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  1. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1°) as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°). A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°). Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt to the contra lateral side and tendon snapping. We propose that eccentric muscle action over time can be the basis for a low grade inflammatory condition. The general implications of this model and its relations to Zn and Se will be discussed. PMID:17319961

  2. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasena, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

  3. Th1, Th2, and Th17 Cytokine Involvement in Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Li, Zhangfang; Li, Wenting; Ge, Ying; Xie, Min; Lv, Meng; Fan, Yanfei; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Defu; Han, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    To determine serum cytokine profiles in Graves' disease (GD) patients with or without active and inactive thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), we recruited 65 subjects: 10 GD only (without TAO), 25 GD + active TAO, 20 GD + TAO, and 10 healthy controls. Liquid chip assay was used to measure serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines including IFN-? (interferon-gamma), TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-1? (interleukin-1 alpha), IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17 and two chemokines: RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and IP-10 (IFN-?-induced protein 10). Serum levels of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with healthy controls, TAO patients showed significantly elevated serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and IP-10. Comparing active and inactive TAO, serum Th1 cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? were elevated in active TAO, while serum Th2 cytokine IL-4 was elevated in inactive TAO. Serum Th17 cytokine IL-17 was elevated in GD but reduced in both active and inactive TAO. A positive correlation was found between TRAb and IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. Taken together, serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and chemokines reflect TAO disease activity and may be implicated in TAO pathogenesis. PMID:26089587

  4. Development of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy in Patients Who Underwent Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Ka Hyun; Oh, Jong Rok; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report clinical characteristics of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) in patients who previously underwent total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer or a benign mass of the thyroid. Materials and Methods Of the patients who were diagnosed with TAO from March 2008 to March 2012, we performed a retrospective chart review on those who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer or a benign mass of the thyroid before the occurrence of ophthalmopathy. Results Of the 206 patients diagnosed with TAO, seven (3.4%) met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the subjects was 47.4 years, and all were female. Six patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer, and one was diagnosed with a benign mass. The duration between total thyroidectomy and onset of TAO ranged from 3-120 months (median 48 months). Ophthalmic manifestations varied among cases. Except for the patient who was diagnosed with a benign mass, all patients showed hyperthyroid status and were under Synthroid hormone treatment at the time of TAO development. Five of these six patients had positive levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. Conclusion TAO rarely develops after total thyroidectomy, and the mechanism of TAO occurrence is unclear. However, most patients showed abnormalities in thyroid function and TSH receptor autoantibodies. PMID:26256985

  5. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  6. MiRNA-21 promotes fibrosis in orbital fibroblasts from thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bo-ding, Tong; Man-Yi, Xiao; Jie-Xi, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the role of miR-21 in orbital fibroblasts obtained from donors with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and to elucidate the regulation of fibrosis by miR-21 in the pathological process of TAO. Methods The expression of miR-21 was investigated in orbital tissues from 26 donors with TAO and 10 donors without TAO. Human orbital fibroblasts were cultivated from TAO donors, and the role of miR-21 in orbital fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation was analyzed. Moreover, the effect of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) on miR-21 expression was also analyzed. In addition, the regulation of miR-21 in TGF-?1-induced collagen production was determined. Results The expression of miR-21 in orbital fibroblasts from TAO was higher than in donors without TAO. Additional experiments demonstrated that miR-21 enhanced proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and promoted differentiation in TAO orbital fibroblasts. Moreover, this study also showed that TGF-?1 induced miR-21 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and miR-21 promoted collagen I mRNA expression and total collagen production induced by TGF-?1. Additionally, miR-21 activated the TGF-?1/Smad signaling pathway by enhancing Smad3 phosphorylation. Conclusions The present study shows that miR-21 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in orbital fibroblasts from TAO, and acts as a mediator in TGF-?1-induced collagen production. These data predict a close association between miR-21 and orbital muscle fibrosis, and provide a novel therapeutic target for TAO. PMID:25873777

  7. Current Concepts in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Smith, Terry J.

    2014-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a common autoimmune condition. At its core, stimulatory autoantibodies are directed at the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), resulting in dysregulated thyroid gland activity and growth. Closely associated with GD is the ocular condition known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The pathogenesis of TAO remains enigmatic as do the connections between the thyroid and orbit. This review highlights the putative molecular mechanisms involved in TAO and suggests how these insights provide future directions for identifying therapeutic targets. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors have been suggested as contributory to the development of GD and TAO. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are expressed at higher levels in the orbital connective tissue from individuals with TAO than in healthy tissues. Together, they form a functional complex and appear to promote signaling relevant to GD and TAO. Orbital fibroblasts display an array of cell surface receptors and generate a host of inflammatory molecules that may participate in T and B cell infiltration. Recently, a population of orbital fibroblasts has been putatively traced to bone marrowderived progenitor cells, known as fibrocytes, as they express CD45, CD34, CXCR4, collagen I, functional TSHR, and thyroglobulin (Tg). Fibrocytes become more numerous in GD and we believe traffic to the orbit in TAO. Numerous attempts at developing complete animal models of GD have been largely unsuccessful, because they lack fidelity with the ocular manifestations seen in TAO. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of TAO and development of improved animal models should greatly accelerate the identification of medical therapy for this vexing medical problem. PMID:24651704

  8. Cytokines are both villains and potential therapeutic targets in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: From bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terry J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The pathophysiology underlying Graves disease and its ocular manifestation, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is incompletely understood. Characterization of the mononuclear cells driving the disease and the cytokines they produce has led to significant advances in our understanding of TAO. This in turn has resulted in the identification of potentially attractive drug targets. For instance, development of inhibitors of specific cytokine pathways for use in other autoimmune diseases now presents an opportunity for their application in TAO. In this paper, we review the rationale for considering anti-cytokine therapy in TAO, evidence linking specific cytokines such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-17 pathways to TAO, and explore the potential for targeting of these pathways as therapy. PMID:25544859

  9. Risk Factors For Developing Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Among Individuals with Graves Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Childers, David; Gupta, Shivani; Talwar, Nidhi; Nan, Bin; Lee, Brian J.; Smith, Terry J.; Douglas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Context Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common and debilitating manifestation of Graves disease (GD). Presently little is known about factors that may increase the risk of developing TAO among patients with GD. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with the development of TAO among individuals who are newly-diagnosed with GD. Design, Setting, Patients In this longitudinal cohort study, all beneficiaries age ? 18 years with newly-diagnosed GD who were continuously enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network and who had ?1 visit to an eye care provider from 20012009 were identified. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) billing codes were used to identify those who developed manifestations of TAO. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the hazard of developing TAO among persons who were newly-diagnosed with GD, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, systemic medical conditions, thyroid stimulating hormone levels, and medical and surgical interventions for management of hyperthyroidism. Main Outcome Measure Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Of 8,404 patients with GD who met the inclusion criteria, 740 (8.8%) developed TAO (mean follow-up, 374 days since initial GD diagnosis). After adjustment for potential confounders, surgical thyroidectomy, alone or in combination with medical therapy, was associated with a 74%-decreased hazard for TAO (adjusted HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.120.51]), compared with radioactive iodine therapy alone. Statin use (for ?60 days in the past year, vs. <60 days or nonuse) was associated with a 40%-decreased hazard (HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.370.93]). No significant association was found for use of non-statin cholesterol-lowering medications or COX-2 inhibitors and development of TAO. Conclusion and Relevance If prospective studies can confirm our finding that thyroidectomy and statin exposure are associated with substantially reduced hazards for TAO in patients with GD, deliberate preventive measures for this burdensome manifestation of GD may become a reality. PMID:25502604

  10. Identification of thyroglobulin in orbital tissues of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Marin, M; Lisi, S; Pinchera, A; Mazzi, B; Latrofa, F; Sellari-Franceschini, S; McCluskey, R T; Chiovato, L

    2001-02-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is thought to have an autoimmune pathogenesis because of its association with autoimmune thyroid disease, in particular with Graves' disease. Nevertheless, the nature of the autoimmune reaction is unclear, and a target orbital autoantigen has not been conclusively identified. A widely discussed hypothesis is that antigens constitutively shared by the thyroid and orbital tissues are targets of an autoimmune reaction. It has been also postulated that a thyroid-soluble antigen, namely thyroglobulin (Tg), is transported to orbital tissues through the lymphatics, where it accumulates and elicits autoimmune damages in susceptible individuals. Here we have investigated whether Tg is present in orbital tissues from patients with TAO. Retrobulbar tissue specimens were obtained from three patients with Graves' disease and TAO who underwent decompressive orbitotomy, and at autopsy from two patients with no thyroid or eye disease. All patients with TAO had been previously treated with radioiodine to control Graves' hyperthyroidism. Western blot analysis with a monoclonal anti-Tg antibody showed the presence of intact Tg, both in soluble and membrane-associated fractions of orbital tissue extracts from the patients with TAO, in amounts estimated to range from approximately 320 to approximately 900 pg/microg of tissue protein. In contrast, Tg was not detected in orbital tissue extracts from patients with no thyroid or eye disease. Tg was also demonstrated in orbital tissue extracts from two of three patients with TAO by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in amounts estimated to range from approximately 450 to approximately 1000 pg/microg of protein. In addition, Tg in orbital tissue extracts from patients with TAO was immunoprecipitated by a rabbit anti-Tg antibody, suggesting that it retained its native conformation. An anti-thyroxine (T4) antibody captured in solid-phase Tg from orbital tissue extracts, showing that it contained thyroid hormone residues and had therefore originated in the thyroid. Tg-anti-Tg immune complexes were not found in orbital tissues, suggesting that if an autoimmune reaction to Tg occurs in TAO, it is likely to be cell mediated. PMID:11288989

  11. Presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Emrah; Kan, Elif Kilic; Ecemis, Glcin; Colak, Ramis

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of ophthalmopathy in Hashimoto's patients and to make a comparison in subgroups of patients METHODS The study involved 110 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and 50 control subjects attending to the endocrinology department of the hospital. Subgroup classification of patients was made as euthyroid, subclinic and clinic in Hashimato's thyroiditis. All patients were evaluated by a single experienced ophthalmologist for the prevalence and characteristics of eye signs. RESULTS The overall prevalences of eye changes were 22.7% (25 patients) in patients and 4% (2 persons) in control subjects respectively (P=0.002). In patients the most common symptom was retrobulbar eye pain with or without any eye movement. Thirteen patients had significant upper eyelid retraction (11.8%). Six patients had eye muscle dysfunction as reduced eye movements in up gaze. In control patients one person had proptosis and another had lid retraction. The clinical activity score and classification of the ophthalmopathy did not show any significant differences among subgroups. CONCLUSION The eye signs were mostly mild (22.7%) and the most common eye sign was the presence of upper eyelid retraction (11.8%). Additionally six patients had eye muscle dysfunction as reduced eye movements in up gaze. Therefore we recommend to make a routine ophthalmic examination in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients in order not to omit the associated ophthalmopathy. PMID:25161935

  12. Effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: a double blind and self-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yujie; Tong, Boding; Luo, Yongheng; Xie, Guiyuan; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) was evaluated by various objective and quantitative indexes including T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the degree of exophthalmos using clinical research with prospective, randomized, double blind, self controlled. Methods: The patients with TAO who in the moderate and severe active period and had similar double eyes condition in the Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of Xiangya No. 2 Hospital of Central South University from 2011.2 to 2014.2 were selected as objects in this study. The related body check was finished after the research group was built. For the object, one eye of patient having random radiotherapy was chosen as the experimental eye. The other eye in the same patient with pseudo radiotherapy (merely known by operator, doctors in department of ophthalmology and patients were double blind) was selected as the control eye. The radiotherapy plan was made by the operator according to the CT results. The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree was compared by MRI check to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy. Results: The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree between both eyes (experimental and control eyes) had significant differences and these data had statistical significance. Conclusions: The treatment of radiotherapy is effective for the TAO in the moderate and severe active period. PMID:25932139

  13. Nicotinamide decreases cytokine-induced activation of orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Hiromatsu, Y; Yang, D; Miyake, I; Koga, M; Kameo, J; Sato, M; Inoue, Y; Nonaka, K

    1998-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to investigate the effects of nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly (ADP ribose) synthetase, on the cell-surface expression of cytokine-induced human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A,B,C antigen, HLA-DR antigen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD44, and Fas expression in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. After two to seven passages, cultured orbital fibroblasts were incubated for 3 days with interferon gamma or tumor necrosis factor alpha in the presence of nicotinamide. Nicotinamide inhibited the induction of both HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression by cytokines on fibroblasts but did not interfere with induction of HLA-A,B,C, or CD44 expression. Nicotinamide also inhibited the proliferation of orbital fibroblasts, as assessed by a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay and cell counts. Nicotinamide also enhanced the expression of the apoptosis-mediating protein Fas on fibroblasts. Our data suggest that nicotinamide inhibits cytokine-induced activation of fibroblasts and thus may decrease the autoimmune injury to the orbit in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. PMID:9435427

  14. Divergent Expression of IL-1 Receptor Antagonists in CD34+ Fibrocytes and Orbital Fibroblasts in Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy: Contribution of Fibrocytes to Orbital Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Context: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) manifests as inflammation of orbital connective tissue. Bone marrowderived CD34+ fibrocytes infiltrate the orbit in TAO where they become CD34+ orbital fibroblasts. They express thyroid-specific antigens and thus may contribute to inflammation. Evidence suggests that orbital susceptibility to TAO may involve IL-1, which is modulated by IL-1 receptor antagonists, designated secreted (sIL-1RA) and intracellular (icIL-1RA). Objective: We sought to characterize the expression of sIL-1RA and icIL-1RA in TAO orbital fibroblasts compared to CD34+ fibrocytes. Design/Setting/Participants: Patients with TAO and healthy donors were recruited from an academic medical center clinical practice. Main Outcome Measures: Real-time PCR, cytokine-specific ELISA, gene promoter activities, transcriptional analysis, mRNA stability, and cytometric cell sorting were performed. Results: Orbital fibroblasts treated with IL-1? exhibit greater inductions of IL-1?, IL-1?, and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 transcripts than do fibrocytes. Fibrocytes express dramatically higher basal levels of both icIL-1RA and sIL-1RA. When treated with IL-1?, icIL-1RA is induced in orbital fibroblasts but not sIL-1RA, whereas in fibrocytes, sIL-1RA is dominantly up-regulated. These inductions result from increased steady-state levels of respective mRNAs, enhanced transcript stabilities, and modestly increased gene transcription. Conclusions: Robust responses of TAO orbital fibroblasts to IL-1? are a consequence of low-level sIL-1RA expression. This results in poorly opposed actions of IL-1?. In contrast, circulating fibrocytes express high levels of sIL-1RA, which are diminished as these cells transition to orbital fibroblasts. These findings identify an explanation for the inflammatory phenotype exhibited by TAO orbital fibroblasts and provide a potential target for altering disease susceptibility. PMID:23633206

  15. Benzylideneacetophenone derivatives attenuate IFN-?-induced IP-10/CXCL10 production in orbital fibroblasts of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy through STAT-1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hee; Lim, Seul Ye; Choi, Ji Ha; Jung, Jae-Chul; Oh, Seikwan; Kook, Koung Hoon; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a new candidate anti-inflammatory compound for use in the active stage of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Benzylideneacetophenone compound JC3 [(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)phenylpro-2-en-l-one] was synthesized based on a structural modification of yakuchinone B, a constituent of the seeds of Alpinia oxyphylla, which belongs to the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), has been widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory phytochemical. Orbital fibroblasts were primarily cultured from patients with TAO, and the potential of JC3 to suppress the interferon (IFN)-?-induced protein (IP)-10/CXCL10 production in these cells was determined. IFN-? strongly increased the level of IP-10/CXCL10 in orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO. JC3 exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the IFN-?-induced increase in IP-10/CXCL10 in a dose-dependent manner; its potency was greater than that of an identical concentration of yakuchinone B with no toxicity to cells at the concentration range used. Moreover, the constructed dimer and trimer polystructures of JC3, showed greater potency than JC3 in suppressing the IFN-?-induced production of IP-10/CXCL10. JC3 significantly attenuated the IP-10/CXCL10 mRNA expression induced by IFN-?, and a gel-shift assay showed that JC3 suppressed IFN-?-induced DNA binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) in TAO orbital fibroblasts. Our results provide initial evidence that the JC3 compound reduces the levels of IP-10/CXCL10 protein and mRNA induced by IFN-? in orbital fibroblasts of TAO patients. Therefore, JC3 might be considered as a future candidate for therapeutic application in TAO that exerts its effects by modulating the pathogenic mechanisms in orbital fibroblasts. PMID:24924312

  16. Customized Orbital Decompression Surgery Combined with Eyelid Surgery or Strabismus Surgery in Mild to Moderate Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Yeun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of customized orbital decompression surgery combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Twenty-seven consecutive subjects who were treated surgically for proptosis with disfigurement or diplopia after medical therapy from September 2009 to July 2012 were included in the analysis. Customized orbital decompression surgery with correction of eyelid retraction and extraocular movement disorders was simultaneously performed. The patients had a minimum preoperative period of 3 months of stable range of ocular motility and eyelid position. All patients had inactive TAO and were euthyroid at the time of operation. Preoperative and postoperative examinations, including vision, margin reflex distance, Hertel exophthalmometry, ocular motility, visual fields, Goldmann perimetry, and subject assessment of the procedure, were performed in all patients. Data were analyzed using paired t-test (PASW Statistics ver. 18.0). Results Forty-nine decompressions were performed on 27 subjects (16 females, 11 males; mean age, 36.6 11.6 years). Twenty-two patients underwent bilateral operations; five required only unilateral orbital decompression. An average proptosis of 15.6 2.2 mm (p = 0.00) was achieved, with a mean preoperative Hertel measurement of 17.6 2.2 mm. Ocular motility was corrected through recession of the extraocular muscle in three cases, and no new-onset diplopia or aggravated diplopia was noted. The binocular single vision field increased in all patients. Eyelid retraction correction surgery was simultaneously performed in the same surgical session in 10 of 49 cases, and strabismus and eyelid retraction surgery were performed in the same surgical session in two cases. Margin reflex distance decreased from a preoperative average of 4.3 0.8 to 3.8 0.5 mm postoperatively. Conclusions The customized orbital decompression procedure decreased proptosis and improved diplopia, in a range comparable to those achieved through more stepwise techniques, and had favorable cosmetic results when combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate TAO. PMID:26865797

  17. The Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on IL-1β Induced IL-8 Expression in Orbital Fibroblast from Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yun, Mihee; Lee, Seong-Beom; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Orbital fibroblasts have been reported to be an important effector cells for the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Orbital fibroblasts secrete various inflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulation, leading to TAO-related tissue swelling. It has also been reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether or how EGCG affects the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 in human orbital fibroblasts from TAO patients. Treatment with EGCG significantly reduced the level of IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 and the expression of IL-8 mRNA. IL-1β-induced the degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK, and the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 mRNA was inhibited by specific inhibitors, such as BAY-117085 for NF-kB, SB203580 for p38, and PD98059 for ERK. In addition, treatment with EGCG inhibited the IL-1β-induced degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. However, pre-treatment with antioxidants, NVN and NAC, which suppressed ROS generation, did not reduce IL-8 expression in IL-1β-treated orbital fibroblasts, suggesting that the IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression is not mediated by the generation of ROS. These results show that EGCG suppresses the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 through inhibition of the NF-κB, p38, and ERK pathways. These findings could contribute to the development of new types of EGCG-containing pharmacological agents for use in the treatment of TAO. PMID:26848751

  18. Clinical factors affecting intraocular pressure change after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Dong Ik; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Cho, Bo Youn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the physiological monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) during the postoperative periods after orbital decompression surgery and ascertain the correlation between the clinical factors and IOP changes. Methods The medical records of 113 orbits from 60 patients who underwent orbital decompression surgery were reviewed retrospectively. IOP measurement during the postoperative periods was classified based on the postoperative day: week 1 (1–7 days), month 1 (8–41 days), month 2 (42–70 days), month 3 (71–97 days), month 4 (98–126 days), and final (after 127 days). The mean postoperative follow-up was 286.5 days for orbits with at least 6 months of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the IOP reduction percentage and clinical factors. Results The mean IOP increased from 16.9 to 18.6 mmHg (10.1%) at postoperative week 1 and decreased to 14.4 mmHg (14.5%) after 2 months. Minimal little changes were observed postoperatively in the IOP after 2 months. Preoperative IOP had a significant positive effect on the reduction percentage both at postoperative week 1 (β=2.51, P=0.001) and after 2 months (β=1.07, P=0.029), and the spherical equivalent showed a positive correlation with the reduction level at postoperative week 1 (β=1.71, P=0.021). Conclusion Surgical decompression caused a significant reduction in the IOP in thyroid-associated orbitopathy, and the amount of reduction was closely related to preoperative IOP; however, it may also cause a transient elevation in the IOP during the early postoperative phase in highly myopic eyes. PMID:26848257

  19. Peripheral blood lymphocyte transformation to G2s in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease with and without ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, C H; Yamada, M; Blanchard, M E; Li, A Wu; Wall, J R

    2002-08-01

    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease involving the extra ocular muscles and surrounding orbital connective and adipose tissues. The mechanism for the link between ophthalmopathy and thyroid autoimmunity is unknown but current evidence favors an immune reaction against a thyroid and orbital tissue shared antigen such as the novel protein G2s, which is highly expressed in both eye muscles and thyroid, or the TSH receptor (TSHR). Earlier, we showed that serum antibodies against G2s were closely linked to ophthalmopathy. Although lymphocytic infiltration of the eye muscles is a pathologic feature of TAO, it is unclear whether the reaction is in the eye muscle fiber or the surrounding connective tissue. We tested for peripheral blood mononuclear cell sensitization to G2s fusion protein in patients with TAO, Graves' hyperthyroidism or Hashimoto's thyroiditis without evident ophthalmopathy and normal subjects. Results were expressed as counts per min (cpm) and as stimulation indices (SI). Although proliferation tests were positive in 23% of patients with TAO, overall, there were no significant differences between the four groups. Tests were also positive in four out of seven patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, suggesting that immune reactivity against G2s could be a marker of this progressive thyroid disorder. There was no significant correlation between T cell reactivity to G2s and serum antibodies against the same protein, measured in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Failure to demonstrate significant T lymphocyte sensitization to G2s in the majority of patients with TAO may reflect the small number of sensitized T cells expected to be circulating in the peripheral blood which could be overcome by testing cloned orbital T cells, as available. Another possibility is that the T cell epitope(s) is not present on the 141 amino acid fragment of G2s that we have so far cloned. The finding of positive T cell tests in a small proportion of patients with ophthalmopathy suggests that future studies using cloned orbital T cells and full length G2s, or its dominant epitope, are indicated. PMID:12515285

  20. Update on advanced imaging options for thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Michael P; Carrasco, Jacqueline R

    2012-10-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a diverse spectrum of signs and symptoms that appears to have immunologic and pathologic causative factors as diverse as its clinical presentations. Lymphocytes, hormones, and cytokines affect orbital fibroblasts and other similar cells, which exert their effects on orbital tissues, including the extraocular muscles, orbital fat, and optic nerve. This complicated inflammatory cascade and the myriad of clinical findings that result contributes to the active phase of TAO. The distinction between the active and inactive phases of TAO is an important one, as the proper treatment will depend on the disease phase and degree thereof. Several clinical grading scales and scores have been established to help qualify and quantify the disease severity. Aiding clinical exam and acumen, proper and reproducible imaging of the orbit and ocular adnexa is incredibly important to the management of TAO. Orbital ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy each have unique abilities, including quantifying orbital changes, assessing disease activity, correlating orbital findings with clinical changes, guiding appropriate treatment, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Further, study ease, accessibility, cost, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and risks are all important considerations in picking the right test with which to diagnose and follow TAO. This analysis will provide a review of orbital imaging for TAO, including the mechanism of each imaging technique as well as their rationales, advantages, disadvantages, and utilities. PMID:23961023

  1. Dysthyroid Ophthalmopathy: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lois A.

    1979-01-01

    Since the original description of dysthyroid ophthalmopathy, much has been learned about its etiology, pathology, course, and management. The subject is reviewed in depth and the author suggests explanations relating to some of the poorly understood aspects of the disorder. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:583054

  2. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-10-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n?=?777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n?=?533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid-eye out-patient clinic, 176 (134%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (98%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (85%) coeliac disease, 60 (46%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (44%) vitiligo and 25 (19%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR)?=?218; P?=?0002 and OR?=?652; P?TAO, 584 (957%) and 26 (43%) had GD and HT, respectively (P?TAO was most prevalent in GD patients with coeliac disease (94%, OR?=?187, P?TAO while type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and alopecia areata were protective for TAO. In patients with TAO, coeliac disease is the most prevalent co-morbid autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  3. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n = 777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n = 533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid–eye out-patient clinic, 176 (13·4%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (9·8%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (8·5%) coeliac disease, 60 (4·6%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (4·4%) vitiligo and 25 (1·9%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR) = 2·18; P = 0·002 and OR = 6·52; P < 0·001], whereas type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, autoimmune primary hypogonadism, alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome were ‘protective’ for GD and thus linked to HT, OR = 0·49 (P < 0·001), 0·06 (P < 0·001), 0·25 (P < 0·001), 0·50 (P = 0·090) and 0·32 (P = 0·003), respectively. Of 610 (46·6%) AITD patients with TAO, 584 (95·7%) and 26 (4·3%) had GD and HT, respectively (P < 0·001). TAO was most prevalent in GD patients with coeliac disease (94%, OR = 1·87, P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis showed high OR for coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis (3·4 and 4·03, both P < 0·001) pertaining to the association with TAO while type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and alopecia areata were protective for TAO. In patients with TAO, coeliac disease is the most prevalent co-morbid autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  4. [Treatment of thyrotoxic ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Djurica, S; Proki?, Lj; Ili?, B; Mileti?, V

    1990-01-01

    Ophthalmopathy of Graves-Basedow disease appears in 20-50% of patients suffering from thyreotoxicosis. It is usually bilateralophthalmopathy with different degrees of severity. Many noninvasive diagnostical methods are used today. In diagnostic procedure, and especially in therapy, multidisciplinary approaches are compulsory. Although therapeutical effects vary from person to person, only a long follow-up can offer some clinical data about therapeutical success. The authors describe a 39-year-old woman with thyrotoxic bilateral ophthalmopathy. Thyrostatics, such as MMi and PTU, gave no satisfactory therapeutical results. Therefore a therapeutic dose of 131J was administered after which egsophthalmometry (Hertel) revealed regression of thyrotoxic ophthalmopathy, while the ocular signs were more pronounced after the partial thyroidectomy which had had to be carried out because of the existing thyroid functional nodule. The patient responded to corticosteroid therapy by showing a reduction in periorbital oedema, chemosis and hyperemia as well as by lowering the antibody titre against thyroglobulin and disappearing the serum immune complexes. PMID:2133608

  5. Relationship between Clinical and Immunological Features of Thyroid Autoimmunity and Ophthalmopathy during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Jack R.; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Problem. Clinical features of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) generally improve during pregnancy and rebound in the postpartum period. It is unclear whether the ophthalmopathy that is associated with GH and, less often, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) changes in parallel with the thyroid associated antibody reactions and clinical features or runs a different course. Method of Study. We retrospectively studied 19 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease over 22 pregnancies: 9 pregnancies with GH and 13 with HT. Ophthalmopathy was defined by NOSPECS class. Results. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) antibody titres decreased during pregnancy and rose in the postpartum period. During pregnancy, 5 patients with GH and 4 patients with HT developed mild ophthalmopathy and two patients with GH and HT developed new upper eyelid retraction (UER). In the postpartum period, eye scores improved in 3 patients with GH and 3 with HT, remained stable in two and 5 patients, respectively, and worsened in 2 patients with GH and one with HT. Conclusions. In patients with mild to moderate eye signs associated with GH and HT, the orbital and thyroid reactions ran different courses during pregnancy. Since no patient had severe ophthalmopathy, we cannot draw definitive conclusions from this preliminary study. PMID:26798548

  6. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy: Current insights into the pathophysiology, immunology and management

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Rina; Nelson, Christine C.; Douglas, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Half the patients suffering from Graves’ disease develop thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The severity of TAO varies considerably with a mild form characterized by dry eyes and discomfort to the severe form with sight-threatening exposure keratopathy and optic neuropathy. The pathogenesis and immunologic mechanisms underlying Graves’ disease and TAO is unknown, however, advances toward this understanding have indicated a prominent role of orbital fibroblasts, T cells and B cells. These advances have led to novel strategies for clinical treatment using immunomodulatory modalities. Initial results included use of infliximab and etanercept (anti-TNF agents), but currently there is an increasing interest in anti-B cell (Rituximab) therapy. Rituximab has shown promising results in progressive, sight-threatening TAO. It has also shown encouraging results in halting or slowing the disease process in patients unresponsive to corticosteroids. The primary advantage of these immunomodulatory agents is based upon targeting the molecular mediators of the disease and avoiding the potential side effects of non-specific therapies. PMID:23960898

  7. Euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy with negative autoantibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Mehtap

    2005-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune-based hyperthyroidism in which a number of different antibodies directed against thyroid tissue plays a role. Graves' ophthalmopathy is thought to be a consequence of this autoimmune basis and occurs in some patients with Graves' disease. On occasional cases, the disease may present only with ophthalmopathy without hyperthyroidism. A 32-year-old woman with euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy and negative thyroid autoantibodies, including TSH receptor antibody, is presented here. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16334503

  8. Thyroid Stimulating but Not Blocking Autoantibodies Are Highly Prevalent in Severe and Active Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, E.; Diana, T.; Kanitz, M.; Hoppe, D.; Kahaly, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical utility of the functional TSH receptor autoantibodies was prospectively evaluated in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Ophthalmic, endocrine, and serological investigations were performed in 101 consecutive patients with severe and active TAO. Serum thyroid stimulating (TSAb) and blocking (TBAb) antibody levels were measured with two bioassays using cells that express a chimeric TSH receptor and CRE-dependent luciferase. TSAb results are expressed as percentage of specimen-to-reference ratio (SRR %). Blocking activity is defined as percent inhibition of luciferase expression relative to induction with bovine TSH alone. All 101 consecutively followed-up patients with severe and active TAO were TBAb negative. In contrast, 91 (90%) were TSAb positive of whom 90 had Graves' disease. Serum TSAb levels correlated with the diplopia score (P = 0.016), total severity eye score (P = 0.009), proptosis (P = 0.007), lid aperture (P = 0.003), upper lid retraction (P = 0.006), keratopathy (P = 0.04), and thyroid binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII, P < 0.001) and negatively with the duration of TAO (P = 0.002). Median serum values of TSAb were SRR% 418 (range 28% to 795%). TSAb, not TBAb, are highly prevalent in severe/active TAO and serum TSAb levels correlate with clinical disease severity. PMID:26221139

  9. Following the Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Discusses 5 principles from the "Tao Te Ching" (an ancient Chinese classic intended for rulers) and how they can be applied by composition teachers. Suggests many of the insights in the "Tao" have become accepted wisdom in the teaching of composition. (SR)

  10. San Geronimo de Taos (Taos Pueblo).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    This lesson plan introduces high school students to pueblo architecture. Students will learn about pueblo architecture and its cultural tradition; discuss architectural characteristics and aesthetics in San Geronimo de Taos; examine the pueblo as a living environment; explore adobe pueblo structure in clay; and study Hopi, Zuni, and Pueblo

  11. TAO users manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; McInnes, L. C.; More, J. J.; Sarich, J.

    2003-12-02

    The Toolkit for Advanced Optimization (TAO) focuses on the design and implementation of component-based optimization software for the solution of large-scale optimization applications on high-performance architectures. Their approach is motivated by the scattered support for parallel computations and lack of reuse of linear algebra software in currently available optimization software. The TAO design allows the reuse of toolkits that provide lower-level support (parallel sparse matrix data structures, preconditioners, solvers), and thus they are able to build on top of these toolkits instead of having to redevelop code. The advantages in terms of efficiency and development time are significant. The TAO design philosophy uses object-oriented techniques of data and state encapsulation, abstract classes, and limited inheritance to create a flexible optimization toolkit. This chapter provides a short introduction to the design philosophy by describing the objectives in TAO and the importance of this design. Since a major concern in the TAO project is the performance and scalability of optimization algorithms on large problems, they also present some performance results.

  12. Teaching in the Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Patrick

    This book shares the philosophy that what a teacher learned through the martial arts form, Aikido, allowed him to look beyond aggressive acts without responding aggressively himself, viewing the student behind the angry behavior. The teacher notes that compassion works better than any form of discipline he has ever encountered in education. Tao,

  13. Conflict and Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for managing interpersonal…

  14. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M. J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Ho, P.; Lee, T.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Yen, W.-L.; Reyes Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Granados, A. P.; Torres, S.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J. C.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2012-05-01

    TAOS II is a successor survey to TAOS. TAOS II will measure the size distribution of KBOs by detecting and characterizing their occultations of distant stars. TAOS II will operate 3 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Obsevatory in Mexico.

  15. Graves' ophthalmopathy: the case for thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Lowery, A J; Kerin, M J

    2009-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is frequently complicated by ophthalmopathy, which can be a debilitating component of the disease, resulting in impaired quality of life. The management of Graves' disease aims to restore the patient to a euthyroid state and minimise the extent of extrathyroidal manifestations such as ophthalmopathy. Management options include medical therapy, radioactive iodine (RAI) and surgical intervention in the form of thyroid resection. Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is often resistant to or even aggravated by medical therapy and RAI, both of which have unpredictable relapse rates. The extent of thyroidectomy in the management of benign thyroid disease remains controversial. Total thyroidectomy is being increasingly favoured as the procedure of choice for treatment of benign thyroid disease. Recent study has indicated that it can be performed with minimal complications at a rate comparable to the less radical subtotal thyroidectomy. The predictable outcome and lack ofdisease recurrence make it an attractive option for benign conditions such as Graves' disease. In addition, there is increasing evidence that total thyroidectomy may have a beneficial effect, inducing an improvement in eye signs and symptoms in cases of GO. This review discusses the indications for surgical intervention in Graves' disease, with specific focus on the extent of resection and the relative merits of subtotal and total thyroidectomy in patients with GO. PMID:19848063

  16. Toward the Tao of Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, E. Susanne

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the need for a philosophical foundation for gifted education and suggests the Tao Te Ching education can reconcile the dichotomies in the field and encompass the various cognitive, affective, ethical, and esthetic taxonomies in existence. (CL)

  17. Intraorbital injection of rituximab versus high dose of systemic glucocorticoids in the treatment of thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Savino, Gustavo; Mandarà, Erika; Gari, Mariangela; Battendieri, Remo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare, in a randomized prospective study, the efficacy and safety of intraorbital administration of low doses of RTX versus intravenous glucocorticoids (GCs) to treat patients affected by moderately severe thyroid-associated active orbitopathy. Twenty patients with active, moderately severe TAO, whose mean age was 56.7 years±10.2 SD participated in the study. Patients were randomly selected and treated with intraorbital injections of RTX or with i.v. GCs. Disease activity and severity were assessed by the Clinical Activity Score (CAS) and the NOSPECS. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance scans were performed in all patients. In the RTX group, full blood cell count and flow cytometric analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes were done. The patients were followed for 20 months. In both groups, CAS and NOSPECS indexes were significantly reduced (p<0.005). In particular, CAS reduction was evident since the first follow-up with both treatments. Proptosis decreased significantly only in group B and diplopia showed no significant changes during follow-up times in both groups. Neither of the treatments affected the peripheral TRab. In group A, 5 weeks after the first injection, the CD20+ peripheral lymphocytes value was nearly zero. One patient treated with rituximab progressed to severe TAO (optic neuropathy) following the second injection so the treatment was discontinued. The data confirm the therapeutic efficacy of RTX in active TAO, even in low doses and locally administered. The efficacy on the inflammatory component of the disease is comparable to that of steroids and seems to be related with the reduction of peripheral CD20+ lymphocytes. Caution should be given to an accurate patient selection. PMID:24880619

  18. The evaluation and treatment of graves ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Stan, Marius N; Garrity, James A; Bahn, Rebecca S

    2012-03-01

    Optimum care of the patient with Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is achieved through teamwork between the endocrinologist and ophthalmologist, with input from ancillary specialists as needed. Clinical evaluation should include determination of both the severity and the activity of the disease. It is important to assess early in the evaluation the impact of the disease on the patient's quality of life and their priorities and expectations regarding management. Once this information has been gathered, careful discussion between patient and physicians can define the management plan. This article reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and management of GO. PMID:22443978

  19. Radiation retinopathy after orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Kalina, R.E.; Brower, S.A.; Mills, R.P.; Johnson, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    Recent reports indicate that orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy is sometimes beneficial, particularly for dysthyroid optic neuropathy, and is not associated with serious complications. We are aware, however, of four patients who were found to have radiation retinopathy after orbital irradiation for Grave's ophthalmopathy. All four patients have decreased central acuity, and three of the four are legally blind in one or both eyes. Computer reconstruction of the dosimetry, based on computed tomography and beam profiles, shows that errors in dosage calculations and radiotherapy technique probably account for the radiation retinopathy in three of the four patients. Radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy should be administered only by competent radiotherapists who are experienced in the treatment of this disease. Similar errors in dosage calculations and treatment techniques may account for other reports of radiation retinopathy after reportedly safe dosages.

  20. Graves' ophthalmopathy evaluated by infrared eye-movement recordings

    SciTech Connect

    Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.

    1982-02-01

    Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  1. Pseudoretraction of the eyelid in thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Gonnering, R S

    1988-08-01

    Two patients with previously stable thyroid-associated orbitopathy presented with the fairly sudden onset of apparent upper eyelid retraction in their nondominant eye, accompanied by asymmetry of the eyebrows, with elevation on the side without the eyelid retraction. No other signs of worsening of the orbitopathy were present, and instillation of 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride in the contralateral, dominant eye relieved the eyelid retraction and normalized the eyebrow position. At surgery, both patients were found to have levator aponeurogenic ptosis in the eyelid that appeared to be "normal." This occurrence is explained by Hering's law and should be considered in planning surgery to reestablish palpebral fissure symmetry in such patients. PMID:3401134

  2. Treatment of Graves' disease and the course of ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Sridama, V.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    Contradictory results have been obtained with regards to the effect of various treatment modes on the exacerbation of Graves' ophthalmopathy, probably because the number of patients in each study was small and some studies were analyzed only in relation to one type of treatment. To circument these problems, we studied the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy after various modes of therapy for thyrotoxicosis among 537 patients with Graves' disease. A total of 537 patients with Graves' disease were prospectively studied over an 11-year period. Thirty-one patients were lost to follow-up during the first six months after treatment and were excluded from the study. Of those remaining, 426 received one form of treatment, 79 received two kinds of therapy, and one received three kinds of therapy. Thus, surgical treatments numbered 164, radioactive iodine-131 (/sup 13/1I) treatments numbered 241, and medical treatments numbered 182. Ocular signs were considered improved or exacerbated by the following criteria: decrement or increment of the exophthalmos of 2 mm or more, improvement or deterioration of visual acuity, and regression or progression of extraocular muscle involvement causing diplopia. Among patients who did not have infiltrative ophthalmopathy before treatment, there was no difference in the occurrence of posttreatment exophthalmos in the surgically, medically, and 131I-treated patients (7.1%, 6.7%, and 4.9%, respectively). The incidence and the degree of progression of ophthalmopathy in patients who already had exophthalmos before treatment were similar in the medically, surgically, and 131I-treated groups (19.2%, 19.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Most of the progression occurred in the posttreatment euthyroid stage. The incidence of improvement of ophthalmopathy was also similar 14.1%, 12.6%, and 12.3% in the medically, surgically, and 131I-treated patients.

  3. Graves disease with ophthalmopathy following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.; Fleming, B.J.

    1984-12-01

    The number of patients achieving long-term survival following neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies is increasing. Paralleling this increase in survivors is the development of late complications of the therapy itself. Eleven patients have previously been reported who developed Graves ophthalmopathy 18 months to seven years after receiving neck radiotherapy for nonthyroidal malignancies. The seven patients who had HLA typing were all HLA-B8 negative, despite the reported association of the HLA-B8 antigen with Graves disease. A patient who is HLA-B8 positive who developed Graves ophthalmopathy and hyperthyroidism nine years after receiving mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease is reported. It is recommended that Graves disease be included among the thyroid diseases that receive consideration during follow-up of patients who have received mantle radiotherapy.

  4. The relationship between Graves ophthalmopathy and dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Selter, Jessica H; Gire, Anisa I; Sikder, Shameema

    2015-01-01

    Background A complex relationship between Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) and dry eye syndrome exists. New research brings more insight into the association between these two diseases. Methods A review of the literature was conducted using the query terms Graves Ophthalmopathy, Thyroid Eye Disease, and Dry Eye in MedLine (PubMed) and Scopus. A total of 55 papers were reviewed. Case reports were excluded. Conclusion This review paper shows the close relationship between dry eye syndrome and GO. The underlying mechanisms behind their association suggest mechanical impairment of orbital muscles and immune-mediated lacrimal gland dysfunction as the causes of dry eye in GO patients. However, there are a variety of treatment options available for patients with GO with signs of dry eye, which help combat this issue. PMID:25584018

  5. Update on TAO moored ORG array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, H. Paul

    1994-01-01

    During the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) six TAO moorings were equipped with optical rain gauges (ORG's). In late 1993 moorings deployed on the equator at 154E and 157.5E were recovered and not redeployed as they were augmentations to the TAO array for COARE only. In December 1993, four TAO moorings were equipped with ORG's: one each at 2N, 156E and 2S, 156E and ORG doublets on the equator at 0, 156E and 0, 165E. The 2N, 156E mooring has been lost. By the end of April all sites will have been serviced and six refurbished sensors will again be deployed in the same locations.

  6. TAOS/LS1 development final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.; Gentry, S.M.; Falls, J.M.; Claassen, P.J.; Alder, G.J.

    1997-12-01

    The Laser Sensor No. 1 (LS1) is a system designed and built by Sandia to detect and report laser illumination of an orbiting satellite. It was launched March 1994 as part of the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) satellite program. The engineering details of the system are described in this report. Operation characteristics and results have been reserved for inclusion in a classified Air Force report prepared by the TAOS Program Office of Phillips Laboratory.

  7. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, S.; Alcock, C. A.; Cook, K. H.; Furesz, G.; Geary, J. C.; Hiriart, D.; Ho, P. T.; Norton, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Yen, W.; Zhang, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small ( 1 km diameter) objects in the Solar System and beyond. Such events are very rare (<0.001 events per star per year) and short in duration ( 200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz.

  8. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles A.; Cook, Kem H.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Hiriart, David; Ho, Paul T.; Lee, William; Melsheimer, Frank; Norton, Timothy; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Richer, Michael; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2012-09-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small ( 1 km diameter) objects in the Solar System and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration ( 200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astrońomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz.

  9. The Tao, psychoanalysis and existential thought.

    PubMed

    Rhee, D

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some existing misunderstandings in the area of psychotherapy, existential approach and the Eastern Tao (Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu) by showing the common elements between Eastern Tao and psychoanalysis, and existential thought. The author compared the goal of Tao practice, namely, Zen Buddhism, Confucianism etc. with that of Western psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology and transpersonal psychotherapy. He concludes that these goals are the same and that the names are different. He also compared the procedures and processes of psychoanalysis and Zen practice. Sudden enlightenment and gradual training in Zen practice were compared with insight and 'working through' in psychoanalysis. Zen emphasis on relationship, ego strength and interpretation was linked with similar topics in psychoanalysis. The results of Zen practice and the central features of every psychoanalytic treatment were examined and found the same, that is, the resolution of, or transcending of, love (dependence) and hate (hostility). The description of a mature analyst and that of a Boddhisattva were compared and found the same. A trace of neurotic motivation remains but they are not influenced by it in helping others. The problem of theory and reality was discussed and strong emphasis on reality was described; in other words, the goal is directed at reality and theory is only a means pointing at reality. If you see the reality, you should forget the theory. PMID:2290901

  10. Digital Data From the Taos West Aeromagnetic Survey in Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; EDCON-PRJ Inc.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a survey covering the southwestern portion of Taos County west of the Town of Taos, New Mexico, in October, 2006. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  11. Use of corticosteroids to prevent progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Bartalena, L.; Marcocci, C.; Bogazzi, F.; Panicucci, M.; Lepri, A.; Pinchera, A. )

