masahiro; Kawamura, Takuya; Itahashi, Tastuya; Takayanagi, Jyun-Ichi; Miyaoka, Tetsu; Mitsuya, Yasunaga

380

Computer systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

Olsen, Lola

1992-01-01

381

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

382

Microbiology System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

1992-01-01

383

Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, operation, and performance of the fourth generation of Science and Technology International's Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors (AAHIS) are described. These imaging spectrometers have a variable bandwidth ranging from 390-840 nm. A three-axis image stabilization provides spatially and spectrally coherent imagery by damping most of the airborne platform's random motion. A wide 40-degree field of view coupled with sub-pixel detection allows for a large area coverage rate. A software controlled variable aperture, spectral shaping filters, and high quantum efficiency, back-illuminated CCD's contribute to the excellent sensitivity of the sensors. AAHIS sensors have been operated on a variety of fixed and rotary wing platforms, achieving ground-sampling distances ranging from 6.5 cm to 2 m. While these sensors have been primarily designed for use over littoral zones, they are able to operate over both land and water. AAHIS has been used for detecting and locating submarines, mines, tanks, divers, camouflage and disturbed earth. Civilian applications include search and rescue on land and at sea, agricultural analysis, environmental time-series, coral reef assessment, effluent plume detection, coastal mapping, damage assessment, and seasonal whale population monitoring

Topping, Miles Q.; Pfeiffer, Joel E.; Sparks, Andrew W.; Jim, Kevin T. C.; Yoon, Dugan

2002-11-01

384

Investigating Army systems and Systems of Systems for value robustness  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes a value robustness approach to architect defense systems and Systems of Systems (SoS). A value robust system or SoS has the ability to provide continued value to stakeholders by performing well to meet ...

Koo, Kevin C. K. (Kevin Cheng Keong)

2010-01-01

385

Systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charts and accompanying text are presented that provide a brief synopsis of the contracted efforts for FY-92 in assessing nuclear thermal propulsion requirements, concepts, and associated issues. The objective of the effort is to provide NASA LeRC with assistance in space nuclear propulsion system requirements management and public acceptance planning.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

386

Irrigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

1984-01-01

387

Circulatory system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Arteries take blood with oxygen to our organs; veins bring deoxygenated blood to the heart (to be pumped to the lungs to get oxygen). Arteries and veins bring essential nutrients from digestion (such as glucose) to our tissues as well.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-01-22

388

Systems Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

2013-01-01

389

Auditory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

Ades, H. W.

1973-01-01

390

POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

1962-01-01

391

Immune System  

EPA Science Inventory

A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

392

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

393

Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM Immune System Structure and Function Mary W. Meagher: 979-845-4727 CITATION: Meagher, M. W. (2004). Immune system structure and function. In A. Christensen System 2 Immune System Structure and Function The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance

Meagher, Mary

394

General Pressurization Model in Simscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System integration is an essential part of the engineering design process. The Ares I Upper Stage (US) is a complex system which is made up of thousands of components assembled into subsystems including a J2-X engine, liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) tanks, avionics, thrust vector control, motors, etc. System integration is the task of connecting together all of the subsystems into one large system. To ensure that all the components will "fit together" as well as safety and, quality, integration analysis is required. Integration analysis verifies that, as an integrated system, the system will behave as designed. Models that represent the actual subsystems are built for more comprehensive analysis. Matlab has been an instrument widely use by engineers to construct mathematical models of systems. Simulink, one of the tools offered by Matlab, provides multi-domain graphical environment to simulate and design time-varying systems. Simulink is a powerful tool to analyze the dynamic behavior of systems over time. Furthermore, Simscape, a tool provided by Simulink, allows users to model physical (such as mechanical, thermal and hydraulic) systems using physical networks. Using Simscape, a model representing an inflow of gas to a pressurized tank was created where the temperature and pressure of the tank are measured over time to show the behavior of the gas. By further incorporation of Simscape into model building, the full potential of this software can be discovered and it hopefully can become a more utilized tool.

Servin, Mario; Garcia, Vicky

2010-01-01

395

A Physics Road Rally  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our school recently acquired Vernier's Wireless Dynamics Sensor System (WDSS). The WDSS consists of a three-axis accelerometer, altimeter, and force sensor that has the ability to remotely collect data for later transfer to a computer. While our primary purpose for acquiring the WDSS was to enhance our amusement park physics experiments, we…

Ilyes, Mark A.; Ortman-Link, Whitney

2009-01-01

396

Farrokh Ayazi February 2012 CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

-out from Dr. Ayazi's research laboratory at Georgia Tech, and commercializes three-axis silicon gyroscopes (CMMT), Georgia Tech, 2002-present [5] General Co-Chair, IEEE Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM): Display, Sensors and MEMS (DSM) subcommittee, 2009 ­ 2011. [7] Member

Ayazi, Farrokh

397

Surveying System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

1988-01-01

398

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

399

Burner systems  

DOEpatents

A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

1984-07-10

400

Systemic treatment.  

PubMed

In the last years the management of patients with liver cancer has been improved. The BCLC staging/treatment strategy identifies the optimal candidates for each treatment option and sorafenib is the only effective systemic treatment. Others (sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, everolimus, ramucirumab) have failed in terms of safety/survival benefit. Some patients at intermediate/early stage, may be considered for systemic therapy when options of higher priority may have failed or not be feasible. The 800 mg/day is the recommended starting dose. Close follow-up and easy access for the patients so that they can report any adverse event and implement dose adjustments is the key point in the management of them. Development of early dermatologic adverse events has been correlated with better outcome and the pattern of radiologic progression characterizes better the prognosis/outcome of these patients. Treatment beyond progression may be considered if there is no option for a second line research trial. PMID:25260318

Reig, Maria; Gazzola, Alessia; Di Donato, Roberto; Bruix, Jordi

2014-10-01

401

Copernican System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

402

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1983-01-01

403

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

404

Imaging System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

1995-01-01

405

Tychonic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

406

Braking system  

DOEpatents

A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

Norgren, D.U.

1982-09-23

407

Bearing system  

DOEpatents

A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

1987-01-01

408

Sterilization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

1990-01-01

409

Videobasierte Systeme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

Knoll, Peter

410

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

411

Gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

412

Skeletal System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this unit, written for an honors anatomy and physiology class, students become familiar with the human skeletal system and answer the Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you race to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and she is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result show her BMD is -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

2014-09-18

413

Transfer system  

DOEpatents

A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

Kurosawa, Kanji (Tokyo, JP); Koga, Bunichiro (Miyagi, JP); Ito, Hideki (Miyagi, JP); Kiriyama, Shigeru (Miyagi, JP); Higuchi, Shizuo (Kanagawa, JP)

2003-05-20

414

Introduction System Informatics  

E-print Network

separated the Computer Science and Systems Engineering Department from the Graduate School of Engineering: Systems Science, Information Science, and Computational Science. In the Department of Computer Science Departments Divisions Outline Systems Science Fundamentals of Systems Science Innovation of Systems Science

Banbara, Mutsunori

415

Prosthetic Knee Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid control systems — pneumatic (using air) and hydraulic (using fluid). Pneumatic control. These systems: compress air ... control than friction systems are less effective than hydraulic systems. Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually ...