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  1. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1°) as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°). A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°). Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt to the contra lateral side and tendon snapping. We propose that eccentric muscle action over time can be the basis for a low grade inflammatory condition. The general implications of this model and its relations to Zn and Se will be discussed. PMID:17319961

  2. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasena, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

  3. CT features of exophthalmos in Chinese subjects with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Jenny Y.; He, Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    AIM : To investigate computed tomography (CT) features of exophthalmos in Chinese subjects with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). METHODS A total of 605 eyes of 325 patients with exophthalmos due to TAO were classified as grade I (mild exophthalmos) or II (severe exophthalmos) based on orbital CT imaging. The increased orbital volume features, such as changes from extraocular muscles, orbital fat, or both, were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 605 eyes were analyzed, among them 62.98% presented grade I exophthalmos, while 36.02% showed grade II exophthalmos. In grade I, 56.69% showed orbital fat change, and in grade II, 89.29% exhibited extraocular muscle enlargement. CONCLUSION Orbital fat and extraocular muscle enlargement are likely to be observed on CTs of subjects with mild and severe exophthalmos, respectively. Our results suggest that CT findings may guide TAO clinical therapy recommendations and prognosis. PMID:23638413

  4. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  5. Are Ethnicity, Social Grade, and Social Deprivation Associated With Severity of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Huntbach, Julie A.; Durrani, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have extensively investigated the pathophysiology, genetics, and lifestyle risk factors of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate the independent contribution of ethnic origin, social grade, and level of social deprivation to TAO severity in a large, multiethnic, and urban population. Methods: Retrospective case note review of all TAO patients seen at Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre, United Kingdom over a 14-year period. Ethnicity (White, Asian, or Black) was recorded, and residence postcode was used to determine social grade (National Readership Survey classification) and level of social deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007). TAO severity was defined by European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy criteria. Moderate-to-severe: necessity for TAO treatment with oral or intravenous steroid, long-term immunosuppressants, or orbital radiotherapy. Sight-threatening: presence of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) or need for urgent orbital decompression surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to measure the independent influence of ethnicity, social grade, and social deprivation on indicators of severe TAO. Results: Lower social grade was significantly associated with increased odds ratio (OR) of TAO patients having severe TAO, including treatment with oral (OR: 2.3 (95% CI 1.1–5.1) p = 0.03) and intravenous steroid (OR: 2.6 (95% CI 1.0–7.0) p = 0.04) and DON (OR: 4.0 (95% CI 1.2–12.7) p = 0.02), compared with those of highest social grade. Similar results were observed for social deprivation. Ethnicity had no independent association with any measure of TAO severity. Conclusions: In this cohort, lower social grade and higher social deprivation, but not ethnicity, had independent, statistically significant association with more severe TAO. PMID:24608325

  6. Cytokines are both villains and potential therapeutic targets in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: From bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terry J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The pathophysiology underlying Graves disease and its ocular manifestation, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is incompletely understood. Characterization of the mononuclear cells driving the disease and the cytokines they produce has led to significant advances in our understanding of TAO. This in turn has resulted in the identification of potentially attractive drug targets. For instance, development of inhibitors of specific cytokine pathways for use in other autoimmune diseases now presents an opportunity for their application in TAO. In this paper, we review the rationale for considering anti-cytokine therapy in TAO, evidence linking specific cytokines such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-17 pathways to TAO, and explore the potential for targeting of these pathways as therapy. PMID:25544859

  7. Current Concepts in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Smith, Terry J.

    2014-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a common autoimmune condition. At its core, stimulatory autoantibodies are directed at the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), resulting in dysregulated thyroid gland activity and growth. Closely associated with GD is the ocular condition known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The pathogenesis of TAO remains enigmatic as do the connections between the thyroid and orbit. This review highlights the putative molecular mechanisms involved in TAO and suggests how these insights provide future directions for identifying therapeutic targets. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors have been suggested as contributory to the development of GD and TAO. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are expressed at higher levels in the orbital connective tissue from individuals with TAO than in healthy tissues. Together, they form a functional complex and appear to promote signaling relevant to GD and TAO. Orbital fibroblasts display an array of cell surface receptors and generate a host of inflammatory molecules that may participate in T and B cell infiltration. Recently, a population of orbital fibroblasts has been putatively traced to bone marrow–derived progenitor cells, known as fibrocytes, as they express CD45, CD34, CXCR4, collagen I, functional TSHR, and thyroglobulin (Tg). Fibrocytes become more numerous in GD and we believe traffic to the orbit in TAO. Numerous attempts at developing complete animal models of GD have been largely unsuccessful, because they lack fidelity with the ocular manifestations seen in TAO. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of TAO and development of improved animal models should greatly accelerate the identification of medical therapy for this vexing medical problem. PMID:24651704

  8. Latent Pathways Identification by Microarray Expression Profiles in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pingqian; Yin, Haitao; Tao, Chen; Chen, Ping; Song, Ying; Yang, Wenlei; Liu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to screen potential genes related to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and get a further understanding about the pathogenesis of this disease. GSE9340 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including eight thyroid tissue samples from hyperthyroid patients without TAO and ten ones from hyperthyroid patients with TAO. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by the linear models for microarray data package. And their potential functions were predicted by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) was obtained from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database, and the PPI network was visualized with Cytoscape. Then, module analysis was performed by the Molecular Complex Detection analysis. Additionally, the potential pathway interactions were identified by Latent Pathway Identification Analysis. Totally, 511 upregulated and 507 downregulated DEGs in TAO were screened. Some DEGs (e.g., UBE2C) were related to cell cycle, and DEGs encoding proteasome (e.g., PSMA1, PSMC5, PSMC4, and PSMD1) were related to negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. Several upregulated DEGs encoding signal recognition particle (e.g., SRP14, SRP54, and SRP9) were found to be enriched in protein export pathway. Furthermore, some pathways (e.g., ribosome and protein export) had interactions. The DEGs related to cell cycle (e.g., UBE2C), DEGs encoding proteasome (e.g., PSMA1, PSMC5, PSMC4, and PSMD1) and signal recognition particle (e.g., SRP14, SRP54, and SRP9), as well as pathways of ribosome, protein export and retinol metabolism, might play key roles in the development of TAO. PMID:25982257

  9. Risk Factors For Developing Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Among Individuals with Graves Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Childers, David; Gupta, Shivani; Talwar, Nidhi; Nan, Bin; Lee, Brian J.; Smith, Terry J.; Douglas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Context Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common and debilitating manifestation of Graves disease (GD). Presently little is known about factors that may increase the risk of developing TAO among patients with GD. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with the development of TAO among individuals who are newly-diagnosed with GD. Design, Setting, Patients In this longitudinal cohort study, all beneficiaries age ≥ 18 years with newly-diagnosed GD who were continuously enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network and who had ≥1 visit to an eye care provider from 2001–2009 were identified. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) billing codes were used to identify those who developed manifestations of TAO. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the hazard of developing TAO among persons who were newly-diagnosed with GD, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, systemic medical conditions, thyroid stimulating hormone levels, and medical and surgical interventions for management of hyperthyroidism. Main Outcome Measure Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Of 8,404 patients with GD who met the inclusion criteria, 740 (8.8%) developed TAO (mean follow-up, 374 days since initial GD diagnosis). After adjustment for potential confounders, surgical thyroidectomy, alone or in combination with medical therapy, was associated with a 74%-decreased hazard for TAO (adjusted HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.12–0.51]), compared with radioactive iodine therapy alone. Statin use (for ≥60 days in the past year, vs. <60 days or nonuse) was associated with a 40%-decreased hazard (HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.37–0.93]). No significant association was found for use of non-statin cholesterol-lowering medications or COX-2 inhibitors and development of TAO. Conclusion and Relevance If prospective studies can confirm our finding that thyroidectomy and statin exposure are associated with substantially reduced hazards for TAO in patients with GD, deliberate preventive measures for this burdensome manifestation of GD may become a reality. PMID:25502604

  10. Atypical Presentation of Hashimoto’s Disease in an Adolescent: Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kırmızıbekmez, Heves; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Dursun, Fatma; Günay, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Hashitoxicosis is generally differentiated from Graves’ hyperthyroidism by its shorter course and absence of ophthalmopathy. In this case report, we describe an adolescent girl who presented with significant clinical findings of hyperthyroidism, a diffuse goiter with homogenously increased uptake in scintigraphy, and with ocular findings of ophthalmopathy. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody test was positive, and the family history revealed thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Clinical findings supported the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s disease (HD) in the follow-up period. Radioactive iodine uptake investigation was found to be a reliable method for differential diagnosis. Attention was drawn to the rarity of pediatric cases of HD who present with ophthalmopathy. PMID:25541900

  11. Atypical Presentation of Hashimoto's Disease in an Adolescent: Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Kırmızıbekmez, Heves; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül

    2014-12-01

    Hashitoxicosis is generally differentiated from Graves' hyperthyroidism by its shorter course and absence of ophthalmopathy. In this case report, we describe an adolescent girl who presented with significant clinical findings of hyperthyroidism, a diffuse goiter with homogenously increased uptake in scintigraphy, and with ocular findings of ophthalmopathy. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody test was positive, and the family history revealed thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Clinical findings supported the diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (HD) in the follow-up period. Radioactive iodine uptake investigation was found to be a reliable method for differential diagnosis. Attention was drawn to the rarity of pediatric cases of HD who present with ophthalmopathy. PMID:25541900

  12. Unique Attributes of Orbital Fibroblasts and Global Alterations in IGF-1 Receptor Signaling Could Explain Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chieh Chih; Shih, Mei-Ju; Tsui, Shanli; Chen, Beiling; Han, Rui; Naik, Vibha; King, Chris S.; Press, Chris; Kamat, Shweta; Goldberg, Robert A.; Phipps, Richard P.; Douglas, Raymond S.; Gianoukakis, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue remodeling associated with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) involves the complex interplay between resident cells (endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, extraocular muscle, and fibroblasts) and those recruited to the orbit, including members of the “professional” immune system. Inflammation early in the disease can later culminate in fibrosis and diminished extraocular muscle motility. TAO remains a poorly understood process, in large part because access to tissues early in the disease is limited and because no robust and complete animal models of Graves' disease have yet been devised. Remaining uncertainty as to the identity of a pathogenic autoantigen(s) that underlies lymphocyte trafficking to the orbit complicates matters. These limitations in our understanding of extrathyroidal Graves' disease have resulted in poorly served patients with severe TAO. Therapies have targeted symptoms rather than the underlying disease processes. Our laboratory group has focused over the last several years on defining the peculiarities of the human orbital fibroblasts as a strategy for shedding more light on the pathologies occurring in TAO. We have reasoned that unique properties of these cells might ultimately prove the basis for why the manifestations of Graves' disease occur in an anatomically selective manner. In this brief review we attempt to survey our findings. We believe that they might provide a “roadmap” for further discovery into the pathogenesis of TAO. Clearly, more questions remain than those thus far answered. PMID:18788919

  13. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and TSH receptor autoantibodies in nonmetastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak; Tolari, Simone; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ferrannini, Ele

    2008-09-01

    In a 58-year-old woman with nontoxic nodular goiter, a fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed the presence of papillary thyroid cancer, which was treated with total thyroidectomy in June 2000 and a subsequent ablative dose of 131-radioiodine. A posttherapy whole body scan showed the presence of residual tissue in the neck. On physical examination, she did not exhibit any signs or symptoms of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A subsequent whole body scan and serum thyroglobulin determination were negative. In July 2004, she developed left retrobulbar pain, discomfort, palpebral retraction, and exophthalmos associated with the appearance of antithyrotropin receptor autoantibodies. Symptoms progressively worsened, paralleling the incremental increase in autoantibodies, and then spontaneously remitted as autoantibodies disappeared. The parallel trend of antithyrotropin receptor autoantibodies titres and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy suggests a role of these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. PMID:18794628

  14. Targeted biological therapies for Graves’ disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy. Focus on B cell depletion with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Smith, Terry J.; Douglas, Raymond S.; Nielsen, Ciaus H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Based on experience from the treatment of other autoimmune diseases and due to inherent shortcomings of the existing therapy options for Graves’ disease (GD) and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), rituximab was recently introduced as a novel therapy option. Here we summarize the rationale for using rituximab; give an overview of the possible mechanisms of action; and give an account of its effects and side effects when used in GD and TAO. Low quality evidence, originating from few and methodologically inhomogeneous studies, suggests that rituximab may prolong remission for hyperthyroidism over that seen with antithyroid drugs, at least in mild GD. Furthermore, in TAO patients, unresponsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapy, rituximab seems efficacious. Awaiting large-scale randomized studies, rituximab, due to limited experience and high cost, should be considered experimental and reserved for patients who do not respond favourably to conventional therapy. Rituximab is the first in a series of new and emerging treatments addressing specific therapeutic targets, such as, which will hopefully lead to improved and better tailored individualized therapy for GD and especially TAO. PMID:20455896

  15. Effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: a double blind and self-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yujie; Tong, Boding; Luo, Yongheng; Xie, Guiyuan; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) was evaluated by various objective and quantitative indexes including T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the degree of exophthalmos using clinical research with prospective, randomized, double blind, self controlled. Methods: The patients with TAO who in the moderate and severe active period and had similar double eyes condition in the Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of Xiangya No. 2 Hospital of Central South University from 2011.2 to 2014.2 were selected as objects in this study. The related body check was finished after the research group was built. For the object, one eye of patient having random radiotherapy was chosen as the experimental eye. The other eye in the same patient with pseudo radiotherapy (merely known by operator, doctors in department of ophthalmology and patients were double blind) was selected as the control eye. The radiotherapy plan was made by the operator according to the CT results. The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree was compared by MRI check to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy. Results: The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree between both eyes (experimental and control eyes) had significant differences and these data had statistical significance. Conclusions: The treatment of radiotherapy is effective for the TAO in the moderate and severe active period. PMID:25932139

  16. Customized Orbital Decompression Surgery Combined with Eyelid Surgery or Strabismus Surgery in Mild to Moderate Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Yeun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of customized orbital decompression surgery combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Twenty-seven consecutive subjects who were treated surgically for proptosis with disfigurement or diplopia after medical therapy from September 2009 to July 2012 were included in the analysis. Customized orbital decompression surgery with correction of eyelid retraction and extraocular movement disorders was simultaneously performed. The patients had a minimum preoperative period of 3 months of stable range of ocular motility and eyelid position. All patients had inactive TAO and were euthyroid at the time of operation. Preoperative and postoperative examinations, including vision, margin reflex distance, Hertel exophthalmometry, ocular motility, visual fields, Goldmann perimetry, and subject assessment of the procedure, were performed in all patients. Data were analyzed using paired t-test (PASW Statistics ver. 18.0). Results Forty-nine decompressions were performed on 27 subjects (16 females, 11 males; mean age, 36.6 ± 11.6 years). Twenty-two patients underwent bilateral operations; five required only unilateral orbital decompression. An average proptosis of 15.6 ± 2.2 mm (p = 0.00) was achieved, with a mean preoperative Hertel measurement of 17.6 ± 2.2 mm. Ocular motility was corrected through recession of the extraocular muscle in three cases, and no new-onset diplopia or aggravated diplopia was noted. The binocular single vision field increased in all patients. Eyelid retraction correction surgery was simultaneously performed in the same surgical session in 10 of 49 cases, and strabismus and eyelid retraction surgery were performed in the same surgical session in two cases. Margin reflex distance decreased from a preoperative average of 4.3 ± 0.8 to 3.8 ± 0.5 mm postoperatively. Conclusions The customized orbital decompression procedure decreased proptosis and improved diplopia, in a range comparable to those achieved through more stepwise techniques, and had favorable cosmetic results when combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate TAO. PMID:26865797

  17. The Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on IL-1β Induced IL-8 Expression in Orbital Fibroblast from Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yun, Mihee; Lee, Seong-Beom; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Orbital fibroblasts have been reported to be an important effector cells for the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Orbital fibroblasts secrete various inflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulation, leading to TAO-related tissue swelling. It has also been reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether or how EGCG affects the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 in human orbital fibroblasts from TAO patients. Treatment with EGCG significantly reduced the level of IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 and the expression of IL-8 mRNA. IL-1β-induced the degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK, and the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 mRNA was inhibited by specific inhibitors, such as BAY-117085 for NF-kB, SB203580 for p38, and PD98059 for ERK. In addition, treatment with EGCG inhibited the IL-1β-induced degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. However, pre-treatment with antioxidants, NVN and NAC, which suppressed ROS generation, did not reduce IL-8 expression in IL-1β-treated orbital fibroblasts, suggesting that the IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression is not mediated by the generation of ROS. These results show that EGCG suppresses the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 through inhibition of the NF-κB, p38, and ERK pathways. These findings could contribute to the development of new types of EGCG-containing pharmacological agents for use in the treatment of TAO. PMID:26848751

  18. The Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on IL-1β Induced IL-8 Expression in Orbital Fibroblast from Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yun, Mihee; Lee, Seong-Beom; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Orbital fibroblasts have been reported to be an important effector cells for the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Orbital fibroblasts secrete various inflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulation, leading to TAO-related tissue swelling. It has also been reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether or how EGCG affects the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 in human orbital fibroblasts from TAO patients. Treatment with EGCG significantly reduced the level of IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 and the expression of IL-8 mRNA. IL-1β-induced the degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK, and the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 mRNA was inhibited by specific inhibitors, such as BAY-117085 for NF-kB, SB203580 for p38, and PD98059 for ERK. In addition, treatment with EGCG inhibited the IL-1β-induced degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. However, pre-treatment with antioxidants, NVN and NAC, which suppressed ROS generation, did not reduce IL-8 expression in IL-1β-treated orbital fibroblasts, suggesting that the IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression is not mediated by the generation of ROS. These results show that EGCG suppresses the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 through inhibition of the NF-κB, p38, and ERK pathways. These findings could contribute to the development of new types of EGCG-containing pharmacological agents for use in the treatment of TAO. PMID:26848751

  19. Clinical factors affecting intraocular pressure change after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Dong Ik; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Cho, Bo Youn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the physiological monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) during the postoperative periods after orbital decompression surgery and ascertain the correlation between the clinical factors and IOP changes. Methods The medical records of 113 orbits from 60 patients who underwent orbital decompression surgery were reviewed retrospectively. IOP measurement during the postoperative periods was classified based on the postoperative day: week 1 (1–7 days), month 1 (8–41 days), month 2 (42–70 days), month 3 (71–97 days), month 4 (98–126 days), and final (after 127 days). The mean postoperative follow-up was 286.5 days for orbits with at least 6 months of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the IOP reduction percentage and clinical factors. Results The mean IOP increased from 16.9 to 18.6 mmHg (10.1%) at postoperative week 1 and decreased to 14.4 mmHg (14.5%) after 2 months. Minimal little changes were observed postoperatively in the IOP after 2 months. Preoperative IOP had a significant positive effect on the reduction percentage both at postoperative week 1 (β=2.51, P=0.001) and after 2 months (β=1.07, P=0.029), and the spherical equivalent showed a positive correlation with the reduction level at postoperative week 1 (β=1.71, P=0.021). Conclusion Surgical decompression caused a significant reduction in the IOP in thyroid-associated orbitopathy, and the amount of reduction was closely related to preoperative IOP; however, it may also cause a transient elevation in the IOP during the early postoperative phase in highly myopic eyes. PMID:26848257

  20. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity and volume of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy with methylprednisolone pulse therapy

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, Tomoaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Ohji, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the relationship between inflammation and swelling of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Methods The signal intensities and volumes of the superior rectus (SR), inferior rectus (IR), lateral rectus (LR), medial rectus (MR), and superior oblique (SO) muscles were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 25 eyes of 25 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in the acute inflammatory phase before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of muscles and brain white matter were calculated. Result The mean SIRs before treatment were 2.28±0.74 in SR, 2.66±0.57 in IR, 2.03±0.42 in LR, 2.45±0.49 in MR, and 1.98±0.48 in SO muscles. The mean SIRs after treatment were 1.82±0.62, 1.84±0.52, 1.70±0.35, 1.95±0.46, and 1.60±0.36, respectively. The mean volumes (cm3) before treatment were 1.35±0.67 in SR, 1.21±0.39 in IR, 0.66±0.13 in LR, 0.94±0.31 in MR, and 0.58±0.14 in SO muscles. Those after treatment were 1.12±0.45, 0.91±0.31, 0.61±0.12, 0.85±0.28, and 0.49±0.11, respectively. The SIRs showed significantly positive correlations with volumes both before and after treatment in SR muscles (before, r=0.77; after, r=0.69), IR muscles (before, r=0.65; after, r=0.60), MR muscles (before, r=0.69; after, r=0.73), and SO muscles (before, r=0.52; after, r=0.50) (P<0.01 for all correlations). Conclusion Swelling reflected the inflammation in extraocular muscles of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy both before and after treatment. PMID:27143850

  1. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2007-02-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is usually diagnosed clinically. Early presentation of TAO such as ocular irritation, lid puffiness, and mild retraction may be overlooked and misdiagnosed. Careful clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations, and orbital imaging studies are needed for diagnosing early TAO. Knowing the pathogenesis will open the door for obtaining directed and effective treatment for the inflammatory process in TAO. Most patients with mild to moderate active TAO are treated with observation alone as the available treatment modalities effective in controlling the disease have many potential side effects. Severe active TAO, compressive optic neuropathy, and severe exposure keratopathy are the main indications for treatment with immunosuppressant agents, orbital radiotherapy, or orbital decompression. Surgery remains the final rehabilitation in TAO, which should be done during cicatricial (inactive) TAO when reliable and stable results can be obtained. PMID:20567660

  2. Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, J R; Henderson, J; Strakosch, C R; Joyner, D M

    1981-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy usually occurs in association with hyperthyroidism. Its occasional occurrence in the absence of thyroid disease suggests, however, that it may be a separate autoimmune disorder. While the evidence supporting an autoimmune pathogenesis is considerable for the ophthalmopathy, it is not so impressive as that for Graves' hyperthyroidism: orbital antibodies have not been convincingly demonstrated and autoantigens have not been identified. On the other hand, in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy the orbital tissues and eye muscle membranes are infiltrated with lymphoid cells and show evidence of cell-mediated immune reactions. Although there is some evidence that binding of thyroid stimulating hormone fragments and thyroglobulin-antithyroglobulin immune complexes to eye muscle membranes may be important in the pathogenesis of the ophthalmopathy, this needs to be confirmed. The mechanism for the association of hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy is unknown, but the association likely reflects an influence of thyroid hormones on the immune system. In view of the autoimmune pathogenesis the logical treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy appears to be immunosuppression. PMID:7011529

  3. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  4. Update on advanced imaging options for thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Michael P.; Carrasco, Jacqueline R.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a diverse spectrum of signs and symptoms that appears to have immunologic and pathologic causative factors as diverse as its clinical presentations. Lymphocytes, hormones, and cytokines affect orbital fibroblasts and other similar cells, which exert their effects on orbital tissues, including the extraocular muscles, orbital fat, and optic nerve. This complicated inflammatory cascade and the myriad of clinical findings that result contributes to the active phase of TAO. The distinction between the active and inactive phases of TAO is an important one, as the proper treatment will depend on the disease phase and degree thereof. Several clinical grading scales and scores have been established to help qualify and quantify the disease severity. Aiding clinical exam and acumen, proper and reproducible imaging of the orbit and ocular adnexa is incredibly important to the management of TAO. Orbital ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy each have unique abilities, including quantifying orbital changes, assessing disease activity, correlating orbital findings with clinical changes, guiding appropriate treatment, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Further, study ease, accessibility, cost, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and risks are all important considerations in picking the right test with which to diagnose and follow TAO. This analysis will provide a review of orbital imaging for TAO, including the mechanism of each imaging technique as well as their rationales, advantages, disadvantages, and utilities. PMID:23961023

  5. Update on advanced imaging options for thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Michael P; Carrasco, Jacqueline R

    2012-10-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a diverse spectrum of signs and symptoms that appears to have immunologic and pathologic causative factors as diverse as its clinical presentations. Lymphocytes, hormones, and cytokines affect orbital fibroblasts and other similar cells, which exert their effects on orbital tissues, including the extraocular muscles, orbital fat, and optic nerve. This complicated inflammatory cascade and the myriad of clinical findings that result contributes to the active phase of TAO. The distinction between the active and inactive phases of TAO is an important one, as the proper treatment will depend on the disease phase and degree thereof. Several clinical grading scales and scores have been established to help qualify and quantify the disease severity. Aiding clinical exam and acumen, proper and reproducible imaging of the orbit and ocular adnexa is incredibly important to the management of TAO. Orbital ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy each have unique abilities, including quantifying orbital changes, assessing disease activity, correlating orbital findings with clinical changes, guiding appropriate treatment, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Further, study ease, accessibility, cost, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and risks are all important considerations in picking the right test with which to diagnose and follow TAO. This analysis will provide a review of orbital imaging for TAO, including the mechanism of each imaging technique as well as their rationales, advantages, disadvantages, and utilities. PMID:23961023

  6. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-10-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n = 777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n = 533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid-eye out-patient clinic, 176 (13·4%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (9·8%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (8·5%) coeliac disease, 60 (4·6%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (4·4%) vitiligo and 25 (1·9%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR) = 2·18; P = 0·002 and OR = 6·52; P < 0·001], whereas type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, autoimmune primary hypogonadism, alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome were 'protective' for GD and thus linked to HT, OR = 0·49 (P < 0·001), 0·06 (P < 0·001), 0·25 (P < 0·001), 0·50 (P = 0·090) and 0·32 (P = 0·003), respectively. Of 610 (46·6%) AITD patients with TAO, 584 (95·7%) and 26 (4·3%) had GD and HT, respectively (P < 0·001). TAO was most prevalent in GD patients with coeliac disease (94%, OR = 1·87, P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis showed high OR for coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis (3·4 and 4·03, both P < 0·001) pertaining to the association with TAO while type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and alopecia areata were protective for TAO. In patients with TAO, coeliac disease is the most prevalent co-morbid autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  7. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n = 777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n = 533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid–eye out-patient clinic, 176 (13·4%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (9·8%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (8·5%) coeliac disease, 60 (4·6%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (4·4%) vitiligo and 25 (1·9%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR) = 2·18; P = 0·002 and OR = 6·52; P < 0·001], whereas type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, autoimmune primary hypogonadism, alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome were ‘protective’ for GD and thus linked to HT, OR = 0·49 (P < 0·001), 0·06 (P < 0·001), 0·25 (P < 0·001), 0·50 (P = 0·090) and 0·32 (P = 0·003), respectively. Of 610 (46·6%) AITD patients with TAO, 584 (95·7%) and 26 (4·3%) had GD and HT, respectively (P < 0·001). TAO was most prevalent in GD patients with coeliac disease (94%, OR = 1·87, P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis showed high OR for coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis (3·4 and 4·03, both P < 0·001) pertaining to the association with TAO while type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and alopecia areata were protective for TAO. In patients with TAO, coeliac disease is the most prevalent co-morbid autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  8. Severe thyroid-associated orbitopathy in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Ai; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Nakachi, Ayako; Ohye, Hidemi; Sato, Shiori; Sekiya, Kenichi; Kosuga, Yuka; Suzuki, Miho; Matsumoto, Masako; Kunii, Yo; Watanabe, Natsuko; Mukasa, Koji; Inoue, Yoichi; Ito, Kunihiko; Ito, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is characterized by immune-mediated inflammation of the extraocular muscles surrounding orbital connective tissue and adipose tissue. Severe orbitopathy related to autoimmune thyroid disease often occurs in patients with Grave's disease, but it is rare in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The pathogenesis of TAO is unclear. Several studies have noted a strong correlation between the levels of antibodies to thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) and TAO in Graves' disease. Mild upper eyelid retraction has been reported to be common in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, however severe orbitopathy is rare. We report two cases of severe TAO in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who required systemic glucocorticoid therapy and orbital irradiation to treat the TAO. The activity of the TAO was high in both patients, because their clinical activity scores (CAS) for the orbitopathy were high, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the extraocular muscles and an increase in T2 signal intensity and prolonged T2 relaxation time which indicate an active stage of inflammation. We tested the presence of TRAb by three different assays and were negative in both patients. Since the eye muscle damage cannot be due to TSH receptor antibodies, other pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for the orbitopathy in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:21427503

  9. Relationship between Clinical and Immunological Features of Thyroid Autoimmunity and Ophthalmopathy during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Jack R.; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Problem. Clinical features of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) generally improve during pregnancy and rebound in the postpartum period. It is unclear whether the ophthalmopathy that is associated with GH and, less often, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) changes in parallel with the thyroid associated antibody reactions and clinical features or runs a different course. Method of Study. We retrospectively studied 19 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease over 22 pregnancies: 9 pregnancies with GH and 13 with HT. Ophthalmopathy was defined by NOSPECS class. Results. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) antibody titres decreased during pregnancy and rose in the postpartum period. During pregnancy, 5 patients with GH and 4 patients with HT developed mild ophthalmopathy and two patients with GH and HT developed new upper eyelid retraction (UER). In the postpartum period, eye scores improved in 3 patients with GH and 3 with HT, remained stable in two and 5 patients, respectively, and worsened in 2 patients with GH and one with HT. Conclusions. In patients with mild to moderate eye signs associated with GH and HT, the orbital and thyroid reactions ran different courses during pregnancy. Since no patient had severe ophthalmopathy, we cannot draw definitive conclusions from this preliminary study. PMID:26798548

  10. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy: Current insights into the pathophysiology, immunology and management

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Rina; Nelson, Christine C.; Douglas, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Half the patients suffering from Graves’ disease develop thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The severity of TAO varies considerably with a mild form characterized by dry eyes and discomfort to the severe form with sight-threatening exposure keratopathy and optic neuropathy. The pathogenesis and immunologic mechanisms underlying Graves’ disease and TAO is unknown, however, advances toward this understanding have indicated a prominent role of orbital fibroblasts, T cells and B cells. These advances have led to novel strategies for clinical treatment using immunomodulatory modalities. Initial results included use of infliximab and etanercept (anti-TNF agents), but currently there is an increasing interest in anti-B cell (Rituximab) therapy. Rituximab has shown promising results in progressive, sight-threatening TAO. It has also shown encouraging results in halting or slowing the disease process in patients unresponsive to corticosteroids. The primary advantage of these immunomodulatory agents is based upon targeting the molecular mediators of the disease and avoiding the potential side effects of non-specific therapies. PMID:23960898

  11. [Radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, T; Müller, A C; Janich, M; Gerlach, R; Hädecke, J; Duncker, G I W; Dunst, J

    2004-11-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid, whereas the precise pathogenesis still remains unclear. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis the occurrence of proptosis is an extremely rare event. The therapy for middle and severe courses of GO shows in partly disappointing results, although several therapy modalities are possible (glucocorticoid therapy, radiotherapy, antithyroid drug treatment, surgery). All these therapies lead in only 40 - 70 % to an improvement of the pathogenic symptoms. An intensive interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary to satisfy the requirements for the treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. As a consequence of the very different results of the few of clinical studies that were accomplished with reference to this topic, treatment by radiotherapy in the management of the disease is presently controversially discussed. In the German-speaking countries the radiotherapy is, however, firmly established as a therapy option in the treatment of the moderate disease classes (class 2-5 according to NO SPECS), especially if diplopia is present. This article describes the sequences, dosages and fractionation schemes as well as the risks and side effects of the radiotherapy. Altogether, radiotherapy is assessed as an effective and sure method. The administration of glucocorticoids can take place before the beginning of or during the radiotherapy. For the success of treatment the correct selection of patients who may possibly profit from a radiotherapy is absolutely essential. By realising that GO proceeds normally over a period of 2-5 years, which is followed by a period of fibrotic alteration, the application of the radiotherapy in the early, active phase is indispensable. A precise explanation for the effects of radiotherapy in treatment of the GO does not exist at present. The determination of the most effective irradiation doses was made from retrospectively evaluated collectives. Recently the results of a national survey of all German RT departments were published, initiated by the working group of the DEGRO (German Society of Radiooncology). In the most of the German radiooncology departments irradiation with 8 to 10 x 1.8-2.0 Gy 5 x weekly to 16 or 20 Gy is standard. Two recently published prospective German studies pointed out the equivalence of the effectiveness of a short therapy in low dose ranges up to 2.4 Gy as well as of a low proportioned irradiation during a longer period in relation to a standard therapy with 20 Gy. That is why at the moment it is not possible to give a definite recommendation with reference to dosages or the fractionation schemes. In 2003 the first European group (European Group on Graves ' Orbitopathy Experience -- EUGOGO) was founded for pursuing investigations of GO in multi-centric studies, mainly to improve therapy results. PMID:15562354

  12. Euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy with negative autoantibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Mehtap

    2005-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune-based hyperthyroidism in which a number of different antibodies directed against thyroid tissue plays a role. Graves' ophthalmopathy is thought to be a consequence of this autoimmune basis and occurs in some patients with Graves' disease. On occasional cases, the disease may present only with ophthalmopathy without hyperthyroidism. A 32-year-old woman with euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy and negative thyroid autoantibodies, including TSH receptor antibody, is presented here. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16334503

  13. Following the Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Discusses 5 principles from the "Tao Te Ching" (an ancient Chinese classic intended for rulers) and how they can be applied by composition teachers. Suggests many of the insights in the "Tao" have become accepted wisdom in the teaching of composition. (SR)

  14. Thyroid Stimulating but Not Blocking Autoantibodies Are Highly Prevalent in Severe and Active Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, E.; Diana, T.; Kanitz, M.; Hoppe, D.; Kahaly, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical utility of the functional TSH receptor autoantibodies was prospectively evaluated in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Ophthalmic, endocrine, and serological investigations were performed in 101 consecutive patients with severe and active TAO. Serum thyroid stimulating (TSAb) and blocking (TBAb) antibody levels were measured with two bioassays using cells that express a chimeric TSH receptor and CRE-dependent luciferase. TSAb results are expressed as percentage of specimen-to-reference ratio (SRR %). Blocking activity is defined as percent inhibition of luciferase expression relative to induction with bovine TSH alone. All 101 consecutively followed-up patients with severe and active TAO were TBAb negative. In contrast, 91 (90%) were TSAb positive of whom 90 had Graves' disease. Serum TSAb levels correlated with the diplopia score (P = 0.016), total severity eye score (P = 0.009), proptosis (P = 0.007), lid aperture (P = 0.003), upper lid retraction (P = 0.006), keratopathy (P = 0.04), and thyroid binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII, P < 0.001) and negatively with the duration of TAO (P = 0.002). Median serum values of TSAb were SRR% 418 (range 28% to 795%). TSAb, not TBAb, are highly prevalent in severe/active TAO and serum TSAb levels correlate with clinical disease severity. PMID:26221139

  15. Biometric and refractive changes after orbital decompression in Korean patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W S; Chun, Y S; Cho, B Y; Lee, J K

    2016-03-01

    PurposeTo determine the biometric and refractive changes after orbital decompression in Korean patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO).MethodsRetrospective, observational study (between October 2012 and September 2014) was performed. Patients with TAO undergoing orbital decompression for stable proptosis received ophthalmic examinations, including Hertel exophthalmometry, A-scan biometry, autorefraction measures, corneal topography, and wavefront aberration measures, before orbital decompression and again 2 months after surgery.ResultsIncluded in the study were 43 eyes from 23 patients. The mean exophthalmometric value decreased by 4.1 mm 2 months after orbital decompression (P<0.001). On average, axial length (AL) increased significantly by 0.08 mm (P<0.001); specifically, 37 (86%) of the 43 eyes had increased AL. Whereas anterior chamber depth and lens thickness showed no significant changes (P=0.086 and P=0.905, respectively), the mean spherical refraction and spherical equivalent (SE) decreased by 0.35 and 0.48 D, respectively (P=0.008 and P<0.001, respectively). However, cylindrical refraction and axis showed no significant changes (P=0.057 and P=0.218, respectively). The changes in AL and SE were significantly correlated (R=-0.411, P=0.009). Notably, there were no changes in corneal topography or wavefront aberration after orbital decompression.ConclusionsTAO patients who underwent orbital decompression showed myopic refractive change via increase in AL. Possible refractive changes should be considered in cases of TAO complaining of decreased visual acuity after orbital decompression. PMID:26584795

  16. Teaching in the Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Patrick

    This book shares the philosophy that what a teacher learned through the martial arts form, Aikido, allowed him to look beyond aggressive acts without responding aggressively himself, viewing the student behind the angry behavior. The teacher notes that compassion works better than any form of discipline he has ever encountered in education. Tao,…

  17. Conflict and Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for managing interpersonal…

  18. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M. J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Ho, P.; Lee, T.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Yen, W.-L.; Reyes Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Granados, A. P.; Torres, S.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J. C.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2012-05-01

    TAOS II is a successor survey to TAOS. TAOS II will measure the size distribution of KBOs by detecting and characterizing their occultations of distant stars. TAOS II will operate 3 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Obsevatory in Mexico.

  19. Potential role for bone marrow-derived fibrocytes in the orbital fibroblast heterogeneity associated with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast heterogeneity has been recognized for decades, but the basis for multiple phenotypes among these cells has been investigated only recently. More than 15 years ago, Bucalla and his colleagues described for the first time a population of fibroblast-like cells among circulating mononuclear blood cells. Subsequently these mesenchymal cells, termed fibrocytes, have been characterized and found to participate in normal and pathological tissue remodelling. In this review, I have attempted to present the evidence generated thus far suggesting that fibrocytes are participants in autoimmune diseases where tissues are injured and undergo remodelling. Aspects of their phenotype suggest that they are well suited to help orchestrate immune responses through mononuclear cell recruitment and their ability to produce inflammatory mediators and extracellular matrix molecules. These attributes also raise the possibility that they might be useful targets against which therapeutic agents might be aimed. PMID:20659126

  20. Toward the Tao of Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, E. Susanne

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the need for a philosophical foundation for gifted education and suggests the Tao Te Ching education can reconcile the dichotomies in the field and encompass the various cognitive, affective, ethical, and esthetic taxonomies in existence. (CL)

  1. Graves' ophthalmopathy: the case for thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Lowery, A J; Kerin, M J

    2009-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is frequently complicated by ophthalmopathy, which can be a debilitating component of the disease, resulting in impaired quality of life. The management of Graves' disease aims to restore the patient to a euthyroid state and minimise the extent of extrathyroidal manifestations such as ophthalmopathy. Management options include medical therapy, radioactive iodine (RAI) and surgical intervention in the form of thyroid resection. Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is often resistant to or even aggravated by medical therapy and RAI, both of which have unpredictable relapse rates. The extent of thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease remains controversial. Total thyroidectomy is being increasingly favoured as the procedure of choice for treatment of benign thyroid disease. Recent study has indicated that it can be performed with minimal complications at a rate comparable to the less radical subtotal thyroidectomy. The predictable outcome and lack ofdisease recurrence make it an attractive option for benign conditions such as Graves' disease. In addition, there is increasing evidence that total thyroidectomy may have a beneficial effect, inducing an improvement in eye signs and symptoms in cases of GO. This review discusses the indications for surgical intervention in Graves' disease, with specific focus on the extent of resection and the relative merits of subtotal and total thyroidectomy in patients with GO. PMID:19848063

  2. Intraorbital injection of rituximab versus high dose of systemic glucocorticoids in the treatment of thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Savino, Gustavo; Mandarà, Erika; Gari, Mariangela; Battendieri, Remo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare, in a randomized prospective study, the efficacy and safety of intraorbital administration of low doses of RTX versus intravenous glucocorticoids (GCs) to treat patients affected by moderately severe thyroid-associated active orbitopathy. Twenty patients with active, moderately severe TAO, whose mean age was 56.7 years±10.2 SD participated in the study. Patients were randomly selected and treated with intraorbital injections of RTX or with i.v. GCs. Disease activity and severity were assessed by the Clinical Activity Score (CAS) and the NOSPECS. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance scans were performed in all patients. In the RTX group, full blood cell count and flow cytometric analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes were done. The patients were followed for 20 months. In both groups, CAS and NOSPECS indexes were significantly reduced (p<0.005). In particular, CAS reduction was evident since the first follow-up with both treatments. Proptosis decreased significantly only in group B and diplopia showed no significant changes during follow-up times in both groups. Neither of the treatments affected the peripheral TRab. In group A, 5 weeks after the first injection, the CD20+ peripheral lymphocytes value was nearly zero. One patient treated with rituximab progressed to severe TAO (optic neuropathy) following the second injection so the treatment was discontinued. The data confirm the therapeutic efficacy of RTX in active TAO, even in low doses and locally administered. The efficacy on the inflammatory component of the disease is comparable to that of steroids and seems to be related with the reduction of peripheral CD20+ lymphocytes. Caution should be given to an accurate patient selection. PMID:24880619

  3. The evaluation and treatment of graves ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Stan, Marius N; Garrity, James A; Bahn, Rebecca S

    2012-03-01

    Optimum care of the patient with Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is achieved through teamwork between the endocrinologist and ophthalmologist, with input from ancillary specialists as needed. Clinical evaluation should include determination of both the severity and the activity of the disease. It is important to assess early in the evaluation the impact of the disease on the patient's quality of life and their priorities and expectations regarding management. Once this information has been gathered, careful discussion between patient and physicians can define the management plan. This article reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and management of GO. PMID:22443978

  4. Immunopathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: the role of the TSH receptor

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Seethalakshmi; Bahn, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the orbit. The close clinical and temporal relationships between Graves’ hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy have long suggested that both conditions derive from a single systemic process and share the thyrotropin receptor as a common autoantigen. This receptor is expressed not only in thyroid follicular cells, but also in orbital fibroblasts with higher levels measured in orbital cells from ophthalmopathy patients than in cells from normal individuals. Recent studies from several laboratories have shown that thyrotropin receptor activation in orbital fibroblasts enhances hyaluronic acid synthesis and adipogenesis, both cellular functions that appear to be upregulated in the diseased orbit. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade, along with other effector pathways including adenylyl cyclase/cAMP, appears to mediate these processes. Future therapies for this condition may involve inhibition of thyrotropin receptor signaling in orbital fibroblasts. PMID:22632365

  5. Assessing quality of life in Australian patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, J J; Sullivan, T J; Mortimer, R H; Wagenaar, M; Perry-Keene, D A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine quality of life and adequacy of education and counselling in Australian patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy during the course of their illness. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at the orbital and endocrinology clinics of Royal Brisbane Hospital on 162 consecutive patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy who were managed between the 1992 and 2000. The Graves’ ophthalmopathy quality of life (GO-QOL) survey modified for Australian conditions was distributed to study participants. Of the 19 questions asked, nine questions related to visual functioning, eight questions were about the psychosocial consequences of changed appearance, and two questions referred to education and counselling. Additionally, clinical data on the severity of illness were collected retrospectively from the medical notes of these patients. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 128 patients. The majority of patients reported limitations in daily activities such as hobbies, driving, watching television and reading, as well as impaired self confidence. The mean GO-QOL scores in this study were (100 representing maximum QOL): visual functioning 59.0 (SD 28.0), psychosocial consequences of changed appearance 54.5 (28.4), and education and counselling 59.1 (38.8). Only about a quarter of patients indicated that education and counselling were adequate and helpful. Conclusion: Graves’ ophthalmopathy profoundly affects QOL and adequate education and counselling are essential for helping patients to cope with their illness. The GO-QOL survey is a simple, practical tool that can be used easily in a clinic to determine the QOL issues in subjects with Graves’ ophthalmopathy. PMID:14693779

  6. Update on TAO moored ORG array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, H. Paul

    1994-01-01

    During the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) six TAO moorings were equipped with optical rain gauges (ORG's). In late 1993 moorings deployed on the equator at 154E and 157.5E were recovered and not redeployed as they were augmentations to the TAO array for COARE only. In December 1993, four TAO moorings were equipped with ORG's: one each at 2N, 156E and 2S, 156E and ORG doublets on the equator at 0, 156E and 0, 165E. The 2N, 156E mooring has been lost. By the end of April all sites will have been serviced and six refurbished sensors will again be deployed in the same locations.

  7. Lessons from the Tao for birthing practice.

    PubMed

    Overman, B

    1994-06-01

    The metaphysics of the Tao Te Ching, as the basic structure of the universe, is used to examine birthing as creation. Lessons from the Tao regarding cultivating naturalness are drawn upon to provide suggestions for women in preparation for birthing, as well as for the nurses and midwives who attend them. Compatibility of this metaphysical view of birthing with Rogers's and Newman's nursing theories is identified, and the importance of honoring the metaphysical and spiritual aspects of birthing in nursing practice is stressed. PMID:8195571

  8. TAOS/LS1 development final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.; Gentry, S.M.; Falls, J.M.; Claassen, P.J.; Alder, G.J.

    1997-12-01

    The Laser Sensor No. 1 (LS1) is a system designed and built by Sandia to detect and report laser illumination of an orbiting satellite. It was launched March 1994 as part of the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) satellite program. The engineering details of the system are described in this report. Operation characteristics and results have been reserved for inclusion in a classified Air Force report prepared by the TAOS Program Office of Phillips Laboratory.

  9. [Corticosteroids and radiotherapy in the treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Nasr, Elie; Khater, Sherine; Nehme-Nasr, Dolly; Azoury, Fares; Jambart, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is a debilitating disease impairing the quality of life of affected individuals. The management of moderate-to-severe active Graves' ophthalmopathy is a major therapeutic challenge, and the treatment outcome is often unsatisfactory. We have carried out a retrospective study to assess the efficacy of combined orbital irradiation and systemic corticosteroids. Ten patients were included; all patients had received 20 Grays to the retrobulbar tissues in ten fractions, and oral or intravenous glucocorticoids. The main therapeutic outcome measures were the criteria of Donaldson and co-workers and a self-assessment evaluation. The quality of life outcome was also evaluated by the GO-QOL (Graves' ophthalmopathy quality of life) questionnaire. Seven patients (70%) demonstrated improvement in ocular parameters; the response was excellent in three cases, good in three cases and fair in one case. Three patients showed no response to the treatment. The self-assessment evaluation showed that 75% of patients were satisfied with the results of the treatment. Proptosis was the most responsive sign to radiation and steroids. A duration of the eye disease of more than 18 months was associated with less improvement and a higher failure of the treatment. Concerning the quality of life, the score for visual fonctionning was 882 +/- 18.2 after treatment, while the score for appearance was 63.3 +/- 23.3. In conclusion, a combination of orbital irradiation and systemic steroids is associated with 70% of favorable responses, but the quality of life is not restored in the same proportions and remains impaired after treatment. PMID:20549894

  10. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, S.; Alcock, C. A.; Cook, K. H.; Furesz, G.; Geary, J. C.; Hiriart, D.; Ho, P. T.; Norton, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Yen, W.; Zhang, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small ( 1 km diameter) objects in the Solar System and beyond. Such events are very rare (<0.001 events per star per year) and short in duration ( 200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz.

  11. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles A.; Cook, Kem H.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Hiriart, David; Ho, Paul T.; Lee, William; Melsheimer, Frank; Norton, Timothy; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Richer, Michael; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2012-09-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small ( 1 km diameter) objects in the Solar System and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration ( 200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astrońomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz.

  12. The Tao, psychoanalysis and existential thought.

    PubMed

    Rhee, D

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some existing misunderstandings in the area of psychotherapy, existential approach and the Eastern Tao (Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu) by showing the common elements between Eastern Tao and psychoanalysis, and existential thought. The author compared the goal of Tao practice, namely, Zen Buddhism, Confucianism etc. with that of Western psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology and transpersonal psychotherapy. He concludes that these goals are the same and that the names are different. He also compared the procedures and processes of psychoanalysis and Zen practice. Sudden enlightenment and gradual training in Zen practice were compared with insight and 'working through' in psychoanalysis. Zen emphasis on relationship, ego strength and interpretation was linked with similar topics in psychoanalysis. The results of Zen practice and the central features of every psychoanalytic treatment were examined and found the same, that is, the resolution of, or transcending of, love (dependence) and hate (hostility). The description of a mature analyst and that of a Boddhisattva were compared and found the same. A trace of neurotic motivation remains but they are not influenced by it in helping others. The problem of theory and reality was discussed and strong emphasis on reality was described; in other words, the goal is directed at reality and theory is only a means pointing at reality. If you see the reality, you should forget the theory. PMID:2290901

  13. Digital Data From the Taos West Aeromagnetic Survey in Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; EDCON-PRJ Inc.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a survey covering the southwestern portion of Taos County west of the Town of Taos, New Mexico, in October, 2006. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  14. Increased sulfatation of orbital glycosaminoglycans in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C; Rouhi, R; Förster, G; Kahaly, G J

    1999-04-01

    Accumulation of interstitial glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) leads to edema, increased orbital pressure, and proptosis. In this study, a new, highly sensitive, high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine the altered concentration and biochemical composition of different GAG polymers in orbital connective tissue of 27 GO patients and 18 controls. GAG were isolated by tissue homogenization and digestion, followed by sequential enzymatic GAG hydrolysis and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the resulting alpha,beta-unsaturated disaccharides. High recovery rates of 78 +/- 6% (mean +/- SE) and a detection limit of 4.0 microg/L (0.01 micromol/L) were obtained. Total tissue GAG amounted to 254 +/- 16 microg/g wet tissue wt in patients and 150 +/- 13 microg/g (P < 0.0001) in controls. Regarding the GAG polymers, marked differences were detected between patients and controls (chondroitin sulfate, 127 +/- 13 vs. 47 +/- 5 microg/g; hyaluronic acid, 56 +/- 5 vs. 34 +/- 4 microg/g; both P < 0.0001; dermatan sulfate, 77 +/- 6 vs. 69 +/- 6 microg/g; P < 0.05). In patients, chondroitin sulfate was the major GAG component (48 +/- 6 vs. 31 +/- 5% of total GAG in controls), whereas dermatan sulfate was dominant in controls (46 +/- 8% vs. 30 +/- 5%). The sulfated disaccharide digestion products were markedly increased (P < 0.0001) in patients, and the ratio of sulfated vs. total disaccharide content was 85 +/- 6% vs. 65 +/- 5% (P < 0.05) in patients and controls, respectively. As accumulation of negatively charged sulfate residues in GAG disaccharides results in enhanced water-binding capacity, beside inflammation and increased volume of the orbital adipose tissue, the altered structure and nature of sulfated GAG units in the orbit may be responsible for the pathogenic changes in Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:10199787

  15. Risk Factors for Development or Deterioration of Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Marius N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) significantly impairs the quality of life of affected individuals and the most severe cases can be sight threatening. Given the limited therapeutic options, a strong emphasis should be placed on disease prevention to diminish the significant morbidity associated with this disease. Summary GO is most prevalent in women and most severe in men. Although some genetic differences between GO patients and Graves' disease patients without ophthalmopathy have been identified, none of the polymorphisms identified to date impart a high enough risk of GO to justify genetic testing to guide therapy or preventive strategies. Poorly defined mechanical factors that appear also to play a role in GO susceptibility will likely be better elucidated with advances in imaging techniques. Tobacco smoking has been consistently linked to development or deterioration of GO. Smokers who receive radioactive iodine have the highest incidence of unfavorable GO outcome, which is proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Several studies have reported an association between radioactive iodine treatment for Graves' disease and worsening or development of GO. Observational studies suggest that the same appears to be true for thyroid dysfunction, including both hyper- and hypothyroidism. While thyrotropin receptor antibody levels appear to be useful in predicting the course of disease and response to therapy, it is not known whether they are predictive of GO development. The puzzling scenarios of euthyroid or clinically unilateral GO, the large number of nonsmoking GO patients, and the occasional development of GO years after thyroid dysfunction has been treated all underline the multifactorial etiology of this disorder in which no single factor determines the clinical outcome. Conclusions GO appears to have a complex genetic basis with multiple susceptibility alleles that act in combination with nongenetic factors to contribute to disease expression. PMID:20578901

  16. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee.

    PubMed

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE). PMID:26010808

  17. T and B cell reactivity to extraocular and skeletal muscle in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, A P; Fells, P; Shine, B

    1989-01-01

    We have sought human eye muscle membrane binding antibodies in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibodies were found in patients with thyroid autoimmunity irrespective of eye signs, and binding correlated closely (r = 0.94) with binding to skeletal muscle, showing that these antibodies are not site-specific. T cells from patients with thyroid autoimmunity proliferated in response to eye muscle, but again this was not specific for eye muscle or the presence of ophthalmopathy. No single antigen was responsible for inducing proliferation. These results fail to confirm a recent report of eye muscle membrane binding antibodies in a high proportion of patients with ophthalmopathy, and suggest instead that T and B cell autoreactivity to striated muscle antigens is a frequent feature of autoimmune thyroid disease, unlikely to be directly related to eye disease. PMID:2786428

  18. Trajectory analysis and optimization system (TAOS) user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System (TAOS) is software that simulates point--mass trajectories for multiple vehicles. It expands upon the capabilities of the Trajectory Simulation and Analysis program (TAP) developed previously at Sandia National Laboratories. TAOS is designed to be a comprehensive analysis tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom, point-mass trajectory. Trajectories are broken into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user control how the trajectory is computed. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints. Althrough TAOS is not interactive, its input and output files have been designed for ease of use. When compared to TAP, the capability to analyze trajectories for more than one vehicle is the primary enhancement, although numerous other small improvements have been made. This report documents the methods used in TAOS as well as the input and output file formats.

  19. Does autoimmunity against thyroglobulin play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Girgis, Christian; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    While most authors believe that autoimmunity against the TSH receptor expressed in the orbital connective tissue cells is the main reaction that leads to the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism, an older hypothesis that deserves fresh consideration is based on the notion that thyroglobulin (Tg) in the thyroid gland passes in a retrograde fashion to the orbit where it is recognized by Tg autoantibodies, leading to inflammation. Here, we review new evidence that supports a role of Tg and propose a new hypothesis based on the notion that Tg is targeted in the orbit leading to a complex cascade of reactions that leads to Graves’ ophthalmopathy. PMID:26664042

  20. Graves' Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Barrio-Barrio, Jesús; Sabater, Alfonso L.; Bonet-Farriol, Elvira; Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Galofré, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3–7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy. An appropriate assessment of both severity and activity of the disease warrants an adequate treatment. The VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance), and the European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) classifications are the two widely used grading systems conceived to assess the activity and severity of GO and guide the therapeutic decision making. A critical analysis of classification, assessment, and management systems is reported. A simplified “GO activity assessment checklist” for routine clinical practice is proposed. Current treatments are reviewed and management guidelines according to the severity and activity of the disease are provided. New treatment modalities such as specific monoclonal antibodies, TSH-R antagonists, and other immunomodulatory agents show a promising outcome for GO patients. PMID:26351570

  1. Prognostic factors in the radiotherapy of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, I.A.; Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Between April 1968 and February 1988, 311 patients with symptomatic and progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with megavoltage orbital radiotherapy. The patients were divided into three groups: I treated with 20 Gy/2 weeks; II treated with 30 Gy/3 weeks, and III received 20 Gy/2 weeks. The degree of eye involvement was evaluated numerically before and after therapy for each of five parameters: soft tissue signs, proptosis, eye muscle impairment, corneal involvement, and sight loss. Pre-treatment and current thyroid diagnosis and status were also noted. To evaluate the effects of radiotherapy alone, follow-up was terminated at the time any eye surgery was done; for those not treated surgically the minimum follow-up was 12 months. Because there were significant demographic differences between the patient groups, the results of each group were analyzed separately. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to determine if there were any significant variables affecting outcome. Based on these data formulae were derived which enable outcome to be predicted in any patient. Before therapy more than 90% of patients in all groups had soft tissue and eye muscle involvement, whereas 65-75% had proptosis and about half 50% had some degree of sight loss. Radiotherapy arrested progression of ophthalmic parameters in all but 1-6% of the patients. Objective and symptomatic improvement was noted for all parameters assessed, but there was marked individual variability. The best responses were noted for soft tissue, corneal involvement, and sight loss; however over half the patients had some improvement in eye muscle function and proptosis. Factors which resulted in less favorable outcome included male gender, advanced age, need for concurrent therapy for hyperthyroidism, and no history of hyperthyroidism. No complications have been observed.

  2. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  3. Subclassification of Follicular Neoplasms Recommended by the Japan Thyroid Association Reporting System of Thyroid Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kakudo, Kennichi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Katoh, Ryohei; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Japan Thyroid Association recently published guidelines for clinical practice for the management of thyroid nodules, which include a diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. It is characterized by the subclassification of follicular neoplasms, which is different from other internationally accepted reporting systems. Materials and Methods. This study examined observer variability in the subclassification of follicular neoplasms among 4 reviewers using Papanicolaou-stained smear samples from 20 surgically treated patients with indeterminate cytology. Results. The favor malignant subcategory had high predictive value of malignancy (risk of malignancy: 60–75%) and good agreement among the 4 reviewers (κ = 0.7714). Conclusion. These results clearly confirmed that the risk stratification of follicular neoplasms, which was adapted from cytology practice of high-volume thyroid centers in Japan, can provide clinically helpful information to estimate the risk of malignancy and to triage patients for surgery. PMID:25722720

  4. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. PMID:26897719

  5. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang Yu; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Chu, You Hua; Lee, William; Zhang, Zhi Wei; Cook, Kem H.; Norton, Timothy; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Alcock, Charles

    2015-11-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a nominal readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013. We present here an update on the status of the TAOS II survey, including the site development, camera fabrication, and project schedule.

  6. Common Immunosuppressive Monotherapy for Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Zhen; Lou, Heng; Zeng, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Cheng, Jin-Wei; Wei, Rui-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Several immunosuppressive therapeutic regimens are widely used to treat Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), including oral glucocorticoids (OGC), intravenous glucocorticoids (IVGC), retrobulbar injections of glucocorticoids (ROGC) and orbital radiotherapy (OR). The priority among these is unknown. This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy and tolerability of the above regimens. Methods The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases and the Chinese Biomedicine Database were searched up to November 18, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing monotherapies (OGC, IVGC, ROGC and OR) in patients with moderate-to-severe active GO were selected. The main efficacy measures were the response rate, the standard mean difference (SMD) in the reduction in the clinical activity score (CAS) and the mean difference (MD) in proptosis from baseline to the end of treatment. The main tolerability measure was the risk ratio (RR) for adverse events. The pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the RevMan software, version 5.1. Results Seven published RCTs involving 328 participants were included in the present meta-analysis, including IVGC versus OGC (3 trials), ROGC versus OGC (3 trials) and OR versus OGC (1 trial). IVGC was more effective than OGC in response rate (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.18–1.87) and had an obvious CAS reduction (SMD = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.13–1.25). IVGC caused fewer adverse events than OGC. ROGC and OGC had no statistically significant difference in response rate (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.94–1.42). OR also did not differ significantly compared with OGC (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.54–1.60). ROGC and OR had fewer adverse events, such as weight gain, compared with OGC. Conclusions For patients with GO in the moderate-to-severe active phase, current evidence gave priority to IVGC, which had a statistically significant advantage over OGC and caused fewer adverse events. ROGC and OR did not provide greater efficacy than OGC, although better tolerability and fewer adverse events were shown. PMID:26469187

  7. Automated differential photometry of TAOS data: preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, D.; Sprimont, P.-G.; Ayala, C.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Michel, R.; Navarro, S.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Nicastro, L.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2014-12-01

    A preliminary data analysis of the stellar light curves obtained by the robotic telescopes of the TAOS project is presented. We selected a data run relative to one of the stellar fields observed by three of the four TAOS telescopes, and we investigate the common trend and the correlation between the light curves. We propose two ways to remove these trends and show the preliminary results. A project aimed at flagging interesting behaviors, such as stellar variability, and to set up an automated follow-up with the San Pedro Mártir Facilities is on the way.

  8. Digital Aeromagnetic Data and Derivative Products from a Helicopter Survey over the Town of Taos and Surrounding Areas, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Fugro Airborne Surveys Corporation

    2004-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a helicopter geophysical survey in northern New Mexico during October 2003. The survey covers the Town of Taos, Taos Pueblo, and surrounding communities in Taos County. Several derivative products from these data are also presented, including reduced-to-pole, horizontal gradient magnitude, and downward continued grids and images.

  9. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves' ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased. PMID:24646903

  10. Discrimination of airborne material particles from light scattering (TAOS) patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Chang, Richard K.

    2013-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) is an experimental method which collects the intensity pattern of monochromatic light scattered by a single, micron-sized airborne particle. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. The solution proposed herewith relies on a learning machine (LM): rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified. The LM consists of two interacting modules: a feature extraction module and a linear classifier. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine Fourier transform and non-linear operations. Linear classification relies on multivariate statistical analysis. Interaction enables supervised training of the LM. The application described in this article aims at discriminating the TAOS patterns of single bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis) from patterns of atmospheric aerosol and diesel soot particles. The latter are known to interfere with the detection of bacterial spores. Classification has been applied to a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns from various materials. Some classification experiments are described, where the size of training sets has been varied as well as many other parameters which control the classifier. By assuming all training and recognition patterns to come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to ? 20% false negatives from Bacillus subtilis particles and <= 11% false positives from environmental and diesel particles.

  11. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. )

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  12. Management of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: Results of a Survey among Members of the European Thyroid Association

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, Kris; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Laurberg, Peter; Negro, Roberto; Vermiglio, Francesco; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Background An optimal management of maternal hyperthyroidism is important for positive pregnancy outcome, and to this end, the Endocrine Society published their guidelines in 2007. This survey aimed to investigate to what extent the clinical practice relating to the management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Europe is uniform and consistent with the guidelines. Materials and Methods: We e-mailed an online questionnaire survey based on clinical case scenarios to 605 members of the European Thyroid Association. We analysed 190 responses from 28 European countries. Results For a woman with newly diagnosed Graves' disease (GD) and wishing pregnancy, 78% of the responders would initiate antithyroid drugs (ATDs), while 22% would recommend definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery. In case of a relapsed GD before pregnancy, 80% preferred definitive treatment. For a woman with newly diagnosed GD during pregnancy, 53% would treat with propylthiouracil, 12% with methimazole, and 34% with propylthiouracil initially and switch to methimazole after the first trimester. Responders used several combinations of tests to monitor the dose of ATDs, and the thyroid test results they targeted were inconsistent. For a lactating woman with GD, 68% would give ATDs without stopping lactation. Conclusions Variation in the clinical practices surrounding the management of hyperthyroid pregnant women in Europe still exists. PMID:25422798

  13. THE TAOS PROJECT: RESULTS FROM SEVEN YEARS OF SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-Y.; King, S.-K.; Cook, K. H.; Lee, T.; Granados, A. P.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Coehlo, N. K.; De Pater, I.; Kim, D.-W.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; and others

    2013-07-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) aims to detect serendipitous occultations of stars by small ({approx}1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10{sup -3} events per star per year) and short in duration ({approx}200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS monitors typically {approx}500 stars simultaneously at a 5 Hz readout cadence with four telescopes located at Lulin Observatory in central Taiwan. In this paper, we report the results of the search for small Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) in seven years of data. No occultation events were found, resulting in a 95% c.l. upper limit on the slope of the faint end of the KBO size distribution of q = 3.34-3.82, depending on the surface density at the break in the size distribution at a diameter of about 90 km.

  14. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ho, P.; Yen, W.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Richer, M.; Cook, K.; Hsu, S.; Chen, H.; Chang, Y.; Hiriart, D.; Ricci, D.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Norton, T.; Geary, J.; Furesz, G.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (˜1 km diameter) objects in the Transneptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10^{-3} events per star per year) and short in duration (˜200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and high-speed cameras comprising arrays of custom CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. The survey will begin operation in 2016. This poster presents an update on the status of the site preparation and the technical development.

  15. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wang, S.; Ho, P.; Zhang, Z.; Cook, K.; Yen, W.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Richer, M.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small 1 km diameter) objects in the Transneptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (˜200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and high speed cameras comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. In this presentation, we will describe the project in detail and discuss the progress on the development of the survey infrastructure.

  16. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles A.; Cook, Kem H.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Hiriart, David; Ho, Paul T.; Lee, William H.; Melsheimer, Frank; Norton, Timothy; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Richer, Michael; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013.

  17. 2014 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, John; Brown, Rosalind S.; Daumerie, Chantal; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Negro, Roberto; Vaidya, Bijay

    2014-01-01

    This guideline has been produced as the official statement of the European Thyroid Association guideline committee. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy is defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal serum thyroxine concentration. Isolated hypothyroxinaemia (defined as a thyroxine level below the 2.5th centile of the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal TSH level) is also recognized in pregnancy. In the majority of SCH the cause is autoimmune thyroiditis but may also be due to iodine deficiency. The cause of isolated hypothyroxinaemia is usually not apparent, but iodine deficiency may be a factor. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. Levothyroxine therapy may ameliorate some of these with SCH but not in isolated hypothyroxinaemia. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with neuro-intellectual impairment of the child, but there is no evidence that maternal levothyroxine therapy improves this outcome. Targeted antenatal screening for thyroid function will miss a substantial percentage of women with thyroid dysfunction. In children SCH (serum TSH concentration >5.5-10 mU/l) normalizes in >70% and persists in the majority of the remaining patients over the subsequent 5 years, but rarely worsens. There is a lack of studies examining the impact of SCH on the neuropsychological development of children under the age of 3 years. In older children, the evidence for an association between SCH and impaired neuropsychological development is inconsistent. Good quality studies examining the effect of treatment of SCH in children are lacking. PMID:25114871

  18. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S.; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Laurberg, Peter; Kahaly, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective reference intervals. In 2014 the European Thyroid Association Executive Committee, given the controversies regarding the treatment of Endo SHyper, formed a task force to develop clinical practice guidelines based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. The task force recognized that recent meta-analyses, including those based on large prospective cohort studies, indicate that SHyper is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease mortality, incident atrial fibrillation, heart failure, fractures and excess mortality in patients with serum TSH levels <0.1 mIU/l (grade 2 SHyper). Therefore, despite the absence of randomized prospective trials, there is evidence that treatment is indicated in patients older than 65 years with grade 2 SHyper to potentially avoid these serious cardiovascular events, fractures and the risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism. Treatment could be considered in patients older than 65 years with TSH levels 0.1-0.39 mIU/l (grade 1 SHyper) because of their increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and might also be reasonable in younger (<65 years) symptomatic patients with grade 2 SHyper because of the risk of progression, especially in the presence of symptoms and/or underlying risk factors or co-morbidity. Finally, the task force concluded that there are no data to support treating SHyper in younger asymptomatic patients with grade 1 SHyper. These patients should be followed without treatment due to the low risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism and the weaker evidence for adverse health outcomes. PMID:26558232

  19. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Laurberg, Peter; Kahaly, George J

    2015-09-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective reference intervals. In 2014 the European Thyroid Association Executive Committee, given the controversies regarding the treatment of Endo SHyper, formed a task force to develop clinical practice guidelines based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. The task force recognized that recent meta-analyses, including those based on large prospective cohort studies, indicate that SHyper is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease mortality, incident atrial fibrillation, heart failure, fractures and excess mortality in patients with serum TSH levels <0.1 mIU/l (grade 2 SHyper). Therefore, despite the absence of randomized prospective trials, there is evidence that treatment is indicated in patients older than 65 years with grade 2 SHyper to potentially avoid these serious cardiovascular events, fractures and the risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism. Treatment could be considered in patients older than 65 years with TSH levels 0.1-0.39 mIU/l (grade 1 SHyper) because of their increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and might also be reasonable in younger (<65 years) symptomatic patients with grade 2 SHyper because of the risk of progression, especially in the presence of symptoms and/or underlying risk factors or co-morbidity. Finally, the task force concluded that there are no data to support treating SHyper in younger asymptomatic patients with grade 1 SHyper. These patients should be followed without treatment due to the low risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism and the weaker evidence for adverse health outcomes. PMID:26558232

  20. First Results From The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Lehner, M J; Coehlo, N K; Wang, J; Mondal, S; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Chen, W P; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, I; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2008-08-22

    Results from the first two years of data from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) are presented. Stars have been monitored photometrically at 4 Hz or 5 Hz to search for occultations by small ({approx}3 km) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). No statistically significant events were found, allowing us to present an upper bound to the size distribution of KBOs with diameters 0.5 km < D < 28 km.

  1. [The first western style doctor in modern China - Guan Tao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    2000-04-01

    Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever. PMID:11624648

  2. Ocular Changes and Approaches of Ophthalmopathy in Basedow – Graves- Parry- Flajani Disease

    PubMed Central

    SARACI, George; TRETA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Basedow-Graves disease is an autoimmune condition with multiple local and systemic aspects. Among these, oculopathy has a major impact on patient's life from both functional and esthetic point of view. Basedow-Graves oculopathy requires an appropriate positive and differential diagnosis using clinical and imagistic approaches. Treatment is always required in moderate or severe forms and it begins with simple general points and continues with medical and surgical therapies. Current article stresses upon the most characteristic clinical signs of thyroidian ophthalmopathy and the required current therapeutic approaches. PMID:22205899

  3. Doppler imaging of orbital vessels in the assessment of the activity and severity of thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pauk-Domańska, Magdalena; Sanocka, Urszula; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Patients with symptoms of thyroid-associated orbitopathy are classified on the basis of the clinical activity score (CAS) proposed by Mourits in 1989. Despite its undoubted clinical usefulness, it has several limitations which can decide about the success or failure of the implemented treatment. Numerous reports mention the presence of hemodynamic changes in orbital and bulbar vessels in the course of an orbitopathy called Graves’ disease. The usage of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of numerous ophthalmologic vascular diseases suggests that changes in thyroid-associated orbitopathy can correlate with the activity and severity of the disease. This paper presents the overview of the state-of-the-art concerning the usefulness of Doppler imaging in patient selection for the treatment of thyroid-associated orbitopathy. It has been shown that the velocity of blood flow in the superior ophthalmic vein, which is the most susceptible to changes in anatomical conditions in the enclosed orbital space, decreases in a statistically significant way. A decrease in blood flow velocity is closely associated with the active stage of the disease whereas reverse flow or its absence attest to severe orbitopathy and constitute a risk factor of ocular neuropathy. The activity of the inflammatory process in the eyeball is also confirmed by an increase in peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery as well as end-diastolic velocity (EDV) in the ophthalmic artery. Resistance index values decrease in the ophthalmic artery and increase in the central retinal artery mainly in cases with considerable expansion of the extraocular muscles. PMID:26807296

  4. Protracted Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Graves' Ophthalmopathy: A Pilot Study of Clinical and Radiologic Response

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro de Deus Cardoso, Cejana; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Borri Wolosker, Angela Maria; Souhami, Luis; Gois Manso, Paulo; Souza Dias, Rodrigo; Comodo Segreto, Helena Regina; Araujo Segreto, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic response of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy given low-dose orbital radiotherapy (RT) with a protracted fractionation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients (36 orbits) received orbital RT with a total dose of 10 Gy, fractionated in 1 Gy once a week over 10 weeks. Of these, 9 patients received steroid therapy as well. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at 6 months after treatment. Clinical response assessment was carried out using three criteria: by physical examination, by a modified clinical activity score, and by a verbal questionnaire considering the 10 most common signs and symptoms of the disease. Radiologic response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Improvement in ocular pain, palpebral edema, visual acuity, and ocular motility was observed in all patients. Significant decrease in symptoms such as tearing (p < 0.001) diplopia (p = 0.008), conjunctival hyperemia (p = 0.002), and ocular grittiness (p = 0.031) also occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decrease in ocular muscle thickness and in the intensity of the T2 sequence signal in the majority of patients. Treatments were well tolerated, and to date no complications from treatment have been observed. There was no statistical difference in clinical and radiologic response between patients receiving RT alone and those receiving RT plus steroid therapy. Conclusion: RT delivered in at a low dose and in a protracted scheme should be considered as a useful therapeutic option for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  5. Audiomagnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic framework of the Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, audiomagnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field. No interpretation of the data is included.

  6. Web-based tools for the analysis of TAOS data and much more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, D.; Sprimont, P.-G.; Ayala, C.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Michel, R.; Navarro, S.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Nicastro, L.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2014-12-01

    We suggest a new web-based approach for browsing and visualizing data produced by a network of telescopes, such as those of the ongoing TAOS and the forthcoming TAOS II projects. We propose a modern client-side technology and we present two examples based on two software packages developed for different kinds of server-side database approaches. In spite our examples are specific for the browsing of TAOS light curves, the software is coded in a way to be suitable for the use in several types of astronomical projects.

  7. 99Tc-MDP treatment for the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, choroidal neovascularisation and Graves' ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    WU, QIAN; NI, YANG; YANG, QINGRUI; SUN, HONGSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Technetium 99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate, which is an anti-inflammatory drug, can inhibit macrophage infiltration and downregulate a number of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Recently, numerous studies have indicated that it could improve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity by upregulating the frequency of peripheral γδ T cells and cluster of differentiation CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, affecting the serum cytokine environment, inhibiting osteoclast formation and reducing the concentrations of rheumatoid factor-immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG/IgA. As well, it may have a therapeutic role for choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Therefore, it will be a valuable choice in the treatment of RA, CNV and GO. PMID:27073620

  8. Prostaglandin E2 elicits a morphological change in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J; Wang, H S; Hogg, M G; Henrikson, R C; Keese, C R; Giaever, I

    1994-01-01

    Fibroblasts derived from distinct anatomical regions appear to differ in regard to their behavior in culture. These differences may reflect functions of these cells in vivo that are tissue specific. Moreover, intrinsic differences in fibroblasts may underlie the site-specific connective tissue manifestations associated with systemic disease. We have demonstrated previously that orbital fibroblasts exhibit different cytokine response domains and protein synthetic programs when compared to those emanating from the skin. In the present communication, we demonstrate that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) elicits in cultured human orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves ophthalmopathy a rapid and dramatic change in cell morphology in vitro as assessed by phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy. The central areas of the cells become elevated with respect to the plane of the substratum and are stellate, with long processes that touch neighboring cells. These changes occur within 6 hr of prostanoid addition to culture medium at an apparent concentration threshold of approximately 10 nM. Shape changes are accompanied by marked alterations in monolayer impedance as assessed by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing as described previously. Both morphologic and impedance changes elicited by PGE2 revert over 24 hr toward those found in untreated cells despite the continued presence of the prostanoid in the culture medium. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts fail to respond to PGE2. These observations define a previously unrecognized phenotypic attribute of orbital fibroblasts. Intrinsic differences in these cells may account for the anatomic site-selective vulnerability of the orbit in Graves ophthalmopathy. The culture system described here may be useful for studying the morphogenic actions of prostanoids. Images PMID:8197191

  9. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    TAOS II is a next generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small objects (diameters between 0.5 and 30 km) in the Kuiper Belt. The project is a collaboration between the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The survey will operate three 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom camera comprising a focal plane array of CMOS imagers. Each camera will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. All telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation events while minimizing the false positive rate. This poster describes the project and reports on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.

  10. Drosophila gene tao-1 encodes proteins with and without a Ste20 kinase domain that affect cytoskeletal architecture and cell migration differently

    PubMed Central

    Pflanz, Ralf; Voigt, Aaron; Yakulov, Toma; Jäckle, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Tao-1, the single representative of the Sterile 20 kinase subfamily in Drosophila, is best known for destabilizing microtubules at the actin-rich cortex, regulating the cytoskeletal architecture of cells. More recently, Tao-1 was shown to act in the Salvador–Warts–Hippo pathway by phosphorylating Hippo, regulating cell growth as well as cell polarity. Here, we show that tao-1 encodes two proteins, one with the Sterile 20 kinase domain (Tao-L) and one without it (Tao-S), and that they act in an antagonistic manner. Tao-L expression causes lamellipodia-like cell protrusions, whereas Tao-S expression results in filopodia-like structures that make cells stick to the surface they attach to. Ectopic Tao-1 expression in the anterior region of Drosophila embryos results in pole cell formation as normally observed at the posterior end. Tao-S expression causes primordial germ cells (PGCs) to adhere to the inner wall of the gut primordia and prevents proper transepithelial migration to the gonads. Conversely, RNAi knockdowns of Tao-1 cause disordered migration of PGCs out of the gut epithelium, their dispersal within the embryo and cell death. The results reveal a novel function of Tao-1 in cell migration, which is based on antagonistic activities of two proteins encoded by a single gene. PMID:25589578

  11. Comprehensive analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms defines the association of IL-12 gene with ophthalmopthy in Korean children with autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jung-Pil; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Baek, In-Cheol; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Shin, Dong-Hwan; Suh, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    In early onset autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) showing a strong genetic tendency, cytokines have been suggested to play a critical role in the development of AITD. To directly compare the influences of several cytokine gene polymorphisms, 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 cytokine genes were analyzed on 104 Korean children with AITD [Hashimoto's disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60 (thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, non-TAO = 31)] and 192 controls. Compared with healthy controls, any significant association with polymorphisms of cytokine genes was not found in HD and GD. Among GD patients, non-TAO group only showed significant associations with IL-12 C allele (rs3212227: A > C) (76.6% vs. 51.6%, OR = 0.3 [0.15-0.71], Pc = 0.007). Particularly, the frequency of IL-12C allele was significantly lower in the non-TAO group than in the TAO group (82.8% vs. 51.6%, Pc = 0.018). Our comprehensive analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms suggests that IL-12 gene may play impact on specific pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy in Korean children with AITD. PMID:26850223

  12. [Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Eckstein, A; Dekowski, D; Führer-Sakel, D; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U; Esser, J

    2016-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease and the full clinical picture can impair the quality of life of the patients considerably. Active inflammation can often be effectively treated by intravenous steroids/immunosuppression, however does not lead to full remission, since inflammation rather quickly results in irreversible fibrosis and increase of orbital fat. Very important is the control of risk factors (smoking cessation, good control of thyroid function, selenium supplementation) to prevent progression to severe stages. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of activity and severity of GO. Rehabilitative surgery (orbital decompression, squint surgery, eyelid surgery) is needed in many patients to restore function and appearance. Anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies do specifically occur in these patients and correlate to the course of thyroid and eye disease. The levels of these antibodies can be used for treatment decisions at certain time points of the disease. PMID:27059986

  13. Post-radioiodine De Novo Onset Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ruchika; Krishnasamy, Senthil Kumar; Buch, Harit; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2015-05-01

    New-onset Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) following radioiodine treatment (RAI) and worsening of existing GO are well-described in the endocrinology literature. These phenomena are recognized by ophthalmologists, yet poorly documented in the ophthalmology literature. Two male patients, aged 43 and 62 years, respectively, with Graves' disease without GO, received RAI. Four months later, one patient developed acute GO with unilateral reduction in visual acuity, conjunctival chemosis, lagophthalmos, bilateral severely restricted ocular motility, and lid retraction. High-dose intravenous steroids, followed by oral steroids, led to a dramatic clinical improvement. The second patient received a second dose of RAI for persistent hyperthyroidism and subsequently developed acute GO-comprising restricted ocular motility, peri-orbital swelling, and conjunctival chemosis. Symptoms gradually resolved on continued carbimazole treatment. Neither patient received pre-RAI prophylactic glucocorticoids, as currently they are only recommended for patients with pre-existing GO or multiple risk factors. We discuss the limitations of using this risk-based approach in preventing new-onset GO following RAI therapy. PMID:24409943

  14. Drosophila Schip1 Links Expanded and Tao-1 to Regulate Hippo Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyung-Lok; Augustine, George J; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Regulation of organ size is essential in animal development, and Hippo (Hpo) signaling is a major conserved mechanism for controlling organ growth. In Drosophila, Hpo and Warts kinases are core components of this pathway and function as tumor suppressors by inhibiting Yorkie (Yki). Expanded (Ex) is a regulator of the Hpo activity, but how they are linked is unknown. Here, we show that Schip1, a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Schwannomin interacting protein 1 (SCHIP1), provides a link between Ex and Hpo. Ex is required for apical localization of Schip1 in imaginal discs. Schip1 is necessary for promoting membrane localization and phosphorylation of Hpo by recruiting the Hpo kinase Tao-1. Taking these findings together, we conclude that Schip1 directly links Ex to Hpo signaling by recruiting Tao-1. This study provides insights into the mechanism of Tao-1 regulation and a potential growth control function for SCHIP1 in mammals. PMID:26954546

  15. Genetic associations of FCRL3 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of Graves ophthalmopathy in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shanshan; Cai, Ting; Chen, Feng; He, Xuefei; Cui, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a form of autoimmune thyroid disease commonly found in approximately 25-50% patients with Graves’ disease. Both the thyroid-specific genes and immune-modulating genes are involved in susceptibility to GO. However, even though FCRL3 polymorphisms were also autoimmune-associated genes, no study has been performed regarding the association of FCRL3 with GO. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to conduct a basic case-control study in a Chinese population. Methods and materials: Seven SNPs were selected in this case-control study and 577 GD patients and 608 controls were recruited. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to assess the association between susceptibility of GO and FCRL3 polymorphisms with Stata software (Version 11.0, Stata Corp LP, USA). Results: The case-control analysis showed that three polymorphisms, FCRL3_3C, FCRL3_5C, FCRL3_6A, were significantly associated with raised risk of GO in a Chinese Han population in the allelic model [OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51, P = 0.003; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07-1.48, P = 0.005; OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.47, P = 0.007]. Conclusions: This case-control analysis confirmed that the FCRL3_3, FCRL3_5 and FCRL3_6 polymorphisms were associated with significantly increased risk of GO in a Chinese population. PMID:26629249

  16. Current perspectives on the role of orbital fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Dik, Willem A; Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an extra-thyroidal complication of Graves' disease (GD; Graves' hyperthyroidism) characterized by orbital tissue inflammation, expansion, remodeling and fibrosis. Although the initiating trigger of GO is still indistinct, excessive orbital fibroblast activity is at the heart of its pathogenesis. Orbital fibroblasts are activated by cellular interactions with immune cells and the soluble factors they secrete. Orbital fibroblasts, especially from GO patients, express the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-receptor; TSHR), and activation of the orbital fibroblast population by stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the TSHR may provide an important link between GD and GO. Furthermore, stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor have been proposed to contribute to orbital fibroblast activation in GO. Activated orbital fibroblasts produce inflammatory mediators thereby contributing to the orbital inflammatory process in GO. Moreover, orbital fibroblasts exhibit robust proliferative activity and extracellular matrix (especially hyaluronan) synthesizing capacity and can differentiate into adipocytes and myofibroblasts with disease progression, thereby contributing to tissue expansion/remodeling and fibrosis in GO. Orbital fibroblasts, especially those from GO patients, exhibit a hyper-responsive phenotype when compared to fibroblasts from other anatomical regions, which may further contribute to GO pathogenesis. Fibrocytes have been identified as additional source of orbital fibroblasts in GO, where they may contribute to orbital tissue inflammation, adipogenesis and remodeling/fibrosis. This review addresses our current view on the role that orbital fibroblasts fulfill in GO pathogenesis and both established as well as less established not fully crystallized concepts that need future studies will be discussed. PMID:26675405

  17. Relationship between disease duration and predominant orbital T cell subset in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Aniszewski, J P; Valyasevi, R W; Bahn, R S

    2000-02-01

    We sought to determine whether the predominant orbital T helper (T(H)) cell subset in orbital T cell clones established from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might be related to disease duration. A total of 117 clones were established from orbital adipose/connective tissues of 6 GO patients, and cytokine production was measured in 57 CD3+CD4+ clones. T(H)1-type clones were predominant in cultures from patients with recent onset (<2 yr) Graves' hyperthyroidism (n = 44; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 57/29/14%) or GO (n = 53 clones; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 47/30/23%). In contrast, TH2-type clones predominated in cultures from patients with more remote onset (>2 yr) hyperthyroidism (n = 13; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 0/31/69%; P < 0.005) or GO (n = 4; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 0/25/75%; P = 0.05). In addition, we established T cell clones from 1 TH1-dominant patient with recent-onset thyroid and eye disease using either IL-2 (12.5 ng/mL) alone or IL-2 plus IL-4 (5 ng/mL) and found no shift toward recovery of TH2-type clones in the latter. In conclusion, although the CD3+CD4+ clones characterized were not necessarily tissue antigen specific, our findings suggest that cell-mediated (TH1-type) immune reactions may predominate in the orbit in early GO, whereas humoral immunity (TH2-type) might play the greater role in later stages of the disease. PMID:10690890

  18. Alteration of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is a disfiguring and sometimes blinding disease, which is characterized by inflammation and swelling of orbital tissues, with fibrosis and adipogenesis being predominant features. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression levels of fibrosis-related genes, especially that of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), are altered in orbital fibroblasts of patients with GO. The role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CTGF expression in GO orbital fibroblasts is also examined. By a SYBR Green-based real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR), we demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO were significantly higher than those of age-matched normal controls (p = 0.007, 0.037, and 0.002, respectively). In addition, the protein expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF analyzed by Western blot were also significantly higher in GO orbital fibroblasts (p = 0.046, 0.032, and 0.008, respectively) as compared with the control. Furthermore, after treatment of orbital fibroblasts with a sub-lethal dose of hydrogen peroxide (200 μM H2O2), we found that the H2O2-induced increase of CTGF expression was more pronounced in the GO orbital fibroblasts as compared with those in normal controls (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.007). Importantly, pre-incubation with antioxidants including N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin C, respectively, resulted in significant attenuation of the induction of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts in response to H2O2 (p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the alteration of the expression of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts that may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of GO. Antioxidants may be used in combination with the therapeutic agents for effective treatment of GO. PMID:26599235

  19. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and education. learn more Publications Thyroid, Clinical Thyroidology and VideoEndocrinology. ... learn more DEDICATED TO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, CLINICAL EXPERIENCE, EDUCATION AND COLLABORATION May 25, 2016 0 World Thyroid ...

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes for antibodies generated by orbital tissue-infiltrating B-cells in Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaume, J.C.; Portolano, S.; Prummel, M.F.; McLachlan, S.M.; Rapoport, B.

    1994-02-01

    Graves` ophthalmopathy is a distressing autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Analysis of the genes for antibodies secreted by orbital tissue-infiltrating plasma cells might provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. The authors, therefore, constructed an immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and an immunoglobulin k light (L) chain cDNA library from the orbital tissue of a patient with active Graves` ophthalmopathy. Analysis of 15 H (IgG1) and 15 L (k) chains revealed a restricted spectrum of variable region genes. Fourteen of 15 variable k genes were about 94% homologous to the closest known germline gene, KL012. Thirteen of 15 H chain genes were 91% and 90% homologous to the closest germline genes, DP10 and hv1263, respectively. Remarkably, these germline genes also code for other autoantibodies to striated muscle (KL012) and thyroid peridase (KL012 and hv1263). These studies raise the possibility that particular germline genes may be associated with autoimmunity in humans. Further, the present study opens the way to identifying ocular autoantigens that may be the target of an humoral immune response. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 75 FR 66345 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Taos, NM. Decommissioning of the Ski non-directional...

  2. The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

    2010-01-28

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

  3. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

  4. Structural Characterization of New Layered Perovskites MLa 2Ti 2TaO 10 ( M=Cs, Rb) and NaLa 2Ti 2TaO 10 xH 2O ( x=2, 0.9, 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Young-Sik; Han, Chi-Hwan; Kim, Keon

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structures of n=3 Dion-Jacobson phases MLa2Ti2TaO10 (M=Cs, Rb) and NaLa2Ti2TaO10 xH2O (x=2, 0.9, 0) have been investigated by the Rietveld analysis of their powder XRD patterns. These compounds show the new-type ordering sequence of (Ti1/2Ta1/2)O6-TiO6-(Ti1/2Ta1/2)O6 in the tripled octahedra, corresponding to the niobium analogs of MLa2Ti2NbO10. They crystallize in the tetragonal system P4/mmm with lattice constants of a=3.84733(9) and c=15.4364(4) for CsLa2Ti2TaO10, and a=3.8342(2) and c=15.2776(9) for RbLa2Ti2TaO10. Sodium-exchanged phase was easily hydrated to NaLa2Ti2TaO10 2H2O, belonging to the space group I4/mmm with a=3.8399(3) and c=34.288(3) . Upon firing, NaLa2Ti2TaO102H2O was dehydrated to NaLa2Ti2TaO100.9H2O with P4/mmm at around 100C and then NaLa2Ti2TaO10 with I4/mmm at above 200C. The Na cations in two hydrates were surrounded with six oxygens, forming face-shared octahedra along (110) direction. These structural models, especially for the coordination environment of Na cations, were proposed for the first time.

  5. The incidence of ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for Graves` disease: Prognostic factors and the role of methimazole

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, A.W.C.; Cheng, A.

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of development or exacerbation of Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO). This is thought to be associated with a surge of autoantibodies after RAI therapy. The role of methimazole (MMI), which possesses immunomodulatory action, in the prevention of GO was explored by studying 114 patients with Graves` disease. They were assigned randomly to receive either RAI alone or adjunctive antithyroid drugs, which consisted of MMI and L-T{sub 4} as a block-replacement therapy for 12 months and were followed for 2 yr. Thirty-five patients (30.7%) had GO at presentation. Twenty-one (18%) patients developed new GO, and six had worsening of preexisting GO. The development of hypothyroidism (P < 0.01) and an elevation of TSH (P < 0.05) were associated with increased risk of development or exacerbation of GO. The chance of development or exacerbation of GO is higher in those with no ophthalmopathy than in those with preexisting GO at presentation (P = 0.002). The incidence of development or exacerbation of GO was similar in the two treatment groups (RAI, 22.8%; adjunctive antithyroid drugs, 23.7%; P = NS). MMI was able to suppress the surge of TSH receptor antibody (TRAB) after RAI, but a surge in TRAB was not of prognostic significance for the development of GO after RAI. Patients who developed or had exacerbation of GO actually had lower TRAB at presentation (P = 0.02). The authors conclude that hypothyroidism with elevated TSH is an important adverse factor for the development or exacerbation of GO, and MMI was unable to prevent the development or exacerbation of GO after RAI. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. JNK Pathway Activation Is Controlled by Tao/TAOK3 to Modulate Ethanol Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Mimi E.; Lim, Jana P.; Heberlein, Ulrike; Wolf, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal signal transduction by the JNK MAP kinase pathway is altered by a broad array of stimuli including exposure to the widely abused drug ethanol, but the behavioral relevance and the regulation of JNK signaling is unclear. Here we demonstrate that JNK signaling functions downstream of the Sterile20 kinase family gene tao/Taok3 to regulate the behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure in both the fruit fly Drosophila and mice. In flies tao is required in neurons to promote sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of acute ethanol exposure and to establish specific brain structures. Reduced expression of key JNK pathway genes substantially rescued the structural and behavioral phenotypes of tao mutants. Decreasing and increasing JNK pathway activity resulted in increased and decreased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant properties of acute ethanol exposure, respectively. Further, JNK expression in a limited pattern of neurons that included brain regions implicated in ethanol responses was sufficient to restore normal behavior. Mice heterozygous for a disrupted allele of the homologous Taok3 gene (Taok3Gt) were resistant to the acute sedative effects of ethanol. JNK activity was constitutively increased in brains of Taok3Gt/+ mice, and acute induction of phospho-JNK in brain tissue by ethanol was occluded in Taok3Gt/+ mice. Finally, acute administration of a JNK inhibitor conferred resistance to the sedative effects of ethanol in wild-type but not Taok3Gt/+ mice. Taken together, these data support a role of a TAO/TAOK3-JNK neuronal signaling pathway in regulating sensitivity to acute ethanol exposure in flies and in mice. PMID:23227189

  7. Curanderismo in Taos County, New Mexico—A Possible Case of Anthropological Romanticism?

    PubMed Central

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Stewart, David

    1983-01-01

    Interviews with 25 Spanish-Americans of Taos County, New Mexico, indicate that time and acculturation have greatly eroded the belief in and practice of curanderismo, the traditional folk medical system of the Southwest. Curanderismo in northern New Mexico today has moved from being a primary and important source of medical care to one used alternatively and very occasionally in cases of pediatric disorders, chronic illnesses and pain, and for those maladies still classified according to the traditional folk beliefs. PMID:6666104

  8. Curanderismo in Taos County, New Mexico--a possible case of anthropological romanticism?

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, N; Stewart, D

    1983-12-01

    Interviews with 25 Spanish-Americans of Taos County, New Mexico, indicate that time and acculturation have greatly eroded the belief in and practice of curanderismo, the traditional folk medical system of the Southwest. Curanderismo in northern New Mexico today has moved from being a primary and important source of medical care to one used alternatively and very occasionally in cases of pediatric disorders, chronic illnesses and pain, and for those maladies still classified according to the traditional folk beliefs. PMID:6666104

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 ({+-}0.016), 0.072 ({+-}0.051), 0.012 ({+-}0.027), and 0.110 ({+-}0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  10. Case 3. "Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China": Opinion by the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the decision of the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province on the Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China case. Jiang Tao, the plaintiff, claimed that the defendant Chengdu Branch placed an announcement in the "Chengdu Business Daily" to "recruit tellers for Chengdu Branch" on…

  11. [Analysis on professor WANG Juyi's crevice theory from Tao Teh King].

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Wang, Juyi

    2015-10-01

    The crevice theory proposed by professor WANG Juyi is analyzed in this article. In the crevice theory, it is believed that the meridians are located among "skin, pulse, flesh, tendon and bone", and the crevice is the path for the transportation of qi-blood and body fluid in the body, which is the essential condition for vital movement. This is in agreement with the idea of "action through inaction" from Tao Teh King. Based on crevice theory, the abnormalities of meridians can reflex the deficiency and excess of diseases, and regulating meridians is a significant way to treat diseases, and maintaining smooth meridian is important for healthcare. PMID:26790228

  12. Electrode-material dependent switching in TaO x memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ning; Zhang, M.-X.; Zhang, Lu; Yang, J. Joshua; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the effect of top electrode materials on the switching behavior of TaO x based memristors with an identical switching oxide layer and bottom electrode stack. We found that the virgin resistance, electroforming and switching performance depend heavily on the chemical property of the top electrode materials. In addition, the electrical properties of metal oxides formed with the top electrodes also contribute to the overall memristor performance, including the nonlinearity of the current-voltage relationship. These results provide insights into understanding of memristor behavior as well as approaches for device property engineering.

  13. TAOS: Taiwan-American Occultation Survey of Comet-Sized Objects in the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Several dozen minor planets with radii greater than 100 km have been detected beyond Neptune using large telescopes. The TAOS project is to measure directly the number of these KBOs (Kuiper Belt Objects) down to the typical size of cometary nuclei (a few km) and out as far as approximately 100 AU from the Sun. Because of their large distance, small sizes and presumed low albedos, these target objects are extremely faint. Three 50 cm wide field robotic telescopes with 2048 x 2048 CCD cameras will be deployed along a 7 km east-west baseline in or near Jade Mountain National Park in Taiwan. They will monitor approximately 3000 stars for occultations by KBOs in a coincidence mode, so that the sequence and timing of the three separate blinkings can be used to distinguish real events from false alarms. Follow-up imaging observations using large telescopes will yield albedos and orbits for some of the larger objects detected by TAOS. A fourth telescope on a north-south spur to refine the size information on occulting GABON is also being contemplated.

  14. Paleomagnetism and tectonic interpretations of the Taos Plateau volcanic field, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigate using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chron. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counter-clockwise rotating Espanola block.

  15. [An introduction of surgical update in 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Lan, X B; Zhang, H

    2016-03-01

    Both of the incidences of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer have increased in recent years, which have attracted extensive attention. Surgical treatment plays an important role on the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Usually patients will have an excellent prognosis after standard surgery, in the meantime, they will suffer from wrongly performed operation, which induces bad outcomes for the patients and their families both physically and psychologically, as well as economic burden. There are many guidelines concerning the suitable treatment for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer all over the world, and the most famous one is American Thyroid Association (ATA) Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and DTC in 1996 and the revised version in 2009. Over the past several years, there have been many advances in both the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules and DTC. As a result, the ATA had updated the guidelines in 2015. In this article, we introduced the surgical update in 2015 ATA management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and DTC compared to the 2009 version, which consists of appropriate operation for thyroid nodules and DTC, operation for pregnant women with DTC, lymph node dissection, completion thyroidectomy, appropriate perioperative approach to voice and parathyroid, and surgery for advanced cancer. PMID:26932883

  16. 2013 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Cervical Ultrasound Scan and Ultrasound-Guided Techniques in the Postoperative Management of Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leenhardt, L.; Erdogan, M.F.; Hegedus, L.; Mandel, S.J.; Paschke, R.; Rago, T.; Russ, G.

    2013-01-01

    Cervical ultrasound scanning (US) is considered a key examination, by all major thyroid and endocrine specialist societies for the postoperative follow-up of thyroid cancer patients to assess the risk of recurrence. Neck US imaging is readily available, non-invasive, relatively easy to perform, cost-effective, and can guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with low complication rates. Its main shortcoming is its operator-dependency. Because of the pivotal role of US in the care of thyroid cancer patients, the European Thyroid Association convened a panel of international experts to review technical aspects, indications, results, and limitations of cervical US in the initial staging and follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. The main aim is to establish guidelines for both a cervical US scanning protocol and US-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with thyroid cancer. This report presents (1) standardization of the US scanning procedure, techniques of US-guided fine-needle aspiration, and reporting of findings; (2) definition of criteria for classification of malignancy risk based on cervical US imaging characteristics of neck masses and lymph nodes; (3) indications for US-guided fine-needle aspiration and for biological in situ assessments; (4) proposal of an algorithm for the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients based on risk stratification following histopathological and cervical US findings, and (5) discussion of the potential use of US-guided localization and ablation techniques for locoregional thyroid metastases. PMID:24847448

  17. 77 FR 31036 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Taos Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... use authorizations, mineral resources, recreation, renewable energy, special designations... (ROD)/Approved Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Taos Field Office located in northern New Mexico. The New Mexico State Director signed the ROD on May 24, 2012, which constitutes the final decision...

  18. Bridging East and West--Or, a Bridge Too Far? Paulo Freire and the "Tao Te Ching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers key differences and similarities between Freirean and Taoist ideals. I limit my focus to the "Tao Te Ching" (attributed to Lao Tzu), paying brief attention to the origins of this classic work of Chinese philosophy before concentrating on several themes of relevance to Freire's work. An essay by James Fraser (1997), who makes…

  19. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: A Key Factor in the Pathogenesis of Graves' Ophthalmopathy and Potential Target for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert; Dalm, Virgil A.S.H.; Paridaens, Dion; van Hagen, P. Martin; Dik, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of orbital fibroblasts resulting in excessive proliferation, cytokine and hyaluronan production and differentiation into adipocytes, is a main determinant of orbital tissue inflammation and tissue expansion in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). During the last years we have shown that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB are increased in orbital tissue from GO patients with active and inactive disease. These PDGF isoforms exhibit the capacity to stimulate proliferation, hyaluronan and cytokine/chemokine production by orbital fibroblasts. Moreover, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB increase thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression by orbital fibroblasts, which enhances the orbital fibroblast activating capacity of the THSR stimulatory autoantibodies present in Graves' disease (GD) patients. Of these PDGF isoforms PDGF-BB exhibits the strongest orbital fibroblast activating effects, which is likely related to its ability to bind both the PDGF-receptor (PDGF-R)α and PDGF-Rβ chains. Thus the PDGF-system fulfills important roles in orbital fibroblast activation in both active and inactive GO, which supports a therapeutic rationale for blocking PDGF signaling in GO. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be candidates to target PDGF signaling. Of several TKIs tested dasatinib exhibited the highest potency to block PDGF-R signaling in orbital fibroblasts and may represent a promising compound for the treatment of GO as it was effective at low dosage and is associated with less side effects compared to imatinib mesylate and nilotinib. In this review the contribution of PDGF to the pathophysiology of GO as well as therapeutic approaches to target this PDGF-system will be addressed. PMID:25759797

  20. A Small Molecule Antagonist Inhibits Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody-Induced Orbital Fibroblast Functions Involved in the Pathogenesis of Graves Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Kumar, Seema; Neumann, Susanne; Coenen, Michael; Iyer, Seethalakshmi; Chiriboga, Pamela; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by increased adipogenesis and hyaluronan (HA) production by orbital fibroblasts. Circulating autoantibodies (thyroid-stimulating antibodies [TSAbs]) directed at the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) on these cells stimulate or augment these cellular processes. A recently developed drug-like small molecule inverse agonist of TSHR, NCGC00229600, termed 1, binds to TSHR and blocks basal and stimulated signal transduction. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine whether 1 might inhibit HA production and relevant signaling pathways in orbital fibroblasts cultured in the presence of monoclonal TSAbs or bovine TSH (bTSH). Design: Primary cultures of undifferentiated GO orbital fibroblasts (n = 13) were untreated or treated with a TSAb (M22 or MS-1) or bTSH in serum-free medium, with or without 1 or a TSHR neutral antagonist, NCGC00242595, termed 2, which does not inhibit basal signaling but does inhibit stimulated signaling. Main Outcome Measures: cAMP production, Akt phosphorylation (Ser473pAkt in media and immunoblotting for pAkt/total Akt), and HA production were analyzed. Results: Compound 1 inhibited basal cAMP, pAkt, and HA production and that stimulated by M22 in undifferentiated orbital fibroblasts. Inhibition of HA production was dose-dependent, with a half-maximal inhibitory dose of 830 nM. This compound also inhibited MS-1- and bTSH-stimulated cAMP, pAkt, and HA production. Compound 2 did not inhibit basal HA production but did inhibit M22-stimulated HA production. Conclusions: Because cAMP, pAkt, and HA production are fibroblast functions that are activated via TSHR signaling and are important in the pathogenesis of GO, small molecule TSHR antagonists may prove to be effective in the treatment or prevention of the disease in the future. PMID:23482611

  1. Genetic Associations of Interleukin-related Genes with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kah Hie; Rong, Shi Song; Chong, Kelvin K. L.; Young, Alvin L.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is the commonest extra-thyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD). Associations between interleukin-related (IL) gene polymorphisms and GO have been reported in different populations. We aim to confirm such associations by conducting a meta-analysis. Totally 382 publications were retrieved in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 25/2/2015. After removing the duplicates and assessing the studies, we retrieved 16 studies that met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, involving 12 polymorphisms in 8 IL-related genes, and 1650 GO cases and 2909 GD controls. The summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. We found one polymorphism in IL1A (rs1800587, c.-889C>T) showing a suggestive association with GO in the meta-analysis (allelic model [T vs. C]: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.00–2.62, P = 0.050, I2 = 53.7%; recessive model [TT vs. TC + CC]: OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.07–5.37, P = 0.039, I2 = 23.6%; heterozygous model [TC vs. CC]: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04–2.22, P = 0.034, I2 = 37.0%). No association with GO was detected for the other 7 genes (IL1B, IL1RA, IL4, IL6, IL12B, IL13 and IL23R). Our results thus indicate that IL1A is likely to be a genetic biomarker for GO. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the associations of IL1A and other IL-related genes with GO. PMID:26578206

  2. A genomic point mutation in the extracellular domain of the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bahn, R.S.; Dutton, C.M.; Heufelder, A.E.; Sarkar, G.

    1994-02-01

    Orbital and pretibial fibroblasts are targets of autoimmune attack in Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO) and pretibial dermopathy (PTD). The fibroblast autoantigen involved in these peripheral manifestations of Graves` disease and the reason for the association of GO and PTD with hyperthyroidism are unknown. RNA encoding the full-length extracellular domain of the TSH receptor has been demonstrated in orbital and dermal fibroblasts from patients with GO and normal subjects, suggesting a possible antigenic link between fibroblasts and thyrocytes. RNA was isolated from cultured orbital, pretibial, and abdominal fibroblasts obtained from patients with severe GO (n = 22) and normal subjects (n = 5). RNA was reverse transcribed, and the resulting cDNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using primers spanning overlapping regions of the entire extracellular domain of the TSH receptor. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an A for C substitution in the first position of codon 52 in 2 of the patients, both of whom had GO, PTD, and acropachy. Genomic DNA isolated from the 2 affected patients, and not from an additional 12 normal subjects, revealed the codon 52 mutation by direct sequencing and AciI restriction enzyme digestions. In conclusion, the authors have demonstrated the presence of a genomic point mutation, leading to a threonine for proline amino acid shift in the predicted peptide, in the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor in two patients with severe GO, PTD, acropachy, and high thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels. RNA encoding this mutant product was demonstrated in the fibroblasts of these patients. They suggest that the TSH receptor may be an important fibroblast autoantigen in GO and PTD, and that this mutant form of the receptor may have unique immunogenic properties. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Comparative analysis of dosimetric parameters of three different radiation techniques for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy treated with retro-orbital irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We would like to investigate the if IMRT produced better target coverage and dose sparing to adjacent normal structures as compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and lateral opposing fields (LOF) for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy treated with retro-orbital irradiation. Methods Ten consecutive patients diagnosed with Graves’ ophthalmopathy were prospectively recruited into this study. An individual IMRT, 3DCRT and LOF plan was created for each patient. Conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and other dosimetric parameters of the targets and organs-at-risk (OAR) generated by IMRT were compared with the other two techniques. Results Mann–Whitney U test demonstrated that CI generated by IMRT was superior to that produced by 3DCRT and LOF (p=0.005 for both respectively). Similarly HI with IMRT was proven better than 3DCRT (p=0.007) and LOF (p=0.005). IMRT gave rise to better dose sparing to some OARs including globes, lenses and optic nerves as compared with 3DCRT but not with LOF. Conclusions IMRT, as compared with 3DCRT and LOF, was found to have a better target coverage, conformity and homogeneity and dose sparing to some surrounding structures, despite a slight increase but clinically negligible dose to other structures. Dosimetrically it might be a preferred treatment technique and a longer follow up is warranted to establish its role in routine clinical use. PMID:23181900

  4. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Interpretations of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to the late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigated using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chiron. Alternating field demagnetization, aided by principal component analysis, yields 55 sites with stable directions representing both normal and reversed polarities, and five sites indicating transitional fields. Mean direction of the normal and inverted reversed sites is I=49.3 deg. and D=356.7 deg. (alpha(sub 95)=3.6 deg). Angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is 16.3 deg, which is consistent with paleosecular variation model G, fit to data from the past 5 m.y. Comparison with the expected direction indicates no azimuthal rotation of the Taos Plateau volcanic field; inclination flattening for the southern part of the plateau is 8.3 deg +/- 5.3 deg. Previous paleomagnelic data indicate 10 deg- 15 deg counterclockwise rotation of die Espanola block to the south over the past 5 m.y. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counterclockwise rotating Espanola block.

  5. Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy in a West African Population

    PubMed Central

    Onimode, Yetunde A.; Ankrah, Alfred; Adedapo, Kayode S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism continues to be a pressing public health concern in West Africa. Its prevalence in Africa has been quoted as 1.2%-9.9%, with Graves’ disease as its most common cause. Radioiodine-131 (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism recently commenced in two government hospitals in Ghana and Nigeria. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with RAI for primary hyperthyroidism at the National Centre for Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (NCRNM) from 2008-2013, and in the University College Hospital (UCH) from 2006-2013. Cure was defined as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism occurring at 6 months post-RAI. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21 and Epi Info version, categorical data were evaluated with the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. 94 patients were studied, aged 20-74 years; 78 were females, and 16 were males. 38 were Ghanaian and 56 Nigerian. The presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) made cure less likely (χ2 P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.118; 95% confidence interval, 0.027-0.518). Other factors assessed proved to be insignificant. Our findings suggest that hyperthyroid patients with TAO will benefit from a higher RAI dose than their counterparts without TAO. PMID:26912975

  6. The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1994-01-01

    Among incident cases of GO in Olmsted County, Minnesota: GO affected females six times more frequently than males (86% versus 14% of cases, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 16 cases per 100,000 population per year for females and 2.9 cases per 100,000 population for males. The peak incidence rates were bimodal, occurring in the age groups 40 to 44 years and 60 to 64 years in females and 45 to 49 years and 65 to 69 years in males. Among patients with GO, approximately 90% had Graves' hyperthyroidism, 1% had primary hypothyroidism, 3% had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 5% were euthyroid. Eyelid retraction was the most common ophthalmic feature of autoimmune thyroid disease, being present either unilaterally or bilaterally in more than 90% of patients at some point in their clinical course. Exophthalmos of one or both eyes affected approximately 60% of patients, restrictive extraocular myopathy was apparent in about 40% of patients, and optic nerve dysfunction occurred in either one or both eyes in 6% of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Only 5% of patients had the complete constellation of classic findings: eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, optic nerve dysfunction, extraocular muscle involvement, and hyperthyroidism. Upper eyelid retraction, either unilateral or bilateral, was documented in approximately 75% of patients at the time of diagnosis of GO. Lid lag also was a frequent early sign, being present either unilaterally or bilaterally in 50% of patients at the initial examination. At the time of diagnosis of GO, the most frequent ocular symptom was pain or discomfort, which affected 30% of patients. Some degree of diplopia was noted by approximately 17% of patients, lacrimation or photophobia was present in about 15% to 20% of patients, and 7.5% of patients complained of blurred vision. Decreased vision attributable to optic neuropathy was present in less than 2% of eyes at the time of diagnosis of GO. Thyroid dermopathy and acropachy accompanied GO in approximately 4% and 1% of patients, respectively. Myasthenia gravis occurred in less than 1% of patients. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis was documented in less than 4% of patients. The median age at the time of diagnosis of GO was 43 years (range, 8 to 88). Among patients with hyperthyroidism, 61% developed ophthalmopathy within 1 year of the onset of thyrotoxicosis. Symptoms and signs for which statistically significant changes occurred between the initial and final examinations included lacrimation, pain or ocular discomfort, photophobia, eyelid retraction, lid lag, eyelid fullness, conjunctival injection, chemosis, and exophthalmos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7886878

  7. Malignancy Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules: Comparison between the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and the 2014 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To compare malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules with the 2014 American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines and the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. From November 2013 to July 2014, 1293 thyroid nodules in 1241 patients (mean age, 50.8 years ± 13.5) were included in this study. All nodules measured at least 10 mm. Solidity, hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity, microlobulated to irregular margin, microcalcifications or mixed calcifications, and nonparallel shape were considered suspicious features at ultrasonography (US). A TIRADS category and the US pattern as determined with ATA guidelines were assigned to each nodule. The correlation between the TIRADS category or ATA pattern and the malignancy rate was evaluated with the Spearman rank test. Results Of the 1293 thyroid nodules, 1059 (81.9%) were benign and 234 (18.1%) were malignant. Forty-four of the 1293 nodules (3.4%) did not meet the criteria for the ATA patterns and were classified as "not specified." The malignancy rates of TIRADS category 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5 nodules were 1.9% (six of 316 nodules), 4.2% (17 of 408 nodules), 12.9% (33 of 256 nodules), 49.8% (130 of 261 nodules), and 92.3% (48 of 52 nodules), respectively, with significant differences between categories (P < .001). Malignancy rates of nodules with very low, low, intermediate, and high suspicion for malignancy with the ATA guidelines and not specified patterns were 2.7% (11 of 407 nodules), 3.1% (10 of 323 nodules), 16.7% (39 of 233 nodules), 58.0% (166 of 286 nodules), and 18.2% (eight of 44 nodules), respectively, with significant differences between patterns (P < .001). There was high correlation between classification with TIRADS (r = 1.000, P < .001) and ATA guidelines (r = 0.900, P = 0.037), without statistically significant differences (P = .873). Conclusion Both TIRADS and the ATA guidelines provide effective malignancy risk stratification for thyroid nodules. Nodules that do not meet the criteria for a specific pattern with the ATA guidelines have a relatively high risk of malignancy (18.2%). (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26348102

  8. Practice Trends in Patients with Persistent Detectable Thyroglobulin and Negative Diagnostic Radioiodine Whole Body Scans: A Survey of American Thyroid Association Members

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Nancy; Bernet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of patients with thyroglobulin (Tg)-positive/scan-negative thyroid cancer remains challenging. American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommend potential use of empiric 131I therapy and various scanning modalities, but no standard for managing such cases exists. Methods: We surveyed ATA members to assess current practice in management of patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Members participated in a web-based survey of six case scenarios of Tg elevations but iodine scan negativity. Results: A total of 288 ATA members (80% male) participated. Patient age, sex, and basal and stimulated Tg varied between the cases. Respondents were asked their opinion regarding empiric 131I therapy use, including 131I dose, use and duration of low-iodine diet, thyroxine withdrawal or recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH), and utilization of additional imaging (neck ultrasound (US) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)) and reconsideration of 131I therapy. Between 16% and 51% recommended initial use of empiric 131I for the various scenarios. The majority chose a 131I dose between 75 and 150 mCi, and 73% employed a low-iodine diet for two or more weeks. Preference between thyroxine withdrawal versus rhTSH was evenly split. More than 98% obtained a neck US if empiric 131I was not given; 52–89% would proceed to PET/CT if US was negative. Only 44% used rhTSH stimulation in PET scan preparation. 131I use was more common with stimulated Tg significantly >10 ng/mL. 131I therapy was slightly more likely with PET-positive (56%) than PET-negative status (45%). Respondents were split regarding empiric 131I if basal and stimulated Tg increased ≥150% over two years. Providers in North America less commonly utilized 131I treatment than those from other areas. In the face of possible heterophilic antibody interference in the Tg assay, the majority did not recommend 131I therapy. Conclusions: Empiric 131I therapy is still utilized for patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Neck US is frequently used to further evaluate such cases as 18FDG-PET/CT, albeit the latter is used somewhat less often. Use of 131I therapy correlated with the degree of Tg elevation or development of Tg antibodies, and was recommended more commonly with PET-positive than PET-negative status in patients with lower Tg levels. 131I was less commonly used by providers within North America. PMID:25058708

  9. Understanding the resistive switching in thin-film Ta-O memristors by their d.c. switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Miao, Feng; Goldfarb, Ilan; Zhang, Max; Yang, J. Joshua; Pickett, Matthew D.; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley

    2012-02-01

    Tantalum oxide (Ta-O) memristor is a promising candidate for resistive switching memory (RRAM) technology as they have demonstrated outstanding features such as high endurance, high speed, and low power. However, the responsible mechanisms remain vague partly due to difficulties in characterizing the amorphous film structure, nanoscale active regions, coupled ionic and electronic transport, and intertwined electrochemical and thermochemical processes. Rich information about Ta-O memristors has been revealed by microscopic structural and chemical characterizations of Ta-O conduction channels combined with temperature-dependent transport measurements. As an alternative approach, we took perspectives from a statistical study of the switching behavior under d.c. excitation. We identified distinctive behaviors in device switching characteristics depending on the chemical compositions of conductance channel, and found close correlations with previous temperature-dependent transport measurements and X-ray photoemission (XPS) characterizations. We were able to gather further insight into the microscopic switching mechanisms based on these observations, revealing the granularity of the switching phenomena.

  10. Effect of host structure on the photoluminescence properties of Ln3TaO7:Eu3+ red phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linda Francis, T.; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Mahesh, S. K.; Sreena, T. S.; Parvathi Babu, S.

    2016-02-01

    Eu3+ doped Ln3TaO7 (Ln = La, Gd, Y, Lu) red phosphors were prepared using a solid state route. The Ln3+ substitution induces variation of crystalline structure from a defect fluorite to weberite types with increased ordering of the cations from Lu to La. These phosphors show strong absorptions at near UV wavelength and emit orange-red luminescence. The increased trend in luminescence lifetime further surmises uniform distribution of Eu3+ ions from Lu to La. The luminescence intensity and quantum efficiency are closely related to the degree of ordering of the cations in the lattice. The Eu3+ luminescence in La3TaO7 embodies the structural variation through intense multiband 5D0 → 7F0,1,2,4 transitions to only dominant hypersensitive electric dipole 5D0 → 7F2 transition. All the Eu3+ emission transitions (5D0 → 7F0,1,2,4) are more intense in La3TaO7 host due to increased polarizability and covalent nature of Eu3+ bonding environment with the surrounding.

  11. Realization of a reversible switching in TaO2 polymorphs via Peierls distortion for resistance random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linggang; Zhou, Jian; Guo, Zhonglu; Sun, Zhimei

    2015-03-01

    Transition-metal-oxide based resistance random access memory (RRAM) is a promising candidate for next-generation universal non-volatile memories. Searching and designing appropriate materials used in the memories becomes an urgent task. Here, a structure with the TaO2 formula was predicted using evolutionary algorithms in combination with first-principles calculations. This triclinic structure (T-TaO2) is both energetically and dynamically more favorable than the commonly believed rutile structure (R-TaO2). The metal-insulator transition (MIT) between metallic R-TaO2 and T-TaO2 (band gap: 1.0 eV) is via a Peierls distortion, which makes TaO2 a potential candidate for RRAM. The energy barrier for the reversible phase transition is 0.19 eV/atom and 0.23 eV/atom, respectively, suggesting low power consumption for the resistance switch. The present findings about the MIT as the resistance-switch mechanism in Ta-O system will stimulate experimental work to fabricate tantalum oxides based RRAM.

  12. Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: a tale of two antigens implicated in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Shanli; Naik, Vibha; Hoa, Neil; Hwang, Catherine J; Afifiyan, Nikoo F; Sinha Hikim, Amiya; Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Douglas, Raymond S; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a central role in regulating thyroid function and is targeted by IgGs in Graves' disease (GD-IgG). Whether TSHR is involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the orbital manifestation of GD, remains uncertain. TSHR signaling overlaps with that of insulin-like grow factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). GD-IgG can activate fibroblasts derived from donors with GD to synthesize T cell chemoattractants and hyaluronan, actions mediated through IGF-1R. In this study, we compare levels of IGF-1R and TSHR on the surfaces of TAO and control orbital fibroblasts and thyrocytes and explore the physical and functional relationship between the two receptors. TSHR levels are 11-fold higher on thyrocytes than on TAO or control fibroblasts. In contrast, IGF-1R levels are 3-fold higher on TAO vs control fibroblasts. In pull-down studies using fibroblasts, thyrocytes, and thyroid tissue, Abs directed specifically against either IGF-1Rbeta or TSHR bring both proteins out of solution. Moreover, IGF-1Rbeta and TSHR colocalize to the perinuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in fibroblasts and thyrocytes by confocal microscopy. Examination of orbital tissue from patients with TAO reveals similar colocalization to cell membranes. Treatment of primary thyrocytes with recombinant human TSH results in rapid ERK phosphorylation which can be blocked by an IGF-1R-blocking mAb. Our findings suggest that IGF-1R might mediate some TSH-provoked signaling. Furthermore, they indicate that TSHR levels on orbital fibroblasts are considerably lower than those on thyrocytes and that this receptor associates with IGF-1R in situ and together may comprise a functional complex in thyroid and orbital tissue. PMID:18768899

  13. ANIR: Atacama near-infrared camera for the 1.0 m miniTAO telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Tateuchi, Ken; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kato, Natsuko; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Toshikawa, Koji; Ohsawa, Ryou; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Asano, Kentaro; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakashima, Asami; Takagi, Toshinobu; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kato, Daisuke; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Soyano, Takao; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a near-infrared camera called ANIR (Atacama Near-InfraRed camera) for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO) installed at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor (5640 m above sea level) in the north of Chile. The camera provides a field of view of 5{^'.}1 × 5{^'.}1 with a spatial resolution of 0{^''.}298 pixel-1 in the wavelength range of 0.95 to 2.4 μm, using Offner relay optics and a PACE HAWAII-2 focal plane array. Taking advantage of the dry site, the camera is capable of narrow-band imaging observations at the hydrogen Paschen-α (Paα, λ = 1.8751 μm in air) wavelength ground-based observations of which have been quite difficult due to deep atmospheric absorption, mainly from water vapor. We have been successfully obtaining Paα images of Galactic objects and nearby galaxies since the first-light observation in 2009 with ANIR. The throughputs at the narrow-band filters (N1875, N191) including the atmospheric absorption show larger dispersion (˜ 10%) than those at broad-band filters (a few percent), indicating that they are affected by temporal fluctuations in precipitable water vapor (PWV) above the site. We evaluate the PWV content via the atmospheric transmittance at the narrow-band filters, and deduce that the median and the dispersion of the distribution of the PWV are 0.40 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.21 mm, for the N1875 and N191 data respectively, which are remarkably smaller (49% ± 38% for N1875 and 59% ± 26% for N191) than radiometry measurements at the base of Cerro Chajnantor (an altitude of 5100 m). The decrease in PWV can be explained by the altitude of the site when we assume that the vertical distribution of the water vapor is approximated at an exponential profile with scale heights within 0.3-1.9 km (previously observed values at night). We thus conclude that miniTAO/ANIR at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor indeed provides us an excellent capability for a ground-based Paα observation.

  14. Characterization of Thermophilic Halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam Hot Spring, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yasawong, Montri; Areekit, Supatra; Pakpitchareon, Arda; Santiwatanakul, Somchai; Chansiri, Kosum

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.0–40 μm in length and about 0.4 μm in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 55–60 °C and at pH 7–8. Strain TD1 was able to grow on medium containing up to 10% NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The cellular fatty acid content was mainly C16:0, which comprised 25.04% of the total amount of cellular fatty acid. 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Aeribacillus pallidus DSM 3670T. Bayesian tree analysis strongly supported the idea that strain TD1 is affiliated with genus Aeribacillus, as Aeribacillus pallidus strain TD1. Although the 16S rDNA of A. pallidus strain TD1 is similar to that of A. pallidus DSM 3670T, some physiological properties and the cellular fatty acid profiles differ significantly. A. pallidus strain TD1 can produce extracellular pectate lyase, which has not been reported elsewhere for other bacterial strains in the genus Aeribacillus. A. pallidus strain TD1 may be a good candidate as a pectate lyase producer, which may have useful industrial applications. PMID:21954359

  15. Search for Small Trans-Neptunian Objects by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen-Ping; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F.B.; Byun, Y.I.; Chang, Y.H.; Cook, K.H.; Dave, R.; Giammarco, J.; Kim, D.W.; King, S.K.; Lee, T.; Lehner, M.; Lin, C.C.; Lin, H.C.; Lissauer, J.J.; Marshall, S.; Meinshausen, N.; Mondal, S.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Arizona U. /Yonsei U. /LLNL, Livermore /Pennsylvania U. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys. /NASA, Ames /SLAC /UC, Berkeley /Caltech

    2006-12-04

    The Taiwan-America Occultation Survey (TAOS) aims to determine the number of small icy bodies in the outer reach of the Solar System by means of stellar occultation. An array of 4 robotic small (D=0.5 m), wide-field (f/1.9) telescopes have been installed at Lulin Observatory in Taiwan to simultaneously monitor some thousand of stars for such rare occultation events. Because a typical occultation event by a TNO a few km across will last for only a fraction of a second, fast photometry is necessary. A special CCD readout scheme has been devised to allow for stellar photometry taken a few times per second. Effective analysis pipelines have been developed to process stellar light curves and to correlate any possible flux changes among all telescopes. A few billion photometric measurements have been collected since the routine survey began in early 2005. Our preliminary result of a very low detection rate suggests a deficit of small TNOs down to a few km size, consistent with the extrapolation of some recent studies of larger (30-100 km) TNOs.

  16. LG based decision aid for naval tactical action officer's (TAO) workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    In the increasingly NetCentric battlespace of the 21st century, Stilman Advanced Strategies Linguistic Geometry software has the potential to revolutionize the way that the Navy fights in two key areas: as a Tactical Decision Aid and for creating a relevant Common Operating Picture. Incorporating STILMAN's software into a prototype Tactical Action Officers (TAO) workstation as a Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) will allow warfighters to manage their assets more intelligently and effectively. This prototype workstation will be developed using human-centered design principles and will be an open, component-based architecture for combat control systems for future small surface combatants. It will integrate both uninhabited vehicles and onboard sensors and weapon systems across a squadron of small surface combatants. In addition, the hypergame representation of complex operations provides a paradigm for the presentation of a common operating picture to operators and personnel throughout the command hierarchy. In the hypergame technology there are game levels that span the range from the tactical to the global strategy level, with each level informing the others. This same principle will be applied to presenting the relevant common operating picture to operators. Each operator will receive a common operating picture that is appropriate for their level in the command hierarchy. The area covered by this operating picture and the level of detail contained within it will be dependent upon the specific tasks the operator is performing (supervisory vice tactical control) and the level of the operator (or command personnel) within the command hierarchy. Each level will inform the others to keep the picture concurrent and up-to-date.

  17. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Lehner, M J; Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Alcock, C; Chen, W; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, L; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2009-11-13

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in lightcurves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS). We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar lightcurves obtained by our survey between 7 February 2005 and 31 December 2006 with a total of {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup 9} three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  18. MST3 Kinase Phosphorylates TAO1/2 to Enable Myosin Va Function in Promoting Spine Synapse Development

    PubMed Central

    Ultanir, Sila K.; Yadav, Smita; Hertz, Nicholas T.; Oses-Prieto, Juan A.; Claxton, Suzanne; Burlingame, Alma L.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Jan, Lily Y.; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian Sterile 20 (Ste20)-like kinase 3 (MST3) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase capable of enhancing axon outgrowth. Whether and how MST3 kinase signaling might regulate development of dendritic filopodia and spine synapses is unknown. Through shRNA-mediated depletion of MST3 and kinase-dead MST3 expression in developing hippocampal cultures, we found that MST3 is necessary for proper filopodia, dendritic spine, and excitatory synapse development. Knockdown of MST3 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons via in utero electroporation also reduced spine density in vivo. Using chemical genetics, we discovered thirteen candidate MST3 substrates and identified the phosphorylation sites. Among the identified MST3 substrates, TAO kinases regulate dendritic filopodia and spine development, similar to MST3. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development in the mammalian CNS. PMID:25456499

  19. Evidence for an association between TSH and IGF-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Shanli; Naik, Vibha; Hoa, Neil; Hwang, Catherine J.; Afifyan, Nikoo F.; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Gianoukakis, Andrew G.; Douglas, Raymond S.; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    TSH receptor (TSHR) plays a central role in regulating thyroid function and is targeted by IgGs in Graves’ disease (GD-IgG). Whether TSHR is involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, the orbital manifestation of GD, remains uncertain. TSHR signaling overlaps with that of insulin-like grow factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). GD-IgG can activate fibroblasts derived from donors with GD to synthesize T cell chemoattractants and hyaluronan, actions mediated through IGF-1R. Here we compare levels of IGF-1R and TSHR on the surfaces of TAO and control orbital fibroblasts and thyrocytes and explore the physical and functional relationship between the two receptors. TSHR levels are 11-fold higher on thyrocytes than on TAO or control fibroblasts. In contrast, IGF-1R levels are 3-fold higher on TAO vs control fibroblasts. In pull-down studies using fibroblasts, thyrocytes and thyroid tissue, Abs directed specifically against either IGF-1Rβ or TSHR bring both proteins out of solution. Moreover, IGF-1Rβ and TSHR co-localize to the perinuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in fibroblasts and thyrocytes by confocal microscopy. Examination of orbital tissue from patients with TAO reveals similar co-localization to cell membranes. Treatment of primary thyrocytes with rhTSH results in rapid Erk phosphorylation which can be blocked by an IGF-1R-blocking monoclonal antibody. Our findings suggest that IGF-1R might mediate some TSH-provoked signaling. Further, they indicate that TSHR levels on orbital fibroblasts are considerably lower than those on thyrocytes and that this receptor associates with IGF-1R in situ and together may comprise a functional complex in thyroid and orbital tissue. PMID:18768899

  20. Stop codon in the procollagen II gene (COL2A1) in a family with the Stickler syndrome (arthro-ophthalmopathy)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.N.; Ala-Kokko, L.; Knowlton, R.G.; Jimenez, S.A.; Weaver, E.J.; Prockop, D.J. ); Maguire, J.I.; Tasman, W. )

    1991-08-01

    Linkage analysis with restriction fragment length polymorphisms for the gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1) was carried out in a family with the Stickler syndrome, or arthro-ophthalmopathy, an autosomal dominant disorder that affects the eyes, ears, joints, and skeleton. The analysis demonstrated linkage of the disease and COL2A1 with a logarithm-of-odds score of 1.51 at zero recombination. A newly developed procedure for preparing cosmid clones was employed to isolate the allele for type II procollagen that was linked to the disease. Analysis of over 7000 nucleotides of the gene revealed a single base mutation that altered a CG dinucleotide and converted the codon CGA for arginine at amino acid position {alpha}1-732 to TGA, a stop codon. From previous work on procollagen biosynthesis, it is apparent that the truncated polypeptide synthesized from an allele with a stop codon at {alpha}1-732 cannot participate in the assembly of type II procollagen, and therefore that the mutation would decrease synthesis of type II procollagen. It was not apparent, however, why the mutation produced marked changes in the eye, which contains only small amounts of type II collagen, but relatively mild effects on the many cartilaginous structures of the body that are rich in the same protein.

  1. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Taos, NM, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Town of Taos in New Mexico. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services’ (STS) SORB 33™ ad...

  2. Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga2O3-Ta2O5 system and the structure of Ba6Ga21TaO40.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiang; Yu, Xiaodi; Kuang, Xiaojun; Su, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) ternary system at 1200 °C were determined. The A(6)B(10)O(30) tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) related solution in the BaO-Ta(2)O(5) subsystem dissolved up to ~11 mol % Ga(2)O(3), forming a ternary trapezoid-shaped TTB-related solid solution region defined by the BaTa(2)O(6), Ba(1.1)Ta(5)O(13.6), Ba(1.58)Ga(0.92)Ta(4.08)O(13.16), and Ba(6)GaTa(9)O(30) compositions in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Two ternary phases Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) and eight-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite solid solution Ba(8)Ga(4-x)Ta(4+0.6x)O(24) were confirmed in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) crystallized in a monoclinic cell of a = 15.9130(2) Å, b = 11.7309(1) Å, c = 5.13593(6) Å, β = 107.7893(9)°, and Z = 1 in space group C2/m. The structure of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was solved by the charge flipping method, and it represents a three-dimensional (3D) mixed GaO(4) tetrahedral and GaO(6)/TaO(6) octahedral framework, forming mixed 1D 5/6-fold tunnels that accommodate the Ba cations along the c axis. The electrical property of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was characterized by using ac impedance spectroscopy. PMID:22734887

  3. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and <11% false positives from all other aerosol particles. The most effective operations have consisted of thresholding TAOS patterns in order to reject defective ones, and forming training sets from three or four pattern classes. The presented automated classification method may be adapted into a real-time operation technique, capable of detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles.

  4. The ferroelectricity in perovskite K0.85Ba0.15TaO3+0.075 nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingyu; Xu, Chong; Chen, Yan; Ding, Qingfeng; Yuan, Hongming; Sun, Fengyue; Feng, Shouhua

    2015-08-01

    The perovskite K0.85Ba0.15TaO3+0.075 nanocrystallites have been synthesized by mild hydrothermal method for the first time. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the crystallographic structure is a primitive cubic, space group Pm-3m with a unit cell edge a=4.00 . Heavily Ba doped in K-site was achieved in the perovskite structure with excess oxygen to balance the charge. The chemical substitution changes the crystal structure and electronic structure of KTaO3, which has an impact on its polarization property and induce a ferroelectric phase. The temperature-dependent dielectric response from 300 K to 600 K and hysteresis loop at 300 K provide direct evidence for the ferroelectric character. Its Curie temperature has been obtained from relative dielectric and thermal analysis (TC=460 K).

  5. Dietary shift in corallivorous Drupella snails following a major bleaching event at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; Scott, C.; True, J. D.

    2013-06-01

    The island Koh Tao in the western Gulf of Thailand suffered severe coral bleaching in 2010. Its mushroom coral fauna of 20 species was surveyed during the bleaching in 2010 and after the bleaching in 2011. Multi-species assemblages of free-living mushroom corals occurred around the island, two of which were invaded by corallivorous Drupella snails after the bleaching. Previously these gastropods were known to mainly consume branching corals and hardly any mushroom corals. The snails were found preying on four fungiid species, three of which were susceptible to bleaching. The dietary shift became apparent after populations of preferred prey species (Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae) had died during the bleaching event. It seems that bleaching mortality reduced the availability of preferred prey, causing the corallivores to switch to less preferred species that occur in dense aggregations.

  6. Development of MIMIZUKU: a mid-infrared multi-field imager for 6.5-m TAO telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Kataza, Hirokazu; Sarugaku, Yuki; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Doi, Mamoru; Kohno, Kotaro; Kawara, Kimiaki; Tanaka, Masuo; Motohara, Kentaro; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tamura, Yoichi; Aoki, Tsutomu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Kato, Natsuko; Konishi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Koshida, Shintaro; Tateuchi, Ken; Handa, Toshihiro

    2012-09-01

    TAO (The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory) is planned to be constructed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640 m altitude) in Chile. MIMIZUKU (Mid-Infrared Multi-field Imager for gaZing at the UnKnown Universe) is a mid-infrared imager (Field of View: 1' x 1'- 2' x 2') and spectrometer (Δλ/λ: 60-230) for the 6.5-m TAO telescope, covering the wavelength range of 2-38 μm. The MIMIZUKU has a unique equipment called Field Stacker (FS) which enables the simultaneous observation of target and reference object. The simultaneity is expected to improve photometric accuracy and to realize long-term monitoring observations. The development status of the MIMIZUKU is reported in this paper. The FS and the cryostat of the MIMIZUKU have been fabricated and under testing. The cold optics (550 mm x 750 mm x 2 floors) with 28 mirrors has been constructed. The mirrors were aligned with the positional precision of 0.1 mm and the angular precision of 0.1 deg. The evaluated optical performance is that the diffraction-limited image at λ <8 μm and the enough compact image (r <2 pix=0.22") at 2 λ ~2μm can be obtained. In the cold optics, the drive systems with backlash-less gears are employed and work well even in cryogenic environment. The grisms made with silicon and germanium have been fabricated by ultraprecision cutting. It was found that their surface roughness, grating constant, and blaze angle almost measure up to the designed values.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress-Induced Adipogenesis in Orbital Fibroblasts From Patients With Graves Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sena; Byun, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jin Sook; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A choice of the optimal treatment for Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a challenge due to the complexity of the pathogenesis. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is well known as a multifunctional antioxidant, helping to protect cells against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ALA on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and adipogenesis using primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO. Intracellular ROS levels and mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) were measured. After adipogenesis, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP)α and β, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were investigated. H2O2 dose-dependently stimulated ROS production and HO-1 expression. Addition of ALA strongly attenuated ROS production and further increased HO-1 expression. However, by pretreatment of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), HO-1 inhibitor, ALA inhibition of ROS generation by H2O2 was abolished. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES were inhibited by ALA treatment. In this context, TNFα-induced phosphorylation of P65 was also inhibited. In addition, ALA dose-dependently inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. The expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, and β, was also inhibited. ALA is a potential therapeutic agent for GO because of the inhibitory effects on ROS production and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in prevention of adipose-tissue expansion. PMID:26765462

  8. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-04-15

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  9. Usefulness of TAO model to predict and manage the transformation in soil of carbon and nitrogen forms from West-Africa urban solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Kaboré, W T; Pansu, M; Hien, E; Houot, S; Zombré, N P; Masse, D

    2011-01-01

    The TAO model of Transformation of Added Organic materials (AOM) calibrated on AOMs and substrates of temperate areas was used to assess the transformations in soil of carbon and nitrogen forms of AOMs: raw materials, selected mixtures and composts from Ouagadougou urban wastes. AOMs were studied in terms of chemical and biochemical contents and for their C and N mineralization during incubations in a typical Ferric Lixisol of the sub-urban agriculture of Ouagadougou. The TAO model was used to predict the transformations of C (very labile, resistant and stable organic C) and N (very labile, resistant and stable organic N, produced and immobilized inorganic N) forms driven by AOM biochemical data. Without any change in calibration formulae, TAO predicted accurately the C transformations and inorganic N production of most of the tested AOMs, with a tendency to slightly overestimate C mineralization of previously well-composted materials and re-mineralization of immobilized N. Complementary adjustments using more complete data from laboratory experiments are suggested, but the model agrees with other data collected in the field and appears as a promising tool to optimise the management of urban wastes in the tropical area as well as for agro industrial organic fertilizers of the temperate zone. This application suggests ways to improve the management of urban wastes aiming to optimize agricultural yields, system sustainability and C sequestration in soil. PMID:20851592

  10. Surgical Outcomes of Balanced Deep Lateral and Medial Orbital Wall Decompression in Korean Population: Clinical and Computed Tomography-based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Uk; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression and to estimate surgical effects using computed tomography (CT) images in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted in TAO patients with exophthalmos who underwent balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression. Exophthalmos was measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 and 3 months. Postoperative complications were evaluated in all study periods. In addition, decompressed bone volume was estimated using CT images. Thereafter, decompression volume in each decompressed orbital wall was analyzed to evaluate the surgical effect and predictability. Results Twenty-four patients (48 orbits) with an average age of 34.08 ± 7.03 years were evaluated. The mean preoperative and postoperative exophthalmos at 1 and 3 months was 18.91 ± 1.43, 15.10 ± 1.53, and 14.91 ± 1.49 mm, respectively. Bony decompression volume was 0.80 ± 0.29 cm3 at the medial wall and 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3 at the deep lateral wall. Postoperative complications included strabismus (one patient, 2.08%), upper eyelid fold change (four patients, 8.33%), and dysesthesia (four patients, 8.33%). Postsurgical exophthalmos reduction was more highly correlated with the deep lateral wall than the medial wall. Conclusions In TAO patients with exophthalmos, balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression is a good surgical method with a low-risk of complications. In addition, deep lateral wall decompression has higher surgical predictability than medial wall decompression, as seen with CT analysis. PMID:27051255

  11. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Costilla Peak area, Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Big Costilla Peak, New Mex.&nash;Colo. quadrangle and adjacent parts of three other 7.5 minute quadrangles: Amalia, New Mex.–Colo., Latir Peak, New Mex., and Comanche Point, New Mex. The study area is in the southwesternmost part of that segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as the Culebra Range; the Taos Range segment lies to the southwest of Costilla Creek and its tributary, Comanche Creek. The map area extends over all but the northernmost part of the Big Costilla horst, a late Cenozoic uplift of Proterozoic (1.7-Ga and less than 1.4-Ga) rocks that is largely surrounded by down-faulted middle to late Cenozoic (about 40 Ma to about 1 Ma) rocks exposed at significantly lower elevations. This horst is bounded on the northwest side by the San Pedro horst and Culebra graben, on the northeast and east sides by the Devils Park graben, and on the southwest side by the (about 30 Ma to about 25 Ma) Latir volcanic field. The area of this volcanic field, at the north end of the Taos Range, has undergone significantly greater extension than the area to the north of Costilla Creek. The horsts and grabens discussed above are all peripheral structures on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin, which is the axial part of the (about 26 Ma to present) Rio Grande rift at the latitude of the map. The Raton Basin lies to the east of the Culebra segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This foreland basin formed during, and is related to, the original uplift of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains which was driven by tectonic contraction of the Laramide (about 70 Ma to about 40 Ma) orogeny. Renewed uplift and structural modification of these mountains has occurred during formation of the Rio Grande rift. Surficial deposits in the study area include alluvial, mass-movement, and glacial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age.

  12. Autoimmune thyroiditis associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO)

    PubMed Central

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Gonivada, Jayadevappa; Noroozpour, Zahra; Prasad, Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic’s syndrome) is a rare relapsing demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves and shares many clinical and radiological features with multiple sclerosis. The association of NMO with other autoimmune diseases was reported, but very few reports described association with autoimmune thyroid disease. Early differentiation between NMO and multiple sclerosis is very important as the natural course and treatment regimens differ significantly. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted initially with vomiting, hiccups and paraesthesias but was not diagnosed with NMO and presented with a severe progression of the disease. The patient was also diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid which progressed from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism. NMO diagnosis was established with seropositivity for NMO-IgG and MRI showing longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (3 or more spinal segments). In spite of treatment, the response was poor due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:26633965

  13. Autoimmune thyroiditis associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    PubMed

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Gonivada, Jayadevappa; Noroozpour, Zahra; Prasad, Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic's syndrome) is a rare relapsing demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves and shares many clinical and radiological features with multiple sclerosis. The association of NMO with other autoimmune diseases was reported, but very few reports described association with autoimmune thyroid disease. Early differentiation between NMO and multiple sclerosis is very important as the natural course and treatment regimens differ significantly. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted initially with vomiting, hiccups and paraesthesias but was not diagnosed with NMO and presented with a severe progression of the disease. The patient was also diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid which progressed from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism. NMO diagnosis was established with seropositivity for NMO-IgG and MRI showing longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (3 or more spinal segments). In spite of treatment, the response was poor due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:26633965

  14. Conundrums in the legal protection of migrant workers' health rights and relative resolutions: implications from the case of Tseng Hei-tao.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The deteriorating situation of migrant workers' health rights protection was once again highlighted in the case of Tseng Hei-tao. This case explicitly and implicitly showed that four conundrums--the Employment Restriction Conundrum, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legal Conundrum, the Morality Conundrum and the Identity Conundrum--are barriers to migrant workers' right protection. The health rights of migrant workers could be safeguarded by abolishing the outdated household registration system designed in the planned economy era, improving the rule of law, and strengthening administrative supervisions. This would fundamentally remove these barriers and thus contribute to migrant workers' health rights protection. PMID:23073738

  15. Estimating Risk of Recurrence in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer After Total Thyroidectomy and Radioactive Iodine Remnant Ablation: Using Response to Therapy Variables to Modify the Initial Risk Estimates Predicted by the New American Thyroid Association Staging System

    PubMed Central

    Tala, Hernan; Shah, Jatin; Leboeuf, Rebecca; Ghossein, Ronald; Gonen, Mithat; Brokhin, Matvey; Omry, Gal; Fagin, James A.; Shaha, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background A risk-adapted approach to management of thyroid cancer requires risk estimates that change over time based on response to therapy and the course of the disease. The objective of this study was to validate the American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk of recurrence staging system and determine if an assessment of response to therapy during the first 2 years of follow-up can modify these initial risk estimates. Methods This retrospective review identified 588 adult follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer patients followed for a median of 7 years (range 1–15 years) after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine remnant ablation. Patients were stratified according to ATA risk categories (low, intermediate, or high) as part of initial staging. Clinical data obtained during the first 2 years of follow-up (suppressed thyroglobulin [Tg], stimulated Tg, and imaging studies) were used to re-stage each patient based on response to initial therapy (excellent, acceptable, or incomplete). Clinical outcomes predicted by initial ATA risk categories were compared with revised risk estimates obtained after response to therapy variables were used to modify the initial ATA risk estimates. Results Persistent structural disease or recurrence was identified in 3% of the low-risk, 21% of the intermediate-risk, and 68% of the high-risk patients (p < 0.001). Re-stratification during the first 2 years of follow-up reduced the likelihood of finding persistent structural disease or recurrence to 2% in low-risk, 2% in intermediate-risk, and 14% in high-risk patients, demonstrating an excellent response to therapy (stimulated Tg < 1 ng/mL without structural evidence of disease). Conversely, an incomplete response to initial therapy (suppressed Tg > 1 ng/mL, stimulated Tg > 10 ng/mL, rising Tg values, or structural disease identification within the first 2 years of follow-up) increased the likelihood of persistent structural disease or recurrence to 13% in low-risk, 41% in intermediate-risk, and 79% in high-risk patients. Conclusions Our data confirm that the newly proposed ATA recurrence staging system effectively predicts the risk of recurrence and persistent disease. Further, these initial ATA risk estimates can be significantly refined based on the assessment of response to initial therapy, thereby providing a dynamic risk assessment that can be used to more effectively tailor ongoing follow-up recommendations. PMID:21034228

  16. Geologic map of the Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico, and Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Ute Mountain has the distinction of being one of the largest intermediate composition eruptive centers of the Taos Plateau, a largely volcanic tableland occupying the southern portion of the San Luis Basin. Ute Mountain rises to an elevation in excess of 3,000 m, nearly 700 m above the basaltic plateau at its base, and is characterized by three distinct phases of Pliocene eruptive activity recorded in the stratigraphy exposed on the flanks of the mountain and in the Rio Grande gorge. Unconformably overlain by largely flat-lying lava flows of Servilleta Basalt, the area surrounding Ute Mountain records a westward thickening of basin-fill volcanic deposits interstratified in the subsurface with Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary deposits derived from older Tertiary and Precambrian sources to the east. Superimposed on this volcanic stratigraphy are alluvial and colluvial deposits derived from the flanks of Ute Mountain and more distally-derived alluvium from the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east, that record a complex temporal and stratigraphic succession of Quaternary basin deposition and erosion. Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens. These poorly exposed fault scarps cutting lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2) the relative youth of the deposits has resulted in only modest displacements on most faults, and (3) some of the faults may have significant strike-slip components that do not result in large vertical offsets that are readily apparent in offset of sub-horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as “certain” either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations and are indicated as such on the map sheet.

  17. Analysis of meteorological data and water chemistry of Latir Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico, 1985-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Roybal, R.G.; Risser, D.W.; Somers, Georgene

    1994-01-01

    Data were analyzed to determine the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and water of the Latir Lakes in Taos County New Mexico, from 1985 to 1988. The Latir Lakes consist of a series of nine paternoster lakes that range in altitude from 11,061 to 11,893 feet above sea level. The pH of wet precipitation generally ranged from 4.6 to 5.5 and the specific conductance of wet precipitation ranged from 1 to 18 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius from December 1985 through September 1988. Snowpack chemistry data indicate a change in the specific conductance, pH, and alkalinity of the snowpack from month to month. The dominant cation in the snowpack is calcium, and the dominant anions are nitrate and sulfate. The samples having the smallest values of specific conductance generally did not contain measurable alkalinity. When the snowpack starts to melt in the spring, specific conductance of the entire snowpack decreases, consistent with the hypothesis that the initial fluid draining from the snowpack transports a large amount of dissolved material out of the snowpack. Water chemistries in the Latir Lakes are similar although specific conductance increases downstream from lake 9 to lake 1. Calcium is the dominant cation and the ions that produce alkalinity are the dominant anions. Concentrations of sodium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate do not vary substantially from year to year or during the year in a particular lake. Alkalinity and calcium concentration, however, do vary from year to year and during the year. The pH of outflow from the Latir Lakes varies from lake to lake and from year to year. In 1986, the range in pH in the lakes was less than 1 unit in mid-June, but was greater than 2.5 units by late October. The pH generally was larger than 7.0 in all of the lakes and was as large as 9.9 in several of the lakes during the period of study. The pH of outflow water generally increases from early spring to late summer in the Latir Lakes, and snowmelt does not seem to cause the pH to decrease in the lakes. Depth profiles of selected lakes indicate that the dissolved-oxygen concentration approaches zero below the thermocline. This suggests biological oxidation of organic matter in the lower zones in these lakes. Because many organisms cannot live in water containing small dissolved-oxygen concentrations, large volumes of water in lakes 9 and 3 probably are not suitable for habitation during the summer months.

  18. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  19. The Tao of myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jonathan L.; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Lonial, Sagar; Lee, Kelvin P.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy in which significant advances have been observed during the last 15 years. Our understanding of the disease has been advanced through its molecular characterization. We have also seen improvements in patient care with the development of 2 new classes of active agents, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), resulting in a significant improvement in overall survival of myeloma patients such that it can now be debated as to whether some subsets of myeloma patients can be cured. However, the advances in our understanding of myeloma biology occurred in parallel with advances in treatment as opposed to being directly informed by the research. Moreover, the molecular characterization of malignant plasma cells would not have predicted the effectiveness of these novel therapies. We hypothesize that proteasome inhibitors and IMiDs are highly active because malignant plasma cells are constrained by many of the characteristics of their normal counterparts and these novel therapies target both normal plasma cell biology and the cancer biology of myeloma. Thus, a better understanding of normal plasma cell biology will likely yield as many actionable targets as mapping the genomic landscape of this disease. PMID:25097176

  20. A short-wave radiometer array across the tropical Pacific Ocean as a component of the TOGA-TAO buoy array

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.M.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to bring together pertinent information concerning the NOAA TOGA-TAO buoy array so that a decision can be made for the following questions: (1) Are the scientific gains from an array of short-wave radiation sensors in the equatorial Pacific Ocean sufficiently impelling that DOE/ARM should provide financial and material support to NOAA/PMEL to install and operate this array? (2) What scientists and/or scientific studies would directly benefit from such a data set? (3) What should that array look like? That is, what sub-set of buoys should be so implemented given the per-buoy cost of the implementation?

  1. Amygdalin isolated from Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) extracts induces the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese medicine formulation ISF-1 (also known as Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang) for post-stroke rehabilitation could increase the expression of growth-regulating protein follistatin by approximately 4-fold. This study aims to identify the active compounds of ISF-1 for the induction of follistatin expression. Methods Active compounds in ISF-1 responsible for induction of follistatin were identified by a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction, HPLC separation and RT-PCR detection. The aqueous extracts of seven ISF-1 ingredients including Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) and the S. Persicae-derived fractions were assayed for the induction of follistatin mRNA expression in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells by RT-PCR. The concentrations of isolated compounds were proportionally normalized to the reported IC50 concentration (5.8 mg/mL) of the formulation ISF-1 in HepG2. The active fractions were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC on a C18 column and identified by mass spectrometry. Results Three ingredients of ISF-1, namely S. Persicae (Tao Ren), Pheretima (Di Long), and Flos Carthami (Hong Hua), induced the expression of follistatin mRNA. Among these, the ingredient S. Persicae were the most active, and amygdalin from S. Persicae extract was identified as a novel follistatin inducer. Amygdalin stimulated the growth of skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Amygdalin isolated from S. Persicae extract in ISF-1 through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure induced the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines. PMID:25237385

  2. Massively Parallel Assimilation of TOGA/TAO and Topex/Poseidon Measurements into a Quasi Isopycnal Ocean General Circulation Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Borovikov, Anna Y.; Suarez, Max

    1999-01-01

    A massively parallel ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)is used to assimilate temperature data from the TOGA/TAO array and altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON into a Pacific basin version of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP)ls quasi-isopycnal ocean general circulation model. The EnKF is an approximate Kalman filter in which the error-covariance propagation step is modeled by the integration of multiple instances of a numerical model. An estimate of the true error covariances is then inferred from the distribution of the ensemble of model state vectors. This inplementation of the filter takes advantage of the inherent parallelism in the EnKF algorithm by running all the model instances concurrently. The Kalman filter update step also occurs in parallel by having each processor process the observations that occur in the region of physical space for which it is responsible. The massively parallel data assimilation system is validated by withholding some of the data and then quantifying the extent to which the withheld information can be inferred from the assimilation of the remaining data. The distributions of the forecast and analysis error covariances predicted by the ENKF are also examined.

  3. Regional vegetation dynamics and its response to climate change—a case study in the Tao River Basin in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changbin; Qi, Jiaguo; Yang, Linshan; Wang, Shuaibing; Yang, Wenjin; Zhu, Gaofeng; Zou, Songbing; Zhang, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The 30-year normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series from AVHRR/MODIS satellite sensors was used in this study to assess the regional vegetation dynamic changes in the Tao River Basin, which cuts across the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) and the Southwestern Loess Plateau (SLP). First, principal component and correlation analyses were carried out to determine the key climatic variables driving ecological change in the region. Then, regression models were tested to correlate NDVI with the selected climatic variables to determine their predictive power. Finally, Sen’s slope method was used to determine how terrestrial vegetation has responded to regional climate change in the region. The results indicated an average winter season NDVI value of 0.14 in the ETP but only 0.04 in the SLP. Primarily driven by increasing temperature, vegetation growth has generally been enhanced since 1981; spring NDVI increased by 0.03 every 10 years in the ETP and 0.02 in the SLP. Further, results from trend analyses suggest vegetation growth in the ETP shifted to earlier-start and earlier-end dates, however in the SLP, the growing season has been extended with an earlier-start and later-end date. The precipitation threshold for vegetation germination, measured by the cumulative spring rainfall, was found to be 44 mm for both the ETP and SLP.

  4. Validating satellite altimeter measurements of internal tides with long-term TAO/TRITON buoy observations at 2°S-156°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Dong-Ping; Chen, Dake

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry is regularly used to map the global distribution of mode-1 internal tides. Validating altimeter measurements of internal tides with in situ data is difficult as the mooring observations typically are too short compared with the altimetry. Here taking advantage of the long-term (since 1999) Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) buoy observations at 2°S-156°E located at a TOPEX/Poseidon crossover in a region of strong internal tides, direct comparisons are made between altimeter and in situ measurements over a common 15 year period. The hourly buoy data are decimated every 9.9 day to emulate altimeter measurements. The altimeter and decimated buoy data are highly coherent at the aliased semidiurnal period (~60 day), and they agree well for the stationary semidiurnal internal tide. For the nonstationary internal tide, which consists of a significant annual cycle, the demodulated amplitude from the altimeter appears to be contaminated by nontidal signals. The demodulated amplitude from the decimated buoy data, on the other hand, is capable of resolving the temporal variability. This suggests the potential of mapping nonstationary internal tides from satellites.

  5. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Vermejo Peak area, Colfax and Taos Counties, New Mexico and Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Pillmore, Charles L.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    This geologic map covers four 7.5-minute quadrangles-The Wall, NM-CO (New Mexico-Colorado), Vermejo Park, NM-CO, Ash Mountain, NM, and Van Bremmer Park, NM. The study area straddles the boundary between the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the western margin of the Raton Basin, with about two-thirds of the map area in the basin. The Raton Basin is a foreland basin that formed immediately eastward of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains during their initial uplift, in the Late Cretaceous through early Eocene Laramide orogeny. Subsequently, these mountains have been extensively modified during formation of the Rio Grande rift, from late Oligocene to present. The map area is within that part of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains that is called the Culebra Range. Additionally, the map covers small parts of the Devil's Park graben and the Valle Vidal half-graben, in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the map area, respectively. These two grabens are small intermontaine basins, that are satellitic to the main local basin of the Rio Grande rift, the San Luis Basin, that are an outlying, early- formed part of the rift, and that separate the Culebra Range from the Taos Range, to the southwest.

  6. Proteomic Identification of Nrf2-Mediated Phase II Enzymes Critical for Protection of Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation Injury in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hong-yi; Li, Li; Yu, Jie; Chen, Lu; Huang, Yong-liang; Ning, Ling; Jiang, Zhuyun; Yang, Na; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2014-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used in China for cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of THSWD associated with the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury are largely unknown. The current study applied the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics to investigate the different protein profiles in PC12 cells with and without the treatment of THSWD. Twenty-six proteins affected by THSWD were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Gene ontology analysis showed that those proteins participated in several important biological processes and exhibited diverse molecular functions. In particular, six of them were found to be phase II antioxidant enzymes, which were regulated by NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Quantitative PCR further confirmed a dose-dependent induction of the six phase II enzymes by THSWD at the transcription level. Moreover, the individual ingredients of THSWD were discovered to synergistically contribute to the induction of phase II enzymes. Importantly, THSWD's protection against oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep) induced cell death was significantly attenuated by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides, suggesting the protection of THSWD may be likely regulated at least in part by Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes. Thus, our data will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of THSWD. PMID:24949080

  7. Structures and magnetic properties of new fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=Eu-Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space groups C2221 and Cmcm, respectively. The results of the Rietveld analysis for LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) indicate that there exists no structural ordering of the Ln and Y ions at the eight-coordinate 4b site and the seven-coordinate 8c site, but the larger Ln ions occupy the eight-coordinate 4b site rather than the seven-coordinate 8c site, with increasing the Ln ionic radius. On the other hand, the results of the Rietveld analysis for the X-ray diffraction profiles of LaTb2RuO7 showed that La and Tb atoms are almost situated at the eight-coordinated site (4a site) and seven-coordinated site (8g site), respectively, i.e., cation ordering occurs on the 4a and 8g sites. All compounds LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) are paramagnetic down to 1.8 K. On the other hand, LaTb2RuO7 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 17 K. In addition, another magnetic anomaly has been found at 10 K. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat for LaTb2RuO7 indicates that the magnetic transitions at 10 and 17 K are due to the magnetic ordering of Tb3+ and Ru5+ ions, respectively.

  8. Regional Vegetation Dynamics and Its Response to Climate Change—A Case Study in the Tao River Basin in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, J.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    Stretching across the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the southwestern Loess Plateau, the Tao River Basin (TRB) is an ideal ecosystem to study eco-hydrological processes in a contiguous landscape but climatically different schemes. In this study, we used the normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, derived from AVHRR/MODIS satellite sensors, to quantify the regional vegetation dynamic changes in the TRB and determine the key climatic factors driving these changes in the past 30 years through principal component and correlation analyses. We then developed regression models to predict NDVI changes as a function of the climatic factors. Using Sen's slope trend analysis of the climatic data and the regression models we examined how terrestrial vegetation has responded to regional climate change in the TRB. The regression results showed the average winter base NDVI values of 0.14 and 0.04 in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the southwestern Loess Plateau, respectively. Primarily driven by increasing temperature, the vegetation growth has generally been enhanced since 1981; the spring NDVI increased by 0.03 every 10 years in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and 0.02/10 years in the southwestern Loess Plateau. The Sen's slope trend analyses showed that the vegetation growing season in the eastern Tibetan Plateau shifted to an earlier start and earlier end, but in contrast the southwestern Loess Plateau experienced an earlier start but later end. The precipitation threshold for vegetation germination is a cumulative spring rainfall of 44 mm; less than this precipitation indicates a spring drought and less vegetation growth.

  9. Chinese herbal medicine formula tao hong si wu decoction protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Na; Nin, Ling; Zhao, Zhilong; Chen, Lu; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Zhuyun; Zhong, Zhendong; Zeng, Daiwen; Qi, Hongyi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of phase II enzymes and is known as the major mechanism of cellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of THSWD on the Nrf2 signaling pathway and the consequent effect during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that THSWD reduced infarct volume and improved neurological function in a rat stroke model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Additionally, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a key endogenous antioxidant enzyme regulated by Nrf2, was significantly further induced by THSWD in this in vivo model. In neuronal-like PC12 cells, THSWD remarkably up-regulated HO-1 expression and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase was found to be involved in the upstream of Nrf2 regulation. In an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD-Rep) model, THSWD treatment significantly reduced cell death induced by OGD-Rep insult. Importantly, the protective action was attenuated while PI3K activity was inhibited by a specific inhibitor, LY294002, and the Nrf2 signaling pathway was blocked by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides. Collectively, these results demonstrated that THSWD exhibited notable neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo and activation of PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway may be, at least in part, responsible for the protection. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of the Chinese herbal medicine formula THSWD. PMID:25149059

  10. The optimization of Ag/Ag2S electrode using carrier electroplating of nano silver particles and its preliminary application to offshore Kueishan Tao, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qian; Pan, Yi-wen; Huang, Yuan-feng; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication-induced ocean acidification is causing a dramatic ecologic change in the coastal ocean. A more acidic ocean would lead to more volatile H2S in the coastal ocean, especially in the area where shallow hydrothermal vents exist. Therefore, the early detection of H2S and its associates is needed. In this study, the preparation method for and the detection limit of an Ag/Ag2S electrode were optimized by coating the electrode with micro-scale to nano-scale silver particles. The size of the silver particles was dependent on the electroplating power used to produce them: (1) direct current power made micrometer scale silver particles, and (2) direct current carrier power made nano-scale silver particles. As a result, the detection limits of [S2-] of the Ag/Ag2S electrode made using direct current and direct carrier current were improved to 1×10-5 mol L-1 and 1×10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Such improvements were mostly due to the fact that nano silver particles have larger surface area and higher surface energy. The Ag/Ag2S electrode made by direct carrier current method was then mounted to a multi-parameter sensor (including a pH and an Eh electrode) used to search of new hydrothermal vents near the Kueishan Tao in May, 2011. A new hydrothermal vent was discovered based on pH, Eh and H2S anomalies at three depths. A clear [S2-] signal anomaly was observed from the top sensor indicating the dispersive pattern of the hot fluid near this shallow vent site. This could also provide additional information on the dispersion pattern of anthropogenic pollutants in the coastal ocean.

  11. Rat lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with ingestion of an immunosuppressive compound.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, D N; Todd, G C; Meyers, D B; Paget, C

    1979-11-01

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis was induced in young Wistar rats by feeding them the immunosuppressive compound frentizole [1-(6-methoxy-2-benzothiazolyl)-3-phenyl urea] for 1 year. About half of the rats given 0.060 and 0.150% frentizole in the diet had lymphocytic thyroiditis. The incidence of thyroiditis was low in the group given the high dose because of severe anemia and hepatic disease which resulted in increased mortality. Reversibility of the thyroid lesion was indicated by reduced incidence rates at 15 and 18 months after treatment was stopped at 1 year. The thyroiditis was characterized by interstitial infiltrates of many lymphocytes and plasma cells and fewer macrophages with mild degenerative changes in the follicular epithelium. This inflammatory cell infiltrate was generally diffuse but occasionally was multifocal, particularly in thyroid glands of rats late in the reversibility phase of the study. The inflammatory cell infiltrate caused the thyroid glands to be several times normal size. Sera from rats with lymphocytic thyroiditis contained hemagglutinating antibody against rat perfect correlation between the presence of anti-thyroglobulin antibody and enlarged thyroid glands. Fine granular deposits of IgG and complement were identified in some areas of the follicular basement membrane. We concluded that the lymphocytic thyroiditis was immunologically mediated, at least in part, by anti-thyroglobulin antibody. PMID:583090

  12. Teaching the Tao of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    1979-01-01

    Describes a course offered at the University of Toronto. The course deals with the new world view of the nature of reality and the parallels of the concepts with modern physics and Eastern mysticism. (Author/SA)

  13. The Tao of Whole Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Meguido

    1989-01-01

    Uses the philosophy of Taoism as a metaphor in describing the whole language approach to language arts instruction. The discussion covers the key principles that inform the whole language approach, the resulting holistic nature of language programs, and the role of the teacher in this approach. (16 references) (CLB)

  14. Validation of the NASA GEWEX-SRB Radiation Data over the Tropical Oceans: Comparisons with PIRATA, RAMA, TAO and WHOI Buoy Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Gupta, S. K.; Cox, S. J.; Mikovitz, J. C.; NASA Gewex Srb Project Team

    2013-05-01

    The NASA GEWEX-SRB (Global Energy and Water Exchanges - Surface Radiation Budget) project produces and archives shortwave and longwave radiation budget data at the top of the atmosphere and the Earth's Surface. The latest version in the archive, Release 3.0, is available as 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly means continuously over the period from July 1983 to December 2007 on a quasi-equal-area grid system of 44016 grid boxes. Releases 4 and 5 with further improved quality and higher spatial resolution are being planned. The SRB shortwave/longwave fluxes at the Earth's surface from the algorithm GSW(V3.0)/GLW(V3.1) have been extensively validated against high-quality ground-based observations, in particular observed data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Comparisons with nearly 6000 site-months of both shortwave and longwave data from 52 BSRN sites show generally good agreement. In addition, the GEWEX SRB data have also been found to compare favorably with the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) data and the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) data. In spite of the fact that the BSRN sites are scattered on all seven continents, the validation of the SRB data over the vast oceans had not been done until recently. In this paper, we present comparisons of the GEWEX-SRB data shortwave/longwave data with observations made on arrays moored in tropical oceans. Specifically, we have data from 21 buoys, or moorings, from Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic (PIRATA), 14 buoys from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) in the Indian Ocean, 20 buoys from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Pacific, and 3 buoys from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) (2 in the Pacific and 1 in the Atlantic). The data from these buoys span 12 years from 2000 to 2011, though not necessarily continuously. It is found that except for occasional outliers, the majority of the comparable pairs of data points agree well. Further examination of the outliers is necessary to determine whether they can be attributed to wind-driven tilt and/or aerosol accumulation on the instruments. In order to see how the ocean-based validation compares with land-based validation, we made SRB-BSRN monthly mean shortwave/longwave radiation comparisons in the tropical region only, the region in which all the buoys are moored. The results show that in the case of shortwave radiation, the bias error from the ocean-based validation is somewhat larger than its land-based counterpart, but their RMS errors are not significantly different. In the case of longwave radiation, the ocean-based and land-based validations show nearly identical comparison statistics.

  15. Validation of the NASA GEWEX-SRB Radiation Data over the Tropical Oceans: Comparisons with PIRATA, RAMA, TAO and WHOI Buoy Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Gupta, S. K.; Cox, S. J.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX SRB (Global Energy and Water Exchanges, Surface Radiation Budget) project produces and archives shortwave and longwave radiation budget flux estimates at the top of the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. The latest version in the archive, Release 3.0, is available as 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly means continuously over the period from July 1983 to December 2007 on a quasi-equal-area grid system of 44016 grid boxes. SRB Release 4 with further improvements in data quality and higher spatial resolution is being developed. The SRB shortwave/longwave fluxes at the Earth's surface from the algorithm GSW(V3.0)/GLW(V3.1) have been extensively validated against high-quality ground-based observations, in particular observed data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Comparisons with nearly 6000 site-months of both shortwave and longwave data from 52 BSRN sites show generally good agreement. In addition, the GEWEX SRB data have also been found to compare favorably with the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) data and the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) data. In spite of the fact that the BSRN sites are scattered on all seven continents, the validation of the SRB data over the vast oceans had not been done until recently. In this paper, we present comparisons of the GEWEX-SRB data shortwave/longwave data with observations made on arrays moored in tropical oceans. Specifically, we have data from 21 buoys, or moorings, from Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic (PIRATA), 14 buoys from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) in the Indian Ocean, 20 buoys from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Pacific, and 3 buoys from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) (2 in the Pacific and 1 in the Atlantic). The data from these buoys span 12 years from 2000 to 2011, though not necessarily continuously. It is found that except for occasional outliers, the majority of the comparable pairs of data points agree well. For instance, the bias/RMS from 1644 monthly mean data points is 11.1/19.0 W m-2. Further examination of the outliers is necessary to determine whether they can be attributed to wind-driven tilt and/or aerosol accumulation on the instruments. In order to see how the ocean-based validation compares with land-based validation, we made SRB-BSRN monthly mean shortwave/longwave radiation comparisons in the tropical region only, where all the buoys are moored. The results show that in the case of shortwave radiation, the bias error from the ocean-based validation is somewhat larger than its land-based counterpart, but their RMS errors are not significantly different. In the case of longwave radiation, the ocean-based and land-based validations show nearly identical comparison statistics.

  16. Evaluation of a technique for estimation of extraocular muscle volume using 2D MRI.

    PubMed

    Firbank, M J; Coulthard, A

    2000-12-01

    Measurements of extraocular muscle volume may be useful as an outcome indicator in the assessment of treatment options in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. In this study, a technique for estimating extraocular muscle volume from two-dimensional T1 weighted MR images acquired in the coronal plane is described. For each image slice, the cross-sectional area of individual extraocular muscles was estimated using a combination of semi-automated outlining based on a local thresholding technique and manual outlining where thresholding was not possible. The technique was assessed using three sets of images: a computer-generated virtual image set with "extraocular muscles" of known volumes; a set of images from 19 biochemically and clinically euthyroid patients; and images from 7 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. From the computer-generated images, the accuracy was determined as 7.6%. Intraobserver agreement was investigated using repeated MRI scans on a single subject and repeat outlining of muscles on five sets of images from different subjects. The mean difference between repeat measurements was 2% (SD 5.9%). We conclude that two-dimensional MR images can be used to determine changes in muscle volume of greater than 12% during treatment of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. PMID:11205672

  17. Reconstruction of the 1997/1998 El Nino from TOPEX/POSEIDON and TOGA/TAO Data Using a Massively Parallel Pacific-Ocean Model and Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, C. L.; Rienecker, M.; Borovikov, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Two massively parallel data assimilation systems in which the model forecast-error covariances are estimated from the distribution of an ensemble of model integrations are applied to the assimilation of 97-98 TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and TOGA/TAO temperature data into a Pacific basin version the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP)ls quasi-isopycnal ocean general circulation model. in the first system, ensemble of model runs forced by an ensemble of atmospheric model simulations is used to calculate asymptotic error statistics. The data assimilation then occurs in the reduced phase space spanned by the corresponding leading empirical orthogonal functions. The second system is an ensemble Kalman filter in which new error statistics are computed during each assimilation cycle from the time-dependent ensemble distribution. The data assimilation experiments are conducted on NSIPP's 512-processor CRAY T3E. The two data assimilation systems are validated by withholding part of the data and quantifying the extent to which the withheld information can be inferred from the assimilation of the remaining data. The pros and cons of each system are discussed.

  18. The Tao of Teaching: Romance and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stefan

    1991-01-01

    Because college teaching aims to elevate, not entertain, it must be nourished and appreciated as a pedagogical alchemy mixing facts and feelings, ideas and skills, history and mystery. The current debate on educational reform should focus more on quality of learning experience, and on how to create and sustain it. (MSE)

  19. 77 FR 59703 - Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., a full length parallel taxiway, runway lighting, navigational aids, runway safety areas (RSA... shift of the RSA Runway Object Free Area (ROFA), and Runway Protection Zone (RPZ), establishment of...

  20. A case of minocycline-induced black thyroid associated with papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Kohei; Kumai, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Daizo; Yumoto, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    We report a rare case of black thyroid accompanied by papillary carcinoma in a patient with an extended history of minocycline treatment. A 78-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic with swelling in his neck. He had been taking minocycline for the previous 2 years and 7 months to treat chronic perianal pyoderma. Neck ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a 3.5 × 3.7 × 5.0-cm nodule in the left thyroid lobe, and fine-needle aspiration cytology identified it as a papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy and neck dissection. During the procedure, a distinct black discoloration of the thyroid parenchyma was observed. Histopathology confirmed both the black thyroid and the papillary carcinoma. Based on the thyroid gland's discoloration and the history of minocycline use, the patient was diagnosed with minocycline-induced black thyroid. He was symptom-free 20 months after surgery. PMID:26991226

  1. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  2. Treatment of exophthalmos and strabismus surgery in thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Imburgia, A; Elia, G; Franco, F; Perri, P; Franco, E; Galiè, M; Clauser, L C

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) can have important consequences, such as exophthalmos and restrictive strabismus. A retrospective study was performed of 35 patients with EO who underwent orbital decompression surgery and restrictive strabismus correction. Two surgical techniques for orbital decompression were analyzed: fat decompression by Olivari technique and three-wall bony expansion with fat decompression. Strabismus surgery was performed using adjustable or non-adjustable sutures under topical anaesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of intra-orbital decompression performed, and the postoperative values resulting from the different fat decompression techniques were recorded. The preoperative and postoperative mean degrees of exophthalmos were 22.3 and 19.9mm, respectively, for the fat decompression group, and 24.3 and 19.8mm, respectively, for the bony expansion with transpalpebral fat decompression (combined form) group. The difference in residual prism dioptres between adjustable and non-adjustable suture techniques in patients who had previously undergone combined decompression was statistically significant. The management of patients with EO requires a multidisciplinary approach based on the collaboration of maxillofacial surgeons, ophthalmologists, and orthoptists. These results will allow the development of a more adequate strategy for the surgical treatment of restrictive strabismus in EO patients. PMID:26775634

  3. Immunoglobulins from patients with Graves' disease induce hyaluronan synthesis in their orbital fibroblasts through the self-antigen, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terry J; Hoa, Neil

    2004-10-01

    A distinctive histopathological feature associated with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the disordered accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, in orbital connective tissues. This often occurs in the context of dramatic inflammation and tissue remodeling. Orbital fibroblasts exhibit a novel phenotype including exaggerated responses to cytokines. Here, we report for the first time the ability of IgG isolated from the sera of patients with Graves' disease (GD-IgG) to provoke in orbital fibroblasts the synthesis of hyaluronan. The effect of GD-IgG can be reproduced by IGF-I, appears to be mediated through the IGF-I receptor, and is abolished with glucocorticoid treatment. TSH failed to influence the synthesis of hyaluronan. In contrast to the effects in GD fibroblasts, cultures derived from donors without known thyroid disease fail to respond to GD-IgG or IGF-I. The observation that hyaluronan production is induced by GD-IgG in fibroblasts suggests that the IGF-I receptor and its activating antibodies may represent a key pathway through which important pathogenic events in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are mediated. PMID:15472208

  4. Tao Rising: Sexism and Feminist/Transpersonal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Llewlee L.

    This report presents a dialectical model of identity development which is based on observations of how the self evolves within the context of feminist/transpersonal therapy. Developmental stages which are identified include fusion (Stage I), differentiation (Stage II), and integration (Stage III) of the Child (asserting) and Parent (nurturing)…

  5. 75 FR 81437 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (75 FR 66345) Docket No. FAA-2010-0842. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  6. Trouble in Paradise: Self-Assessment and the Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I outline how and why I have established a self-assessment system for class participation scores in an English-speaking skills course at a Japanese university. I explain how my experience with one particular student, who personally admitted to having abused the system, led me to realize that elements from Yin and Yang have been

  7. Tao of Gateway: Providing Internet Access to Licensed Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Gregory A.; Garrison, William V.

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates an approach for providing networked access to licensed databases over the Internet by positioning the library between patron and vendor. Describes how the gateway systems and database connection servers work and discusses how treatment of security has evolved with the introduction of the World Wide Web. Outlines plans to reimplement…

  8. Trouble in Paradise: Self-Assessment and the Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I outline how and why I have established a self-assessment system for class participation scores in an English-speaking skills course at a Japanese university. I explain how my experience with one particular student, who personally admitted to having abused the system, led me to realize that elements from Yin and Yang have been…

  9. Learning To Teach at the Elbows: The Tao of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Allan

    1996-01-01

    The dialogical relationship between Confucianism and Taoism serves as a framework for examining the interplay between learning as socioculturally mediated activity and critical reflection in preservice teacher education. Article highlights a summer elementary school science program that involves preservice teachers, university faculty, and a local…

  10. A Tao of Narrative: Dynamic Splicing of Teacher Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I explore a cross-cultural narrative inquiry method through a narrative inquiry about the process of reconstruction of five teacher stories. With dramatic, different cultural backgrounds, the five narrative inquirers -- four teacher-researchers and myself -- recovered and reconstructed our teacher stories by telling and living,…

  11. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... (75 FR 71414-71415, November 23, 2010) to prepare an environmental impact statement for a proposal to... hiking; replacing old lifts; creating new gladed terrain; improving traffic circulation throughout...

  12. 75 FR 71414 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... proposed projects include: Adding new lifts to serve terrain that is currently only accessible by hiking... are currently only accessible by an approximate 45-minute hike along Highline Ridge. The proposed...

  13. 77 FR 36994 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Intent (75 FR 71414-71415, November 23, 2010) to prepare an environmental impact statement for a proposal... corrected notice of intent was published in the Federal Register on September 29, 2011 (76 FR 60451... (NOA) for the draft EIS in the Federal Register on January 13, 2012 (77 FR 2060). Revised Dates:...

  14. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy Guidelines for the Management of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Eckstein, Anja; Kahaly, George J; Marcocci, Claudio; Perros, Petros; Salvi, Mario; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2016-03-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27099835

  15. Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonio C.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Burman, Kenneth D.; Cappola, Anne R.; Celi, Francesco S.; Cooper, David S.; Kim, Brian W.; Peeters, Robin P.; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Sawka, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. Methods: Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. Results: We reviewed the following therapeutic categories: (i) levothyroxine therapy, (ii) non–levothyroxine-based thyroid hormone therapies, and (iii) use of thyroid hormone analogs. The second category included thyroid extracts, synthetic combination therapy, triiodothyronine therapy, and compounded thyroid hormones. Conclusions: We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. We found no consistently strong evidence for the superiority of alternative preparations (e.g., levothyroxine–liothyronine combination therapy, or thyroid extract therapy, or others) over monotherapy with levothyroxine, in improving health outcomes. Some examples of future research needs include the development of superior biomarkers of euthyroidism to supplement thyrotropin measurements, mechanistic research on serum triiodothyronine levels (including effects of age and disease status, relationship with tissue concentrations, as well as potential therapeutic targeting), and long-term outcome clinical trials testing combination therapy or thyroid extracts (including subgroup effects). Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile. PMID:25266247

  16. Neurological manifestations of Graves’ disease: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mangaraj, Swayamsidha; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is characterized by a hyperfunctioning thyroid gland due to stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor by autoantibodies directed against it. Apart from thyrotoxicosis, other clinical manifestations include ophthalmopathy, dermopathy, and rarely acropachy. GD is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder, and hence is associated with various other autoimmune disorders. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is one such disease, which is seen with patients of GD and vice versa. Though the association of GD and myasthenia is known, subtle manifestations of latter can be frequently missed in routine clinical practice. The coexistence of GD and ocular MG poses a significant diagnostic dilemma to treating physicians. The ocular manifestations of myasthenia can be easily missed in case of GD and falsely attributed to thyroid associated ophthalmopathy due to closely mimicking presentations of both. Hence, a high degree of the clinical vigil is necessary in such cases to appreciate their presence. We present a similar case which exemplifies the above said that the clinical challenge in diagnosing coexistent GD and ocular myasthenia. PMID:26933368

  17. Neurological manifestations of Graves' disease: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Swayamsidha; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is characterized by a hyperfunctioning thyroid gland due to stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor by autoantibodies directed against it. Apart from thyrotoxicosis, other clinical manifestations include ophthalmopathy, dermopathy, and rarely acropachy. GD is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder, and hence is associated with various other autoimmune disorders. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is one such disease, which is seen with patients of GD and vice versa. Though the association of GD and myasthenia is known, subtle manifestations of latter can be frequently missed in routine clinical practice. The coexistence of GD and ocular MG poses a significant diagnostic dilemma to treating physicians. The ocular manifestations of myasthenia can be easily missed in case of GD and falsely attributed to thyroid associated ophthalmopathy due to closely mimicking presentations of both. Hence, a high degree of the clinical vigil is necessary in such cases to appreciate their presence. We present a similar case which exemplifies the above said that the clinical challenge in diagnosing coexistent GD and ocular myasthenia. PMID:26933368

  18. Ophthalmopathy in a broiler breeder flock reared in dark-out housing.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T S; French, J D; Fletcher, O J

    1986-01-01

    Eight 22-week-old broiler breeder replacements were presented from a flock experiencing a mild mortality problem. Approximately 2-3% of the birds were not getting onto the slats to eat or drink. The birds had been reared in dark-out houses under an experimental lighting schedule. Upon examination, several birds appeared blind or partially blind; others exhibited a photophobic response. Two birds lacked a unilateral menace reflex. No other gross abnormalities or lesions were noted. Histopathologic sections of the eyes revealed retinal degeneration and detachment with early degenerative lesions in one lens. The breeder flock came into production normally but peaked below average. Light intensity in the pullet house was measured at 0.3 footcandles (3.2 lux). Although the lighting program under which the pullets were grown is suspect, the etiology of the disorder remains unclear. PMID:3767820

  19. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid, associated with follicular colonization and stromal deposition of polytypic immunoglobulins and major histocompatibility antigens. Possible categorization in MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Aihara, H; Tsutsumi, Y; Ishikawa, H

    1992-09-01

    A 78-year-old woman complaining of a neck mass underwent right hemithyroidectomy. The 7 x 6 cm thyroid tumor consisted predominantly of mildly atypical, epithelial membrane antigen-positive plasma cells and scattered lymphoid follicles. Features of follicular colonization (plasma cell infiltration into germinal centers) were noted. Numerous CD45RO-positive reactive T cells and a smaller number of CD20-positive blast-like B cells were also distributed among the plasma cell infiltrate. IgG, kappa-type monoclonality with J-chain reactivity was identified in the plasma cells, including those in the lymphoid follicles. The association of pre-existing lymphocytic thyroiditis was confirmed histologically in the non-tumorous thyroid tissue. The tumor exhibited deposition of reticulin fiber-rich, amorphous eosinophilic substances, provoking pronounced foreign body reactions. The deposit, polytypically immunoreactive for immunoglobulin gamma-, mu-, kappa- and lambda-chains, beta 2-microglobulin and HLA-DR, was scarcely reactive upon amyloid staining, and consisted ultrastructurally of electron-dense, non-fibrillar material and entrapped collagen fibers. Multiple myeloma was ruled out by laboratory, histologic and clinical examinations. The possible categorization of this extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid within low-grade B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is discussed. PMID:1476063

  20. Materials Data on TaO2F (SG:131) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the

  2. Materials Data on Y3TaO7 (SG:20) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on Ho3TaO7 (SG:20) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Geologic map of the Ojo Caliente Quadrangle, Rio Arriba and Taos Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1986-11-01

    The Ojo Caliente area forms part of the western limb of the Espanola basin within the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico (Manley, 1979; May, 1979). The geology consists of Miocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks that rest unconformably on, or are faulted against, Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks. The Miocene rocks dip gently to the southeast, except where the attitudes are controlled by faulting or by the underlying basement topography. The Precambrian and Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by Quaternary pediment and river gravels, loess, travertine, landslide debris, and alluvium. The Precambrian rocks are faulted into horsts in several areas by north - northeast - trending normal faults.

  5. Geologic map of the Sunshine 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens and is preserved as poorly exposed fault scarps that cut lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano, north of the map area. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in relatively young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2) the relative youth of the deposits has resulted in only modest displacements on most faults, and (3) some of the faults may have significant strike-slip components that do not result in large vertical offsets that are readily apparent in offset of sub-horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as “certain” either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations.

  6. Materials Data on Li3TaO4 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on Na3Ca2TaO6 (SG:70) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  9. The Tao of Supervision: Taoist Insights into the Theory and Practice of Educational Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    There are three approaches to educational supervision: the applied science approach, the interpretive-practical approach, and the critical/emancipatory approach. From a Taoist perspective, conflicting supervision theories or proposals should be welcomed, not resisted. By accepting a diversity of views to inform practice, a balance or centeredness…

  10. Igs from patients with Graves' disease induce the expression of T cell chemoattractants in their fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jane; Horst, Noah; Cruikshank, William; Smith, Terry J

    2002-01-15

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and dermopathy are connective tissue manifestations of Graves' disease (GD). Tissue remodeling is a prominent feature of both and is apparently driven by recruited T cells. In this study, we report that IgG isolated from patients with GD (GD-IgG) up-regulates T lymphocyte chemoattractant activity in GD-derived fibroblasts from orbit, thyroid, and several regions of skin. This chemoattractant activity, absent in fibroblasts from donors without known thyroid disease, is partially susceptible to neutralization by anti-IL-16 and anti-RANTES Abs. IL-16 is a CD4(+)-specific chemoattractant and RANTES is a C-C-type chemokine. IL-16 and RANTES protein levels, as determined by specific ELISAs, are substantially increased by GD-IgG in GD fibroblasts. Addition of the macrolide, rapamycin, to fibroblast culture medium blocked the up-regulation by GD-IgG of IL-16, implicating the FRAP/mTOR/p70(s6k) pathway in the induction of IL-16 expression. These findings suggest a specific mechanism for activation of fibroblasts in GD resulting in the recruitment of T cells. They may provide insight into a missing link between the glandular and extrathyroidal manifestations of GD. PMID:11777993

  11. Immunopathogenesis of Thyroid Eye Disease: Emerging Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Vibhavari M; Naik, Milind N; Goldberg, Robert A; Smith, Terry J; Douglas, Raymond S

    2009-01-01

    Graves disease represents a systemic autoimmune process targeting the thyroid, orbit, and pretibial skin. The thyroid dysfunction is treatable, but no consistently effective medical therapy has yet been described for the orbital manifestations of Graves disease, also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy or thyroid eye disease. Several autoantigens are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease. Activating antibodies generated against the thyrotropin receptor can be detected in a majority of patients, and these drive hyperthyroidism. However, stimulating antibodies against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) may also play a role in the extra-thyroid manifestations of GD. IGF-1R is over-expressed by orbital fibroblasts derived from patients with TED, while IGF-1R+ T and IGF-1R+ B cells are considerably more frequent in GD. Actions of several cytokines and the molecular interplay peculiar to the orbit appear to provoke the inflammation, fat expansion, and deposition of excessive extracellular matrix molecules in thyroid eye disease. Based upon these new insights, several therapeutic strategies can now be proposed that, for the first time, might specifically interrupt its pathogenesis. PMID:20385333

  12. Localization of the human 64kD autoantigen D1 to myofibrils in a subset of extraocular muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fowler, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the tissue-specific expression pattern of the 64kD human autoantigen D1, a tropomodulin-related protein that may be involved in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. METHODS. Recombinant 64kD human autoantigen D1 was generated in a bacterial expression system and used to immunize rabbits. Specific antibodies were affinity-purified and used for Western blots on normal and hyperthyroid rat and rabbit tissue, and immunofluorescence localization on cryosections of rat tissue. RESULTS. Anti-64kD human autoantigen D1 antibodies recognize specifically a approximately 70kD polypeptide in western blots of extraocular muscle, sternothyroid muscle, and smooth muscle. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrates that the 64kD human autoantigen D1 localizes to myofibrils in slow fibers from rat extraocular and sternothyroid muscle. The level of this protein is not altered in extraocular muscles from hyperthyroid rabbits. CONCLUSIONS. The 64kD human autoantigen D1 is expressed in slow fibers of extraocular and sternothyroid muscles as a component of myofibrils, and is not upregulated in conditions of hyperthyroidism.

  13. The pathogenetic connection between Graves' disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. (The role and incidence of thyroid stimulating antibodies).

    PubMed

    Leövey, A; Bakó, G; Sztojka, I; Bordán, L; Szabó, T; Kálmán, K; Balázs, C

    1982-01-01

    Antibody-positivity to thyroid specific antigens (Htg, microsomal) and/or lymphocytic infiltration of the gland's parenchyma were observed in 207 (55%) of 377 patients with Graves's disease. Only in 48 (12.7%) of the cases were the findings in agreement with the criteria of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Human thyroid stimulating antibody (HTSab) was detected in 135 (65%) of these 207 patients. In cases of Graves' disease associated with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, this proportion was found to be as high as 89.6% and attained even 100% in cases of Hashitoxicosis (39 patients). The presence of HTSab thus seems to form one of the features of patients with Hashitoxicosis. Infiltrative ophthalmopathy also showed a remarkably high incidence (59%) in this porcess. The typical prevalence of Graves' disease in females in the present material attained a 15:1 female-to-male ratio when the disease was associated with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. The results of the present study suggest that chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with Graves' disease promotes the formation of thyroid stimulating antibodies. PMID:6129766

  14. Switching characteristics of TaO x -based one diode-one resistor for crossbar memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y. J.; Xu, Z.; Yoon, S. F.; Chia, C. K.; Wang, S. J.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-05-01

    One diode-one resistor (1D1R) memory array consisting of Pt/TaO x /Al memory element and GaAs selection diode was firstly demonstrated. The resistive switching behavior of the memory devices with variety of active areas from 5 μm to 50 μm has been investigated. It was found that the forming voltage decreases with the memory element being scaled and the voltage value was in a range of 3 - 11.5 V. The reset current was in range of 3.6 - 11 mA range. The resistance ratio between the high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS) fluctuates between 102 - 106. The data retention performance in 1×105 s was evaluated for maintaining resistance ratio between HRS and LRS. For a 10% readout margin in an N × N crossbar array, the maximum array size for the 1D1R with diameter of 5 μm in each single cell was estimated to ˜4.5 × 103 and it could be further expanded with improved forward-to-reverse resistance ratio (RLRS_R/RLRS_F). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Optical transmittance and Raman scattering studies of (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Shijing; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Limei; Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Bin; Liu, Min

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of KNN-based single crystals were investigated firstly in this work. The optical transmittance of (K0.56Na0.44)(Nb0.77Ta0.23)O3 (KNNT) single crystal was measured at different temperatures. The band gap energies of direct transition Egd, indirect transition Egi, and the phonon energies Ep involved in the indirect transition were calculated based on the optical transmittance spectra. It was found that Egd and Egi show abrupt change at orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition temperature (TO-T) at 119 °C due to the change of crystal lattice, while Ep varies rapidly at around 60 °C. In order to further understand the phase transition behavior and the assistant phonons in the indirect transition, the KNNT single crystal was characterized by using Raman spectroscopy. It is clarified that the υ1 vibration mode is involved in the indirect transition below 60 °C and υ5 mode is involved above 60 °C. The Raman scattering of KNNT crystal shows distinct behavior in different phases. The phase transitions at TO-T = 119°C and TC = 291 °C can be confirmed respectively as orthorhombic-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic by the discontinuities of the Raman peaks' intensities and positions.

  16. Insights from SMPY's Greatest Former Child Prodigies: Drs. Terence ("Terry") Tao and Lenhard ("Lenny") Ng Reflect on Their Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Michelle C.; Stanley, Julian C.; Ng, Lenhard; Ng, Jack; Gross, Miraca U. M.; Tao, Terence; Tao, Billy

    2006-01-01

    If the academic needs of the most profoundly gifted students can be met through the use of existing educational practices, specialists in gifted education can assume that the educational needs of less able, but still academically talented, students can also be met by using some combination of these strategies as well. This paper illustrates the…

  17. Movement as a Metaphor: How Persistence, the Tao, and the Wisdom of the Ostrich Helped Build School Dance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Those who advocate for dance in education inevitably face many roadblocks, including ignorance of how dance can contribute to education, implementation of standardized performance assessments, lack of funding, entrenched issues of politics and power, and fear and discomfort about the body. It is dance teachers' responsibility to enlighten,…

  18. Movement as a Metaphor: How Persistence, the Tao, and the Wisdom of the Ostrich Helped Build School Dance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Those who advocate for dance in education inevitably face many roadblocks, including ignorance of how dance can contribute to education, implementation of standardized performance assessments, lack of funding, entrenched issues of politics and power, and fear and discomfort about the body. It is dance teachers' responsibility to enlighten,

  19. Insights from SMPY's Greatest Former Child Prodigies: Drs. Terence ("Terry") Tao and Lenhard ("Lenny") Ng Reflect on Their Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Michelle C.; Stanley, Julian C.; Ng, Lenhard; Ng, Jack; Gross, Miraca U. M.; Tao, Terence; Tao, Billy

    2006-01-01

    If the academic needs of the most profoundly gifted students can be met through the use of existing educational practices, specialists in gifted education can assume that the educational needs of less able, but still academically talented, students can also be met by using some combination of these strategies as well. This paper illustrates the

  20. 77 FR 38375 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Taos Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    .... All comments on the FEIS are to be submitted to Mr. Dean McMath of the FAA, at the address shown in... COMMENTS: Dean McMath, ASW-613, Regional Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Aviation...

  1. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  2. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and

  3. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease. PMID:26361258

  4. Corneal biomechanical changes and intraocular pressure in patients with thyroid orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pniakowska, Zofia; Klysik, Anna; Gos, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the relevance of the objective parameters addressing the altered biomechanical properties of cornea for glaucoma monitoring in patients with mild or moderate thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO), and in healthy individuals. METHODS Twenty-five patients with TAO (group 1) and 25 healthy adults (group 2) were included to the study. Both groups were of a similar age and the ratio women:man. For each patient, the following parameters of both eyes were measured with ocular response analyzer (ORA): corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc). In both groups participating in our study, all measurements were performed within minutes to reduce the diurnal effects. RESULTS The mean age in group 1 was 56±11y and 76% were women, 24% were men. The mean age in group 2 was 64±11y and 68% were women, 32% were men. CH correlated negatively with IOPg in group 1 (r2=0.10, P<0.05). IOPg strongly correlated with IOPcc in both groups (group 1: r2=0.79, P<0.0001; group 2: r2=0.85, P<0.0001). There was positive correlation between CRF and IOPg in group 1 (r2=0.12, P<0.05) and in group 2 (r2=0.31, P<0.0001). Statistical analysis revealed no significant correlation between CRF and IOPcc in group 1 (r2=0.009, P>0.05) and also no significant correlation in group 2 (r2=0.04, P>0.05). CRF mean value in group 2 (11.51±1.72 mm Hg) was higher than in group 1 (10.85±1.45 mm Hg) (P<0.05). IOPg strongly correlated with IOPcc in both groups (group 1: r2=0.79, P<0.0001; group 2: r2=0.85, P<0.0001). There was also strong correlation between CRF and CH in both populations: group 1: (r2=0.58, P<0.0001), group 2: (r2=0.41, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION Biomechanical parameters of cornea, as quantified by CH and CRF, and measured together with IOPcc, precisely reveal glaucoma staging in TAO and thus are reliable for diagnosing and follow-up in clinical practice. PMID:27158617

  5. Complete set of material constants of single domain (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal and their orientation dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Limei; Li, Shiyang; Sang, Shijing; Wang, Junjun; Huo, Xiaoqing; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-11-01

    A self-consistent complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for single domain Ta modified (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) crystal was determined. This full set constant for single domain KNN-based crystals allowed the prediction of orientation dependence of the longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic coefficients, and electromechanical coupling factors. The maximum piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were found to exist near [001]C. In addition, material constants of [001]C poled domain engineered single crystal with 4 mm symmetry were experimentally measured and compared with the calculated values. Based on this, extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectricity was estimated to be ˜20%.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Life Situations of Rural Youth from Two Different Cultural Settings: Northern Taos County, New Mexico, and Eastern Holmes County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    A comparative, interpretive analysis of the social organization of contrasting groups of rural youth from New Mexico ad Ohio was approached from an ethnomethodological perspective, relying on direct observation, intensive personal interviews, and key informants to produce a broader understanding of particular youth coping with their social

  7. The life of tropical Hot Event in November 2006 (HE0611) observed by advanced satellite sensors and the TAO/TRITON mooring array (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Qin, H.

    2010-12-01

    We have found Hot Event (HE), which is a short-term (about 20 days) large-scale (about 15x106km2) phenomenon with very high Sea Surface Temperature (SST>30 degC). A HE was identified in the tropical western Pacific in November 2006, which is named HE0611. Two parts (HE0611-East and -West) with very high SST connected to form HE0611. SST in HE0611-West increases quickly with large diurnal SST variations, which is caused by large solar radiation and suppressed latent heat flux. Formation mechanism of HE0611-East is completely different; its very high SST is supported sub-surface high SST anomaly associated with the El Nino. Cloud motion wind and cloud cover data have shown deep convective systems with divergent air flows in HE0611-East. High-level convergence was derived from cloud motion winds over HE0611-West. Cloud-free conditions with convergent flow were considered to be related to the deep convection over HE0611-East. These interactions through the whole troposphere over HE0611 (Figure 1) may have been a true appearance of “remote convection” which has been suggested as a mechanism of very high SST generation in tropical oceans. Using satellite-observed surface winds and atmospheric sounding data, the collapse process of HE0611 is investigated. Sudden strengthening of the subtropical-high-enhanced surface easterly winds moved a deep convective system from HE0611-East to -West. A cloud fraction separated from the moved deep convection may have lifted air parcels for initiation of a new convection system in HE0611-West. A pronounced increase of surface level convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the decrease of convective inhibition indicated enhanced convective instability over HE0611-West. Increases of the mass mixing rate and equivalent potential temperature in the boundary layer were caused by water vapor supply associated with the very high SST in HE0611-West, which enhanced CAPE for the deep convection development. With the development of deep convection over HE0611-West, HE0611 ended when the very high SST was destroyed by increased heat fluxes and enhanced mechanical mixing in the surface layer. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the interaction between HE0611-West and -East when the deep convective system developed over HE0611-East. Solar radiation and latent heat flux for HE0611-West and -East are listed at the bottom.

  8. Open system magnetic evolution of the taos plateau volcanic field, Northern New Mexico. I - The petrology and geochemistry of the servilleta basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, M. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Mcmillan, N. J.; Moorbath, S.; Hoefs, J.

    1986-01-01

    MULTIFIT, an embodiment of the conceptual structure needed in modeling multisource and multiprocess magmatic systems, is described. This program, which uses familiar materials balance methodology and the equilibrium form of the Rayleigh equations, links evolutionary arrays, which is turn collectively relate the starting and final compositions of a given magmatic system. Moreover, MULTIFIT incorporates variations within major element data arrays; the linkage between them can be tested using an extension of the least squares algorithm, which selects the best branch point according to the minimum-sum-of-squared-residuals criterion. Advantages and disadvantages of the materials balance approach used in this program are discussed, an example is provided, and equations utilized by MULTIFIT are summarized. While MULTIFIT may not be the best approach for poorly constrained models involving partial melting for complex mixing, it may ultimately prove useful for ascertaining trace element partition coefficients in magnetic systems.

  9. Digital data from the Questa-San Luis and Santa Fe East helicopter magnetic surveys in Santa Fe and Taos Counties, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; Geophex Ltd.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in December, 2005. One survey covers the eastern edge of the San Luis basin, including the towns of Questa, New Mexico and San Luis, Colorado. A second survey covers the mountain front east of Santa Fe, New Mexico, including the town of Chimayo and portions of the Pueblos of Tesuque and Nambe. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  10. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn occurred as a result of chemical precipitation of these metals from ground water upstream in the Red River. Comparisons of the geochemistry of the post-1979 sediment core with both mine wastes and with premining sediment from the vicinity of the Questa mine indicate that both are possible sources for this new component of sediment. Existing data have not resolved this enigma.

  11. Disturbances of Modulating Molecules (FOXP3, CTLA-4/CD28/B7, and CD40/CD40L) mRNA Expressions in the Orbital Tissue from Patients with Severe Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Przemyslaw; Eckstein, Anja; Luczynski, Wlodzimierz; Johnson, Kristian; Kretowski, Adam; Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, Alina; Gorska, Maria; Szamatowicz, Jacek; Chyczewski, Lech; Mysliwiec, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between the expression of orbital tissue mRNA for FOXP3, CTLA-4/CD28/CD80/CD86, and CD40/CD40 and the severity of Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Material and Methods. Orbital tissue was obtained from 26 patients with GO, with mild (n = 6) or severe GO (n = 20), and 7 healthy controls. The expression of mRNA of FOXP3, CTLA-4/CD28/CD80/CD86, CD40/CD40L was measured by RT-PCR. TCR and CD3 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results. Higher mRNA for FoxP3 (relative expression: 1.4) and CD40 (1.27) and lower expression of CTLA-4 (0.61) were found in the GO tissues versus controls. In severe GO as compared to mild GO higher mRNA expression for FoxP3 (1.35) and CD40 (1.4) and lower expression for CTLA-4 (0.78), CD28 (0.62), and CD40L (0.56) were found. A positive correlation was found between FOXP3 mRNA and CD3 infiltration (R = 0.796, P = 0.0000001). Conclusions. The enhanced FOXP3 mRNA expression in GO samples may suggest the dysfunction of FOXP3 cells in the severe GO. The diminished mRNA expression of CTLA-4 in severe GO may indicate inadequate T regulatory function. The enhanced mRNA expression of CD40 in severe GO and negative correlation to CRP mRNA may suggest their role in the active and inactive GO. PMID:25653477

  12. 78 FR 4166 - Notice of Public Meeting, Farmington District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... BLM Taos Field Office transportation planning. Taos and Farmington field office staff also are... presentation by BLM firefighters on the outlook for the 2013 fire season. At 1:30 p.m. on Thursday, February...

  13. Who Goes There? Linking Remote Cameras and Schoolyard Science to Empower Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn; Ernst, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Taking Action Opportunities (TAO) is a curriculum that combines guided reflection, a focus on the local environment, and innovative use of wildlife technology to empower student action toward improving the environment. TAO is experientially based and uses remote cameras as a tool for schoolyard exploration. Through TAO, students engage in research…

  14. Who Goes There? Linking Remote Cameras and Schoolyard Science to Empower Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn; Ernst, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Taking Action Opportunities (TAO) is a curriculum that combines guided reflection, a focus on the local environment, and innovative use of wildlife technology to empower student action toward improving the environment. TAO is experientially based and uses remote cameras as a tool for schoolyard exploration. Through TAO, students engage in research

  15. 15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  16. 18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  17. 16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  18. 14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  19. 17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  20. Taoism and Its Implications for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Hsiao-Peng; Chang, Chun-Yen; MacRaven, Maggie Maeve

    As one of the major schools of thought in ancient China, Taoism centers on the concept of "Tao", the Way, which has two distinct characteristics: (1) Tao itself can be deemed as a final "reality" that is equivalent to the ontology of the Universe; and (2) Tao itself cannot be defined directly by human language. Taoism posits a holistically…

  1. A-SITE-AND/OR B-SITE-MODIFIED PBZRTIO3 MATERIALS AND (PB, SR, CA, BA, MG) (ZR, TI,NB, TA)O3 FILMS HAVING UTILITY IN FERROELECTRIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES AND HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN FILM MICROACTUATORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor); Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  3. Treatment of antipsychotic-associated obesity with a GLP-1 receptor agonist—protocol for an investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study: the TAO study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ishøy, Pelle L; Knop, Filip K; Broberg, Brian V; Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Andersen, Ulrik B; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic medication is widely associated with dysmetabolism including obesity and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular-related diseases and early death. Obesity is considered the single most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interventions against antipsychotic-associated obesity are limited and insufficient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their bodyweight-lowering effects have also been recognised in patients with non-diabetes. The primary endpoint of this trial is weight loss after 3 months of treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide once weekly) in patients with non-diabetic schizophrenia with antipsychotic-associated obesity. Secondary endpoints include physiological and metabolic measurements, various psychopathological and cognitive measures, and structural and functional brain MRI. Methods and analysis 40 obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotic drugs will be randomised to subcutaneous injection of exenatide once weekly (2 mg) or placebo for 3 months, adjunctive to their antipsychotic treatment. Ethics and dissemination The trial has been approved by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the National Committee on Health Research Ethics and the Danish Data Protection Agency. Trial participation presupposes theoral and written patient informed consent. An external, independent monitoring committee (Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital) will monitor the study according to the GCP Guidelines. Trial data, including positive, negative and inconclusive results, will be presented at national and international scientific meetings and conferences. Papers will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01794429; National Committee on Health Research Ethics project number: 36378; EudraCT nr: 2012-005404-17; The Danish Data Protection Agency project number: RHP-2012-027. PMID:24401727

  4. Characterization of a Self-sufficient Trans-Anethole Oxygenase from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongfei; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2013-01-01

    A novel flavoprotein monooxygenase, trans-anethole oxygenase (TAO), from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1, which is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of trans-anethole to p-anisaldehyde, was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified. Enzymatic kinetics of diverse substrates and cofactors revealed that TAO is likely to be a novel self-sufficient flavoprotein monooxygenase. Enzyme assays of GST-TAO demonstrated that TAO catalyzed a trans-anethole oxidation reaction without auxiliary component enzyme-like electron-transfer flavin reductases. The single component TAO had the ability to reduce flavin cofactors and simultaneously oxidize trans-anthole to p-anisaldehyde. In the processes of reduction of flavin and oxidation of trans-anethole, TAO accepted various flavin and NAD(P)H cofactors. TAO also catalyzed oxidation of isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole, all of which contain the 2-propenyl functional group on the aromatic ring structure with different catalytic efficiency. TAO had the greatest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) with the original substrate, trans-anethole. Investigation about partially deleted mutants of TAO indicated that reductase active sites appeared to be located near the N terminal. Site directed mutagenesis studies also proved that the proposed flavin binding sites, Trp-38, Thr-43, Tyr-55, were critical for flavin reduction. However, disruption of any portion of TAO eliminated the oxygenase activity. PMID:24066043

  5. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  6. Turning Patrons into Partners When Choosing an Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Terry

    2004-01-01

    UCLA, which has one of the top 10 research libraries in the country, has been using Taos software since 1996. However in 2001, Sirsi Corp. announced that it was freezing development on Taos software. As the associate university librarian for information technology at UCLA, the author relates that it was his responsibility to lead the way through…

  7. Michael Naranjo, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary Carroll

    Michael Naranjo is a Pueblo Indian who, after much searching, has become a talented sculptor. The son of a Baptist minister, Michael grew up observing nature and exploring the countryside around Santa Clara (New Mexico), his birthplace. When he was nine, his family moved to Taos, where he watched the ceremonies of the Taos Pueblos with…

  8. TOOLKIT FOR ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-10-13

    The TAO project focuses on the development of software for large scale optimization problems. TAO uses an object-oriented design to create a flexible toolkit with strong emphasis on the reuse of external tools where appropriate. Our design enables bi-directional connection to lower level linear algebra support (for example, parallel sparse matrix data structures) as well as higher level application frameworks. The Toolkist for Advanced Optimization (TAO) is aimed at teh solution of large-scale optimization problemsmore » on high-performance architectures. Our main goals are portability, performance, scalable parallelism, and an interface independent of the architecture. TAO is suitable for both single-processor and massively-parallel architectures. The current version of TAO has algorithms for unconstrained and bound-constrained optimization.« less

  9. Thyroid Nodules

    MedlinePlus

    ... the base of your throat (near your Adam's apple) that regulates body functions such as heart rate, ... needed. Other Organizations Endocrine Society American Thyroid Association, Inc. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Questions to Ask ...

  10. Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... just within 10 or 20 miles of a plant? Can’t radiation be harmful farther away? The ... individuals residing within 10 miles of a nuclear plant. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends that KI ...

  11. Hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Ways to Donate American Thyroid Association » Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism means ... surgical removal of the thyroid, and radiation treatment. Hypothyroidism FAQS WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM? When ...

  12. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to Donate American Thyroid Association » Thyroid Surgery Thyroid Surgery Thyroid operations are advised for patients who ... Thyroid Nodules Thyroid Surgery Thyroid and Weight Thyroiditis Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery ...

  13. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    MedlinePlus

    American Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front ...

  14. Maximinus Daia, a Roman emperor who may have had Graves' disease and died of a thyrotoxic crisis.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the Roman emperor Maximinus Daia had Graves' disease and died of severe thyrotoxicosis. The information about this emperor's terminal illness is drawn from the writings of the 4th century writers Eusebius and Lactantius. An existing statue indicates that the emperor had bilateral Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:23624140

  15. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-14

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  16. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-01

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  17. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-14

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically. PMID:24832329

  18. Total account ownership. A new model for streamlining your business office staff.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Elizabeth W

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of medical practices are transforming their payer-based, account follow-up staffing model to total account ownership (TAO). This approach recognizes the equally important tasks of coding, claims transmission, payment posting and refunds, which are usually divided among business office staff. TAO assigns work by payer rather than function. It ensures a fully cross-trained business office and vastly reduces the economic impact of employee absences. In addition, TAO gives every employee approximately the same workload in terms of both quantity and complexity. PMID:17390579

  19. Damping of thermoacoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    A commonly encountered and troublesome problem in cryogenic systems is related to the occurrence of thermoacoustic oscillations (TAO). The oscillations are accompanied by large heat fluxes which can cause large increases in the boiloff from dewars. Such a boiloff can lead to a serious degradation in performance. It appears, therefore, highly advisable to incorporate mechanisms for damping TAO in those parts of the system where there oscillations might occur. The present investigation is concerned with the criteria for the design of such damping mechanisms. Attention is given to the theory regrading the suppression of TAO, a damper consisting of a capillary with a surge tank, and porous solid dampers.

  20. Obstruction of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Due to Emboli from the Thoracic Aorta in a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  1. A-site- and/or B-site-modified PbZrTiO3 materials and (Pb, Sr, Ca, Ba, Mg) (Zr, Ti, Nb, Ta)O3 films having utility in ferroelectric random access memories and high performance thin film microactuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor); Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  2. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies. PMID:26355261

  3. 78 FR 55075 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...- 20130724AGJ, From TAOS PUEBLO, NM, To SPRINGER, NM; GALAXY SYRACUSE LICENSEE LLC, Station WKRH, Facility ID 56996, BPH-20130708ABZ, From MINETTO, NY, To FAIR HAVEN, NY; GALAXY SYRACUSE LICENSEE LLC, Station...

  4. Transient Aortic Occlusion Augments Collateral Blood Flow and Reduces Mortality During Severe Ischemia due to Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Dong, Bin; Todd, Kathryn G; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Winship, Ian R

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral collateral circulation provides alternative vascular routes for blood to reach ischemic tissues during stroke. Collateral therapeutics attempt to augment flow through these collateral channels to reduce ischemia and brain damage during acute ischemic stroke. Transient aortic occlusion (TAO) has pre-clinical data suggesting that it can augment collateral blood flow and clinical data suggesting a benefit for patients with moderate cortical strokes. By diverting blood from the periphery towards the cerebral circulation, TAO has the potential to augment primary collateral flow at the circle of Willis and thereby improve outcome even during large, hemispheric strokes. Using proximal middle and anterior cerebral artery occlusion in rats, we demonstrate that TAO reduces mortality and improves collateral blood flow in severely ischemic animals. As such, TAO may be an effective therapy to reduce early mortality during severe ischemia associated with proximal occlusions. PMID:26706246

  5. Bustin Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    Protein Section, Laboratory of Metabolism Principal Investigator: Dr. Michael Bustin Staff Scientists: Dr. Yuri V. Postnikov Dr. Takashi Furusawa Research Associates: Dr. Mark Rochman Postdoctoral Associates: Dr. Eric Ciappio Dr. Tao Deng Dr. Jamie Kugler

  6. Trypanosome Alternative Oxidase Possesses both an N-Terminal and Internal Mitochondrial Targeting Signal

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, VaNae; Singha, Ujjal K.; Smith, Joseph T.; Weems, Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of mitochondrial targeting signals (MTS) by receptor translocases of outer and inner membranes of mitochondria is one of the prerequisites for import of nucleus-encoded proteins into this organelle. The MTS for a majority of trypanosomatid mitochondrial proteins have not been well defined. Here we analyzed the targeting signal for trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), which functions as the sole terminal oxidase in the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei. Deleting the first 10 of 24 amino acids predicted to be the classical N-terminal MTS of TAO did not affect its import into mitochondria in vitro. Furthermore, ectopically expressed TAO was targeted to mitochondria in both forms of the parasite even after deletion of first 40 amino acid residues. However, deletion of more than 20 amino acid residues from the N terminus reduced the efficiency of import. These data suggest that besides an N-terminal MTS, TAO possesses an internal mitochondrial targeting signal. In addition, both the N-terminal MTS and the mature TAO protein were able to target a cytosolic protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), to a T. brucei mitochondrion. Further analysis identified a cryptic internal MTS of TAO, located within amino acid residues 115 to 146, which was fully capable of targeting DHFR to mitochondria. The internal signal was more efficient than the N-terminal MTS for import of this heterologous protein. Together, these results show that TAO possesses a cleavable N-terminal MTS as well as an internal MTS and that these signals act together for efficient import of TAO into mitochondria. PMID:24562910

  7. Etiopathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans – current practices

    PubMed Central

    Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Dalio, Marcelo; Évora, Paulo RB; Piccinato, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a segmental inflammatory occlusive disorder that affects small- and medium-sized arteries, and arm and leg veins of young smokers. Several different diagnostic criteria have been offered for the diagnosis of TAO. Clinically, it manifests as migratory thrombophlebitis or signs of arterial insufficiency in the extremities. It is characterized by highly cellular and inflammatory occlusive thrombi, primarily of the distal extremities. Thromboses are often occlusive and sometimes display moderate, nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate, consisting mostly of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear cells and rare multinuclear giant cells. The immune system appears to play a critical role in the etiology of TAO. However, knowledge about immunological aspects involved in the progression of vascular tissue inflammation, and consequently, the evolution of this disease, is still limited. There are several studies that suggest the involvement of genetic factors and results have shown increasing levels of antiendothelial cell antibodies in patients with active disease. Vasodilation is impaired in patients with TAO. TAO disorder may actually be an autoimmune disorder, probably initiated by an unknown antigen in the vascular endothelium, possibly a component of nicotine. There are various therapies available for treatment of TAO, but the major and indispensable measure is smoking cessation. Except for discontinuation of tobacco use, no forms of therapy are definitive. Sympathectomy, cilostazol and prostaglandin analogues (prostacyclin or prostaglandin E) have been used in specific conditions. Recently, therapeutic angiogenesis with autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells has been studied in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:22477511

  8. Nonstoichiometric control of tunnel-filling order, thermal expansion, and dielectric relaxation in tetragonal tungsten Bronzes Ba0.5-xTaO3-x.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengjuan; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Fengqi; Wang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jiang; Kuang, Xiaojun; Véron, Emmanuel; Porcher, Florence; Suchomel, Matthew R; Wang, Jing; Allix, Mathieu

    2015-09-21

    Ordering of interpolated Ba(2+) chains and alternate Ta-O rows (TaO)(3+) in the pentagonal tunnels of tetragonal tungsten bronzes (TTB) is controlled by the nonstoichiometry in the highly nonstoichiometric Ba0.5-xTaO3-x system. In Ba0.22TaO2.72, the filling of Ba(2+) and (TaO)(3+) groups is partially ordered along the ab-plane of the simple TTB structure, resulting in a √2-type TTB superstructure (Pbmm), while in Ba0.175TaO2.675, the pentagonal tunnel filling is completely ordered along the b-axis of the simple TTB structure, leading to a triple TTB superstructure (P21212). Both superstructures show completely empty square tunnels favoring Ba(2+) conduction and feature unusual accommodation of Ta(5+) cations in the small triangular tunnels. In contrast with stoichiometric Ba6GaTa9O30, which shows linear thermal expansion of the cell parameters and monotonic decrease of permittivity with temperature within 100-800 K, these TTB superstructures and slightly nonstoichiometric simple TTB Ba0.4TaO2.9 display abnormally broad and frequency-dependent extrinsic dielectric relaxations in 10(3)-10(5) Hz above room temperature, a linear deviation of the c-axis thermal expansion around 600 K, and high dielectric permittivity ∼60-95 at 1 MHz at room temperature. PMID:26347025

  9. [Perioperative treatment for the urgent orbital decompression surgery in a 30-weeks pregnant woman with Graves' orbitopathy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; López-Herrera-Rodríguez, D; Domínguez-Blanco, A; Medina-de Moya, I; Sánchez-Carrillo, F

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a rare extra-thyroid complication usually associated with Graves' disease. This disease can occur in the euthyroid pregnant patient. Graves' orbitopathy is characterized by eyelid retraction, proptosis, extraocular muscle dysfunction, and periorbital edema. In some cases an emergency surgical repair may be required to avoid irreversible vision loss. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman in her 30th gestational week, who suffered from Graves' ophthalmopathy, severe exophthalmia, and visual acuity decrease. Following consultations among anesthesiologists, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, endocrinologists, obstetricians and the patient, it was decided to perform a surgical orbital wall decompression. The anesthetic and perioperative implications associated with gestational age and the considerations for this surgical procedure, and how to avoid increasing intraocular pressure are discussed. PMID:23835254

  10. New insights into pathogenesis and potential therapeutic options for Graves orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Warwar, R E

    1999-10-01

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the seemingly heterogeneous tissues of the thyroid and orbit. Evidence suggests that these tissues share a common antigen: the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor protein. It is speculated that this antigen (which is present in orbital tissue in both normal patients and patients with Graves disease), together with the humoral factors present in the serum of patients with Graves disease, forms the basis for the immunologic attack seen in Graves ophthalmopathy. Once the immune response has been activated, a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines propagate inflammation, leading to the clinical findings typical of Graves ophthalmopathy. Knowledge of the specific inflammatory mediators involved may someday lead to the development of specific, clinically available immunomodulatory therapies for Graves eye disease. PMID:10621552

  11. [Eosinophilic myositis of the extraocular muscles. A case report].

    PubMed

    Mitra, S

    1998-09-01

    Extraocular polymyositis is a rare orbital disease in dogs and has to our knowledge never been described in other domestic animals. Typically, dogs are presented with a bilateral exophthalmos due to inflammatory swelling of the extraocular muscles, similar to the endocrine ophthalmopathy (Graves' disease) in man. The latter disease, however, has never been documented in animals. In this case report, clinical signs, differential diagnoses, diagnostic work-up and successful immunosuppressive therapy are described. PMID:9931994

  12. Elephantiasic pretibial myxedema in a patient with graves disease that resolved after 131I treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haifang; Jiang, Xue; Pan, Mingzhi; Huang, Rui

    2014-08-01

    Pretibial myxedema is a rare manifestation of Graves disease and is generally associated with ophthalmopathy. Steroids, immunoglobulin, or rituximab can have some therapeutic effect but not curative. Here we reported a 45-year-old man with history of hyperthyroidism for 20 years who developed severe bilateral pretibial myxedema. Three months after the treatment with I for his Graves disease, his pretibial myxedema was significantly improved. PMID:24830877

  13. Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism: pathophysiology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Robertas; Prange, Arthur J

    2006-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Other symptoms associated with the disease are goitre, ophthalmopathy, and psychiatric manifestations such as mood and anxiety disorders and, sometimes, cognitive dysfunction. Graves' hyperthyroidism may result in these latter manifestations via the induction of hyperactivity of the adrenergic nervous system. This review addresses the psychiatric presentations, and their pathophysiology and treatment, in patients with hyperthyroidism, based on literature identified by a PubMed/MEDLINE database search. Although the focus is on mental symptoms associated with Graves' disease, it is not always clear from the literature whether patients had Graves' disease: in some studies, the patients were thought to have Graves' disease based on clinical findings such as diffuse goitre or ophthalmopathy or on measurements of thyroid antibodies in serum; however, in other studies, no distinction was made between Graves' hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism from other causes. Antithyroid drugs combined with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are the treatments of choice for hyperthyroidism, as well as for the psychiatric disorders and mental symptoms caused by hyperthyroidism. A substantial proportion of patients have an altered mental state even after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism, suggesting that mechanisms other than hyperthyroidism, including the Graves' autoimmune process per se and ophthalmopathy, may also be involved. When psychiatric disorders remain after restoration of euthyroidism and after treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, specific treatment for the psychiatric symptoms, especially psychotropic drugs, may be needed. PMID:17044727

  14. Experimental and analytical study of thermal acoustic oscillations. [in the transfer and storage of cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal acoustic oscillations (TAO) data base was expanded by running a large number of tubes over a wide range of parameters known to affect the TAO phenomenon. These parameters include tube length, wall thickness, diameter, material, insertion length and length-to-diameter ratio. Emphasis was placed on getting good boiloff data. A large quantity of data was obtained, reduced, correlated and analyzed and is presented. Also presented are comparisons with previous types of correlations. These comparisons show that the boiloff data did not correlate with intensity. The data did correlate in the form used by Rott, that is boiloff versus TAO pressure squared times frequency to the one-half power. However, this latter correlation required a different set of correlation constants, slope and intercept, for each tube tested.

  15. In situ biodegradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands tailings pond water using indigenous algae-bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Hamed; Prasad, Vinay; Liu, Yang; Ulrich, Ania C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the biodegradation of total acid-extractable organics (TAOs), commonly called naphthenic acids (NAs), was investigated. An indigenous microbial culture containing algae and bacteria was taken from the surface of a tailings pond and incubated over the course of 120days. The influence of light, oxygen and the presence of indigenous algae and bacteria, and a diatom (Navicula pelliculosa) on the TAO removal rate were elucidated. The highest biodegradation rate was observed with bacteria growth only (without light exposure) with a half-life (t(1/2)) of 203days. The algae-bacteria consortium enhanced the detoxification process, however, bacterial biomass played the main role in toxicity reduction. Principal component analysis (PCA) conducted on FT-IR spectra, identified functional groups and bonds (representing potential markers for biotransformation of TAOs) as follows: hydroxyl, carboxyl and amide groups along with CH, arylH, arylOH and NH bonds. PMID:25841188

  16. Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioether Amido Sulfonate (Lodyne) in AFFF-Amended Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Houtz, Erika F; Yi, Shan; Field, Jennifer A; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (FtTAoS) were characterized by determining the fate of the compounds in soil and medium microcosms amended with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) solution. The biotransformation of FtTAoS occurred in live microcosms over approximately 40 days and produced 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FtS), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FtUCA), 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FtCA), and C4 to C8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Two biotransformation products corresponding to singly and doubly oxygenated forms of 6:2 FtTAoS were also identified through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and liquid chromatography tandem-MS. An oxidative assay was used to indirectly quantify the total concentration of polyfluorinated compounds and check the mass balance. The assay produced near complete mass recovery of FtTAoS after biotransformation, with 10% (mol/mol) of the amended FtTAoS accounted for in FtS, FtCA, and PFCA products. The transformation rates of identified products appear to be slow relative to FtTAoS, indicating that some intermediates may persist in the environment. This study confirms some of the sources of FtS and PFCAs in groundwater and soil at AFFF-impacted sites and suggests that fluorinated intermediates that are not routinely measured during the biotransformation of PFASs may accumulate. PMID:26042823

  17. Isolation of a Gene Responsible for the Oxidation of trans-Anethole to para-Anisaldehyde by Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 and Its Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongfei; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kanaly, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A plasmid, pTA163, in Escherichia coli contained an approximately 34-kb gene fragment from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 that included the genes responsible for the metabolism of trans-anethole to protocatechuic acid. Three Tn5-disrupted open reading frame 10 (ORF 10) mutants of plasmid pTA163 lost their abilities to catalyze trans-anethole. Heterologously expressed ORF 10 (1,047 nucleotides [nt]) under a T7 promoter in E. coli catalyzed oxidative cleavage of a propenyl group of trans-anethole to an aldehyde group, resulting in the production of para-anisaldehyde, and this gene was designated tao (trans-anethole oxygenase). The deduced amino acid sequence of TAO had the highest identity (34%) to a hypothetical protein of Agrobacterium vitis S4 and likely contained a flavin-binding site. Preferred incorporation of an oxygen molecule from water into p-anisaldehyde using 18O-labeling experiments indicated stereo preference of TAO for hydrolysis of the epoxide group. Interestingly, unlike the narrow substrate range of isoeugenol monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida IE27 and Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1, TAO from P. putida JYR-1 catalyzed isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole, all of which contain the 2-propenyl functional group on the aromatic ring structure. Addition of NAD(P)H to the ultrafiltered cell extracts of E. coli (pTA163) increased the activity of TAO. Due to the relaxed substrate range of TAO, it may be utilized for the production of various fragrance compounds from plant phenylpropanoids in the future. PMID:22610435

  18. Structural and electronic investigations of PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 constructed from α-U3O8 types of layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Maggard, Paul A.

    2015-09-01

    The PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 phases were prepared by ion-exchange and solid-state methods, respectively, and their structures were characterized by neutron time-of-flight diffraction and Rietveld refinement methods (PbTa4O11, R 3 (No. 146), a=6.23700(2) Å, c=36.8613(1) Å; BiTa7O19, P 6 bar c 2 (No. 188), a=6.2197(2) Å, c=20.02981(9) Å). Their structures are comprised of layers of TaO6 octahedra surrounded by three 7-coordinate Pb(II) cations or two 8-coordinate Bi(III) cations. These layers alternate down the c-axis with α-U3O8 types of single and double TaO7 pentagonal bipyramid layers. In contrast to earlier studies, both phases are found to crystallize in noncentrosymmetric structures. Symmetry-lowering structural distortions within PbTa4O11, i.e. R 3 bar c →R3, are found to be a result of the displacement of the Ta atoms within the TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra, towards the apical and facial oxygen atoms, respectively. In BiTa7O19, relatively lower reaction temperatures leads to an ordering of the Bi/Ta cations within a lower-symmetry structure, i.e., P63/mcm→ P 6 bar c 2 . In the absence of Bi/Ta site disorder, the Ta-O-Ta bond angles decrease and the Ta-O bond distances increase within the TaO7 double layers. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal two particle morphologies for PbTa4O11, hexagonal rods and finer irregularly-shaped particles, while BiTa7O19 forms as aggregates of irregularly-shaped particles. Electronic-structure calculations confirm the highest-energy valence band states are comprised of O 2p-orbitals and the respective Pb 6s-orbital and Bi 6s-orbital contributions. The lowest-energy conduction band states are composed of Ta 5d-orbital contributions that are delocalized over the TaO6 octahedra and layers of TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The symmetry-lowering distortions in the PbTa4O11 structure, and the resulting effects on its electronic structure, lead to its relatively higher photocatalytic activity compared to similar structures without these distortions.

  19. Endoscopic Endonasal Management of Orbital Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Paolo; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Locatelli, Davide; Dallan, Iacopo

    2015-07-01

    Based on the anatomic relationship between sinonasal complex and orbit, endoscopic transnasal procedures could be a smart solution for approaching the medial orbital region. These techniques should be considered a valid option for optic nerve or orbital wall decompression in cases of Graves ophthalmopathy and post-traumatic optic neuropathy as well as for addressing extraconal or intraconal lesions placed medially to the optic nerve course. This article describes the anatomic principles, indications, technical nuances, and limitations of the endoscopic endonasal approaches for the management of selected orbital pathologic abnormalities. PMID:26141364

  20. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with shallow orbits and floppy eyelid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ezra, Daniel G; Derriman, Lucia; Mellingtion, Faye E; Jayaram, Hari; Badia, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous globe luxation is a rare and distressing phenomenon. We report three cases which characterise the aetiology of spontaneous anterior globe luxation in the presence of a shallow orbital configuration and lax eyelids. All patients suffered from floppy eyelid syndrome (FES). Orbital imaging revealed no orbital masses and normal extraocular muscles. Shallow orbits with significant globe projection was noted. There was no clinical, radiological or serological evidence of thyroid ophthalmopathy. In this group of patients, the aetiology of spontaneous globe luxation is likely to be contingent on both shallow orbits and lax eyelids. The different treatment options for this condition are considered. PMID:18307149

  1. Grover

    Grover was built in just four months in 1971 by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program (called the Branch of Astrogeology at the time) and used to training Apollo 15-17 astronauts at the Cinder Lakes training ground near Flagstaff, in California's Mojave Desert, and in the Rio Grande gorge near Taos...

  2. The Role of Discursive Resources in Science Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper addresses a debate between two hypotheses of children's development of conceptual understandings of the Earth. The authors aim to investigate whether culture influences students' conceptions of the Earth. However, one questionable assumption shared among conception and conceptual change studies is that researchers…

  3. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural

  4. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The…

  5. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  6. Taoist Lessons for Educational Leaders: Gentle Pathways to Resolving Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This book explores ways in which educational leaders can apply the wisdom of the Tao in their day-to-day work in schools. It offers an alternative to the standard ways of western thinking to give the leader more possibilities when confronting a situation. We tend to value immediate and decisive action, winning, directing, and getting one's way.…

  7. THE TAIWANESE-AMERICAN OCCULTATION SURVEY PROJECT STELLAR VARIABILITY. II. DETECTION OF 15 VARIABLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lin, H.-C.; Alcock, C.; Bianco, F. B.; Lehner, M. J.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Coehlo, N. K.; Rice, J. A.; Cook, K. H.; Marshall, S. L.; Dave, R.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Schwamb, M. E.

    2010-05-15

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data-covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days-are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17{sup h}30{sup m}6.{sup s}7, decl. = 27{sup 0}17'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg{sup 2} field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  8. THE TAIWAN-AMERICAN OCCULTATION SURVEY PROJECT STELLAR VARIABILITY. I. DETECTION OF LOW-AMPLITUDE {delta} SCUTI STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C.; Wright, N. J.; Bianco, F. B.; Lehner, M. J.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kyeong, J.; Lee, B.-C.; Axelrod, T.; Chen, W.-P.; Lin, H.-C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Rice, J. A.; Cook, K. H.; Marshall, S. L.; Dave, R.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Porrata, R.

    2010-02-15

    We analyzed data accumulated during 2005 and 2006 by the Taiwan-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) in order to detect short-period variable stars (periods of {approx}<1 hr) such as {delta} Scuti. TAOS is designed for the detection of stellar occultation by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects and is operating four 50 cm telescopes at an effective cadence of 5 Hz. The four telescopes simultaneously monitor the same patch of the sky in order to reduce false positives. To detect short-period variables, we used the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT) in as much as the data points in TAOS light curves are evenly spaced. Using FFT, we found 41 short-period variables with amplitudes smaller than a few hundredths of a magnitude and periods of about an hour, which suggest that they are low-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars. The light curves of TAOS {delta} Scuti stars are accessible online at the Time Series Center Web site (http://timemachine.iic.harvard.edu)

  9. We Shared the Same Chapter: Collaboration, Learning, and Transformation from the 2008 Subsistence, the Environment, and Community Well-Being Native Youth Exchange in Old Harbor, Alaska Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Laurie; Di Piero, Daniela; Espinoza, Flowers; Simeonoff, Teacon; Faraday, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    On a small island belonging to the Alutiiq people of Old Harbor, 11 people sat around a campfire. Two community leaders, a nonprofit organizer, an academic scholar, a native filmmaker, and six young people from the Indian reservation of Taos Pueblo in New Mexico gathered after a day of interacting with Old Harbor residents--fishing, hunting and…

  10. A Study on the Application of Laozi's Thoughts on Educational Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Lian-shiung; Hwang, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply historical methods to help understand the relationship between the philosophy espoused in the works of Laozi or Tao De Ching and educational leadership. The objective is to study the thought of Laozi regarding leadership, to identify ideas and solutions that can be applied in modern educational management, as well as…

  11. 75 FR 24686 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Ohkay Owingeh Conference Center, North Taos Highway 68, San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico 87566. FOR...

  12. 75 FR 53280 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Pueblo Sur, Taos, New Mexico 87571. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  13. Emphasis on Interpersonal Factors in a Dynamic Model of Relapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Relapse Prevention Needs More Emphasis on Interpersonal Factors" by Stanton which is a comment on the original article "Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao" by Katie Witkiewitz and G. Alan Marlatt. In the current comment the authors of the original article respond to…

  14. Relapse Prevention Needs More Emphasis on Interpersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao," by Katie Witkiewitz and G.A. Marlatt. Stanton notes that the recent reconceptualization of relapse prevention by Witkiewitz and Marlatt enhances the model by "synthesizing recent empirical findings into a unified theory", but it does…

  15. The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration, September 12-14, 2002, in Taos, New Mexico. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  16. The Role of Discursive Resources in Science Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper addresses a debate between two hypotheses of children's development of conceptual understandings of the Earth. The authors aim to investigate whether culture influences students' conceptions of the Earth. However, one questionable assumption shared among conception and conceptual change studies is that researchers

  17. 78 FR 43912 - Final Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances, Final Environmental Assessment, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Ranch in Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado. The CCAA was developed in support of a... Assessment, and Finding of No Significant Impact; Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout, New Mexico and Colorado AGENCY...) for the Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki virginialis) in New Mexico and Colorado,...

  18. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM... remains was made by the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) professional staff in...

  19. Killing Mosquitoes and Keeping Practice: Teacher Education as Sustaining Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, David Lee

    2013-01-01

    The moral and ethical charge of teaching and teacher education includes sustaining equanimity and paradox, and maintaining poise amongst contradicting policies and interests. This paper draws upon the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching to address some paradoxes in education and teacher preparation. Specifically, the article looks at four chapters of the

  20. 76 FR 75556 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Intent published in the Federal Register (71 FR 30446). A Notice of Availability of the Draft RMP/Draft EIS was published on June 10, 2010, in the Federal Register (75 FR 32963) to announce a 90-day public... meetings in Santa Fe, Espa ola, and Taos to assist the public in their review of the Draft and to...

  1. A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumitani, Yukihiro

    In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…

  2. Cultural Issues of School Dropouts in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yuk King; Tsang, Bill Y. P.; Kwok, Diana K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the 150 years of British colonial governance in Hong Kong, Chinese collectivist culture continues to be a dominant source of influence in the learning context of students (Cheng, 1998; Salili, Lai and Leung, 2004; Tao and Hong, 2000), placing a great emphasis on education and effort (Salili and Lai, 2003). Education is viewed as the…

  3. The Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Thromboangiitis obliterans: Is It Still a Mystery?

    PubMed

    Ma?ecki, Rafa?; Kluz, Joanna; Prze?dziecka-Do?yk, Joanna; Adamiec, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a rare disease of unknown etiology that results in the occlusion of limb arteries located distally to the elbow and knee. Despite the fact that more than one hundred years have passed since its first description, knowledge on the pathogenesis of TAO and precipitating factors is still limited. Due to a lack of decisive noninvasive diagnostic methods and geographical differences in the prevalence of this condition, data on TAO epidemiology also remains sparse. This review presents important evidence on the pathogenesis and the course of the condition, as well as diagnostic modalities, with a focus on differential diagnosis. Theories on the pathogenesis of TAO include the theory of an infectious disease, coagulation disorders and injury to vascular endothelium resulting in activation of the inflammatory response. Differential diagnosis should exclude thoracic outlet syndrome, blue toe syndrome, infectious endocarditis, popliteal entrapment syndrome, Takayasu disease, primary and secondary systemic vasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome, infection with the anaerobic Clostridium sp. bacilli and some less common conditions. PMID:26771983

  4. Remarkable charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device with (TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.1} composite charge-storage dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, K.; Ou, X.; Cao, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Lu, W.; Xu, B.; Li, A. D.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J. Liu, Z. G.; Lan, X. X.; Gong, C. J.

    2014-06-30

    A memory device p-Si/SiO{sub 2}/(TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.1}(TAO-81)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt was fabricated, in which a composite of two high-k dielectrics with a thickness of 1 nm was employed as the charge-trapping layer to enhance the charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device. At an applied gate voltage of ±9 V, TAO-81 memory device shows a memory window of 8.83 V in its C-V curve. It also shows a fast response to a short voltage pulse of 10{sup −5} s. The charge-trapping capability, the endurance, and retention characteristics of TAO-81 memory device can be improved by introducing double TAO-81 charge-trapping layers intercalated by an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The charge-trapping mechanism in the memory device is mainly ascribed to the generation of the electron-occupied defect level in the band gap of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced by the inter-diffusion between TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. 75 FR 2889 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 28, 1996 (61 FR 33774... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 12, 2008 (73 FR 75772). Patricia A. Brink... REPUBLIC OF CHINA; Lenovo, Quarry Bay, HONG KONG- CHINA; and Quanta Computer Inc., Tao Yuan Shien,...

  6. Theoretical study on low dielectric loss perovskites Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kageyama, Keisuke; Higuchi, Yukio; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke

    2015-10-01

    We performed first-principles theoretical calculations on microwave dielectric compounds Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, to clarify the origin of high Q characteristics in the Zn/Ta ordered structure. It was found that Zn atoms suppress the intrinsic ferroelectric nature of Slater mode vibration in TaO6 octahedra. This results in the improvement of harmonicity in lattice vibration. There are two important mechanisms. One is the compression of TaO6 octahedra by adjacent ZnO6, and then the double-well potential that TaO6 originally has is narrowed to be single-well with higher harmonicity. The other is the weakening of the covalent character of Ta-O bonds by adjacent Zn atoms, which is the origin of the double-well potential. In the fully ordered Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, all Ta atoms are adjacent to Zn atoms, where Zn atoms have the maximum effect on improving harmonicity. Thus, highly ordered Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 with prolonged heat treatment exhibits a high Q value.

  7. Single crystalline tantalum oxychloride microcubes: controllable synthesis, formation mechanism and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hao; Xu, Leilei; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo

    2015-08-11

    Single crystalline microcubes of a new tantalum compound, tantalum oxychloride (TaO2.18Cl0.64), have been fabricated hydrothermally in a concentrated aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid. They contain a superstructure and exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production due to the improved light harvest and facilitated charge transport. PMID:26143863

  8. Killing Mosquitoes and Keeping Practice: Teacher Education as Sustaining Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, David Lee

    2013-01-01

    The moral and ethical charge of teaching and teacher education includes sustaining equanimity and paradox, and maintaining poise amongst contradicting policies and interests. This paper draws upon the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching to address some paradoxes in education and teacher preparation. Specifically, the article looks at four chapters of the…

  9. Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…

  10. Curing the Medical Manpower Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1973-01-01

    The OEO-funded Sangre de Cristo Comprehensive Health System in Costilla and Conejos Counties, Colorado, and northern Taos County, New Mexico, utilizes medical practitioners who are certified to practice a variety of medical techniques under the supervision of licensed physicians. (JM)

  11. Global Education and Local School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George

    1983-01-01

    Change strategies that focus on improving local schools' abilities to manage change are described, and examples of how the strategies can be applied to help the schools prepare students for life in a global society are furnished. Specific strategies are based on the work of Las Palomas de Taos, an agency promoting change in the Southwest. (PP)

  12. 78 FR 18783 - Establishment of the R[iacute]o Grande del Norte National Monument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... code 3295-F3 ] TD28MR13.010 [FR Doc. 2013-07406 Filed 3-27-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 4310-10-C #0; ... Servilleta lava basalts and rhyolites, the Taos Plateau has long been a center of research in geology...

  13. Group Counseling With Emotionally Disturbed School Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Peter

    The application of group counseling to emotionally disturbed school children in Chinese culture was examined. Two junior high schools located in Tao-Yuan Province were randomly selected with two eighth-grade classes randomly selected from each school. Ten emotionally disturbed students were chosen from each class and randomly assigned to two…

  14. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The

  15. Mining the Values in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Schools must provide opportunities for students to discover what is most worth knowing, as they prepare to be citizens, good workers, good private individuals. Formal curriculum is one vehicle for teaching Tao (universal path to becoming a good person). Hidden curriculum can also convey profound teachings, if a spirit of fairness predominates,…

  16. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  17. Harbor in the Storm: Institutional Research in the Age of Accountability. NEAIR 36th Annual Conference Proceedings (Baltimore, Maryland, November 7-10, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessandro, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The NEAIR 2009 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Baltimore, Maryland conference. Papers in this document include: (1) A Principle Components Analysis of The Determinants of Student Satisfaction at a Historically Black Institution (Tao Gong and Jacqueline V. Parham); (2) Assessing and Enhancing Graduates'…

  18. The Plumed Serpent and the Red Atlantis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, William

    1988-01-01

    Examines work of author D.H. Lawrence and John Collier, later Bureau of Indian Affairs Commissioner, during 1920s when they stayed as Mabel Dodge Luhan's guests in Taos, New Mexico. Examines their perceptions of Pueblo Indian culture, federal-Indian relationship, and Indian influences on Lawrence's and Collier's work. (TES)

  19. 76 FR 18059 - Taxpayer Assistance Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... (REG-152166-05) relating to taxpayer assistance orders was published in the Federal Register (74 FR... (TD 8403) published on March 23, 1992, in the Federal Register (57 FR 9975) defined the term... IRS employees. A TAO will not be issued to IRS Criminal Investigation division (CI), or any...

  20. 75 FR 67966 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery and...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator of EPA Region 6 is hereby granting a project waiver of the... Taos' technical specifications. This is a project specific waiver and only applies to the use of...

  1. Direct determination of gold in rock samples using collision cell quadrupole ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Yim, Seong A; Choi, Man Sik; Chae, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determination of Au in rock samples using collision cell quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is essential to remove various interferents using a collision cell because polyatomic ions such as (181)Ta(16)O(+) and (180)Hf(16)O(1)H(+) can interfere with the direct determination of monoisotopic (197)Au when using ICP-MS. The addition of oxygen as a reaction gas removed isobaric interferents by transforming TaO(+) and HfOH(+) to TaO(2)(+), TaO(3)(+), and HfO(2)H(+), HfO(3)H(+), respectively, in the cell without significant Au(+) loss. The ion kinetic energy effect (IKEE) due to the potential difference between the plasma and the hexapole affected the reactions in the cell. Au and interfering ions were very sensitive to cell bias voltage (Vc) at constant plasma potential (Vp) and quadrupole bias voltage (Vq). Under the condition of hot plasma, the transmission of ions was promoted, and the maximum Au signal intensity was 50% greater than under normal conditions. At Vc > 7 V, TaO(+) ions were removed to background level. Optimized conditions for real sample analysis were obtained by introducing He as an additional collision gas in hot plasma. TaO(+) ions were removed to background level at He flow rates above 0.6 mL min(-1), and the Au signal remained high. The detection limit (three times the standard deviation of the blank) of this method was 3.06 pg g(-1). The results for reference materials (STM-1 and DGPM-1) and spiked samples showed good agreement between specified and measured concentrations. PMID:22045542

  2. A Modified ELISA Accurately Measures Secretion of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (HA) by Graves' Disease Orbital Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Excess production of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid [HA]) in the retro-orbital space is a major component of Graves' ophthalmopathy, and regulation of HA production by orbital cells is a major research area. In most previous studies, HA was measured by ELISAs that used HA-binding proteins for detection and rooster comb HA as standards. We show that the binding efficiency of HA-binding protein in the ELISA is a function of HA polymer size. Using gel electrophoresis, we show that HA secreted from orbital cells is primarily comprised of polymers more than 500 000. We modified a commercially available ELISA by using 1 million molecular weight HA as standard to accurately measure HA of this size. We demonstrated that IL-1β-stimulated HA secretion is at least 2-fold greater than previously reported, and activation of the TSH receptor by an activating antibody M22 from a patient with Graves' disease led to more than 3-fold increase in HA production in both fibroblasts/preadipocytes and adipocytes. These effects were not consistently detected with the commercial ELISA using rooster comb HA as standard and suggest that fibroblasts/preadipocytes may play a more prominent role in HA remodeling in Graves' ophthalmopathy than previously appreciated. PMID:24302624

  3. Complete inhibition of rhTSH-, Graves' disease IgG-, and M22-induced cAMP production in differentiated orbital fibroblasts by a low-molecular-weight TSHR antagonist.

    PubMed

    van Zeijl, Clementine J J; van Koppen, Chris J; Surovtseva, Olga V; de Gooyer, Marcel E; Plate, Ralf; Conti, Paolo; Karstens, Willem-Jan; Timmers, Marco; Saeed, Peerooz; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Miltenburg, André M M; Fliers, Eric; Boelen, Anita

    2012-05-01

    The TSH receptor (TSHR) on orbital fibroblasts (OF) is a proposed target of the autoimmune attack in Graves' ophthalmopathy. In the present study, we tested whether the novel low-molecular-weight (LMW) TSHR antagonist Org-274179-0 inhibits cAMP production induced by rhTSH, Graves' disease IgG (GD-IgG), or M22 (a potent human monoclonal TSHR stimulating antibody) in cultured and differentiated OF from Graves' ophthalmopathy patients. cAMP production significantly increased after incubation either with 10 mU/ml rhTSH (3-fold; P ≤ 0.05), 1 mg/ml GD-IgG (2-fold; P ≤ 0.05), or 500 ng/ml M22 (5-fold; P ≤ 0.05). Incubation with the LMW TSHR antagonist dose dependently inhibited rhTSH, GD-IgG as well as the M22-induced cAMP production at nanomolar concentrations; complete blockade was affected at 10(-6) M. Our results suggest that GD-IgG- and M22-induced cAMP production in differentiated OF is exclusively mediated via the TSHR because it can be completely blocked by the LMW TSHR antagonist, Org 274179-0. PMID:22419705

  4. The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification schemes are useful in the formulation of differential diagnoses. Thoughtful commentary has been devoted to the classification of blepharoptosis, but the causes of eyelid retraction have received less attention in published reports. Although eyelid retraction most frequently is associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy, numerous other entities may cause the sign. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. METHODS: A series of patients with eyelid retraction was studied, and pertinent published reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with different causes for eyelid retraction are described. Normal thyroid function and regulation were confirmed in all patients in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy could not be excluded by clinical, biochemical, or historical criteria. CONCLUSION: Based on a series of patients and reported cases, a differential diagnosis for eyelid retraction is proposed using a classification system comprising three categories (neurogenic, myogenic, and mechanistic). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B PMID:8719687

  5. Efficacy of corticosteroids and external beam radiation in the management of moderate to severe thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Zoumalan, Christopher I; Cockerham, Kimberly P; Turbin, Roger E; Volpe, Nicholas J; Kazim, Michael; Douglas, Raymond S; Feldon, Steven E

    2007-09-01

    Thyroid Eye Disease (TED, Graves ophthalmopathy, thyroid ophthalmopathy) is the most common cause of orbital inflammation and proptosis in adults. There is no agreement on its management although corticosteroids and external beam orbital radiation (XRT) have traditionally been believed to provide benefit in active inflammation. Our review of the published literature in English disclosed an overall corticosteroid-mediated treatment response of 66.9% in a total of 834 treated patients who had moderate or severe TED. Intravenous corticosteroids used in repeated weekly pulses were more effective (overall favorable response = 74.6%, n = 177) and had fewer side effects than daily oral corticosteroids (overall favorable response = 55.5%, n = 265). A combination of corticosteroid and radiation therapy seemed to be more effective than corticosteroids alone. Our conclusions are tempered by a notable lack of standardization within and between study designs, treatment protocols, and outcome measures. Accordingly, the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS), American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) and the Orbital Society, in conjunction with Neuro-Ophthalmology Research and Development Consortium (NORDIC), will investigate the design and funding of a multi-center controlled trial. PMID:17895822

  6. Role of CYP3A in ethanol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostrubsky, V E; Szakacs, J G; Jeffery, E H; Wood, S G; Bement, W J; Wrighton, S A; Sinclair, P R; Sinclair, J F

    1997-04-01

    CYP2E is considered the only form of cytochrome P450 responsible for ethanol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. However, in experimental systems used for investigating ethanol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, animals are withdrawn from ethanol for 16 to 24 hr before the administration of acetaminophen to ensure the clearance of ethanol from the circulation. In rats, CYP2E has been shown to decrease to control levels after this time period of withdrawal from ethanol. We have previously shown in cultured human and rat hepatocytes, and in intact rats, that ethanol induces CYP3A in addition to CYP2E. To determine if there might be a role for CYP3A in ethanol-mediated APAP hepatotoxicity in addition to the recognized role for CYP2E, we investigated the effect of triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) on acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in ethanol-pretreated rats, as well as the effect of 11 hr withdrawal from ethanol on hepatic levels of CYP3A and CYP2E. TAO was dissolved in saline instead of dimethylsulfoxide, the solvent most usually employed, since dimethylsulfoxide inhibits CYP2E. Rats were administered 6.3% ethanol as part of the Lieber-DeCarli diet for 7 days, followed by replacement of the liquid diet with water for 11 hr. This 11-hr withdrawal from ethanol resulted in a decrease in hepatic levels of ethanol-induced CYP2E; however, considerable induction was still evident. There was no significant decrease in CYP3A. TAO completely prevented the histologically observed liver damage from acetaminophen in ethanol-pretreated rats, but did not prevent the increase in serum levels of AST. In ethanol-pretreated rats, exposure to APAP in the absence of TAO was associated with a 75% decrease in CYP3A, compared to animals exposed to APAP in the presence of TAO. These results suggest that CYP3A may have been suicidally inactivated by acetaminophen in the absence of TAO. Our findings suggest that CYP3A has a major role in ethanol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. PMID:9144448

  7. Photocatalytic indium-Tantalum-oxide and its Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantser, V. G.; Zhitar, V.; Muntean, S.; Ursachi, V.; Volodina, G.; Caplin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Both bulk ceramic and powder like samples In0.9 Ni0.1TaO4 photocatalythic semiconductor oxides have been obtained by the method of solid phase reactions. The photocatalythic activity on water splitting has been investigated using for identification of hydrogen yield a chemoresistive gas sensor ROGS-3. For the first time the material photoluminescence (PL) properties have benn studied in the wide -350-850 nm and narrow -360-410 nm ranges of the light spectrum and some spectrum pecularities at T=10 and 300K are observed. The correlation between photocatalytic action of In0.9Ni0.1TaO4 on water splitting processes and its photoluminescence pecularities has been established. The materials with high photocatalytic activity are characterized by PL peak increase at 450 nm and the maximum attenuation at 660 nm.

  8. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. L.; Teo, K. L.; Zheng, K.; Sun, X. W.

    2016-03-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction.

  9. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J L; Teo, K L; Zheng, K; Sun, X W

    2016-03-18

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction. PMID:26878415

  10. Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Yeon; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Young-Hwan; Han, Jin-Woo; Han, Jeong-Min; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2008-01-28

    The homogeneously aligned liquid crystal display on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via ion beam (IB) irradiation was first embodied with controllability of pretilt angle depending on incident angle of the IB. As a result of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis, the intensity of Ta-O and O-Ta bondings as a function of incident angle behaved reversely with the pretilt angle and the lowest amplitude was observed at 45 deg. It revealed that the creation of pretilt angle was attributed to the irradiation of the IB by breaking Ta-O and O-Ta bonding so orientational order was generated by directional IB. Comparable electro-optical characteristics to rubbed polyimide were also achieved.

  11. Photocatalytic activity of R3MO7 and R2Ti2O7 (R=Y, Gd, La; M=Nb, Ta) for water splitting into H2 and O2.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryu; Higashi, Masanobu; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Abe, Yoshimoto; Sugihara, Hideki

    2006-02-01

    The photocatalytic activities of R3MO7 and R2Ti2O7 (R=Y, Gd, La; M=Nb, Ta) strongly depended on the crystal structure. Overall, photocatalytic water splitting into H2 and O2 proceeded over La3TaO7 and La3NbO7, which have an orthorhombic weberite structure, Y2Ti2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7, which have a cubic pyrochlore structure, and La2Ti2O7, which has a monoclinic perovskite structure. All of these materials are composed of a network of corner-shared octahedral units of metal cations (TaO6, NbO6, or TiO6); materials without such a network were inactive. The octahedral network certainly increased the mobility of electrons and holes, thereby enhancing photocatalytic activity. PMID:16471807

  12. CORBA Evaluations for the BABAR Online System

    SciTech Connect

    Glanzman, Thomas

    1998-11-03

    The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a software system to deal with distributed object computing. The release of CORBA version 2, and real implementations from numerous vendors (both freeware and payware) have made its use very attractive for interprocess and interprocessor communication within an object-oriented software system. A number of object request brokers (ORBs) were evaluated for possible use within the BABAR Online system. Given an expectation for a reasonable level of performance within the Online system, it was essential to characterize the behavior and test the response of these products prior to their adoption. This paper summarizes the results of a systematic performance study of six ORB products. The products tested include: Visibroker, Orbix, DAIS, Omnibroker, OmniORB2, and TAO. Performance results of ORB products, including a test of TCP/IP sockets, are compared. These tests resulted in the adoption of the TAO ORB for use within the BABAR Online system.

  13. Investigations of Ta film resistors on chemically vapor deposited diamond plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hua; Zhan, Ru-Juan; Zhou, Hai-Yang

    1999-12-01

    Ta films were deposited by sputtering on chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond plates to be used as resistors for microelectronic applications. The resistance temperature coefficient is only -10 ppm/°C when heating Ta film resistance from room temperature to 150°C. Meanwhile, no reaction is found at the interface between Ta and CVD diamond. These results show the Ta film resistance has high electrical and chemical stability in this temperature range. On the basis of data obtained by differential thermal analysis(DTA), it is found that the endothermic effects begin to appear for Ta/CVD diamond from 300°C. After heating Ta/CVD diamond up to 800°C, XRD analysis indicates that there are strong chemical reactions between Ta and CVD diamond to produce TaC, TaO, and TaO 2.

  14. Treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) with high-potency vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Gallo, David; Albarrán-Planelles, Cristina; Arjona-Aguilera, Cintia; Blanco-Sánchez, German; Rodríguez-Mateos, María Eugenia; Linares-Barrios, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease is a vascular inflammatory thrombotic occlusive and segmental disease affecting distal small and medium-sized arteries of the limbs. Tobacco is the main trigger factor and avoiding it is the main treatment. Frequently, it is necessary to use high-potency vasodilators, such as iloprost, bosentan, sildenafil, or alprostadil, to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of amputation. Iloprost is the only one that has been shown to be effective in randomized clinical trials. We report the third case of TAO treated with sildenafil and a new case treated with bosentan. This condition can be diagnosed and treated by a dermatologist. We would like to highlight the excellent clinical response despite the fact that patients continued to smoke. This finding may have important therapeutic implications because early treatment may prevent amputation and can be effective even during the process of giving up smoking. PMID:25649782

  15. A secure and reliable monitor and control system for remote observing with the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Gary; Souccar, Kamal; Malin, Daniella

    2004-09-01

    Remote access to telescope monitor and control capabilities necessitates strict security mechanisms to protect the telescope and instruments from malicious or unauthorized use, and to prevent data from being stolen, altered, or corrupted. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) monitor and control system (LMTMC) utilizes the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware technology to connect remote software components. The LMTMC provides reliable and secure remote observing by automatically generating SSLIOP enabled CORBA objects. TAO, the ACE open source Object Request Broker (ORB), now supports secure communications by implementing the Secure Socket Layer Inter-ORB Protocol (SSLIOP) as a pluggable protocol. This capability supplies the LMTMC with client and server authentication, data integrity, and encryption. Our system takes advantage of the hooks provided by TAO SSLIOP to implement X.509 certificate based authorization. This access control scheme includes multiple authorization levels to enable granular access control.

  16. 47 CFR 73.202 - Table of Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 73.202 see the List of CFR Sections Affected... *233A LOUISIANA Anacoco 276C3 Bordelonville 280A Cameron 296C3 Clayton 266A Colfax 267A Dulac 230A... Carrizozo 261C2 Clayton 248C1 Grants 244C3 Las Vegas 283C2, 296A Milan 270A Roswell 237C0 Taos 228A,...

  17. Anatomy of a nanoscale conduction channel reveals the mechanism of a high-performance memristor.

    PubMed

    Miao, Feng; Strachan, John Paul; Yang, J Joshua; Zhang, Min-Xian; Goldfarb, Ilan; Torrezan, Antonio C; Eschbach, Peter; Kelley, Ronald D; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R Stanley

    2011-12-15

    By employing a precise method for locating and directly imaging the active switching region in a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device, a nanoscale conducting channel consisting of an amorphous Ta(O) solid solution surrounded by nearly stoichiometric Ta(2) O(5) is observed. Structural and chemical analysis of the channel combined with temperature-dependent transport measurements indicate a unique resistance switching mechanism. PMID:22065427

  18. Is quinine a suitable probe to assess the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4?

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Paine, Mary F; Pusek, Susan N; Watkins, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the antimalarial agent quinine as a potential in vivo probe for hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. Methods Ten healthy adult volunteers received, by randomized crossover design, either a single oral dose of quinine sulphate (600 mg) alone, or quinine sulphate (600 mg) plus the CYP3A4 inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO; 500 mg every 8 h). Plasma and urine samples were collected before quinine administration, and up to 48 h thereafter, then analysed by h.p.l.c. for both quinine and its CYP3A4-generated metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine. During both phases, the erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) was administered at specific times to assess hepatic CYP3A4 activity. Results Compared with control, TAO treatment significantly decreased the mean time-averaged ERMBT result by 77% (95% CI, 68, 85%), the mean apparent oral clearance of quinine (CL/F) by 45% (95% CI, 39, 52%), and the mean apparent formation clearance of 3-hydroxyquinine (CL3-OH) by 81% (95% CI, 76, 87%). There was no correlation between the TAO-mediated percent decrease in the time-averaged ERMBT result and the percent decrease in CL/F or in CL3-OH. When TAO and control treatments were analysed separately, there were no significant correlations between the time-averaged ERMBT result and CL/F, CL3-OH, or single plasma quinine concentration at 12, 24, and 48 h. Conclusions Quinine may be a useful probe to detect inhibition of liver CYP3A4 activity within an individual. Further studies are needed to determine whether it can provide a quantitative measure of CYP3A4 activity suitable for intersubject comparison. PMID:12492613

  19. Self-compliance RRAM characteristics using a novel W/TaO x /TiN structure.

    PubMed

    Maikap, Siddheswar; Jana, Debanjan; Dutta, Mrinmoy; Prakash, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Self-compliance resistive random access memory (RRAM) characteristics using a W/TaO x /TiN structure are reported for the first time. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image shows an amorphous TaO x layer with a thickness of 7 nm. A thin layer of TiO x N y with a thickness of 3 nm is formed at the TaO x /TiN interface, owing to the oxygen accumulation nature of Ti. This memory device shows 100 consecutive switching cycles with excellent uniformity, 100 randomly picked device-to-device good uniformity, and program/erase endurance of >10(3) cycles. It is observed that the 0.6-μm devices show better switching uniformity as compared to the 4-μm devices, which is due to the thinner tungsten (W) electrode as well as higher series resistance. The oxygen-rich TaO x layer at the W/TaO x interface also plays an important role in getting self-compliance resistive switching phenomena and non-linear current-voltage (I-V) curve at low resistance state (LRS). Switching mechanism is attributed to the formation and rupture of oxygen vacancy conducting path in the TaO x switching material. The memory device also exhibits long read endurance of >10(6) cycles. It is found that after 400,000 cycles, the high resistance state (HRS) is decreased, which may be due to some defects creation (or oxygen moves away) by frequent stress on the switching material. Good data retention of >10(4) s is also obtained. PMID:24982604

  20. /TiN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maikap, Siddheswar; Jana, Debanjan; Dutta, Mrinmoy; Prakash, Amit

    2014-06-01

    Self-compliance resistive random access memory (RRAM) characteristics using a W/TaO x /TiN structure are reported for the first time. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image shows an amorphous TaO x layer with a thickness of 7 nm. A thin layer of TiO x N y with a thickness of 3 nm is formed at the TaO x /TiN interface, owing to the oxygen accumulation nature of Ti. This memory device shows 100 consecutive switching cycles with excellent uniformity, 100 randomly picked device-to-device good uniformity, and program/erase endurance of >103 cycles. It is observed that the 0.6-μm devices show better switching uniformity as compared to the 4-μm devices, which is due to the thinner tungsten (W) electrode as well as higher series resistance. The oxygen-rich TaO x layer at the W/TaO x interface also plays an important role in getting self-compliance resistive switching phenomena and non-linear current-voltage (I-V) curve at low resistance state (LRS). Switching mechanism is attributed to the formation and rupture of oxygen vacancy conducting path in the TaO x switching material. The memory device also exhibits long read endurance of >106 cycles. It is found that after 400,000 cycles, the high resistance state (HRS) is decreased, which may be due to some defects creation (or oxygen moves away) by frequent stress on the switching material. Good data retention of >104 s is also obtained.

  1. Geologic map of the Latir Volcanic Field, and adjacent areas, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Reed, J.C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Development of the Rio Grande Rift beginning at about 15 Ma was accompanied by development of the north-south trending normal faults along the western foot of the Taos Range. The rift is filled with thousands of meters of clastic sediments interleaved with basalt flows, some as young as 3.6 Ma. The bounding faults of the rift cut the Questa Caldera so that the western part of the original structure is now deeply buried beneath the rift fill.

  2. Self-compliance RRAM characteristics using a novel W/TaO x /TiN structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Self-compliance resistive random access memory (RRAM) characteristics using a W/TaO x /TiN structure are reported for the first time. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image shows an amorphous TaO x layer with a thickness of 7 nm. A thin layer of TiO x N y with a thickness of 3 nm is formed at the TaO x /TiN interface, owing to the oxygen accumulation nature of Ti. This memory device shows 100 consecutive switching cycles with excellent uniformity, 100 randomly picked device-to-device good uniformity, and program/erase endurance of >103 cycles. It is observed that the 0.6-μm devices show better switching uniformity as compared to the 4-μm devices, which is due to the thinner tungsten (W) electrode as well as higher series resistance. The oxygen-rich TaO x layer at the W/TaO x interface also plays an important role in getting self-compliance resistive switching phenomena and non-linear current-voltage (I-V) curve at low resistance state (LRS). Switching mechanism is attributed to the formation and rupture of oxygen vacancy conducting path in the TaO x switching material. The memory device also exhibits long read endurance of >106 cycles. It is found that after 400,000 cycles, the high resistance state (HRS) is decreased, which may be due to some defects creation (or oxygen moves away) by frequent stress on the switching material. Good data retention of >104 s is also obtained. PMID:24982604

  3. The value of FDG-PET in the diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans--a case series.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Gerald; Milosavljevic, Robert; Belaj, Klara; Gary, Thomas; Rief, Peter; Hafner, Franz; Lipp, Rainer W; Brodmann, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is an inflammatory vascular disease affecting dominantly the vessels of the extremities and is etiologically strongly associated with tobacco consumption. Different imaging techniques are generally used to exclude potential differential diagnoses. We investigated the value of (18) F-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18) F]FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of TAO. All consecutive patients with diagnosed TAO between Nov 2001 and Nov 2003 at our institution who underwent [(18) F]FDG-PET in the diagnostic workup were analyzed retrospectively. Whole-body scans were conducted after a fasting period of at least 6 h and blood glucose levels lower than 180 mg/dl. The primary endpoint was defined as significantly increased vascular FDG uptake. Tracer uptake was visually determined and, in accordance with strength, divided into grades 0 to 3. In total, ten patients were statistically evaluated. The median patient age at the date of the first [(18) F]FDG-PET was 41.5 years. Repetitive FDG-PET imaging was performed in seven out of ten patients (70 %). The endpoint was objectified in one of the initial examinations (10 %) and in another one out of seven follow-up scans (14.3 %). One positive [(18) F]FDG-PET was observed in the pelvic vessels and the other in the infrapopliteal arteries. Therefore, increased tracer uptake could be observed in two examinations on two different patients (both with grade 3 tracer uptake) out of 17 conducted [(18) F]FDG-PETs in total. The [(18) F]FDG-PET was not a suitable investigative procedure for the diagnosis of TAO in the present patient cohort. PMID:24794493

  4. Use of Ocean Remote Sensing Data to Enhance Predictions with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Surface height, sea surface temperature and surface wind observations from satellites have given a detailed time sequence of the initiation and evolution of the 1997/98 El Nino. The data have beet complementary to the subsurface TAO moored data in their spatial resolution and extent. The impact of satellite observations on seasonal prediction in the tropical Pacific using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model will be presented.

  5. Angularly-resolved elastic light scattering of micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B.

    From microbiology to astrophysics, the scientific community has long embraced elastic light scattering from small particles as a diagnostic tool. Elastic light scattering has an extremely large scattering cross-section, allowing for single particle interrogation. This is critical in applications where trace amounts of suspect particles are to be detected in a diverse background of natural aerosols. By angularly-resolving the elastically scattered light, features can be detected in these patterns that are sensitive to a particle's morphology (shape, size, internal structure, and composition). An apparatus to collect LA TAOS (Large-Angle Two-dimensional Angular Optical Scattering) patterns from single particles in-situ and in real-time was designed and constructed. The setup utilizes a cross-beam trigger system to minimize the effects of the aberration coma stemming from the main collection optic, an ellipsoidal mirror. LA TAOS patterns of ambient aerosols were collected and analyzed. Approximately 15% of the ambient aerosol had a sphere-like shape. The refractive index of these spheres was estimated by curve-fitting to Lorenz-Mie theory. In addition, the island features prevalent in the LA TAOS pattern were analyzed. Metrics generated from these were used to get partial discrimination between clusters of Bacillus subtilis spores (a simulant for anthrax) and aerosol particles found in the ambient atmosphere. A novel experimental setup for collecting simultaneously LA TAOS patterns at two wavelengths in the mid-infrared was also implemented. With this setup, the relative strength of single-particle absorption could be discerned at the two illuminating wavelengths.

  6. Regional discrimination studies: Phase III. Scientific report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, J.; Herrin, E.; Sorrells, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1, `Construction of Regional Ground Truth Data Bases Using Seismic And Infrasound Data` is by Gordon Sorrells, Eugene Herrin, and Jessie Bonner with contributions from Jack Swanson, Sarah Deering and Angela Maddox. Part 2, `Seismic And Infrasound Data Observations At TXAR` is by Jessie Bonner, Sarah Deering, Tao Liu, Jack Swanson and Ileana Tibuleac. Part 3, consists of the Acknowledgments called for by the contract.

  7. Enhanced resistive switching memory characteristics and mechanism using a Ti nanolayer at the W/TaO x interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Amit; Maikap, Siddheswar; Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Tien, Ta-Chang; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced resistive memory characteristics with 10,000 consecutive direct current switching cycles, long read pulse endurance of >105 cycles, and good data retention of >104 s with a good resistance ratio of >102 at 85°C are obtained using a Ti nanolayer to form a W/TiO x /TaO x /W structure under a low current operation of 80 μA, while few switching cycles are observed for W/TaO x /W structure under a higher current compliance >300 μA. The low resistance state decreases with increasing current compliances from 10 to 100 μA, and the device could be operated at a low RESET current of 23 μA. A small device size of 150 × 150 nm2 is observed by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of oxygen-deficient TaO x nanofilament in a W/TiO x /TaO x /W structure after switching is investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Oxygen ion (negative charge) migration is found to lead to filament formation/rupture, and it is controlled by Ti nanolayer at the W/TaO x interface. Conducting nanofilament diameter is estimated to be 3 nm by a new method, indicating a high memory density of approximately equal to 100 Tbit/in.2.

  8. Retracted: Enhanced resistive switching memory characteristics and mechanism using a Ti nanolayer at the W/TaO x interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Amit; Maikap, Siddheswar; Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Tien, Ta-Chang; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced resistive memory characteristics with 10,000 consecutive direct current switching cycles, long read pulse endurance of >105 cycles, and good data retention of >104 s with a good resistance ratio of >102 at 85°C are obtained using a Ti nanolayer to form a W/TiO x /TaO x /W structure under a low current operation of 80 μA, while few switching cycles are observed for W/TaO x /W structure under a higher current compliance >300 μA. The low resistance state decreases with increasing current compliances from 10 to 100 μA, and the device could be operated at a low RESET current of 23 μA. A small device size of 150 × 150 nm2 is observed by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of oxygen-deficient TaO x nanofilament in a W/TiO x /TaO x /W structure after switching is investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Oxygen ion (negative charge) migration is found to lead to filament formation/rupture rather than oxygen vacancy (hole) migration, and it is controlled by Ti nanolayer at the W/TaO x interface. Conducting nanofilament diameter is estimated to be 3 nm by a new method, indicating a high memory density of ≈100 Tbit/in2.

  9. Conservation priorities and optimum allocation of conservation funds for Vietnamese local chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuc, N T K; Weigend, S; Tieu, H V; Simianer, H

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate conservation potential of Vietnamese local breeds and to investigate optimal allocation of conservation funds to maximize genetic diversity conserved between these breeds. Twenty-nine microsatellites were genotyped in 353 individuals from nine Vietnamese local chicken breeds and two chicken breeds of Chinese origin. The Vietnamese chicken breeds were sampled from the northern and southern parts of Vietnam while the two Chinese breeds have been kept as conservation flocks at the National Institute of Animal Sciences, Hanoi. The Weitzman approach was used to assess alternative strategies for conserving genetic diversity between breeds. Three different models, which reflect the range of possible functions in typical conservation situations, were applied. An average extinction probability of 48.5% was estimated for all Vietnamese chicken breeds. The highest conservation potential was found in the Te, Dong Tao and Ac chicken breeds, whereas the lowest corresponding values were observed in the Ri and Mia chicken breeds. The conservation funds were mainly allocated to the same three breeds (Te, Dong Tao and Ac) under all three models. This study suggests that conservation potential of the Vietnamese chicken breeds varies considerably. Population priorities for allocation of conservation funds in this study do not depend on the cost model used. The three breeds (Te, Dong Tao and Ac) with the highest conservation potential should be the prime candidates to be allocated conservation funds if the conservation budgets are limited. PMID:21749475

  10. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  11. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.7410.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.5290.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  12. The Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory: Cloud-based Mock Galaxy Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren J.; Tonini, Chiara; Hodkinson, Luke; Hassan, Amr H.; Garel, Thibault; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Hegarty, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    We introduce the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO), an online virtual laboratory that houses mock observations of galaxy survey data. Such mocks have become an integral part of the modern analysis pipeline. However, building them requires expert knowledge of galaxy modeling and simulation techniques, significant investment in software development, and access to high performance computing. These requirements make it difficult for a small research team or individual to quickly build a mock catalog suited to their needs. To address this TAO offers access to multiple cosmological simulations and semi-analytic galaxy formation models from an intuitive and clean web interface. Results can be funnelled through science modules and sent to a dedicated supercomputer for further processing and manipulation. These modules include the ability to (1) construct custom observer light cones from the simulation data cubes; (2) generate the stellar emission from star formation histories, apply dust extinction, and compute absolute and/or apparent magnitudes; and (3) produce mock images of the sky. All of TAO’s features can be accessed without any programming requirements. The modular nature of TAO opens it up for further expansion in the future.

  13. Status report of Virtual Observatory at the National Central University of China Taipei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. K.; Ko, C. M.; Kinoshita, D.

    2007-08-01

    The idea of virtual observatory (VO) has started to get some attention in Taiwan. However, in order to join the VO community with minimum resources, we identify ourselves as a VO user instead of a developer. We implement the JVO skynode package to create a 2MASS star count map. According to level 6 Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM), the sky was divided into 32768 leaves with approximately 1 square degree resolution. We can study Galactic structure and initial mass function with this map. Our next goal is to publish a rather unique light curve data. National Central University is part of Taiwan-America Occultation Survey (TAOS) team. TAOS project will conduct a census of the number of Kuiper belt objects down to a few km size by monitoring chance stellar occultations by these cometary nuclei. Owing to a special observation strategy, called Zipped mode observation, TAOS can have sub-second photometry. We would like to publish this rather unique light curve database to the VO world.

  14. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease)—Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rahul; Kumar Prabhuswamy, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a nonatherosclerotic, segmental inflammatory disease that most commonly affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins in the upper and lower extremities. Cigarette smoking has been implicated as the main etiology of the disease. In eastern parts of the world TAO forms 40–60% of peripheral vascular diseases. Clinical features and angiographic finding are the basis of early diagnosis of TAO. Abstinence from smoking is the only definitive treatment to prevent disease progression. Medical management in form of aspirin, pentoxyfylline, cilostazol, and verapamil increase pain-free walking distance in intermittent claudication, but long term usage fails to prevent disease progression in patients who continue to smoke. Surgical treatment in form of revascularization, lumbar sympathectomy, omentopexy, and Ilizarov techniques help reduce pain and promote healing of trophic changes. Newer treatment modalities like spinal cord stimulation, prostacyclin, bosentan, VEGF, and stem cell therapy have shown promising results. Latest treatment options include peripheral mononuclear stem cell, and adipose tissue derived mononuclear stem cells have been shown to be effective in preventing disease progression, decrease major amputation rates, and improving quality of life. PMID:24102033

  15. Wernicke's encephalopathy after total parenteral nutrition in patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, In Seub; Seok, Hyeri; Eun, Yeong Hee; Lee, You-Bin; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are not uncommon and usually result in a combination of reduced dietary intake, disease-related malabsorption, and a catabolic state. Decreased serum thiamine levels are often reported in patients with CD. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe form of thiamine deficiency that can cause serious neurologic complications. Although WE is known to occur frequently in alcoholics, a number of non-alcoholic causes have also been reported. Here, we report two cases of non-alcoholic WE that developed in two severely malnourished CD patients who were supported by prolonged total parenteral nutrition without thiamine supplementation. These patients complained of sudden-onset ophthalmopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed definitive diagnosis for WE despite poor sensitivity. The intravenous administration of thiamine alleviated the symptoms of WE dramatically. We emphasize the importance of thiamine supplementation for malnourished patients even if they are not alcoholics, especially in those with CD. PMID:27175122

  16. Identification of subsets of patients with Graves' disease by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Stenszky, V; Balázs, C; Kozma, L; Rochlitz, S; Bear, J C; Farid, N R

    1983-04-01

    We have applied cluster analysis methods to forty-nine laboratory and clinical characteristics (including 26 HLA-A, B antigens) observed in 196 Graves' disease patients. Three subgroups could be identified: group I (seventy-nine patients) had small goitres, low indices of autoimmunity and a tendency to remission with medical treatment; group IIa (twenty-nine patients) had clinical and laboratory features of 'Hashitoxicosis'; Group IIb (eighty-four patients) had a high incidence of ophthalmopathy, familial aggregation, marked evidence of autoaggression and a tendency to relapsing hyperthyroidism. The prevalence of HLA-B8 was 8.9% in group I, 20.7% in group IIa and 86.9% in group IIb. This study demonstrates that Graves' disease can be subdivided using cluster analysis into clinically relevant subgroups which are further distinguished by their correlation with HLA-B8. Possible immunological bases for these observed patterns are discussed. PMID:6603289

  17. Hodgkin's disease and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ghandour, C; Le Prise, P Y; Hespel, J P

    1985-01-01

    In recent years we have had the occasion to observe hyperthyroidism in 6 patients with Hodgkin's disease. All patients had received Mantlefield irradiation and were disease-free when hyperthyroidism appeared. Hyperthyroidism allows three different pictures to be distinguished: 1 case report of Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy, 1 case report of Hashimoto's thyroiditis corresponding to a particular form called hashitoxicosis, and 4 case reports of atypical silent thyroiditis. Reports concerning case studies of postirradiation Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis during Hodgkin's disease are only to be found exceptionally. Atypical silent thyroiditis was recently individualized, but no postirradiation case studies have been reported. It is suggested that these 6 cases represent a radiation-induced immune thyroid disease: physiopathology and predisposing factors are discussed. PMID:3938157

  18. Case report of Graves’ disease manifesting with odynophagia and heartburn

    PubMed Central

    Evsyutina, Yulia; Trukhmanov, Alexander; Ivashkin, Vladimir; Storonova, Olga; Godjello, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease, which can manifest with a variety of extrathyroidal clinical syndromes like ophthalmopathy, pretibial myxedema (dermopathy), acropathy, cardiomyopathy, and encephalopathy. Though quite rare, this disease can also manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. We report a clinical case of Graves’ disease manifesting with dysfunction of the esophagus and heartburn in a 61-year-old man. In the muscular layer of the esophagus we found dystrophic changes led to its atony, which was documented by endoscopy and high-resolution manometry. The pathology features of esophageal symptoms were: focal proliferation of the basal cells, vascular distension, and dystrophy of the epithelial cells. Antithyroid treatment led to decrease of all clinical symptoms after 5 d of Thiamazole administration. Complete restoration of peristalsis in the esophagus, according to manometry, was observed in 1 mo after initiation of treatment. PMID:26730171

  19. [Zheng Yu-lin, a founder of the acupuncture and moxibustion cause of new China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-zhe; Liu, Jun-chi; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Jun-jiang

    2007-07-01

    Mr. ZHENG Yu-lin is one of the most outstanding acupuncture scientists in the modern times in our country. He inherits the learning handed down in a family and is bold in making innovations, successfully combines the exercises to benefit the internal organs with Chinese traditional acupuncture needling methods, forming a set of unique Zheng's needling methods, which is used for treatment of severe ophthalmopathy with excellent therapeutic effects, and is famed the world over. Main achievements: took on scientific researches of acupuncture and moxibustion, teaching and clinical works in the first stage of establishment of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicinel trains a large number of famous specificities of acupuncture and moxibustion for new China; advocates study on channel essence; cures stubborn diseases for leaders of friend countries undertaking the great trust of the central leaders for many times, becoming an important ties of Chinese political foreign affairs. PMID:17722840

  20. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  1. [The top ten researches of Chinese oculoplastic surgery and orbital disease in recent five years].

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Ten researches that may represent the progress in Chinese oculoplastic surgery and orbital disease were selected through voting by specialists from Chinese Society of Ophthalmic Plastics and Orbital Disease. These researches focused on the following fields: the endoscopic navigation system of orbital surgery, orbital bone regeneration and materials, comprehensive sequence treatment of retinoblastoma, the mechanism of thyroid related ophthalmopathy, the intervention strategy and evaluation of orbital development with congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia, blepharophimosis genotype-phenotype relationship and intervention strategies and clinical study of new materials for frontal muscle suspension. These studies represented the level and influence of Chinese oculoplastics and orbital disease in the international academic community and they were the landmark studies in our areas of expertise. PMID:26696579

  2. Granular L10 FePt:X (X = Ag, B, C, SiOx, TaOx) thin films for heat assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granz, Steven D.; Barmak, Katayun; Kryder, Mark H.

    2013-03-01

    Ordered L10 FePt thin films are of interest as potential Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording media. In order to achieve the microstructure and magnetic properties to support recording at densities beyond 1 Tbit/in2, it is necessary to add segregants into the FePt films. In this work, the effects of a number of segregants, X, on the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt:X (X = Ag, B, C, SiO x , TaO x ) thin films, deposited by RF sputtering with various volume content (0-50%), various in-situ heating temperatures (450-600 °C), various Ar pressures (10-40 mtorr) and various sputtering powers (25-200 W) onto 1'' Si substrates with a MgO texture (002) underlayer (20 nm), were investigated. It was observed that introducing segregants (B, C, SiO x , and TaO x ) into the FePt reduced ordering and grain size of the FePt:X thin films. Ag was found to offset the reduction of ordering in the FePt:X films. The B, SiO x and TaO x promoted columnar growth whereas C promoted a secondary nucleation layer but produced the least reduction of ordering. By varying the volume content of the segregants, the grain size of the FePt:X can be controllably reduced throughout the 2.5-10 nm range. It was found that TaO x produced the best exchange decoupling, thermal durability, grain isolation and hindered grain coalescence as compared with the films deposited with B, C or SiO x . With the FePt:C:Ag films sputtered at 450 °C, a perpendicular coercivity measured at room temperature as high as 25 kOe was achieved; whereas with B, SiO x , and TaO x , perpendicular coercivities as high as 11 kOe were obtained. These FePt:X thin films with small grain size, columnar microstructure and high coercivity are believed to be favorable for application in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording. The role of surface energies of FePt and the segregant in columnar growth of FePt grains is discussed.

  3. Prostate carcinoma metastasis to extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Carter, Keith D; Nerad, Jeffrey A; Lee, Andrew G

    2008-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma, when metastatic, typically involves bone and produces both osteoblastic and osteolytic changes. Orbital involvement is uncommon and extraocular muscle enlargement is a rare presentation of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The authors present 2 patients with prostatic tumor metastasis to extraocular muscles. One patient had single-muscle involvement; the other presented with bilateral progressive proptosis, upper eyelid retraction, and bilateral multiple extraocular muscle enlargement mimicking thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Clinicians should be aware that, although rare, prostate cancer can involve the extraocular muscles. PMID:18520846

  4. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902444

  5. Use of Vandetanib in Metastatic Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid in a Pediatric Patient With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vidya K; Ronghe, Milind; MacGregor, Fiona B; Bradshaw, Nicola; Davidson, Rosemarie; Welbury, Richard; Reed, Nicholas; Shaikh, Mohamad G

    2016-03-01

    We describe a child with advanced, metastatic, inoperable medullary carcinoma of thyroid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B and rearranged during transfection mutation with a positive response to vandetanib treatment. He responded well with a fall in calcitonin levels and a reduction in size of the thyroid malignancy, lymph nodes, and pulmonary metastases. He has been on vandetanib for 4 years with good clinical and biochemical response. Vandetanib has a role in the treatment of patients including children with inoperable locally advanced and metastatic medullary carcinoma of thyroid. More information is needed on its use in children and long-term outcome. PMID:26479990

  6. Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Thyrotoxicosis for Nonthyroid Surgery with Peripheral Nerve Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Buget, Mehmet I.; Sencan, Bilge; Varansu, Giray; Kucukay, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic condition caused by an elevation in thyroid hormone levels. The disorder has a variety of causes, manifestations, and therapies. Several clinical features of thyrotoxicosis are due to sympathetic stimulation with increased beta-adrenoreceptor upregulation and sensitization to catecholamine. Anaesthetic management of thyrotoxicosis patients using neuraxial block has been described in literature; however, to our knowledge, there are no reports of peripheral nerve block utilization. Here, we report on the anaesthetic management of a patient with thyroiditis-associated thyrotoxicosis undergoing emergency surgery via a femoral and sciatic nerve block. PMID:26885409

  7. Insights and clinical questions about the active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [Review].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Oda, Hitomi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Over 20 years ago, two Japanese institutions initiated an active surveillance policy for papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) without high-risk features (such as clinical lymph node and distant metastases) and suspected trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion. Since the most recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines adopt active surveillance as a therapy option for low-risk PMCs, the number of institutions worldwide carrying out this policy can be expected to increase. However, before adopting an active surveillance strategy, some important clinical questions must be considered. In this review, conceivable clinical questions with our answers based on the present accumulation of low-risk PMC surveillance data are presented. PMID:26632168

  8. A LATE BRITTLE COMPONENT OF MOTION WITHIN THE DUCTILE EASTERN SIERRA CREST SHEAR ZONE (ESCSZ) ALONG THE EASTERN BOUNDARY OF THE TOLUMNE BATHOLITH IN THE SADDLEBAG LAKE, CA AREA. WHITESIDES, Andrew1, ENRIQUEZ, Marcus2 , HARDY, Jill1 , EHRET, Philip1, IANNONE, Monika1, CULBERT, Kristan1 GROSS, Ben3, LODEWYK, Jessica3, CAO, Wenrong1 , ZHANG, Tao1, MEMETI, Valbone3, PATERSON, Scott1 SCHMIDT, Keegan4. (1) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, awhitesi@usc.edu , (2) Department of Geological Sciences, Cal State L.A., 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, (3) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Campus Box 1169, 1 Brookings Dr, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, (4) Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Lewis-Clark State College, 500 8th Ave., Lewiston, ID 83501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesides, A. S.; Enriquez, M.; Hardy, J.; Ehret, P.; Iannone, M.; Culbert, K. N.; Gross, M. B.; Lodewyk, J.; Cao, W.; Zhang, T.; Memeti, V.; Paterson, S. R.; Schmidt, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    During mapping (by the Undergraduate Team Research program, University of Southern California) in the Saddlebag Lake pendant just along the eastern margin of the Tuolumne batholith we have discovered a brittle slip component in the ESCSZ that juxtaposes largely metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock packages. The metasedimentary package is dominated by bedded sandstones and siltstones and local conglomerates whereas the metavolcanics show a large range of volcanic and volcaniclastic units. All of the units dip steeply and have an average N-NW strike. Dextral oblique ductile shear is distributed in domains in both rock packages with varying width from ~2 km in the South to ~1 km in the North. Shear sense in planes at high angles to a steep to SW plunging mineral lineation include S-C structures, shear bands, asymmetrical folding, sigma and delta clasts, and asymmetrical boudins. Partitioning of shear is common with the metarhyolites and metasediments showing higher non-coaxial strain than in the metaandesite and metadacite units. Map-scale “z-shaped” asymmetrical folds within the shear zone are also consistent with dextral shearing. Folded and sheared dikes of the 88-85 Ma Cathedral Peak phase of the Tuolumne batholith are common in the shear zone. A newly discovered brittle slip surface with breccias, gouge, and local pseudotachylite and large quartz veins was also mapped in the center of the ductile shear zone typically along the contact between the western metasedimentary and eastern metavolcanics (often a metarhyolite at the contact) on the east. Local slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes indicate that the brittle fault also had oblique dextral movement, similar to the ductile shear zone. In the mapped area no dikes originating from the TB cross the brittle fault and some are terminated at the brittle fault surface We interpret these observations to indicate northward displacement of the metasedimentary package by first ductile then brittle faulting during cooling and possibly uplift of this region with the youngest motion post 82 Ma.

  9. Using Digital Topography to Differentiate Erosionally Exhumed and Tectonically Active Mountains Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain ranges in the southern Rocky Mountains have departed on unique landscape evolutionary pathways in the late Cenozoic that are directly dependent upon the degree of post-orogenic tectonic activity they have experienced. The topography of Sierra Nacimiento, a Laramide uplift in west-central New Mexico lacking an active range-front fault, is shaped primarily by erosional exhumation that is continuous, but not steady, being driven by distal base level fall from Rio Grande incision and resultant south to north knickpoint migration. In contrast, the topography of the Taos Range, a rift flank uplift in north-central New Mexico is shaped by contrasting active stream incision and aggradation astride an active range front normal fault. The distinction between exhumation-dominated and tectonically-dominated mountain fronts is best quantified by analyses of a new metric we call the drainage basin volume to drainage basin area ratio (V-A ratio) as well as the gradients of first-order streams. Drainage basin volume and area are calculated by constructing topographic envelope maps from 10 m resolution digital elevation models (DEM). The envelope maps are pinned by the watershed divide and cover the maximum elevations in each drainage basin. Subtracting the original DEM from the maximum elevation envelope map produces a topographic residual map from which area and volume data can be obtained. The erosionally exhumed Sierra Nacimiento has a mean V-A ratio of 88 m while the tectonically active Taos Range has a mean V-A ratio of 140 m. Similarly, there are systematic differences in the gradients of first order streams measured both in the range block and approximately 5 km of adjacent piedmont. Streams were defined and subsequently Strahler ordered by a flow accumulation threshold of 250 water-equivalent grid cell units. First order stream channel long profiles were extracted from the DEM at 30 meter increments and gradients were calculated by a FORTRAN program. Gradients of first order streams in the exhumation-dominated Sierra Nacimiento have a mode of 6.8 degrees, significantly less than the 17.7 degrees for Taos Range first order streams. Furthermore, in the Taos Range first-order stream gradients steepen with increasing activity on the range-front fault. The distinct V-A ratio and stream gradient populations hint at an important change in the processes shaping hillslopes and low-order channels that is supported by the lack of slope-clearing landslides in the Sierra Nacimiento landscape and the presence of such landslides in the Taos Range. Slopes on Sierra Nacimiento are not steep enough to landslide and here, creep processes following a linear diffusion law dominate. In contrast, landsliding is present in the Taos Range where creep processes following a non-linear diffusion law are dominant. The signatures of distal base level fall are low V-A ratios accompanied by low modal channel gradients. Tectonically active mountain fronts have both high V-A ratios and high modal channel gradients.

  10. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  11. The teleost anatomy ontology: anatomical representation for the genomics age.

    PubMed

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Lundberg, John G; Midford, Peter E; Balhoff, James P; Lapp, Hilmar; Vision, Todd J; Haendel, Melissa A; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways. PMID:20547776

  12. The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shirley S Y

    2005-04-01

    Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically. PMID:15817045

  13. Comparison of the effects of some CYP3A and other enzyme inducers on replicative DNA synthesis and cytochrome P450 isoforms in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lake, B G; Renwick, A B; Cunninghame, M E; Price, R J; Surry, D; Evans, D C

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mitogenic effects of some inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in rat liver. Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were treated with 100 mg/kg per day of either sodium phenobarbitone (NaPB), barbituric acid (BA), isoniazid (ISN), beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), miconazole (MIC) or clotrimazole (CLOT), 75 mg/kg per day methylclofenapate (MCP), 50 mg/kg per day dexamethasone (DEX) and 500 mg/kg per day troleandomycin (TAO) by daily oral gavage for four days. Treatment with all compounds except BA, ISN and MIC, significantly increased relative liver weight. Administration of NaPB, PCN, DEX, MIC, CLOT and TAO all induced total CYP content, and by Western immunoblotting, levels of CYP3A isoforms in hepatic microsomal fractions. Apart from CLOT, all these compounds induced microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity. By measurement of marker enzyme activities and Western immunoblotting with antibodies to CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1, BNF, NaPB, ISN and MCP were shown to induce CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2E and CYP4A isoforms, respectively. Replicative DNA synthesis was studied by implanting osmotic pumps containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine 1 day before the commencement of treatment with the enzyme inducers. Hepatocyte labelling index values were significantly increased by treatment with NaPB, PCN, MCP, CLOT and TAO, but not by BA, ISN, BNF, DEX and MIC. These studies demonstrate that while CYP2B and CYP4A enzyme inducers may stimulate replicative DNA synthesis, only some CYP3A enzyme inducers are mitogenic agents in rat liver. PMID:9881931

  14. Non-gaussianity and Statistical Anisotropy in Cosmological Inflationary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the statistical descriptors for some cosmological inflationary models that allow us to get large levels of non-gaussianity and violations of statistical isotropy. Basically, we study two different class of models: a model that include only scalar field perturbations, specifically a subclass of small-field slow-roll models of inflation with canonical kinetic terms, and models that admit both vector and scalar field perturbations. We study the former to show that it is possible to attain very high, including observable, values for the levels of non-gaussianity f_{NL} and tao_{NL} in the bispectrum B_zeta and trispectrum T_zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation zeta respectively. Such a result is obtained by taking care of loop corrections in the spectrum P_zeta, the bispectrum B_zeta and the trispectrum T_zeta . Sizeable values for f_{NL} and tao_{NL} arise even if zeta is generated during inflation. For the latter we study the spectrum P_zeta, bispectrum B_zeta and trispectrum $T_zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation when zeta is generated by scalar and vector field perturbations. The tree-level and one-loop contributions from vector field perturbations are worked out considering the possibility that the one-loop contributions may be dominant over the tree level terms. The levels of non-gaussianity f_{NL} and tao_{NL}, are calculated and related to the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g_zeta . For very small amounts of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, the levels of non-gaussianity may be very high, in some cases exceeding the current observational limit.

  15. The energy landscape of uranyl-peroxide species.

    PubMed

    Tiferet, Eitan; Gil, Adrià; Bo, Carles; Shvareva, Tatiana Y; Nyman, May; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-03-24

    Nanoscale uranyl peroxide clusters containing UO2(2+) groups bonded through peroxide bridges to form polynuclear molecular species (polyoxometalates) exist both in solution and in the solid state. There is an extensive family of clusters containing 28 uranium atoms (U28 clusters), with an encapsulated anion in the center, for example, [UO2(O2)(3-x)(OH)(x)(4-)], [Nb(O2)4(3-)], or [Ta(O2)4(3-)]. The negative charge of these clusters is balanced by alkali ions, both encapsulated, and located exterior to the cluster. The present study reports measurement of enthalpy of formation for two such U28 compounds, one of which is uranyl centered and the other is peroxotantalate centered. The [(Ta(O2)4]-centered U28 capsule is energetically more stable than the [(UO2)(O2)3]-centered capsule. These data, along with our prior studies on other uranyl-peroxide solids, are used to explore the energy landscape and define thermochemical trends in alkali-uranyl-peroxide systems. It was suggested that the energetic role of charge-balancing alkali ions and their electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged uranyl-peroxide species is the dominant factor in defining energetic stability. These experimental data were supported by DFT calculations, which agree that the [(Ta(O2)4]-centered U28 capsule is more stable than the uranyl-centered capsule. Moreover, the relative stability is controlled by the interactions of the encapsulated alkalis with the encapsulated anion. Thus, the role of alkali-anion interactions was shown to be important at all length scales of uranyl-peroxide species: in both comparing clusters to clusters; and clusters to monomers or extended solids. PMID:24604754

  16. Effects of Fine-Scale Wind Direction Information on Retrieval of Surface Layer Wind Speed From SAR Ocean Surface Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyant, M. C.; Foster, R. C.; Stern, H.; Vachon, P. W.; Mourad, P. D.

    2002-12-01

    Wind speed retrievals from C-band SAR sea surface imagery using algorithms such as CMOD4 or CMOD_IFR2 depend significantly on the assumed local surface wind direction. To evaluate this dependence, we present retrievals of surface wind speed from RADARSAT SAR images acquired during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) off the coast of North Carolina in November and December 1999, and retrievals from ScanSAR scenes acquired over the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project (TAO) 95 W buoys during April and May 2000. These cases include moderate and low wind regimes and stable and unstable boundary layer stratification. A few images contain the signature of boundary layer roll vortices. SAR backscatter images can provide wind speed retrievals of ~300m resolution or better, as compared with a typical 25-km scatterometer footprint. SAR wind retrievals typically rely on wind-direction input from relatively coarse numerical models or from a buoy point source. When present, the signature of roll vortices in an image is often used to assign wind direction. Even so, the SAR wind speed images often show wind variability over regions much smaller than typical scatterometer footprints. The question remains: How much of this apparent variability is due to spatial changes in wind direction rather than wind speed? For the SHOWEX cases we coordinated 50km LongEZ flight legs at ~20m above the sea surface with the SAR overpasses. These surface layer flights provide km-scale wind-direction input for the CMOD4 algorithm. The fine-scale wind-speed and flux measurements also provide 10m wind-speed estimates to compare with the retrieved wind speeds. We present our evaluation of SAR wind retrievals obtained from applying the various wind-direction inputs. We also show the sensitivity of winds retrieved over the TAO array when nearly coincident QuikSCAT scatterometer wind directions are applied instead of point-source winds from TAO buoys.

  17. Slip Rate Determination of Thrusts Along the Edge of NE Tibet From in situ-Produced Cosmogenic Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, R.; Niedermann, S.; Tao, M.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Stokes, S.; Strecker, M. R.; Kubik, P. W.

    2005-12-01

    The Qilian Shan forms a seismically active fold-and-thrust-belt along the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau that evolved during the Neogene-Quaternary and continues to advance north-northeastward (Meyer et al., 1998; Tapponnier et al., 2001). Active thrust faults transecting Late Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits form spectacular fault scarps that are locally incised by rivers which form flights of terraces. By combining structural investigations, satellite imagery, topographic profiling, surface exposure, and luminescence dating we have determined slip rates for several thrust faults (Hetzel et al. 2002, 2004a,b). Our results are consistent with geologic and GPS constraints, which suggest that NNE-directed shortening across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau is distributed on several active faults with a total shortening rate of about 4 to 10 mm/yr. References Hetzel, R., S. Niedermann, M. Tao, P.W. Kubik, S. Ivy-Ochs, B. Gao, M.R. Strecker (2002a), Nature, 417, 428-432. Hetzel, R., M. Tao, S. Niedermann, M.R. Strecker, S. Ivy-Ochs, P.W. Kubik, B. Gao (2004a), Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel R., M. Tao, S. Stokes, S. Niedermann, S. Ivy-Ochs, G. Bo, M.R. Strecker, P.W. Kubik (2004b), Tectonics 23, TC6006, doi:10.1029/2004TC001653. Meyer, B., P. Tapponnier, L. Bourjot, F. Metivier, Y. Gaudemer, G. Peltzer, G. Shunmin, C. Zhitai (1998), Geophys. J. Int., 135, 1-47. Tapponnier, P., Z. Xu, F. Roger, B. Meyer, N. Arnaud, G. Wittlinger, J. Yang (2001), Science, 294, 1671-1677.

  18. High speed wide field CMOS camera for Transneptunian Automatic Occultation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Geary, John C.; Amato, Stephen M.; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Furesz, Gabor; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Chang, Yin-Chang; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Lehner, Matthew; Norton, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a three robotic telescope project to detect the stellar occultation events generated by Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs). TAOS II project aims to monitor about 10000 stars simultaneously at 20Hz to enable statistically significant event rate. The TAOS II camera is designed to cover the 1.7 degree diameter field of view (FoV) of the 1.3m telescope with 10 mosaic 4.5kx2k CMOS sensors. The new CMOS sensor has a back illumination thinned structure and high sensitivity to provide similar performance to that of the backillumination thinned CCDs. The sensor provides two parallel and eight serial decoders so the region of interests can be addressed and read out separately through different output channels efficiently. The pixel scale is about 0.6"/pix with the 16μm pixels. The sensors, mounted on a single Invar plate, are cooled to the operation temperature of about 200K by a cryogenic cooler. The Invar plate is connected to the dewar body through a supporting ring with three G10 bipods. The deformation of the cold plate is less than 10μm to ensure the sensor surface is always within ±40μm of focus range. The control electronics consists of analog part and a Xilinx FPGA based digital circuit. For each field star, 8×8 pixels box will be readout. The pixel rate for each channel is about 1Mpix/s and the total pixel rate for each camera is about 80Mpix/s. The FPGA module will calculate the total flux and also the centroid coordinates for every field star in each exposure.

  19. First-principles density functional calculation of electrochemical stability of fast Li ion conducting garnet-type oxides.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masanobu; Kotobuki, Masashi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Nogami, Masayuki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-28

    The research and development of rechargeable all-ceramic lithium batteries are vital to realize their considerable advantages over existing commercial lithium ion batteries in terms of size, energy density, and safety. A key part of such effort is the development of solid-state electrolyte materials with high Li(+) conductivity and good electrochemical stability; lithium-containing oxides with a garnet-type structure are known to satisfy the requirements to achieve both features. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the electrochemical stability of garnet-type Li(x)La(3)M(2)O(12) (M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi; x = 5 or 7) materials against Li metal. We found that the electrochemical stability of such materials depends on their composition and structure. The electrochemical stability against Li metal was improved when a cation M was chosen with a low effective nuclear charge, that is, with a high screening constant for an unoccupied orbital. In fact, both our computational and experimental results show that Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12) and Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) are inert to Li metal. In addition, the linkage of MO(6) octahedra in the crystal structure affects the electrochemical stability. For example, perovskite-type La(1/3)TaO(3) was found, both experimentally and computationally, to react with Li metal owing to the corner-sharing MO(6) octahedral network of La(1/3)TaO(3), even though it has the same constituent elements as garnet-type Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) (which is inert to Li metal and features isolated TaO(6) octahedra). PMID:22711381

  20. Trace Perchlorate in Background Ground Water and Local Precipitation, Northern Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, M.; Longmire, P.; Granzow, K. P.; Englert, D.; Yanicak, S.; Larson, T.; Rearick, M.; Heikoop, J.; Perkins, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate occurs at detectable concentrations of 0.07 to 0.45 parts per billion (ppb) in ground water of background quality within the northern Rio Grande basin, New Mexico. Ground-water samples were collected from 47 wells and springs near Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Taos, New Mexico. Analytical methods consisted of liquid and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and IC/MS/MS). An upper tolerance limit (mean plus two standard deviations) of 0.40 ppb was calculated from 184 analytical results for the background samples. Six distinguishable ground-water zones were sampled based on location, age, and hydrochemistry. In the Los Alamos area, ground water within the mountain-front and mountain-block region is mostly young or modern (less than 50 years). The regional aquifer including the White Rock Canyon springs are of sub-modern age (greater than 50 years). Tritium data from springs north of Taos indicate ground water of modern and sub-modern ages. Background perchlorate concentrations within the Los Alamos area were consistently higher than those measured in the Taos area. Ground water from the Taos area contains less perchlorate and has lower δ18O and δ2H values than ground water from the Los Alamos area. The elevation at which precipitation occurs with respect to recharge and/or the amount of evapotranspiration may play a role in perchlorate concentration in ground water. Natural variability, hydrogeology, and atmospheric inputs may also affect perchlorate concentration in ground water. A linear regression through perchlorate and chloride concentrations for all stations resulted in an r2 = 0. However, the r2 value of the Los Alamos regional aquifer for perchlorate versus chloride was 0.66. Thirteen precipitation samples were collected in the Los Alamos area. Results from eleven of these samples showed no perchlorate greater than 0.05 and 0.009 ppb, the method detection limit (MDL). Two precipitation samples analyzed using the IC/MS/MS method detected perchlorate at 0.0210 and 0.0099 ppb with an MDL of 0.0012 ppb. These results have application for establishing site-specific background values, delineating anthropogenic impacts to ground water, measuring natural attenuation and contaminant gradients, and may aid in the process of setting drinking-water standards.

  1. Flux-mediated syntheses, structural characterization and low-temperature polymorphism of the p-type semiconductor Cu2Ta4O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Nacole; Sullivan, Ian; Watkins-Curry, Pilanda; Chan, Julia Y.; Maggard, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low-temperature polymorph of the copper(I)-tantalate, α-Cu2Ta4O11, has been synthesized in a molten CuCl-flux reaction at 665 °C for 1 h and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements (space group Cc (#9), a=10.734(1) Å, b = 6.2506(3) Å, c=12.887(1) Å, β = 106.070(4)°). The α-Cu2Ta4O11 phase is a lower-symmetry monoclinic polymorph of the rhombohedral Cu2Ta4O11 structure (i.e., β-Cu2Ta4O11 space group R 3 ̅ c (#167), a = 6.2190(2) Å, c=37.107(1) Å), and related crystallographically by ahex=amono/√3, bhex=bmono, and chex=3cmonosinβmono. Its structure is similar to the rhombohedral β-Cu2Ta4O11 and is composed of single layers of highly-distorted and edge-shared TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra alternating with layers of nearly linearly-coordinated Cu(I) cations and isolated TaO6 octahedra. Temperature dependent powder X-ray diffraction data show the α-Cu2Ta4O11 phase is relatively stable under vacuum at 223 K and 298 K, but reversibly transforms to β-Cu2Ta4O11 by at least 523 K and higher temperatures. The symmetry-lowering distortions from β-Cu2Ta4O11 to α-Cu2Ta4O11 arise from the out-of-center displacements of the Ta 5d0 cations in the TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum of the monoclinic α-Cu2Ta4O11 shows an indirect bandgap transition of ∼2.6 eV, with the higher-energy direct transitions starting at ∼2.7 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements on polycrystalline films of α-Cu2Ta4O11 show strong cathodic photocurrents of ∼1.5 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 G solar irradiation.

  2. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: Basaltic Plagioclase from Earth, Moon, Mars and 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Major, minor and trace element analysis of silicates has allowed for the study of planetary basalts in a comparative planetary mineralogy context. We continue this initiative by exploring the chemistry of plagioclase feldspar in basalts from the Earth, Moon, Mars and 4 Vesta. This paper presents new data on plagioclase from six terrestrial basalt suites including Keweenawan, Island Arc, Hawaiian, Columbia Plateau, Taos Plateau, and Ocean Floor; six lunar basalt suites including Apollo 11 Low K, Apollo 12 Ilmenite, Apollo 12 Olivine, Apollo 12 Pigeonite, Apollo 15 Olivine, and Apollo 15 Pigeonite; two basaltic martian meteorites, Shergotty and QUE 94201; and one unequilibrated eucrite, Pasamonte.

  3. Impact of diurnally-varying skin temperature on surface fluxes over the tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.

    Multi-year hourly data of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity from the TOGA TAO moored buoys over the tropical Pacific along with our derived hourly sea surface skin temperature data are analyzed to show that there are substantial diurnal variations of monthly averaged surface fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and momentum (e.g., one-third of the cases show monthly averaged latent heat diurnal amplitudes greater than 20 Wm-2). Daily or monthly average surface temperatures cannot provide such flux variations, suggesting that numerical modeling may require the inclusion of the diurnal variation of surface skin temperature.

  4. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCE): Improvements and Applications for Studying Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Zeng, Xiping; Li, Xiaowen; Matsui, Toshi; Mohr, Karen; Posselt, Derek; Chern, Jiundar; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Norris, Peter M.; Kang, In-Sik; Choi, Ildae; Hou, Arthur; Lau, K.-M.; Yang, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Convection is the primary transport process in the Earth's atmosphere. About two-thirds of the Earth's rainfall and severe floods derive from convection. In addition, two-thirds of the global rain falls in the tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) have been used to improve our understanding of cloud and precipitation processes and phenomena from micro-scale to cloud-scale and mesoscale as well as their interactions with radiation and surface processes. CRMs use sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes and can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems. CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past three decades. It is amulti-dimensional non-hydrostatic CRM that can simulate clouds and cloud systems in different environments. Early improvements and testing were presented in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003a). A review on the application of the GCE to the understanding of precipitation processes can be found in Simpson and Tao (1993) and Tao (2003). In this paper, recent model improvements (microphysics, radiation and land surface processes) are described along with their impact and performance on cloud and precipitation events in different geographic locations via comparisons with observations. In addition, recent advanced applications of the GCE are presented that include understanding the physical processes responsible for diurnal variation, examining the impact of aerosols (cloud condensation nuclei or CCN and ice nuclei or IN) on precipitation processes, utilizing a satellite simulator to improve the microphysics, providing better simulations for satellite-derived latent heating retrieval, and coupling with a general circulation model to improve the representation of precipitation processes.

  5. Members of Apollo 15 crew ride Lunar Roving Vehicle during simulated EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A wide-angle view showing two members of the prime crew of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission riding in a Lunar Roving Vehicle trainer called 'Grover' during a simulation of lunar surface extravehicular activity in the Taos, New Mexico area. They are Astronauts David R. Scott (riding in left side seat), commander; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. Apollo 15 will be the first mission to the Moon to carry a Lunar Roving Vehicle, which will permit the astronauts to cover a larger area for exploration and sample collecting than on previous missions.

  6. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-06-04

    TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints,more » and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.« less

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  8. Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium with random phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Imre, Kaya; Akcasu, A. Ziya

    2012-06-15

    Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium is studied. By making use of a random phase assumption we show that the average neutron density approximately satisfies an integral equation in Fourier space, which is solved using Kummer functions. We used multi-dimensional formulation. In the case of one dimension, we obtain the result of Rosenbluth and Tao for the mean total density for large t. In the three-dimensional case, a closed form of solution is derived for the mean total neutron density. Its asymptotic behavior is also investigated for large t.

  9. Special working session on the role of buoy observations in the tropical Western Pacific measurement scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; Reynolds, R.M.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this session was to discuss the scientific merits of retrofitting TOGA/TAO buoys with shortwave radiometers. Three questions were posed at the outset to focus the discussion: Does the ARM Program need widespread radiometric measurements in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale to augment the five Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations and future ocean sites already planned; If there is a need, can buoy-based radiometers with satellites and other measurement platforms provide useful data; If buoy-based radiometric measurements were made, who would use them?

  10. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  11. Ocean Thermal and Color Evolution During the 1997/1998 ENSO Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele

    1998-01-01

    A reduced gravity primitive equation modeling and assimilation system is used to study the evolution of the tropical Pacific during the 1997/1998 ENSO cycle. The modeling/assimilation scheme ingests satellite altimeter data and TAO temperature profiles and uses SSM/I satellite derived winds as surface boundary forcing. The four-dimensional structure of the upper ocean circulation structure will be compared against available in situ observations across the Pacific basin. In particular, variability near the Galapagos Islands will be highlighted during the spring of 1998 when phytoplankton concentrations were observed to increase a hundred-fold over a two week period.

  12. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90° < θ < 165° and 0° < phi < 360°) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in phi). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,phi), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method.

  13. Total Columns and Vertical Profiles of Carbon Monoxide Measured Over Toronto Using a Ground-Based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) Spectrometer: Comparisons With Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Data (Jan 2002 - Sep 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiacek, A.; Taylor, J. R.; Strong, K.; Liu, J.; Bremer, H.; Drummond, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    A high-resolution Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer is the primary instrument at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), established in 2001. Continuous measurements of solar absorption spectra using narrow band optical filters began in October 2001 for the purpose of building a long-term data set of key species related to climate change and mid-latitude atmospheric chemistry, and for the validation of satellite instruments. Measurements have greater temporal coverage in the summer and fall months due to favourable weather conditions. Total columns and low-resolution vertical profiles of carbon monoxide have been derived from the high-resolution (0.004 cm-1) solar absorption spectra recorded at TAO using lines in the (1-0) transition region near 4.7 μ m. Microwindows were chosen to approximately match Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) averaging kernels and spectra were analyzed using the SFIT-2 optimal estimation method retrieval algorithm (developed at NASA Langley Research Centre, USA, and National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand.) Monochromatic transmittances were calculated in the forward model assuming a Voigt line shape and using the HITRAN 2000+ spectral database, NCEP temperature and pressure profiles as well as volume mixing ratio a priori information for CO and interfering species. The averaging kernels of both observation platforms have been considered in the analysis. Comparisons between ground-based solar absorption FTIR and MOPITT total columns and vertical profiles will be presented.

  14. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers and vascular risk factors in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    El Boghdady, Noha Ahmed; Badr, Gamal Ali

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The pathogenesis of DPN is complex and involves an intertwined array of mechanisms. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the association of oxidative stress and vascular risk factors with the prevalence of DPN and to determine the role of these biochemical parameters in the prognosis of DPN. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 40 clinically healthy individuals were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 40 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy, and group 2 consisted of 60 patients with DPN. Erythrocytes glutathione (GSH) level, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as serum ceruloplasmin (Cp), total antioxidants (TAO), endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity were estimated. A significant decrease of erythrocyte GSH was observed in groups 1 and 2 relative to the controls. An increase in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), MDA, NOx, GGT, Cp, TAO, Hcy and ET-1 was noted in patients with DPN. In conclusion, oxidative stress biomarkers and vascular risk factors could be important in the pathogenesis of DPN. The measurement of serum GGT and Hcy in addition to HbA1c and disease duration could facilitate the early detection of neuropathy in diabetic patients. PMID:22315139

  15. The IAU Early Japanese Radio Astronomy Project: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Stewart, Ron

    2012-09-01

    Japan was one of those nations that make an early start in radio astronomy, when solar observations began at both the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and at Osaka University in 1949. The research at the TAO accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s under the capable direction of Professor Hatanaka, while an equally-vibrant program was developed independently at Toyokawa by Professor Tanaka from Nagoya University. In this paper, after briefly describing the Osaka University initiative we will outline the instruments developed at Toyokawa and Mitaka, review the research programs carried out with them and introduce the scientific staff who played so important a role in the early development of Japanese radio astronomy. Following the success of the WG's Early French Radio Astronomy Project (seven papers were published), an ambitious IAU project to systematically document early developments in Japanese radio astronomy and publish the results in a series of research papers in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage was launched in December 2010. Further research visits to Tokyo were made by the second author in 2011 and 2012, and two papers have now been completed and a start made on a third.

  16. Identification of cytochrome P4503A4 as the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ivermectin by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z; Andrew, N W; Arison, B H; Luffer-Atlas, D; Wang, R W

    1998-03-01

    1. Ivermectin was extensively metabolized by human liver microsomes to at least 10 metabolites. The structure of many of them (mostly hydroxylated and demethylated) was determined by 1H-NMR and LC/MS. 2. To determine which human cytochrome P450 isoform(s) is responsible for the metabolism of ivermectin, chemical inhibitors including sulphaphenazole, quinidine, furafylline, troleandomycin (TAO) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were used to evaluate their effect on ivermectin metabolism. TAO, a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P4503A4, was the most potent inhibitor, inhibiting the total metabolism as well as formation of each metabolite. Metabolism was also inhibited by an anti-human cytochrome 3A4 antibody by 90%. 3. When ivermectin was incubated with microsomes from cells expressing CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 or 3A4 at 4 mg/ml protein concentrations, metabolic activity was only detected with the microsomes containing CYP3A4. The metabolic profile from cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 microsomes was qualitatively similar to that from human liver microsomes. 4. Thus, cytochrome P4503A4 is the predominant isoform responsible for the metabolism of ivermectin by human liver microsomes. PMID:9574819

  17. Negative impacts of ultraviolet-A radiation on antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers of African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ultraviolet-A (UVA) effects on biochemical, oxidative stress and antioxidant changes using aquatic species. The destructive effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was revealed in terms of the carbonyl protein (CP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant (TAO) in the gills, kidney, liver, muscles and skin. Also, glucose, total lipid, total protein and cortisol content of fish serums was detected. These parameters can be used as biomarkers to identify the negative effects of UVA radiation (20, 60 and 180 min per day) for 3 days in different tissues of Clarias gariepinus. There was a significant decrease in the activity of SOD, CAT, Gpx, GSH, G6PDH, LDH, and TAO in all of the examined tissues. The pattern of GR activity in UVA exposed groups showed no significant differences compared with the control group. However, CP, LPO and DNA damage were increased significantly with exposure periods in all of the examined tissues. The exposure to different doses of UVA caused hypoglycaemia, hypolipidimia and hypoproteinimia. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after UV exposure when compared with the control group. In conclusion, UVA exposure with different time periods has been shown to have negative effects on the blood biochemistry, hormonal and antioxidant capacity of Clarias gariepinus tissues. PMID:26084758

  18. (Ln = Pr, Nd, M = Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noked, O.; Melchior, A.; Shuker, R.; Steininger, R.; Kennedy, B. J.; Sterer, E.

    2014-06-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction measurements have demonstrated that the cation-deficient perovskites Pr1/3NbO3, Pr1/3TaO3, Nd1/3NbO3, and Nd1/3TaO3 undergo irreversible pressure-induced amorphization (PIA). This occurs near 14.5 GPa for the niobates and 18.5 GPa for the tantalates. The unit cell volumes of the four oxides show an almost linear decrease as the pressure is increased. It is concluded that the PIA transition occurs at higher pressures in the tantalates due to the lower MO6 initial tilting at ambient conditions, which is associated with the larger atomic mass of the tantalum. The behavior of these oxides is compared to that of CaTiO3, and the role of both the weakening of the M-O-M π-bonding and the cation vacancies on the observed structural changes is discussed.

  19. An Insight on Right of Way and its Cost for Power Transmission Cable and Conventional Overhead Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, P.; Pachori, A.; Khandelwal, T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides the complete information related to Right of Way (RoW) for the construction of new power transmission line (TL) in terms of present cost for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable. The former part of the paper describes the general procedure and rules for acquisition of land for RoW by transmission asset owner (TAO) while in the later part the cost associated to acquire RoW and its impact on the cost of adjacent land have been detailed. It also discusses the actual dismantling cost including the cost of waste metal what TAO get after completion of lifecycle of TL due to increase in metal prices. In this paper cost of RoW after completion of lifecycle of TL is also highlighted. This paper compares the cost of RoW for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable for construction of new TL. Also for old transmission infrastructure cost of RoW for change from overhead transmission line to underground XLPE transmission cable is detailed by application of replacement model.

  20. Simultaneous seeing measurements at Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Takato, Naruhisa; Miyashita, Akihiko; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Soyano, Takao

    2004-10-01

    Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo is now planning to build a 6.5-m optical-infrared telescope in Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Univ. Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO)", and the site evaluation is now under way. As a part of this evaluation process, we started an investigation to compare the astronomical seeing at Atacama with that at Mauna Kea. Here, we report preliminary results of seeing measurements at several sites in Atacama, carried out on October 2003. In order to separate the temporal and site-to-site variation of the seeing, we used two sets of Differential Image Motion Monitors (DIMMs), each of which has two pairs of 7.4 cm sub-apertures with 20.5 cm separation. Three sites were investigated; the point near the TAO weather station (4,950m), the summit of Cello Chico (5,150m) and the point at 5,430m altitude on Cello Toco. Simultaneous measurements were carried out for three half nights out of four half nights measurements. Although the amount of our data is very limited, the results suggest following: 1) Seeing becomes better and more stable as time passing to midnight (eg. From 0."7 to 0."4 at V-band). 2) Higher altitude sites show better seeing than lower altitude sites.

  1. CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

    2009-12-01

    The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

  2. Demonstration of the fine structure of stereocilia in the organ of Corti of the guinea pig by field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jongebloed, W L; Dunnebier, E A; Albers, F W; Kalicharan, D

    1996-01-01

    A combined perfusion- and immersion prefixation with glutaraldehyde followed by a tannic acid/arginine/osmium tetroxide (TAO) treatment of the guinea pig cochlea is described for field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) observation of the fine structure of the stereocilia of the organ of Corti. Conventional osmium tetroxide postfixation methods in combination with a thin conductive coating failed to show the fine structure of the glycocalyx of the epithelial lining in the endolymphatic compartment of the cochlea, in particular, on the stereocilia surface. The antennulae-like glycocalyx covering of the stereocilia surface of the more pronounced rows of outer hair cells has been demonstrated only in ultrathin sections by means of cationic markers. The side- and tip-links connecting the stereocilia have been demonstrated both in scanning and transmission electron microscopy, although at that time these structures often were considered as artificial. However, they can be visualized with FEG-SEM at low accelerating voltage (2-3 kV), and at appropriate working distance and probe current, in combination with a glutaraldehyde perfusion/immersion prefixation and TAO postfixation. Stereo images enhance considerably the three-dimensional appreciation of the stereocilia with glycocalyx lining and side- and tip-links, proving that these connections are a structural part of the hair cell. PMID:9813603

  3. Chemical Solution-Based Epitaxial Oxide Films on Biaxially Textured Ni-W Substrates with Improved Out-of-Plane Texture for YBCO-Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, M. S.; Paranthaman, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.

    2007-10-01

    Epitaxial films of rare-earth (RE) niobates (where the rare earth includes La, Ce, and Nd) and lanthanum tantalate with pyrochlore structures were grown directly on biaxially textured nickel-3 at.% tungsten (Ni-W) substrates using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed the surface morphology of the films to be smooth and homogeneous. Detailed X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films of pyrochlore RE niobate and La-tantalate are highly textured with cube-on-cube epitaxy. The overall texture quality of the films was investigated by measuring the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the (004) and (222) rocking curves. We observed a sharper texture for both lanthanum niobate (La3NbO7) and lanthanum tantalate (La3TaO7) films compared to the underlying Ni-W substrate, though they have a larger lattice misfit with the Ni-W substrates. These results were comparable to the texture improvement observed in vacuum-deposited Y2O3 seed layers. Texture improvement in the seed layer is the key towards obtaining YBCO films with a␣higher critical current density. Hence, solution-deposited La3NbO7 and La3TaO7 films can be used as a seed layer towards developing all metalorganic-deposited (MOD) buffer/YBCO architectures.

  4. The San Pedro Mártir Transit Observations Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Davide; Rámon Fox, Gerardo; Ayala, Carmen; Navarro, Samuel; Brown Sevilla, Samantha; Fox Machado, Lester; Curiel, Salvador; Michel, Raul; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of the TAOS-II project, aimed at the observation of small-size Kuiper Belt Object occultations, we present the first transit observation program carried on using the facilities of the San Pedro Mártir Observatory (Baja California, Mexico).The involved telescopes consist in a traditional 84cm telescope, a robotic 1.5m, and a traditional 2.12m. The project consist in validating the possibility to use these facilities to observe known Hot Jupiters, in order to set up a follow-up strategy for specific TAOS-II alerts.15 exoplanetary transits were successfully observed in 2014, in several photometric bands (U, V, R, r, and i).We present a panoramic of the project and the results of the fit of first two objects, WASP-39 and WASP-43, which are also the subject of a manuscript in preparation.Moreover, we are exploring 3D ray tracing models to model the system basing on our results, using the software SHAPE.

  5. United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze's chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao's model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze. PMID:27136099

  6. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  7. Urinary cadmium level in children between nine to fifteen years old in three Sub-districts of Tak Province in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwong, S.; Sthiannopkao, S.; Kim, K. W.; Chuenchoojit, S.; Poopatpiboon, K.; Poodendean, C.; Supanpaiboon, W.

    2009-07-01

    Urinary cadmium (UCd) is an indicator of the long term exposure of human health. The objective of this research was to study UCd of people aged between 9 to 12 and 13 to 15 years old in both sexes in Prathadpadeang, in Mae Tao and Mae Ku. 849 urines were collected, and determined by using the ICP-MS. The results revealed that 64.30% had UCd less than 1 μg/gCr. XUCd in 3 Sub-districts were 0.132 μg/gCr in Prathadpadeang, 0.141 μg/gCr in Mae Tao, and 0.105 μg/gCr in Mae Ku. The difference in the 3 Sub-districts was significant. XUCd were 0.125 μg/gCr and 0.129 μg/gCr in boys and girls, and 0.119 μg/gCr and 0.135 μg/gCr in age group 9-12 and 13-15 years old.

  8. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity. PMID:24663427

  9. Colloidal metal oxide nanoparticle systems: the new promising way to prevent antibiotic resistance during treatment of local infectious processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasenkov, Y.; Frolov, G.; Pogorelsky, I.; Latuta, N.; Gusev, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Leont'ev, V.

    2015-11-01

    New bactericidal containing nanoparticles colloids for application in dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, urology, obstetrics, gynaecology, ENT, proctology have been developed. The various water colloidal nanodispersive systems of metals and oxides have been obtained by means of electric impulse - condensation (electroerosion) method. These systems are based pure elements and alloys of argentum (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3), tantalum oxide (TaO), vanadium oxide (VO2), cobalt oxide (CoO), tantalum dioxide TaO2, zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO) and mixed suspensions of titanium, aluminium and molybdenum oxides. The research has been made on culture of dentobacterial plaque and mixed culture issued from gingival spaces. The composition of culture was identified with S.aureus, S.epidermidis and nonfermentable kinds of E.coli. The observation period lasted more than nineteen days. All solutions showed highly prolonged bactericidal activity in dilutions from the whole solution 1-20 mg/L. The bactericidal activity of powder specimen of silica containing Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles used as dental filling material and disintegrates of composite materials (produced by “StomaDent” CJSC) have been studied. Tested materials have long (up to 19 days and more) bactericidal activity.

  10. Retraction.

    PubMed

    2015-10-15

    This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Authors 'Cross-talk of alpha tocopherol-associated protein and JNK controls the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells' by Baoyi Zhu, Xiaojuan Li, Yuying Zhang, Chunwei Ye, Yu Wang, Songwang Cai, Huaiqiu Huang, Yi Cai, Shuyuan Yeh, Zhenhua Huang, Ruihan Chen, Yiran Tao and Xingqiao Wen The above article, published online on 28 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Peter Lichter, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The Retraction has been agreed due to errors that were detected in Fig. 6b. Some images were duplicated and erroneously presented as unique. Although the authors firmly stand by the major conclusion of this paper, they believe the most responsible course of action is to retract it. Reference Zhu, B., Li, X., Zhang, Y., Ye, C., Wang, Y., Cai, S., Huang, H., Cai, Y., Yeh, S., Huang, Z., Chen, R., Tao, Y. and Wen, X. (2013), Cross-talk of alpha tocopherol-associated protein and JNK controls the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Int. J. Cancer, 132: 2270-2282. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27927. PMID:26252812

  11. Composite Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Columnar Cell Variant of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Taconet, Sarah; Bosq, Jacques; Hartl, Dana; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Al-Ghuzlan, Abir

    2016-06-01

    Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid and columnar cell variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PCT) are uncommon neoplasms. We report the first case of composite MEC and columnar cell variant of PCT. An 86-year-old man consulted for a 47-mm thyroid nodule, cytologically compatible with PCT. Total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis, with support of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, was mixed primary carcinoma of the thyroid, associating an MEC component with predominantly columnar cell variant of PCT. Sixteen months after surgery and external beam radiation therapy, the patient was free of recurrence or distant metastasis. This case report offers an opportunity to highlight the potential pitfalls concerning the interpretation of mucin histochemistry in thyroid tumors. PMID:26755714

  12. Subacute thyroiditis confused with dental problem.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, H; Cimermanova, R; Cholt, M; Sykorova, P; Pechova, M; Prusa, R

    2009-01-01

    Subacute thyroiditis is an inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, most probably preceded by viral infection. Common symptoms include fever, thyroid tenderness associated pain, and initial hyperthyroidism sometimes followed by a transient period of hypothyroidism with generally favourable outcomes as self-limited entity. It was known that it may be confused with pharyngitis; however search on Medline using key words (dental pain, subacute thyroiditis, and differential diagnosis) in combination recently produced no reports. Herein, we report a case of subacute thyroiditis associated pain, which was initially mistaken and treated as pain of dental origin after otorhinolaryngologic examination revealed no pathology. The aim of this communication is to remind that thyroiditis as part of differential diagnosis should be considered in patients with unexplained dental pain to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures, which increase expenses and may delay appropriate therapeutic measures. PMID:19899734

  13. The Delayed Risk Stratification System in the Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walczyk, Agnieszka; Pałyga, Iwona; Gąsior-Perczak, Danuta; Gadawska-Juszczyk, Klaudia; Szymonek, Monika; Trybek, Tomasz; Lizis-Kolus, Katarzyna; Szyska-Skrobot, Dorota; Mikina, Estera; Hurej, Stefan; Słuszniak, Janusz; Mężyk, Ryszard; Góźdź, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Context There has been a marked increase in the detection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) over the past few years, which has improved the prognosis. However, it is necessary to adjust treatment and monitoring strategies relative to the risk of an unfavourable disease course. Materials and Methods This retrospective study examined data from 916 patients with DTC who received treatment at a single centre between 2000 and 2013. The utility of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) recommended systems for early assessment of the risk of recurrent/persistent disease was compared with that of the recently recommended delayed risk stratification (DRS) system. Results The PPV and NPV for the ATA (24.59% and 95.42%, respectively) and ETA (24.28% and 95.68%, respectively) were significantly lower than those for the DRS (56.76% and 98.5%, respectively) (p<0.0001). The proportion of variance for predicting the final outcome was 15.8% for ATA, 16.1% for ETA and 56.7% for the DRS. Recurrent disease was rare (1% of patients), and was nearly always identified in patients at intermediate/high risk according to the initial stratification (9/10 cases). Conclusions The DRS showed a better correlation with the risk of persistent disease than the early stratification systems and allows personalisation of follow-up. If clinicians plan to alter the intensity of surveillance, patients at intermediate/high risk according to the early stratification systems should remain within the specialized centers; however, low risk patients can be referred to endocrinologists or other appropriate practitioners for long-term follow-up, as these patients remained at low risk after risk re-stratification. PMID:27078258

  14. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  15. Glycosaminoglycans in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, G; Förster, G; Hansen, C

    1998-05-01

    Orbital accumulation of hydrophilic, interstitial glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and subsequent expansion of retrobulbar tissue lead to the clinical manifestation of exophthalmos in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In order to analyze whether the alteration of distribution pattern and biochemical composition of GAG and proteoglycans play a role in the development of the disease, a highly specific high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed. The concentration of total GAG, chondroitin sulfate A (CA), dermatan sulfate (DS), and hyaluronic acid (HA) was determined in patients and controls, revealing marked differences in urinary concentration of total GAG and HA, as well as an elevation of CA in patients versus controls. Method sensitivity was 0.86 for patients with active disease, and 0.87 for patients with untreated ophthalmopathy, whereas specificity was 1.0 for patients with inactive disease. Patients with increased GAG concentration responded well to steroids and/or orbital irradiation. Furthermore, distribution pattern of orbital extracellular matrix GAG exhibited a significant increase in the tissue fractions of CA and HA in patients with TED in comparison to controls. In conclusion, GAG polysaccharides not only play a major role in the pathogenesis of TED but have been successfully introduced as an activity marker of the disease. PMID:9623737

  16. Congenital keratoglobus with multiple cardiac anomalies: a case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Pinar A; Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha

    2015-07-01

    Keratoglobus is a rare condition of bilateral corneal ectasia, which results in high myopia, irregular astigmatism, scarring, and rarely spontaneous globe rupture. Globoid protrusion of a clear, diffusely thin cornea is the pathology. The congenital form has been associated with blue sclera in which there is a systemic connective tissue disorder with abnormal collagen synthesis like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Some concomitant abnormalities reported with kertoglobus include joint hypermobility, dental and skeletal abnormalities, osteal fragility, and deafness. Acquired forms have been reported to be associated with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and thyroid ophthalmopathy. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy with keratoglobus who presented with a history of photophobia and a low vision in both eyes since birth. He has been followed up by our pediatric cardiology department due to multiple cardiac anomalies. He had hypermobility of large joints, easy bruising, thin and hyperextensible skin with visible veins, which were also described in his elder brother. We aimed to discuss the etiology and the association of keratoglobus with some systemic abnormalities caused by collogen tissue disturbance, and make a brief review about the recent literature concerning the management of keratoglobus patients. PMID:24409942

  17. Aesthetic Refinements in Patients with Prominent Eyes.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dirk F; Schwaiger, Nina; Wiedner, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of prominent eyes is still a challenging task. As well as the surgery, proper preoperative diagnosis differentiating between patients with and without Graves ophthalmopathy plays an important role. In functionally asymptomatic patients with Graves disease suffering from the aesthetic impairment of prominent eyes, the transpalpebral decompression by intraorbital fat removal technique has been proved to be reliable, effective, safe, and easily performed by a trained and experienced oculoplastic surgeon. This technique provides long-lasting results, leading to improvement not only in visual function but also in personal well-being and in the patient's social life, with a high benefit-to-risk ratio. The most powerful tool to treat the lower lid deformity and malar bags in patients without Graves disease is the subperiosteal midface lift. It shortens the lid-cheek junction and blends the retaining periorbital ligaments. Furthermore, it adds volume to the lower lid and gives a stable support. By the nature of the procedure, it also turns a negative into a positive vector. In experienced hands, Olivari's orbital decompression and Hester's midface lift are ideal options for the treatment of prominent eyes. PMID:26667639

  18. Volume measurements of normal orbital structures by computed tomographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.; Gehring, D.G.; Gorman, C.A.; Brennan, M.D.; Jackson, I.T.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomographic digital data and special off-line computer graphic analysis were used to measure volumes of normal orbital soft tissue, extraocular muscle, orbital fat, and total bony orbit in vivo in 29 patients (58 orbits). The upper limits of normal for adult bony orbit, soft tissue exclusive of the globe, orbital fat, and muscle are 30.1 cm/sup 3/, 20.0 cm/sup 3/, 14.4 cm/sup 3/, and 6.5 cm/sup 3/, respectively. There are small differences in men as a group compared with women but minimal difference between right and left orbits in the same person. The accuracy of the techniques was established at 7%-8% for these orbit structural volumes in physical phantoms and in simulated silicone orbit phantoms in dry skulls. Mean values and upper limits of normal for volumes were determined in adult orbital structures for future comparison with changes due to endocrine ophthalmopathy, trauma, and congenital deformity.

  19. Autoimmune thyroid disease: an expanding spectrum.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D A; Pandian, M R; Carlton, E

    1987-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease classically has included Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis probably also includes focal thyroiditis, fibrous thyroiditis, primary myxedema, and Hashitoxicosis as variants. Graves' disease is associated with ophthalmopathy and dermopathy, and recent evidence suggests that these manifestations are autoimmune phenomena as well. Other associated autoimmune disorders include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and antigen-antibody complex nephritis. Nonthyroid endocrine autoimmune deficiency disorders also have been classified as part of the spectrum of thyroid autoimmune disease. With the recent recognition of the spectrum of autoimmune mechanisms and antibody types and methods to distinguish antibody functions or types, our understanding of postpartum and neonatal thyroid disorders has been advanced considerably. The spectrum of neonatal thyroid disorders in the infants of women with autoimmune disease relates to the levels and types of antithyroid antibodies acquired from the mother. Finally, there is suggestive evidence that nonspecific goiter, including simple adolescent goiter and multinodular goiter as well as some cases of sporadic cretinism, may be part of an even more expanded spectrum of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:3302899

  20. Targeting chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 in thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 and its chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11) are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Under the influence of interferon(IFN)γ, the IFNγ-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) is secreted by thyrocytes, orbital fibroblasts and preadipocytes. In tissue, Th1 lymphocytes are recruited; hence IFNγ is enhanced, which stimulates CXCL10 secretion reiterating the autoimmune process. The presence of elevated levels of CXCL10 in peripheral liquids is considered a marker of Th1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating CXCL10 (sCXCL10) have been shown in patients with AT, overall with hypothyroidism. In GD and GO patients high sCXCL10 have been shown particularly in the active disease. A modulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ or - α agonists on CXCR3 chemokines in AT, GD and GO and the immuno-modulatory effect of methimazole on CXCR3 chemokines in GD have been shown. Further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new molecules that act as antagonists of CXCR3, or block CXCL10, in autoimmune disorders, and many interesting patents have been recently applied. PMID:24953644

  1. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  2. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  3. [Some neurologic and psychiatric complications in endocrine disorders: the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2007-02-18

    Thyroid hormones are of primary importance for the perinatal development of the central nervous system, and for normal function of the adult brain. These hormones primarily regulate the transcription of specific target genes. They increase the cortical serotonergic neurotransmission, and play an important role in regulating central noradrenergic and GABA function. Thyroid deficiency during the perinatal period results in mental retardation. Hypothyroidism of the adults causes most frequently dementia and depression. Other less common clinical pictures include myxoedema coma, dysfunction of cerebellum and cranial nerves. Hypothyroidism also increases predisposition of stroke. Peripheral diseases frequently include polyneuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myalgic state, and rarely myokymia. Nearly all the hyperthyroid patients show minor psychiatric signs, and infrequently psychosis, dementia, confusion state, depression, apathetic thyrotoxicosis, thyrotoxic crisis, seizures, pyramidal signs, or chorea occur. The peripheral complications may be indicated by chronic thyrotoxic myopathy, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, myasthenia gravis, periodic hypokalemic paralysis and polyneuropathy. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone was confirmed in a number of patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Significantly elevated antithyroid antibody titers characterize Hashimoto's encephalopathy. This condition is a rare, acute - subacute, serious, life threatening, but steroid-responsive, relapsing-remitting, autoimmune disease. PMID:17344150

  4. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  5. Novel Therapies for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Elia, Giusy; Nasini, Francesco; Colaci, Michele; Giuggioli, Dilia; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore; Ferri, Clodoveo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 and its interferon(IFN)γ-dependent chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL9, CXCL11) are implicated in the immune-pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves disease (GD) and Graves Ophthalmopathy (GO). In tissue, recruited Th1 lymphocytes produce IFNγ, enhancing the tissue secretion of IFNγ-inducible chemokines, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Patients with AT (with hypothyroidism), and with GO and GD, particularly in the active phase, have high IFNγ-inducible chemokines. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ or -α agonists and methimazole exert an immune-modulation on CXCR3 chemokines in AT, GD and GO. Other studies are ongoing to evaluate new molecules acting as antagonists of CXCR3, or blocking CXCL10, in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), GD and GO. Recently, novel molecules targeting the various agents involved in the pathogenesis of GO, such as rituximab, have been proposed as an alternative to corticosteroids. However, randomized and controlled studies are needed to generalize these interesting results. PMID:26900630

  6. [Tobacco smoking in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Warmuz-Stangierska, Izabela; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Florek, Ewa; Rabska-Pietrzak, Barbara; Sawicka, Joanna; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of cigarette smoking in hyperthyroidism patients. The study group included patients with Graves-Basedow disease (GB): n = 317 (32.9%), patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO): n = 108 (11.2%), patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG) n = 511 (53%) and 28 (2.9%) patients with toxic adenoma (TA). Evaluation of tabacco smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was performed on the base of questionnaire acording to Fagerström test. The comparison of GO and GB indicate increased tabacco smoking in GO (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.22-0.59). The frequencies of tacacco smoking displayed significantly increased in GB and TNG patients (OR=0.39; 95%CI: 0.28-0.56). Further analys of patients with GO and TA presented statistcal significance in group of smoking and non-smoking (OR=0.26; 95%CI: 0,073-0,95). In other cases we didn't found a significant influence of tobacco smoking on thyroid disease. The effect of smoking was more pronounced in Graves' patients (particulary in the patients with GO) than in other thyroid patients. Smoking among patients with thyroid disease (GO and GB disease) is associated with developing of anxiety and fright, depression and problems with social relations sphere. PMID:16521936

  7. Psoriasis and uveitis: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Naiara Abreu de Azevedo; de Oliveira, Maria de Ftima Paim; Follador, Ivonise; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Rgo, Vitria Regina

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic, chronic, immunologically mediated disease, with significant genetic and environmental influences. It affects from 1 to 3% of the world population. Recently, the relation between psoriasis and different comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome, has become extremely relevant. Uveitis is characterized by a process of intraocular inflammation resulting from various causes. Considering psoriasis and uveitis as immune-mediated diseases, this study aims to evaluate the possible association of psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis with uveitis and its subtypes. Few studies have evaluated the association of uveitis and psoriasis without joint involvement. It seems that psoriasis without arthropathy is not a risk factor for the development of uveitis. Uveitis tends to develop more frequently in patients with arthropathy or pustular psoriasis than in patients with other forms of psoriasis. Ophthalmic examination should be performed periodically in patients with psoriasis and uveitis. If ophthalmopathy is diagnosed, the patient should receive adequate treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs or immunomodulators to prevent vision loss. PMID:23197207

  8. [Thyrotoxic hypocalemic periodic paralysis: report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Dias, José Côdo Albino; Moura, Betânia Silva de; Gomes, Erika Figueiredo; Mirachi, Guilherme Borim; Metzger Filho, Otto; Dias, Cristina Borim Côdo

    2004-12-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is a rare hyperthyroidism complication much more frequent in Asians and Caucasians. We present 3 cases of THPP occurring in Brazilian male patients with 28 years old (y) (Case 1), 29 y (Case 2) and 60 y (Case 3), respectively. They were admitted following an episode of flacid paralysis of extremities. Whereas case 1 reported recurring episodes of paralysis crises, cases 2 and 3 reported only one episode. Signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, such as weigh loss, diaphoresis, extremities tremor, palpitation and mild diffuse goiter were present in the first case; while the second case only presented ophthalmopathy and the third patient referred that 2 years before his admission he presented an episode of cardiac arrhythmia but did not have thyroid function evaluation at that time. Their laboratory findings were hypokalemia, low TSH and raised free T4. They were treated with intravenous potassium, oral propranolol and tiamazol with remission of the symptoms. We report these cases to emphasize the importance of recognizing hyperthyroid periodic paralyses to avoid missing a treatable and curable condition. PMID:15761566

  9. IP-10 in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ruffilli, I; Ferrari, S M; Colaci, M; Ferri, C; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A

    2014-08-01

    The interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was initially identified as a chemokine that is induced by interferon (IFN)-γ. IP-10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3). IP-10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjogren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of IP-10 by (CD)4+, CD8+, and natural killer is dependent on IFN-γ. Under the influence of IFN-γ, IP-10 is secreted by thyrocytes. Determination of high level of IP-10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of a T helper 1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating IP-10, have been shown in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Among patients with AT, IP-10 levels were significantly higher in those with a hypoechoic ultrasonographic pattern, which is a sign of a more severe lympho-monocytic infiltration, and in those with hypothyroidism. For these reasons, it has been postulated that IP-10 could be a marker of a stronger and more aggressive inflammatory response in the thyroid, subsequently leading to thyroid destruction and hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed to investigate whether IP-10 is a novel therapeutic target in AT. PMID:24977661

  10. Improvements to our Understanding of Toronto-Area Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Cynthia

    Using eleven years of trace gas column measurements at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), along with data from complementary sources, such as satellites, surface in situ measurements, and nearby rural column measurements, this thesis aims to improve our understanding of the sources of air pollution and the causes of variability in atmospheric composition over the Toronto area. The relative influence of chemical production and direct emissions on Toronto-area O3 and CO were determined using GEOS-Chem model simulations. 28 pollution events (defined as enhanced O3 or CO lower-tropospheric (0-5 km) columns that coincided with surface O3 exceedances) were found in the TAO dataset between 2002 and 2010. O3 columns over Toronto during pollution events are influenced by urban and industrial anthropogenic NOx emissions, biogenic isoprene emissions from the eastern United States, and soil NOx emissions from the mid- and western United States. During pollution events, Toronto CO columns are greatly influenced by nearby fossil fuel emissions and isoprene oxidation. C2H6 columns are often enhanced during pollution events, as the sources of C2H6 are similar to those of O3 and CO. HCN columns are assumed to be enhanced in biomass burning plumes, and thus, aid in identifying transport of biomass burning emissions over Toronto. Sensitivity to meteorological conditions was examined as well, and five case studies were presented in detail. Passage of the polar vortex over the Toronto area was determined by increases in scaled potential vorticity (PV) that coincide with outliers in the HF stratospheric time series. Confirmed with polar PV maps and reductions in N2O stratospheric columns, 53 polar intrusion events were identified in the 2002 to 2013 TAO time series. The effect on HF, HCl, O3, and N 2O was studied, and we found these events caused a significant increase in HF-column winter/spring variability, and a small increase (on average) in stratospheric O3 columns. The results of this thesis have contributed to improving our understanding of the causes and variability of ozone air quality and stratospheric ozone over a major metropolitan area.

  11. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2015-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and there were few XBT profiles in those regions. The results suggest that multiple ocean data assimilation systems should be used to assess sensitivity of ocean analyses to changes in the distribution of ocean observations to get more robust results that can guide the design of future tropical Pacific observing systems.

  12. An Improved Method for TIMS High Precision Nd Isotopic Analysis of Very Small Aliquots (1- 10ng) With Example Application in Garnet Sm/Nd Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, E. F.; Harvey, J.; Mehl, L. Y.; Peterman, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Technological and scientific developments have demonstrated both the attainability and the utility of very high precision (i.e. 5-20ppm 2 σ) Nd isotopic measurements with TIMS. However such high precision has been limited to relatively large aliquots of Nd, on the order of several hundred nanograms. Several potential applications of precise Nd isotopic measurements, including garnet Sm/Nd geochronology, do not always permit such large samples, instead yielding only a few nanograms of Nd. We have explored and tested an improved method for Nd isotopic analysis of such small (1-10ng) aliquots of Nd using the NdO+ method with a Triton TIMS at Boston University. Analyzing Nd isotopes as the oxide is a well known technique, frequently involving an oxygen bleed valve. Instead, we forego the bleed valve and load samples with a TaO slurry which provides the oxygen source. Using an in-house Nd isotopic standard solution, 4ng loads easily yield stable 2.0-2.5 volt beams resulting in internal precisions of 10ppm 2 σ RSE. Within barrel external precision of 4ng loads of the Nd standard is 13ppm 2 σ RSD (n=20). Long term (6 months, six analysts) external precision of 4ng loads of the standard is currently 23ppm 2 σ RSD (n=55) suggesting that further improvements are possible. As a further test of this method, we dissolved a natural rock sample (a metapelite), separated the Nd using TRU- spec and MLA column chemistry, and loaded nineteen 4ng loads in one barrel. Within barrel external precision was 21ppm 2 σ RSD (n=18). This precision represents a significant advance over previous NdO+ analyses of small samples using an oxygen bleed valve. The TaO loading method for small Nd aliquots is useful in Sm/Nd garnet geochronology as exemplified by two case studies. Garnets from eclogite facies gneisses from Norway ran very well with 2.4-18ng loads and yielded age precision as good as 0.8 million years 2 σ. Conversely, garnets from blueschist facies rocks from Sifnos, Greece, ran poorly with similarly sized 1-17ng loads and consequently yielded generally poorer age precision. Differences between the two garnet sample suites must relate to the garnets themselves (notably including much lower Nd concentration in Sifnos garnets), not the identical column chemistry nor the TaO loading method. Additional procedures may be required to cleanly separate Nd from samples where Nd concentrations are very low (≪1ppm). As always, clean separation and column chemistry represents an unavoidable limiting factor in achieving precise isotopic measurements.

  13. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure. PMID:25960751

  14. An enhanced Whipple Bumper system - Impact resistance of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J.; Mount, A.; Herren, K.; Nettles, A.; Semmel, C.; Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    For long-duration space flights where human occupation is expected, micrometeroid and debris shields are necessary to prevent puncture of the pressure vessels. Current 'Whipple Bumper' designs range from single thin sheets of aluminum to complicated structures of many energy absorbing layers. This paper details the results of an experimental program tao determine the increased protection afforded by intermediate bumpers made of composite material structures. Various configurations of honeycomb support structures sandwiched between layers of materials such as Kevlar, Spectra, aluminum, and others are inserted between the bumper and pressure shell. The areal densities of each new material structure are maintained constant so that the results compare directly with single-sheet aluminum intermediate bumpers.

  15. Chasing shadows in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica

    The characteristics of the populations of objects that inhabit the outer solar system carry the fingerprint of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the solar system. Occultation surveys push the limit of observation into the very small and distant outer solar system objects, allowing us to set constraints on the structure of the Kuiper belt, Scattered disk and Sedna populations. I collected, reduced, and analyzed vast datasets looking for occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, both working with the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS) collaboration and leading the MMT/Megacam occultation effort. Having found no such events in my data, I was able to place upper limits on the Kuiper belt, scattered disk and Sedna population. These limits and their derivation are described here.

  16. Health care in its right mind: medical harm and the knowledge revolution part one--the state of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Wendell W

    2012-01-01

    The "Tao of Medicine" is patient-centeredness and is most succinctly summarized by W.W. Mayo, MD, as, "the best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered, and in order that the sick may have the benefit of advancing knowledge, union of forces is necessary". This calling, also known by its more familiar designation, the Art of Medicine, is true for all times and all places, serving as our ideal, our law and our conscience. It, therefore, meets the definition of a universal. It is only a culture of safety that will support the Art of Medicine and sustain improvement within the deeply complex, tightly coupled and highly contextual world of health care delivery. PMID:22329252

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  18. First International Conference between West and East-Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Flavio

    2008-03-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D'Oriente(Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi 'Tao and Science' will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com. PMID:18317548

  19. Continuous electrical tuning of the chemical composition of TaO(x)-based memristors.

    PubMed

    Miao, Feng; Yi, Wei; Goldfarb, Ilan; Yang, J Joshua; Zhang, Min-Xian; Pickett, Matthew D; Strachan, John Paul; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R Stanley

    2012-03-27

    TaO(x)-based memristors have recently demonstrated both subnanosecond resistance switching speeds and very high write/erase switching endurance. Here we show that the physical state variable that enables these properties is the oxygen concentration in a conduction channel, based on the measurement of the thermal coefficient of resistance of different TaO(x) memristor states and a set of reference Ta-O films of known composition. The continuous electrical tunability of the oxygen concentration in the channel, with a resolution of a few percent, was demonstrated by controlling the write currents with a one transistor-one memristor (1T1M) circuit. This study demonstrates that solid-state chemical kinetics is important for the determination of the electrical characteristics of this relatively new class of device. PMID:22324891

  20. Development of 4-Pixel-Array TES Microcalorimeters with Mushroom-Shaped Absorbers with Insulating Layers Supporting Overhang Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Maeda, M.; Ezaki, S.; Takano, A.; Matsumura, S.; Hara, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-08-01

    A four-pixel-array superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter with a mushroom-shaped absorber was developed for energy dispersive spectroscopy performed on a transmission electron microscope. The TES consists of a bilayer of Au/Ti with either a 120- or 50-nm thickness. The absorber is made from a Au layer and its stem is deposited in the center of the TES surface. A TaO insulating layer of 100-nm thickness is inserted between the overhang region of the absorber and the TES surface. Two types of microcalorimeter were fabricated with differing absorber thicknesses of 0.5 and 5.0 m. An energy resolution of 15 eV FWHM with 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained using the 0.5-m-type microcalorimeter.

  1. Morphology and chemical composition analysis of inorganic nanosheets by the field-emission scanning electron microscope system.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghui; Ono, Yuki; Homma, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Izumi; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Nakayama, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Nanosheets can be used as building blocks to fabricate versatile nanostructured materials. In this paper, morphology of the Cs(4)W(11)O(36) and Nb(3)O(8) and TaO(3) sheets with different layers are analyzed by different field-emission scanning electron microscopes (FE-SEMs). Chemical composition of the single-layered Cs(4)W(11)O(36) with thickness of about 2 nm, and multilayered Nb(3)O(8) nanosheets with thickness of less than 14 nm are analyzed by both the Si(Li) solid-state detector and transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter, successfully. The effects of energy resolution, accelerating voltage and substrate on the quantitative analysis are discussed briefly. PMID:19150970

  2. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas; fish communities at selected sites, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Fish communities at 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin were sampled during low-flow periods between 1993 and 1995 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The ecology of fish communities is one of several lines of evidence used to characterize water-quality conditions. This report describes the fish communities at selected sites in the Rio Grande Basin and relates the structure of these fish communities to the physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Twenty-nine species of fish representing 10 families were identified in 25 samples collected during this study. Species richness ranged from 1 to 13. Cluster analysis of the 25 samples collected during this study delineated four groups of sites that were based on the similarity of the fish communities. The first two groups were individual sites with low species richness. The third group contained the most samples, and the fourth group consisted of samples from the Rio Grande at Isleta, New Mexico, and the Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. The shift in community structure of samples from group 3 to group 4 reflects changes from predominantly coldwater fishes to warmwater fishes. Four metrics of biotic integrity (percentages of introduced individuals, omnivores, tolerant individuals, and anomalies) were used in this study to provide a broad overview of the community structure. The relative percentages of introduced species at the Rio Grande near Del Norte, Colorado; Saguache Creek near Saguache, Colorado; Rio Grande below Taos Junction Bridge, near Taos, New Mexico; and Rio Grande at Isleta are indicative of biological stress on the communities at these sites. The dominance of omnivores in samples from the Rio Grande below Taos Junction Bridge, near Taos; Rio Chama near Chamita, New Mexico; Rio Grande at Isleta; and Rio Grande at El Paso is an indication of environmental stress at these sites. In 1995, tolerant species accounted for the entire fish community at the Rio Grande at Isleta. In all samples the occurrence of anomalies was less than 2 percent of the individuals, with the exception of the sample from the Rio Grande at Isleta. On the basis of the relative percentages of introduced individuals, omnivores, tolerant individuals, and anomalies, the biotic integrity at the Rio Grande at Isleta appears to be the most impaired of all sites and shows indications of potential chemical and physical perturbations. Fish communities from three reaches at the Santa Fe River above Cochiti Lake, New Mexico, and the Rio Grande at Isleta were sampled in 1995 to assess small-scale spatial patterns in the structure of fish communities. The spatial pattern at these sites might be associated with natural variability of the fish communities or with the presence of habitat features such as pools. The total number of individuals and relative abundance in a sample varied at sites sampled yearly during this study. All sites, with the exception of the Rio Grande near Del Norte, had a decline in total number of individuals in a sample. The temporal decline in the total number of individuals at these site might be associated with the natural variability within the fish communities.

  3. Validation of AIRS V6 Near Surface Air Temperature Over Ocean and Corresponding Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H. V. T.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Manning, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Version 6 (V6) with combined infrared and microwave (IR+MW) retrieval of near surface air temperature over ocean (NSAT) and sea surface skin temperature (SST) are compared to a network of moored buoys from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON), and the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), to determine accuracy and precision. AIRS IR+MW retrieval of SST and NSAT is influenced by the presence of thick clouds and this study documents its effects and the impact of the cloud cleared radiances on the retrieval. The first guess to the IR+MW retrieval, based on a neural network using most of the AIRS infrared and AMSU-A microwave spectrum, is able to get within range of buoy measurements and AIRS physical retrieval improves upon the first guess solution when cloud coverage is limited.

  4. Web applications meet astronomical archives . Because astronomers are experienced internet users too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, L.; Ricci, D.; Sprimont, P. G.

    We present here the most modern internet and web technologies which we have tested and verified to be very suitable for the development of innovative, web-based tools for observational astronomy and archival data exploitation. Nothing but an updated browser is required to the user. This approach can boost the exploitation of huge data archives such as those that will be produced by projects like GAIA and TAOS-II, and will allow to easily manage heterogeneous data, like those of the IPERCOOL project. In spite these technologies are still not fully mature, they are already accepted standards in the browsers of our laptops, tablets and cellphones. We discuss the impact of these new technologies in astronomy and present test examples to show their capabilities.

  5. The Eastern Equatorial Pacific Chlorophyll Dynamics: Update of the `Equatorial Box' Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberry, T.; Wang, X.; Murtugudde, R.; Behrenfeld, M.; Roesler, C.

    2006-12-01

    The `Equatorial Box' Project utilizes the mooring observations along the 125 and 140 TAO lines to provide carbon component data, including chlorophyll, primary production, POC and DOC. These parameters together with other oceanographic properties can be used to validate ocean circulation-ecosystem models. In turn, a validated model can offer considerable promise for not only filling the gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage from the available observations, but also enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the variability. Here, we present both measured and simulated vertical-meridional chlorophyll distributions and primary production along 125W and 140W. While there is a permanent layer of deep chlorophyll maximum at 30-60 m, there is no deep maximum in phytoplankton carbon biomass or primary production. Our analyses focus on impact of nutrient stress and light conditions on chlorophyll dynamics in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We also compare modeled primary productivity with ocean color derived rates.

  6. Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of electron transport in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the electron transport in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the electron mobility down to about 400 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ∼100 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.

  7. Au13-nAgn clusters: a remarkably simple trend.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Francisco; Varas, Alejandro; Rogan, José; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Kiwi, Miguel

    2015-11-11

    The planar to three dimensional transition of Au13-nAgn clusters is investigated. To do so the low lying energy configurations for all possible concentrations (n values) are evaluated. Many thousands of possible conformations are examined. They are generated using the procedure developed by Rogan et al. in combination with the semi-empirical Gupta potential. A large fraction of these (the low lying energy ones) are minimized by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We employ the Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA functional and the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) GGA functional, and compare their results. The effect of spin-orbit coupling is studied as well as the s-d hybridization. As usual in this context the results are functional-dependent. However, both functionals lead to agreement as far as trends are concerned, yielding just two relevant motifs, but their results differ quantitatively. PMID:26513198

  8. Overcoming shadowing and occlusion in imagery with error-resilient processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; DuBosq, Todd W.; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Landa, Joseph S.; Byrd, Kenneth; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    Due to the delay of sequential 3-D Lidar image acquisition while an uncooperative human target is in motion, the image may generate missing or occlusion pixels. We wish to minimize the impact of image acquisition of a moving target for aided target recognition. We apply the standard Fourier transform algorithms for an error resilience restoration to minimize the impact to the Human Visual System (HVS) which tends to overly emphasize the edge and the artificially generated discontinuity in missing pixels. We compared (i) classical phase retrieval scheme: Gerchburg-Saxon-Hayes-Papoulis (GSHP) and (ii) the Compressive Sensing scheme: Candes-Romberg-Donohoe-Tao (CRDT). The following two lessons were learned: The mechanism is based on Gibbs overshooting of a step-discontinuity. It is based on relocating the sparsely sampled zeros at missing pixel locations a la spatial and spatial frequency inner product conformal mapping property.

  9. Occurrence of Thermoacoustic Phenomena at 0.8 K, 4 K and above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stautner, W.; Chen, R.; Xu, M.; Rochford, J.; Trigger, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoacoustics in cryogenics continues to be a very interesting phenomenon which is still poorly understood but often experienced unexpectedly in experiments where it causes unacceptable heat leaks. The authors report on the appearance and onset of this unwanted occurrence at temperatures below 35 K. A number of physical experiments are presented, where the authors had the means to take quantitative measurements of the heat leak caused by these pressure oscillations in apparatus with bent tubes ranging from 4.55 and 4.7 mm inner diameter, with heat stationing links. The parameters which indicate the likelihood of inadvertently developing these thermoacoustic oscillations are presented and means developed to avoiding them in that instance are given. Furthermore, we had the rare opportunity to record and analyze 4 K TAOs experienced on a test setup and present the simple method that was used to eliminate them.

  10. Ground-state degeneracy of topological phases on open surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Yan; Wan, Yidun

    2015-02-20

    We relate the ground state degeneracy of a non-Abelian topological phase on a surface with boundaries to the anyon condensates that break the topological phase into a trivial phase. Specifically, we propose that gapped boundary conditions of the surface are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of condensates, each being able to completely break the phase, and we substantiate this by examples. The ground state degeneracy resulting from a particular boundary condition coincides with the number of confined topological sectors due to the corresponding condensation. These lead to a generalization of the Laughlin-Tao-Wu charge-pumping argument for Abelian fractional quantum Hall states to encompass non-Abelian topological phases, in the sense that an anyon loop of a confined anyon winding a nontrivial cycle can pump a condensed anyon from one boundary to another. Such generalized pumping may find applications in quantum control of anyons, eventually realizing topological quantum computation. PMID:25763964

  11. First-principles study on phase transition and ferroelectricity in lithium niobate and tantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoura, Kazuaki; Ohta, Masataka; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phase transitions and ferroelectricity of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 have been investigated theoretically from first principles. The phonon analyses and the molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ferroelectric phase transition is not conventional displacive type but order-disorder type with strong correlation between cation displacements. According to the evaluated potential energy surfaces around the paraelectric structures, the large difference in ferroelectricity between the two oxides results from the little difference in short-range interionic interaction between Nb-O and Ta-O. As the results of the crystal orbital overlap population analyses, the different short-range interaction originates from the difference in covalency between Nb4d-O2p and Ta5d-O2p orbitals, particularly dxz-px/dyz-py orbitals (π orbitals), from the electronic point of view.

  12. Estimation of vegetation cover at subpixel resolution using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the various approaches relevant to estimating canopy cover at subpixel resolution. The approaches are based on physical models of radiative transfer in non-homogeneous canopies and on empirical methods. The effects of vegetation shadows and topography are examined. Simple versions of the model are tested, using the Taos, New Mexico Study Area database. Emphasis has been placed on using relatively simple models requiring only one or two bands. Although most methods require some degree of ground truth, a two-band method is investigated whereby the percent cover can be estimated without ground truth by examining the limits of the data space. Future work is proposed which will incorporate additional surface parameters into the canopy cover algorithm, such as topography, leaf area, or shadows. The method involves deriving a probability density function for the percent canopy cover based on the joint probability density function of the observed radiances.

  13. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  14. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  15. Rotational properties of ten main belt asteroids - Analysis of the results obtained by photoelectric photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Burchi, R.; D'Ambrosio, V.

    1985-01-01

    The results of photoelectric light curve observations of 10 asteroids are reported. The observations were carried out using the 50-cm telescope of the Teramo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and the 91-cm telescope of the Catania Astronomical Observatory during the 1983-1984 oppositions. The reduced data indicate the following main belt asteroids: 11 Partenope; 129 Antigone; and 20 Massalia. The asteroids 41 Daphne, 344 Desiderata, and 31 Euphrosyne were also identified. The rotation period of 11 Partenope was P = 7.83 hours, and that of 34 Desiderata P = 10,53 hours. The shape and the pole coordinates of 20 Massalia, 31 Euphrosyne, and 29 Antigone were derived, and those of 41 Daphne were confirmed. The lightcurves of the remaining asteroids are given, and some of their rotational properties and morphological features are discussed.

  16. Voids in mixed-cation silicate glasses: Studies by positron annihilation lifetime and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Reben, M; Golis, E; Filipecki, J; Sitarz, M; Kotynia, K; Jeleń, P; Grelowska, I

    2014-08-14

    PALS in comparison with FTIR studies have been applied to investigate the structure of different oxide glasses. Three components of the positron lifetime τ (τ1 para- and τ3 ortho-positronium and τ2 intermediate lifetime component) and their intensities were obtained. The results of the calculation of mean values of positron lifetimes for the investigated glasses showed the existence of a long-living component on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra. From the Tao-Eldrup formula we can estimate the size of free volume. On the basis of the measurements we can conclude that the size and fraction of free volume reaches the biggest value for the fused silica glass. The degree of network polymerisation increases void size. PMID:24815814

  17. Growth inhibition of selected food-borne bacteria, particularly Listeria monocytogenes, by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Thomasson, W R; Wu-Yuan, C D

    1990-10-01

    Six extracts from Chinese medicinal plants: Tin Men Chu, Sey Lau Pai, Siu Mao Heung, Bak Tao Yung, Kam Chin Chiu and Liao Ya, were tested for their inhibitory effect on selected food-borne bacteria by the well assay technique. Among them, Tin Men Chu, Siu Mao Heung and Sey Lau Pai inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi, Salm. enteritidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Alcaligenes faecalis, and three strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Two of these three extracts, Tin Men Chu and Siu Mao Heung, suppressed the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A in cabbage juice. This inhibition was prevented by the addition of protein but not sodium chloride. Plant extracts show potential to control the growth of food-borne bacteria. PMID:2127264

  18. Influence of Several Parameters on Frost Growth in Low Temperature Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Koji; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi

    In order to increase the coefficient of performance of heat exchangers under frosting conditions such as in air conditioners, showcases, and unit coolers, it is necessary to elucidate the frost deposition mechanism in low temperature environments. Frost properties were measured at air temperature below 0°C. The experimental results were analyzed and a simulation model of frost growth in low temperature environments was developed. In the simulation model, frost growth during the crystal growth period was calculated by using the ice column model of Tao et al. and during the subsequent frost growth period, another model was used; the frost growth was calculated according to diffusion into the frost layer on the basis of Fick's law and the model of Le Gall et al. The simulations were performed to calculate the frost growth on a flat plate and the influences of several parameters on frosting phenomenon were elucidated at air temperature of about 0°C.

  19. Electronic ordering and disorder effects in the pseudogap state of YBa2Cu3Oy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Marc-Henri

    2014-03-01

    We report NMR measurements in the normal state of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy. While unambiguous indication of charge-density-wave ordering is found in the pseudogap state, we interpret this as short range CDW order nucleated around native defects. We discuss the connections of this result to the initial evidence of CDW order in YBa2Cu3Oy from NMR in high magnetic fields, to the more recent X-ray scattering data in the normal state as well as to a wider body of experimental results which have been considered to characterize the pseudogap state. Work performed in collaboration with Tao Wu, Hadrien Mayaffre, Steffen Krämer, Mladen Horvatic & Claude Berthier (LNCMI), Ruixing Liang, Walter N. Hardy and Douglas A. Bonn (UBC).

  20. COLUMBINE-HONDO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND WHEELER PEAK WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Columbine-Hondo Wilderness Study Area and the Wheeler Peak Wilderness, near Taos, New Mexico, were studied. Two areas within the study area and wilderness have substantiated mineral-resource potential for molybdenum and are surrounded by an area of probable molybdenum potential. A small area on the north side of the Columbine-Hondo Wilderness Study Area also has probable molybdenum potential; this area is peripheral to the Red River mining area, which includes the Questa mine. Two other areas within the study area and wilderness have probable mineral-resource potential for copper, lead, and zinc, and four areas have probable mineral-resource potential for gold and silver, as well as base metals.

  1. Further evidences on the quality of meta-GGA linearly scaled one-parameter double-hybrids for frontier orbital energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Mojtaba

    2015-03-01

    This letter dissects the role of kinetic energy density and scaling relations of the correlation functionals for double-hybrid (DH) computations of frontier orbital energies. More specifically, a comparison is made between the one-parameter DH (1DH) and linearly scaled 1DH (LS1DH) schemes containing generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) and meta-GGAs for predicting the ionization potential, electron affinity, and fundamental gap in atomic and molecular systems. Benchmarking several variant versions of DH models, we propose a novel LS1DH approximation based on the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA for evaluating the frontier orbital energies, improving over other tested DHs and Møller-Plesset perturbation calculations.

  2. Design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, S.; Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Koshida, S.; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Mendez, R.

    2014-07-01

    A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.

  3. Laboratory shock emplacement of noble gases, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide into basalt, and implications for trapped gases in shergottite EETA 79001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Pepin, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Basalts from the Servilleta flows, Taos, NM, described by Lofgren (1983) were analyzed by mass spectrometry for shock-implanted noble gases, N2, and CO2 (which were isotopically labeled) after an exposure to 20-60 GPa shock in the presence of 0.0045-3.0 atm of ambient gas. The results were compared with data available on the constituents of the EETA 79001 meteorite. As expected, the samples shocked in this study attained emplacement efficiencies significantly lower than those apparent for lithology C of EETA 79001. Possible explanations for this difference include atmospheric overpressure at the time of EETA 79001 exposure to shock, the trapping of gas already in vugs by the intruding melt material, or the collapse of gas-filled vugs to form gas-laden glass inclusions.

  4. Effect of poling temperature on piezoelectricity of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fang-Zhou; Wang, Ke; Jo, Wook; Lee, Jae-Shin; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Electrical poling is indispensable for endowing isotropic ferroelectric polycrystals with a net macroscopic polarization and hence piezoelectricity. However, little attention has been paid to the optimization of poling conditions in (K, Na)NbO3-based ceramics with a polymorphic phase transition. This study investigated the electrical properties of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3 lead-free piezoceramics as a function of the poling temperature. Peak piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 352 7 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor kp of 0.47 were obtained at the optimized poling temperature of 120 C, which crosses the polymorphic phase transition regime. In-depth analysis of the asymmetric polarization hysteresis loops and bipolar strain curves uncovered striking analogy between electrical poling and unipolar cycling in the current system, which is attributed to a competition between domain reorientation and space charge accumulation.

  5. Double-hybrid density-functional theory with meta-generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Souvi, Sidi M. O. Sharkas, Kamal; Toulouse, Julien; CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris

    2014-02-28

    We extend the previously proposed one-parameter double-hybrid density-functional theory [K. Sharkas, J. Toulouse, and A. Savin, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064113 (2011)] to meta-generalized-gradient-approximation (meta-GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. We construct several variants of one-parameter double-hybrid approximations using the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA functional and test them on test sets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. The most accurate variant uses the uniform coordinate scaling of the density and of the kinetic energy density in the correlation functional, and improves over both standard Kohn-Sham TPSS and second-order Møller-Plesset calculations.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  7. Studies concerning the properties of some europium activated phosphors based on yttrium tantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne; Nazarov, Mihail; Muresan, Laura; Noh, Do Young; Bica, Ecaterina; Morar, Marius; Arellano, Ivan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-08-01

    Rare earth activated Y TaO4 based phosphors are perspective materials for optoelectronics. The paper presents some physical and chemical aspects related to the influence of the host lattice composition and crystalline order on the luminescence of rare earth ions. In this respect, Eu-activated Y (Ta,Nb)O4 powders have been prepared by solid state reaction, from homogeneous mixtures consisting of oxide precursors and flux. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM have been used to investigate the structural and luminescent properties of Y (Ta,Nb)O4:Eu phosphors. Attempts has been made at establishing a correlation between the morphostructural parameters of the host lattice containing variable niobium amount and the PL properties. The interaction between the tantalate-niobate matrix and the Eu-emission centres is considered in correlation with the PL characteristics.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Nakamurella multipartita type strain (Y-104T)

    SciTech Connect

    Tice, Hope; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Sims, David; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Meincke, Linda; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Detter, J. Chris; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Nakamurella multipartita (Yoshimi et al. 1996) Tao et al. 2004 is the type species of the small one-species genus Nakamurella in the actinomycetal suborder Frankineae. The nonmotile, coccus-shaped strain was isolated from activated sludge acclimated with sugar-containing synthetic wastewater, and is able of accumulating large amounts of polysaccharides in its cells. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Nakamurellaceae. The 6,060,298 bp long single replicon genome with its 5415 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. The lower vitamin C plasma concentrations in elderly men compared with elderly women can partly be attributed to a volumetric dilution effect due to differences in fat-free mass.

    PubMed

    Jungert, Alexandra; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2015-03-14

    Women show higher vitamin C plasma concentrations than men, but the reasons for this observation still require elucidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether sex differences in vitamin C plasma concentrations are present in elderly subjects and whether these differences are due to sex-specific lifestyles, total antioxidant status (TAOS) and/or body composition. Fasting plasma concentrations of vitamin C were assessed by photometric detection in a cross-sectional study of 181 women and eighty-nine men aged 62-92 years. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Vitamin C intake was assessed with a 3 d estimated dietary record. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether sex is an independent predictor of vitamin C plasma concentrations by controlling for age, vitamin C intake, lifestyle factors, TAOS and body composition. Women showed higher vitamin C plasma concentrations than men (76 v. 62 μmol/l, P< 0·0001). In the multiple regression analysis, male sex was a negative predictor of vitamin C plasma concentrations (β = -0·214), as long as absolute fat-free mass (FFM) was not considered as a confounder. When absolute FFM was included, sex was no longer a predictor of vitamin C plasma concentrations, whereas absolute FFM (β = -0·216), physical activity level (β = 0·165), intake of vitamin C supplements (β = 0·164), age (β = 0·147) and smoking (β = -0·125) affected vitamin C plasma concentrations. The results indicate that a higher absolute FFM, and thus a higher distribution volume of vitamin C, contributes to lower vitamin C plasma concentrations in men than women. PMID:25735881

  10. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs. PMID:25460062

  11. Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharada, M.; Suresh Babu, D.

    2012-10-01

    Glasses with formula 30Li2O 60B2O3xTa2O5 (10-x) Bi2O3 for x=0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 were prepared via normal melt quenching technique and characterized by refractive index and MDSC. Refractive index (μ) and glass transition temperature (Tg) are found to increase with increase in dopant concentration. Impedance spectra of the samples were recorded in the frequency range 100 Hz-5 MHz in the temperature range 175-275 °C. The plots are typical of those recorded for disordered systems. Conductivities and relaxation times are found to follow Arrhenius type of relation and activation energies are calculated. Optical absorption spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 200-900 nm range from which cutoff wavelength (λc) and optical band gap energy (Eg) are evaluated. λc is found to decrease while Eg to increase with increase in composition. FTIR spectra of the samples were recorded in the frequency range 400-1500 cm-1 which exhibit characteristic bands corresponding to BO3, BO4 stretching vibrations and BO bending vibration. Tightening of the structure is indicated by increase in the vibration of BO3 at the cost of BO4 for 8 mol% of Ta2O5. This is in support of the highest value of Tg for this sample among the series. Raman spectra of the samples were recorded in the frequency range 200-1200 cm-1. With successive addition of Ta2O5, increase in the vibration of Ta-O groups TaO6 groups to be responsible for observed increase in μ and Tg. An attempt is made to prepare tantalum doped borate glasses and study them by spectroscopic techniques.

  12. Critical analysis of dimension reduction by a moment closure method in a population density approach to neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Ly, Cheng; Tranchina, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    Computational techniques within the population density function (PDF) framework have provided time-saving alternatives to classical Monte Carlo simulations of neural network activity. Efficiency of the PDF method is lost as the underlying neuron model is made more realistic and the number of state variables increases. In a detailed theoretical and computational study, we elucidate strengths and weaknesses of dimension reduction by a particular moment closure method (Cai, Tao, Shelley, & McLaughlin, 2004; Cai, Tao, Rangan, & McLaughlin, 2006) as applied to integrate-and-fire neurons that receive excitatory synaptic input only. When the unitary postsynaptic conductance event has a single-exponential time course, the evolution equation for the PDF is a partial differential integral equation in two state variables, voltage and excitatory conductance. In the moment closure method, one approximates the conditional kth centered moment of excitatory conductance given voltage by the corresponding unconditioned moment. The result is a system of k coupled partial differential equations with one state variable, voltage, and k coupled ordinary differential equations. Moment closure at k = 2 works well, and at k = 3 works even better, in the regime of high dynamically varying synaptic input rates. Both closures break down at lower synaptic input rates. Phase-plane analysis of the k = 2 problem with typical parameters proves, and reveals why, no steady-state solutions exist below a synaptic input rate that gives a firing rate of 59 s(1) in the full 2D problem. Closure at k = 3 fails for similar reasons. Low firing-rate solutions can be obtained only with parameters for the amplitude or kinetics (or both) of the unitary postsynaptic conductance event that are on the edge of the physiological range. We conclude that this dimension-reduction method gives ill-posed problems for a wide range of physiological parameters, and we suggest future directions. PMID:17571938

  13. The Impact of Model Configuration and Large-Scale, Upper-Level Forcing on CRM- Simulated Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Starr, D.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D, see a brief review by Tao 2003). Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, at NOAA GFDL, at the U. K. Met. Office, at Colorado State University and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Tao 2003). At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (September 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (June 2-11, 1998), ARM (June 26-30, 1997) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 by 512 km domain (with 2-km resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. However, there are difference in radiation, surface fluxes and precipitation characteristics. The 2D GCE model was used to perform a long-term integration on ARM/GCSS case 4 (22 days at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in March 2000). Preliminary results showed a large temperature bias in the upper troposphere that had not been seen in previous tropical cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to determine the sensitivities to model configuration (i.e., 2D in west-east, south-north or 3D), (2) to identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between 2D- and 3D-simulated ARM cloud systems, and (3) assess the impact of upper tropospheric forcing on tropical and ARM case 4 cases.

  14. The Impact of Model Configuration and Large-Scale, Upper-Level Forcing on CRM-Simulated Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Starr, D.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D, see a brief review by Tao 2003). Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, at NOAA GFDL, at the U. K. Met. Office, at Colorado State University and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Tao 2003). At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (September 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (June 2-11, 1998), ARM (June 26-30, 1997) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 km domain (with 2-kilometer resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. However, there are difference in radiation, surface fluxes and precipitation characteristics. The 2D GCE model was used to perform a long-term integration on ARM/GCSS case 4 (22 days at the ARM southern Great Plains site in March 2000). Preliminary results showed a large temperature bias in the upper troposphere that had not been seen in previous tropical cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to determine the sensitivities to model configuration (ie., 2D in west-east, south-north or 3D), (2) to identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between 2D- and 3D-simulated ARM cloud systems, and (3) assess the impact of upper tropospheric forcing on tropical and ARM case 4 cases.

  15. Alcohol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: role of CYP2E and CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Jeffery, E; Wrighton, S; Kostrubsky, V; Szakacs, J; Wood, S; Sinclair, P

    1998-05-15

    This commentary focuses on the roles of CYP3A and CYP2E in alcohol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. CYP2E has been considered to be the main form of P450 responsible for such toxicity in animals and humans. However, CYP3A, which is also induced by alcohol, has been shown to have a greater affinity for acetaminophen than CYP2E. Previous experiments implicating CYP2E in alcohol-mediated increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity have used inhibitors of this form of P450 that are now proving to be non-specific. Triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A that maintains specificity in vitro over a large concentration range. In rats treated with ethanol or the combination of ethanol and isopentanol, the major higher chain alcohol in alcoholic beverages, TAO protects animals from increases in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, suggesting a major role of CYP3A. CYP2E may not have a major role due to the rapid loss of induced levels in the absence of continued exposure to ethanol. Knockout mice, which are being used to define the role of particular proteins in biological responses, have been developed for CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 but not CYP3A. Cyp2e1(-/-) and Cyp1a2(-/-) mice are more resistant to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity than wild-type strains, even though the amounts of the other forms of P450s are unaltered in the liver. These findings suggest that the relative amounts of P450s and not just kinetic characteristics determine their role in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. The clinical implications of the findings that CYP3A can have a major role in acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity are discussed. PMID:9633991

  16. Evaluating Observing Requirements for ENSO Prediction: Experiments with an Intermediate Coupled Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morss, Rebecca E.; Battisti, David S.

    2004-08-01

    The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of moored buoys in the tropical Pacific Ocean is a major source of data for understanding and predicting the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Despite the importance of the TAO array, limited work has been performed to date on the number and locations of observations required to predict ENSO effectively. To address this issue, this study performs a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) with a linearized intermediate coupled ENSO model, stochastically forced. ENSO forecasts are simulated for a number of observing network configurations, and forecast skill averaged over 1000 years of simulated ENSO events is compared.The experiments demonstrate that an OSSE framework can be used with a linear, stochastically forced ENSO model to provide useful information about requirements for ENSO prediction. To the extent that the simplified model dynamics represent ENSO dynamics accurately, the experiments also suggest which types of observations in which regions are most important for ENSO prediction. The results indicate that, using this model and experimental setup, subsurface ocean observations are relatively unimportant for ENSO prediction when good information about sea surface temperature (SST) is available; adding subsurface observations primarily improves forecasts initialized in late summer. For short lead-time (1 2 month) forecasts, observations within approximately 3° of the equator are most important for skillful forecasts, while for longer lead-time forecasts, forecast skill is increased by including information at higher latitudes. For forecasts longer than a few months, the most important region for observations is the eastern equatorial Pacific, south of the equator; a secondary region of importance is the western equatorial Pacific. These regions correspond to those where the leading singular vector for the ENSO model has a large amplitude. In a continuation of this study, these results will be used to develop efficient observing networks for forecasting ENSO in this system.


  17. Preparation and Photoluminescence Properties of Pr3+ Ion-Doped Ca2LaTaO6 Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hung-Rung; Teoh, Lay-Gaik; Lin, Huang-Zuo; Chen, Yi-Jin; Chang, Yee-Shin

    2014-04-01

    In this study, Pr3+ ion-doped Ca2LaTaO6 phosphors were synthesized using a vibrating milled solid-state reaction with metal oxides and calcined in air at 1100°C for 8 h. The crystal structure and photoluminescence properties were also investigated. The x-ray powder diffraction patterns show that all of the peaks can be attributed to monoclinic Ca2LaTaO6 phase with increasing Pr3+ ion doping. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the particles are irregular, with the most uniform distribution being obtained for Pr3+ ion concentration of 3 mol.%. The emission spectra of Ca2(La1- x Pr x )TaO6 phosphors showed a dominant green emission peak at 490 nm under excitation at 451 nm, which was due to the 3P0 → 3H4 transition. A series of weak emission peaks at 531 nm, 544 nm, 615 nm, 621 nm, and 652 nm were assigned to the 3P0 → 3H5, 1D2 → 3H4, 3P0 → 3H6, and 3P0 → 3F2 transitions of Pr3+ ions, respectively. In addition, the emission intensities of the Ca2(La1- x Pr x )TaO6 phosphors increased then decreased as the Pr3+ ion concentration was increased, and the maximum emission intensity occurred for x of 0.03, corresponding to an average grain size of 41.5 nm with critical distance of 16.32 Å. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color chromaticity coordinates for the Ca2LaTaO6:Pr3+ phosphors were all located in the green region, but shifted from ( x = 0.145, y = 0.463) to ( x = 0.119, y = 0.471) as the Pr3+ ion concentration was increased from 0.5 mol.% to 10 mol.%.

  18. Contamination of soil with parasite eggs and oocysts in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Uga, S; Nagnaen, W; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    1997-01-01

    Soil contamination with parasite eggs and oocysts was surveyed in southern Thailand in December 1994 and September 1995. The survey areas were Hat Kai Tao Village in Phatthalung Province and a slum area in a city of Songkhla Province. We used a modification of the centrifugal floatation technique with sucrose solution (specific gravity, 1.200) to recover helminth eggs and protozoa oocysts. Overall, 10 genera and 11 species of parasite eggs and oocysts were recovered. They included eight species of nematoda eggs, one species of cestoda eggs, and two species of protozoan oocysts. The definitive hosts of these parasites are dogs, cats, sheep, lizards, humans, etc. The contamination rates in two areas at different occasions varied from 55% to 72% with an average of 64%. Contamination rates of Hat Kai Tao Village in beginning and end of the rainy seasons were 72%, and 55%, respectively. Although the contamination rate in the end of rainy season was higher than that in beginning of the rainy season, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Of the 11 parasites recovered, six were infective to humans, of which, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Toxocara species were predominant. The mean numbers of these eggs recovered in each test were more than 10. Therefore, the contamination was estimated to be more than an egg per gram of soil sample based on the recovery efficiency (40%) of this test. These results suggested that the soil in some parts of southern Thailand may be heavily contaminated by both animal and human feces. PMID:9640594

  19. Purification and characterisation of recombinant DNA encoding the alternative oxidase from Sauromatum guttatum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Catherine; Young, Luke; May, Ben; Shearman, Julia; Albury, Mary S; Kido, Yasutoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Moore, Anthony L

    2014-11-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-protonmotive ubiquinol oxidase that is found in mitochondria of all higher plants studied to date. Structural and functional characterisation of this important but enigmatic plant diiron protein has been hampered by an inability to obtain sufficient native protein from plant sources. In the present study recombinant SgAOX (rSgAOX), overexpressed in a ΔhemA-deficient Escherichia coli strain (FN102), was solubilized from E. coli membranes and purified to homogeneity in a stable and highly active form. The kinetics of ubiquinol-1 oxidation by purified rSgAOX showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m) of 332 μM and Vmax of 30 μmol(-1) min(-1) mg(-1)), a turnover number 20 μmol s(-1) and a remarkable stability. The enzyme was potently inhibited not only by conventional inhibitors such as SHAM and n-propyl gallate but also by the potent TAO inhibitors ascofuranone, an ascofuranone-derivative colletochlorin B and the cytochrome bc1 inhibitor ascochlorin. Circular dichroism studies revealed that AOX was approximately 50% α-helical and furthermore such studies revealed that rSgAOX and rTAO partially retained the helical absorbance signal even at 90 °C (58% and 64% respectively) indicating a high conformational stability. It is anticipated that highly purified and active AOX and its mutants will facilitate investigations into the structure and reaction mechanisms of AOXs through the provision of large amounts of purified protein for crystallography and contribute to further progress of the study on this important plant terminal oxidase. PMID:24632469

  20. Luminosity Correlations for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for Their Prompt and Afterglow Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, tau, for the standard Swift energy bands 50 - 100 keV and 100 - 200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L(sub iso) (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift GRBs taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, L(sub x), of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical XRT GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T(sub brk). We also present the L(sub x) - T(sub brk) relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation (rho = -0.65 for the L(sub iso) - tao and rho = -0.88 for the L(sub x) -T(sub brk) relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power law indices (-1.19 +/- 0.17 for L(sub iso) - tau and -1.10 +/- 0.03 for L(sub x) - T(sub brk)). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although tau and T(sub brk) represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L(sub iso) - tao) extrapolates into the second one for timescales tau similar to T(sub brk) This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  1. Retinopathy in non diabetics, diabetic retinopathy and oxidative stress: a new phenotype in Central Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mvitu Muaka, Moise; Masamba, Wayiza; Muizila Kini, Lucien; Longo Phemba, Igor; Kibokela Ndembe, Dalida; Tulomba Mona, Doris

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the rates of retinopathy without diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR), associated with some markers of oxidative stress, antioxidants and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS We determined the prevalence of DR in 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, that of retinopathy in 50 non diabetics, the levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-glutamyl transferase GT (GGT), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid, creatinine, albumin, total antioxidant status (TAOS), zinc, selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, glucose, apolipoprotein B (ApoB). RESULTS The prevalences of DR at 53y and Rtp at 62y were 44% (n=66) and 10% (n=5), respectively. The highest levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, TBARS, SOD, and OxLDL were in DR. The lowest levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, TAOS, and vitamin E were in DR. In the case-control study discriminant analysis, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, ApoB, 8-OHdG, creatinine, Zn, vitamin E, and WC distinguished significantly non-diabetics without DR (controls), T2DM patients without DR and T2DM patients with DR. CONCLUSION Anticipation of DR onset is significantly associated with the exageration of oxidative stress biomarkers or decrease of antioxidants in African type 2 diabetics. Prevention of oxidative stress and abdominal obesity is needed. Supplementation in vitamin C, D, and E should be recommended as complement therapies of T2DM. PMID:24790873

  2. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-12-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  3. Acclerator R&D for a Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.L.; Dugan, G.; Gibbons, L.; Palmer, M.; Patterson, R.; Sagan, D.; Smith, J.C.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Fields, J.; Urban, J.

    2008-11-26

    The goal of this project was to perform simulations of beam transport in linear colliders, with an emphasis on emittance dilution, spin polarization transport, and development and testing of beam based tuning algorithms. Our simulations are based on an existing object-oriented particle-tracking library, Bmad. To facilitate the efficient development of simulations, an accelerator design and analysis program based on Bmad has been developed called Tao (Tool for Accelerator Optics). The three beam-based alignment algorithms, Dispersion Free Steering, Ballistic Alignment (BA), and the Kubo Method have been implemented in Tao. We have studied the effects of magnet misalignments, BPM resolution, beam jitter, stray fields, BPM and steering magnet failure and the effects of various cavity shape wakefields. A parametric study has been conducted in the presence of the above types of errors for all three alignment algorithms. We find that BPM resolution has only modest impact on the effectiveness of beam based alignment. The DFS correction algorithm was found to be very robust in situations where there were BPM and/or steering magnet failures. The wakefields in the main linac are very weak and cause negligible emittance growth. Spin tracking was extended to study all accelerator components between the damping ring and the interaction point, including RF cavities and the helical undulator. We find that there is no significant depolarization in the RTML, main linac or beam delivery system and that the polarization is relatively insensitive to misalignment. We have developed an effective spin rotator. During the final year of the grant we exploited the computing power of our new linux cluster, along with the modeling codes that we had developed, to investigate damping ring physics and design, specifically as it relates to the CESR Test Accelerator project.

  4. Modulation of Yeast Sln1 Kinase Activity by the Ccw12 Cell Wall Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Sandhya S.; Malone, Cheryl L.; Deschenes, Robert J.; Fassler, Jan S.

    2010-01-01

    The yeast Sln1p sensor kinase is best known as an osmosensor involved in the regulation of the hyperosmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Down-regulation of Sln1 kinase activity occurs under hypertonic conditions and leads to phosphorylation of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased osmotic stress-response gene expression. Conditions leading to kinase up-regulation include osmotic imbalance caused by glycerol retention in the glycerol channel mutant, fps1 (Tao, W., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 360–367). The hypothesis that Sln1p kinase activity is responsive to turgor was first suggested by the increased Sln1p kinase activity in mutants lacking Fps1p in which glycerol accumulation leads to water uptake. Also consistent with the turgor hypothesis is the observation that reduced turgor caused by treatment of cells with nystatin, a drug that increases membrane permeability and causes cell shrinkage, reduced Sln1p kinase activity (Tao, W., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 360–367; Reiser, V., Raitt, D. C., and Saito, H. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1035–1040). The turgor hypothesis is revisited here in the context of the identification and characterization of the cell wall gene, CCW12, as a determinant of Sln1p activity. Results of this analysis suggest that the activity of the plasma membrane localized Sln1p is affected by the presence or absence of specific outer cell wall proteins and that this effect is independent of turgor. PMID:18048366

  5. Lanreotide in the treatment of patients with thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Krassas, G E; Kaltsas, T; Dumas, A; Pontikides, N; Tolis, G

    1997-04-01

    Octreotide, a potent synthetic somatostatin (SM) analogue, was recently evaluated and found to have a beneficial effect in thyroid eye disease (TED), mostly in those patients with a positive Octreoscan-111. Lanreotide (LRT; Somatuline-Ipsen), a new SM long-acting analogue, is more active than natural SM and shows a much longer duration of action. The aim of the present preliminary study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of LRT in the treatment of TED. Five patients, three males and two females, mean age 50.6 +/- 7.6 S.D. (45-64) years, all with severe symptoms of TED were studied. A similar number of patients, matched for age, sex and severity of ophthalmopathy served as controls. All the patients and controls were investigated with orbital scintigraphy using 111 In DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide (Octreoscan-111) and selected on the basis of positive octreoscan. The NOSPECS system, as adapted by Donaldson et al. (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1973 37 276-285) and a disease activity score, as proposed recently by an International Workshop, have been followed in this study in order to evaluate the response to treatment. The five patients who comprised the treatment group received 0.04 g LRT i.m. once every 2 weeks over a period of 3 months, after which the Octreoscan-111 was repeated. The control patients were given an injection of water i.m., also once every 2 weeks for 3 months, after which they were evaluated clinically. No Octreoscan-111 was performed in the controls. All patients and controls were evaluated by the same physician, who was unaware of the type of treatment used. A decrease in the NOSPECS score and the clinical activity score was regarded as a positive response, while no change or an increase in the NOSPECS score along with no clinical improvement was regarded as a negative response. After 3 months of treatment with LRT, four patients showed a statistically significant improvement in ophthalmopathy in both eyes and one in one eye. Three of the control patients with TED did not show any change, one showed a minor improvement in one eye and no change in the other and one showed deterioration in both eyes. An interesting finding was that orbital Octreoscan-111 activity was absent in all the patients after LRT treatment. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that LRT has a beneficial effect on patients with TED, and that since it has to be given only once every 2 weeks, it is probably superior to any other form of SM treatment. However, as the number of patients was small, further studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:9150703

  6. A Drug-Like Antagonist Inhibits Thyrotropin Receptor–Mediated Stimulation of cAMP Production in Graves' Orbital Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne; Pope, Arthur; Geras-Raaka, Elizabeth; Raaka, Bruce M.; Bahn, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibroblasts (FIBs) within the retro-orbital space of patients with Graves' disease (GOFs) express thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and are thought to be an orbital target of TSHR-stimulating autoantibodies in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Recently, we developed a low molecular weight, drug-like TSHR antagonist (NCGC00229600) that inhibited TSHR activation in a model cell system overexpressing TSHRs and in normal human thyrocytes expressing endogenous TSHRs. Herein, we test the hypothesis that NCGC00229600 will inhibit activation of TSHRs endogenously expressed in GOFs. Methods Three strains of GOFs, previously obtained from patients with GO, were studied as undifferentiated FIBs and after differentiation into adipocytes (ADIPs), and another seven strains were studied only as FIBs. ADIP differentiation was monitored by morphology and measurement of adiponectin mRNA. FIBs and ADIPs were treated with the TSH- or TSHR-stimulating antibody M22 in the absence or presence of NCGC00229600 and TSHR activation was monitored by cAMP production. Results FIBs contained few if any lipid vesicles and undetectable levels of adiponectin mRNA, whereas ADIPs exhibited abundant lipid vesicles and levels of adiponectin mRNA more than 250,000 times greater than FIBs; TSHR mRNA levels were 10-fold higher in ADIPs than FIBs. FIBs exhibited higher absolute levels of basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production than ADIPs. Consistent with previous findings, TSH stimulated cAMP production in the majority of ADIP strains and less consistently in FIBs. Most importantly, NCGC00229600 reduced both TSH- and M22-stimulated cAMP production in GOFs. Conclusions These data confirm previous findings that TSHR activation may cause increased cAMP production in GOFs and show that NCGC00229600 can inhibit TSHR activation in GOFs. These findings suggest that drug-like TSHR antagonists may have a role in treatment of GO. PMID:22784331

  7. Antibodies to acetylcholinesterase cross-reacting with thyroglobulin in myasthenia gravis and Graves's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mappouras, D G; Philippou, G; Haralambous, S; Tzartos, S J; Balafas, A; Souvatzoglou, A; Lymberi, P

    1995-01-01

    In the present study we analysed by ELISA the ability of sera from 50 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), 20 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 53 with Graves' disease (GD) and 36 healthy controls (CR) to react with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Electrophorus electricus and human thyroglobulin (Tg). Significantly increased anti-AChE activity was exhibited by a high proportion of MG (IgG 36%) and GD (IgG 21%) sera, while increased anti-Tg activity was detected in all three patient groups (MG, IgG 26% and IgA 26%; HT, IgG 85% and IgA 40%; and GD, IgG 51%). Interestingly, a significant proportion of MG and GD sera exhibited both IgG anti-AChE and anti-Tg activities (MG, 18%; P < 0.001; and GD, 15%; P < 0.001, versus CR, 0%). This bi-reactivity was exhibited by anti-AChE antibodies cross-reacting with Tg (anti-AChE/Tg activity); (i) serum anti-AChE activity was effectively inhibited by soluble Tg, and (ii) affinity-purified anti-Tg antibodies cross-reacted with AChE. Cross-reactivity seems to be a property of pathological (auto)antibodies; induced (rabbit) antibodies to AChE or Tg were highly monospecific. Analysis of clinical data showed that increased IgG anti-AChE/Tg activity was well associated with: (i) overlapping GD in MG (P < 0.02), and (ii) ophthalmopathy in GD (P < 0.01). In contrast, no correlation was noted in MG between anti-AChE activity units and anti-Tg activity units or acetylcholine receptor antibody titres. The clinical significance of anti-AChE/Tg antibodies remains to be elucidated. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7743674

  8. Bidirectional TSH and IGF-1 Receptor Cross Talk Mediates Stimulation of Hyaluronan Secretion by Graves' Disease Immunoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Christine C.; Neumann, Susanne; Place, Robert F.; Marcus-Samuels, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is no pathogenetically linked medical therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Lack of animal models and conflicting in vitro studies have hindered the development of such therapy. Recent reports propose that Graves' Igs bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs) on cells in orbital fat, stimulating hyaluronan (HA) secretion, a component of GO. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate potential cross talk between TSHRs and IGF-1Rs in the pathogenesis of GO using a sensitive HA assay. Design/Setting/Participants: Orbital fibroblasts from GO patients were collected in an academic clinical practice and cultured in a research laboratory. Cells were treated with TSH, IGF-1, and a monoclonal Graves' Ig M22. Main Outcome Measures: HA was measured by a modified ELISA. Results: Simultaneous activation by TSH and IGF-1 synergistically increased HA secretion from 320 ± 52 for TSH and 430 ± 65 μg/mL for IGF-1 alone, to 1300 ± 95 μg/mL. IGF-1 shifted the TSH EC50 19-fold to higher potency. The dose response to M22 was biphasic. An IGF-1R antagonist inhibited the higher potency phase but had no effect on the lower potency phase. M22 did not cause IGF-1R autophosphorylation. A TSHR antagonist abolished both phases of M22-stimulated HA secretion. Conclusions: M22 stimulation of HA secretion by GO fibroblasts/preadipocytes involves cross talk between TSHR and IGF-1R. This cross talk relies on TSHR activation rather than direct activation of IGF-1R and leads to synergistic stimulation of HA secretion. These data propose a model for GO pathogenesis that explains previous contradictory results and argues for TSHR as the primary therapeutic target for GO. PMID:25485727

  9. Antibodies to acetylcholinesterase cross-reacting with thyroglobulin in myasthenia gravis and Graves's disease.

    PubMed

    Mappouras, D G; Philippou, G; Haralambous, S; Tzartos, S J; Balafas, A; Souvatzoglou, A; Lymberi, P

    1995-05-01

    In the present study we analysed by ELISA the ability of sera from 50 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), 20 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 53 with Graves' disease (GD) and 36 healthy controls (CR) to react with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Electrophorus electricus and human thyroglobulin (Tg). Significantly increased anti-AChE activity was exhibited by a high proportion of MG (IgG 36%) and GD (IgG 21%) sera, while increased anti-Tg activity was detected in all three patient groups (MG, IgG 26% and IgA 26%; HT, IgG 85% and IgA 40%; and GD, IgG 51%). Interestingly, a significant proportion of MG and GD sera exhibited both IgG anti-AChE and anti-Tg activities (MG, 18%; P < 0.001; and GD, 15%; P < 0.001, versus CR, 0%). This bi-reactivity was exhibited by anti-AChE antibodies cross-reacting with Tg (anti-AChE/Tg activity); (i) serum anti-AChE activity was effectively inhibited by soluble Tg, and (ii) affinity-purified anti-Tg antibodies cross-reacted with AChE. Cross-reactivity seems to be a property of pathological (auto)antibodies; induced (rabbit) antibodies to AChE or Tg were highly monospecific. Analysis of clinical data showed that increased IgG anti-AChE/Tg activity was well associated with: (i) overlapping GD in MG (P < 0.02), and (ii) ophthalmopathy in GD (P < 0.01). In contrast, no correlation was noted in MG between anti-AChE activity units and anti-Tg activity units or acetylcholine receptor antibody titres. The clinical significance of anti-AChE/Tg antibodies remains to be elucidated. PMID:7743674

  10. Matrix Expansion and Syncytial Aggregation of Syndecan-1+ Cells Underpin Villous Atrophy in Coeliac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salvestrini, Camilla; Lucas, Mark; Lionetti, Paolo; Torrente, Franco; James, Sean; Phillips, Alan D.; Murch, Simon H.

    2014-01-01

    Background We studied the expression of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in coeliac disease (CD) mucosa, as they are critical determinants of tissue volume, which increases in active disease. We also examined mucosal expression of IL-6, which stimulates excess GAG synthesis in disorders such as Grave's ophthalmopathy. Methods We stained archival jejunal biopsies from 5 children with CD at diagnosis, on gluten-free diet and challenge for sulphated GAGs. We then examined duodenal biopsies from 9 children with CD compared to 9 histological normal controls, staining for sulphated GAGs, heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG), short-chain HSPG (Δ-HSPG) and the proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138), which is expressed on epithelium and plasma cells. We confirmed findings with a second monoclonal in another 12 coeliac children. We determined mucosal IL-6 expression by immunohistochemistry and PCR in 9 further cases and controls, and used quantitative real time PCR for other Th17 pathway cytokines in an additional 10 cases and controls. Results In CD, HSPG expression was lost in the epithelial compartment but contrastingly maintained within an expanded lamina propria. Within the upper lamina propria, clusters of syndecan-1+ plasma cells formed extensive syncytial sheets, comprising adherent plasma cells, lysed cells with punctate cytoplasmic staining and shed syndecan ectodomains. A dense infiltrate of IL-6+ mononuclear cells was detected in active coeliac disease, also localised to the upper lamina propria, with significantly increased mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-17A but not IL-23 p19. Conclusions Matrix expansion, through syndecan-1+ cell recruitment and lamina propria GAG increase, underpins villous atrophy in coeliac disease. The syndecan-1+ cell syncytia and excess GAG production recapitulate elements of the invertebrate encapsulation reaction, itself dependent on insect transglutaminase and glutaminated early response proteins. As in other matrix expansion disorders, IL-6 is upregulated and represents a logical target for immunotherapy in patients with coeliac disease refractory to gluten-free diet. PMID:25198673

  11. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10 in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferri, Clodoveo; Fallahi, Poupak

    2014-03-01

    (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10 (CXCL10) belongs to the ELR(-) CXC subfamily chemokine. CXCL10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), a seven trans-membrane receptor coupled to G proteins. CXCL10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjögren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of CXCL10 by cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+, natural killer (NK) and NK-T cells is dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ, which is itself mediated by the interleukin-12 cytokine family. Under the influence of IFN-γ, CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, thyrocytes, preadipocytes, etc. Determination of high level of CXCL10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of host immune response, especially T helper (Th)1 orientated T-cells. In tissues, recruited Th1 lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 secretion from a variety of cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Further studies are needed to investigate interactions between chemokines and cytokines in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and to evaluate whether CXCL10 is a novel therapeutic target in various autoimmune diseases. PMID:24189283

  12. Kinetic analyses of changes in serum TSH receptor antibody values after total thyroidectomy in patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Waka; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Mitsuru; Kudo, Takumi; Tamai, Hidekazu; Nishihara, Eijun; Kihara, Minoru; Miya, Akihiro; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-29

    We often recommend total thyroidectomy for patients with Graves' disease who wish to have a child in the near future in order to prevent fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism, especially if the patients' serum thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) values are high. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in serum TRAb values using a quantitative third-generation assay after total thyroidectomy and the half-lives of serum TRAb values to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the safe TRAb value for mothers. We retrospectively examined the records of 45 Graves' disease patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and had high serum TRAb values. We also evaluated factors that prolonged the postoperative reduction of serum TRAb values. The serum TRAb values decreased rapidly in most of the patients, especially within the early postoperative (3-month) period. The presence of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.004), and serum thyroglobulin values > 0.5 ng/mL at postoperative 12 months (p=0.039) were significantly associated with prolonged half-lives of the serum TRAb values. The median TRAb value half-life was 93.5 days in the patients without GO or smoking, 162.5 days in the patients with GO or smoking, and 357.4 days in the patients with both GO and smoking. Our findings indicate that using the half-life of patients' serum TRAb values determined by this third-generation assay would be effective to evaluate the reduction of serum TRAb values after total thyroidectomy and to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the maternal safe value. PMID:26632172

  13. Analysis of four families with the Stickler syndrome by linkage studies. Identification of a new premature stop codon in the COL2A1 gene in a family

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaventure, J.; Lasselin, C.; Toutain, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy which associates progressive myopia with vitreal degeneration and retinal detachment. Cleft palate, cranio-facial abnormalities, deafness and osteoarthritis are often associated symptoms. Genetic heterogeneity of this autosomal dominant disease was consistent with its large clinical variability. Linkage studies have provided evidence for cosegregation of the disease with COL2A1, the gene coding for type II collagen, in about 50% of the families. Four additional families are reported here. Linkage analyses by using a VNTR located in the 3{prime} region of the gene were achieved. In three families, positive lod scores were obtained with a cumulative maximal value of 3.5 at a recombination fraction of 0. In one of these families, single strand conformation analysis of 25 exons disclosed a new mutation in exon 42. Codon for glutamic acid at position a1-803 was converted into a stop codon. The mutation was detected in DNA samples from all the affected members of the family but not in the unaffected. This result confirms that most of the Stickler syndromes linked to COL2A1 are due to premature stop codons. In a second family, an abnormal SSCP pattern of exon 34 was detected in all the affected individuals. The mutation is likely to correspond to a splicing defect in the acceptor site of intron 33. In one family the disease did not segregate with the COL2A1 locus. Further linkage studies with intragenic dimorphic sites in the COL10A1 gene and highly polymorphic markers close to the COL9A1 locus indicated that this disorder did not result from defects in these two genes.

  14. A{sup -2} {yields} G transition at the 3{prime} acceptor splice site of IVS17 characterizes the COL2A1 gene mutation in the original Stickler syndrome kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Ganguly, A.; Considine, E.

    1996-06-14

    Hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, or {open_quotes}Stickler syndrome,{close_quotes} is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia characterized by a variety of ocular and skeletal anomalies which frequently lead to retinal detachment and precocious osteoarthritis. A variety of mutations in the COL2A1 gene have been identified in {open_quotes}Stickler{close_quotes} families; in most cases studied thus far, the consequence of mutation is the premature generation of a stop codon. We report here the characterization of a COL2A1 gene mutation in the original kindred described by Stickler et al. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used to screen for mutations in the entire COL2A1 gene in an affected member from the kindred. A prominent heteroduplex species was noted in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from a region of the gene including exons 17 to 20. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA resulted in the identification of a base substitution at the A{sup -2} position of the 3{prime} splice acceptor site of IVS17. Sequencing of DNA from affected and unaffected family members confirmed that the mutation segregated with the disease phenotype. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of poly A+ RNA demonstrated that the mutant allele utilized a cryptic splice site in exon 18 of the gene, eliminating 16 bp at the start of exon 18. This frameshift eventually results in a premature termination codon. These findings are the first report of a splice site mutation in classical Stickler syndrome and they provide a satisfying historical context in which to view COL2A1 mutations in this dysplasia. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Levels of regulatory T cells CD69(+)NKG2D(+)IL-10(+) are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ana; Vitales-Noyola, Marlen; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mónica

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). New subsets of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes that behave as regulatory cells have been recently reported. The role of these immunoregulatory lymphocytes has not been previously explored in AITD. We analyzed by multi-parametric flow cytometry different Treg cell subsets in peripheral blood from 32 patients with AITD and 19 controls, and in thyroid tissue from seven patients. The suppressive activity was measured by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. We found a significant increased percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+), CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+), and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells, in peripheral blood from GD patients compared to controls. The increase in CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) T cells was especially remarkable in patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and a significant positive correlation between GO activity and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) or CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells was also found. In addition, these cells were increased in patients with a more severe and/or prolonged disease. Thyroid from AITD patients showed an increased proportion of CD69(+) regulatory T cells subpopulations compared to autologous peripheral blood. The presence of CD69(+), NKG2D(+), and IL-10(+) cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro functional assays showed that CD69(+) Treg cells exerted an important suppressive effect on the activation of T effector cells in controls, but not in AITD patients. Our findings suggest that the levels of CD69(+) regulatory lymphocytes are increased in AITD patients, but they are apparently unable to down-modulate the autoimmune response and tissue damage. PMID:26100786

  16. Mechanism of action of a nanomolar potent, allosteric antagonist of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor

    PubMed Central

    van Koppen, Chris J; de Gooyer, Marcel E; Karstens, Willem-Jan; Plate, Ralf; Conti, Paolo GM; van Achterberg, Tanja AE; van Amstel, Monique GA; Brands, Jolanda HGM; Wat, Jesse; Berg, Rob JW; Lane, J Robert D; Miltenburg, Andre MM; Timmers, C Marco

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid is overactive, producing excessive amounts of thyroid hormones, caused by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs). Many GD patients also suffer from thyroid eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy or GO), as TSIs also activate TSH receptors in orbital tissue. We recently developed low molecular weight (LMW) TSH receptor antagonists as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GD and GO. Here, we determined the molecular pharmacology of a prototypic, nanomolar potent LMW TSH receptor antagonist, Org 274179-0. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using CHO cells heterogeneously expressing human TSH receptors and rat FRTL-5 cells endogenously expressing rat TSH receptors, we determined the potency and efficacy of Org 274179-0 at antagonizing TSH- and TSI-induced TSH receptor signalling and its cross-reactivity at related follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone receptors. We analysed the allosteric mode of interaction of Org 274179-0 and determined whether it is an inverse agonist at five naturally occurring, constitutively active TSH receptor mutants. KEY RESULTS Nanomolar concentrations of Org 274179-0 completely inhibited TSH (and TSI)-mediated TSH receptor activation with little effect on the potency of TSH, in accordance with an allosteric mechanism of action. Conversely, increasing levels of TSH receptor stimulation only marginally reduced the antagonist potency of Org 274179-0. Org 274179-0 fully blocked the increased basal activity of all the constitutively active TSH receptor mutants tested with nanomolar potencies. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Nanomolar potent TSH receptor antagonists like Org 274179-0 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of GD and GO. PMID:22014107

  17. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unilateral Orbital Lymphoma and Orbital Pseudo-Tumors: A Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Kazumi Tanyi, James A.; Stea, Baldassarre

    2009-04-01

    Orbital lymphoma and Grave's ophthalmopathy (GO) are successfully treated with radiation therapy. The lenses are blocked to prevent cataract formation. However, blocking of the lens by traditional methods can be difficult for tumors located anteriorly and extending into the retrobulbar space. We present a series of 3 patients with orbital lymphoma and 1 with GO treated with stereotactic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to spare normal structures, including the lens. Three patients with orbital lymphomas and 1 with unilateral GO were treated with IMRT using a linac with stereotactic capabilities. Avoidance structures included the ipsilateral lens and globe, the contralateral lens and globe, the chiasm, and the brainstem. Two patients with orbital lymphoma were treated with 24 Gy in 12 fractions, and 1 patient was treated with 30.6 Gy in 17 fractions. The patient with GO was treated with 20 Gy in 10 fractions. The dosimetry was analyzed to determine the dose to normal tissues. Patient follow-up varies between 8 and 24 months. The mean minimal dose to the ipsilateral lens was 13.6% of the total dose, the mean maximal dose was 33.5%, and the mean median dose was 19.3%. The mean median dose to the contralateral eye was 1.1% of the total dose. The mean median dose to the chiasm was 14.9% of the total dose. The mean median dose to the brainstem was 1.9% of the total dose. No cataracts or other complications were noted in the 4 patients treated with this technique so far. IMRT gives a more conformal treatment to the orbital contents while sparing normal tissues such as the ipsilateral lens and adjacent critical structures. This should result in fewer complications such as cataracts.

  18. DYSMICROBISM, INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE AND THYROIDITIS: ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, G; Tralongo, P; Amoroso, F; Damiani, P; Sinagra, E; Noto, M; Arculeo, V M; Jurjus Zein, R; Saad, W; Jurjus, A; Gerbino, A; Leone, A

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a large number of microbes that are collectively referred to as the microbiota. They interact with the hosting organism and some do contribute to the physiological maintenance of the general good health thru regulation of some metabolic processes while some others are essential for the synthesis of vitamins and short-chain fatty acids. The abnormal variation, in the quality and/or quantity of individual bacterial species residing in the gastro-intestinal tract, is called “dysmicrobism”. The immune system of the host will respond to these changes at the intestinal mucosa level which could lead to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). This inflammatory immune response could subsequently extend to other organs and systems outside the digestive tract such as the thyroid, culminating in thyroiditis. The goal of the present study is to review and analyze data reported in the literature about thyroiditis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD). It was reported that similarities of some molecular bacterial components with molecular components of the host are considered among the factors causing IBD through an autoimmune reaction which could involve other non-immune cell types. The axis dysmicrobism-IBD-autoimmune reaction will be investigated as a possible etiopathogenic mechanism to Autoimmune Thyroiditis. If such is the case, then the employment of specific probiotic strains may represent a useful approach to moderate the immune system. PMID:26122213

  19. Reflections on the theory of "silver bullet" octreotide tracers: implications for ligand-receptor interactions in the age of peptides, heterodimers, receptor mosaics, truncated receptors, and multifractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The classical attitude of Nuclear Medicine practitioners on matters of peptide-receptor interactions has maintained an intrinsic monogamic character since many years. New advances in the field of biochemistry and even in clinical Nuclear Medicine have challenged this type of thinking, which prompted me to work on this review. The central issue of this paper will be the use of somatostatin analogs, i.e., octreotide, in clinical imaging procedures as well as in relation to neuroendocirne tumors. Newly described characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors such as the formation of receptor mosaics will be discussed. A small section will enumerate the regulatory processes found in the cell membrane. Possible new interpretations, other than tumor detection, based on imaging procedures with somatostatin analogs will be presented. The readers will be taken to situations such as inflammation, nociception, mechanosensing, chemosensing, fibrosis, taste, and vascularity where somatostatin is involved. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy will be used as a model for the development of multi-agent therapeutics. The final graphical summary depicts the multifactorial properties of ligand binding. PMID:22214590

  20. De Quervain thyroiditis in the course of H1N1 influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Michas, G; Alevetsovitis, G; Andrikou, I; Tsimiklis, S; Vryonis, E

    2014-01-01

    Background/aim: Viral infections have been frequently associated with subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the present case report we document a rare case of De Quervain thyroiditis in the course of H1N1 influenza infection. Description of the case: A 17-year-old previously healthy female that was treated in the General Hospital of Kalamata developed an influenza-like syndrome that was accompanied by palpitations, thyroid enlargement, and increased C-reactive protein. Polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed the diagnosis of H1N1 virus infection. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed to zero while the levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine were increased. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and thyroid function was gradually restored without evolving to a hypothyroid phase. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the second case described in the literature of De Quervain thyroiditis associated with H1N1 influenza infection. PMID:25125962