    1989-11-16

    We studied the effects of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease on Graves' ophthalmopathy and the possible protective role of corticosteroids. Between June 1985 and June 1988, 26 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with radioiodine alone (group 1) and 26 to treatment with this agent and concomitant administration of systemic prednisone for four months (group 2). The initial dose of prednisone was 0.4 to 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight for one month; the drug was gradually withdrawn over the next three months. All patients were evaluated at 3-month intervals for 18 months after they underwent radioiodine therapy. Ocular changes were assessed with the ophthalmopathy index; patients with moderate-to-severe changes (scores greater than or equal to 4) were excluded from the study. Before treatment, 10 patients in group 1 and 5 in group 2 had no evidence of ophthalmopathy: in none of them did ocular symptoms appear after radioiodine therapy. Among the patients in group 1 with an initial ophthalmopathy index greater than or equal to 1, ocular disease worsened in 56 percent (mostly involving soft-tissue changes and extraocular-muscle function) and did not change in 44 percent. In contrast, ophthalmopathy improved in 52 percent and did not change in 48 percent of group 2. The mean ophthalmopathy index increased from 1.5 to 3.0 in group 1 (P less than 0.005) and decreased from 2.2 to 1.3 in group 2 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that systemic corticosteroid treatment prevents the exacerbations of Graves' ophthalmopathy that occur after radioiodine therapy in a substantial proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism who have some degree of ocular involvement before treatment.

  12. Youth in Northern Taos County, New Mexico: No One Cares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    An impressionistic, interpretative analysis of information from direct observation, known informants, and interviews provides a picture of the life situation of Spanish American youth living in rural Taos County, New Mexico. Northern Taos County has experienced dramatic social change over the last several decades, altering the traditional,

  13. TAOS. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1995-12-09

    TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints, and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.

  14. T and B cell reactivity to extraocular and skeletal muscle in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, A P; Fells, P; Shine, B

    1989-01-01

    We have sought human eye muscle membrane binding antibodies in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibodies were found in patients with thyroid autoimmunity irrespective of eye signs, and binding correlated closely (r = 0.94) with binding to skeletal muscle, showing that these antibodies are not site-specific. T cells from patients with thyroid autoimmunity proliferated in response to eye muscle, but again this was not specific for eye muscle or the presence of ophthalmopathy. No single antigen was responsible for inducing proliferation. These results fail to confirm a recent report of eye muscle membrane binding antibodies in a high proportion of patients with ophthalmopathy, and suggest instead that T and B cell autoreactivity to striated muscle antigens is a frequent feature of autoimmune thyroid disease, unlikely to be directly related to eye disease. PMID:2786428

  15. Graves' Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Barrio-Barrio, Jesús; Sabater, Alfonso L.; Bonet-Farriol, Elvira; Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Galofré, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3–7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy. An appropriate assessment of both severity and activity of the disease warrants an adequate treatment. The VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance), and the European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) classifications are the two widely used grading systems conceived to assess the activity and severity of GO and guide the therapeutic decision making. A critical analysis of classification, assessment, and management systems is reported. A simplified “GO activity assessment checklist” for routine clinical practice is proposed. Current treatments are reviewed and management guidelines according to the severity and activity of the disease are provided. New treatment modalities such as specific monoclonal antibodies, TSH-R antagonists, and other immunomodulatory agents show a promising outcome for GO patients. PMID:26351570

  16. Does autoimmunity against thyroglobulin play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Girgis, Christian; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    While most authors believe that autoimmunity against the TSH receptor expressed in the orbital connective tissue cells is the main reaction that leads to the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism, an older hypothesis that deserves fresh consideration is based on the notion that thyroglobulin (Tg) in the thyroid gland passes in a retrograde fashion to the orbit where it is recognized by Tg autoantibodies, leading to inflammation. Here, we review new evidence that supports a role of Tg and propose a new hypothesis based on the notion that Tg is targeted in the orbit leading to a complex cascade of reactions that leads to Graves’ ophthalmopathy. PMID:26664042

  17. Does autoimmunity against thyroglobulin play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Girgis, Christian; Lahooti, Hooshang; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    While most authors believe that autoimmunity against the TSH receptor expressed in the orbital connective tissue cells is the main reaction that leads to the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism, an older hypothesis that deserves fresh consideration is based on the notion that thyroglobulin (Tg) in the thyroid gland passes in a retrograde fashion to the orbit where it is recognized by Tg autoantibodies, leading to inflammation. Here, we review new evidence that supports a role of Tg and propose a new hypothesis based on the notion that Tg is targeted in the orbit leading to a complex cascade of reactions that leads to Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:26664042

  18. Recommendations for screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism: Newborn Committee of the American Thyroid Association.

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The newborn committee of the American Thyroid Association recommends establishment and expansion of screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism because of the high frequency of the disease (1/5000 to 1/6000 births), the difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis and the fact that the disease is easily curable. The regional approach for such a program is recommended, and the Quebec experience with measurement of thyronine and thyrotropin concentrations by means of filter-paper blood spots can serve as a model. PMID:415808

  19. Taos Pueblo Students Hunt Leprechauns in Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nola; Smith, Walter S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an elementary school project--a "leprechaun trap"--that included elements of technology, science, language arts, and problem solving. Discusses how technology education is helping the Taos Pueblo community build bridges between its past and modern technologies. (JOW)

  20. Trajectory analysis and optimization system (TAOS) user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System (TAOS) is software that simulates point--mass trajectories for multiple vehicles. It expands upon the capabilities of the Trajectory Simulation and Analysis program (TAP) developed previously at Sandia National Laboratories. TAOS is designed to be a comprehensive analysis tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom, point-mass trajectory. Trajectories are broken into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user control how the trajectory is computed. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints. Althrough TAOS is not interactive, its input and output files have been designed for ease of use. When compared to TAP, the capability to analyze trajectories for more than one vehicle is the primary enhancement, although numerous other small improvements have been made. This report documents the methods used in TAOS as well as the input and output file formats.

  1. 75 FR 71414 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... lots and a new drop-off area; construction of the Taos Adventure Center (snowtubing and snowshoeing... Web page at: http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/carson/ . The Forest Service contact is Audrey Kuykendall,...

  2. Common Immunosuppressive Monotherapy for Graves Ophthalmopathy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Zhen; Lou, Heng; Zeng, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Cheng, Jin-Wei; Wei, Rui-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Several immunosuppressive therapeutic regimens are widely used to treat Graves ophthalmopathy (GO), including oral glucocorticoids (OGC), intravenous glucocorticoids (IVGC), retrobulbar injections of glucocorticoids (ROGC) and orbital radiotherapy (OR). The priority among these is unknown. This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy and tolerability of the above regimens. Methods The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases and the Chinese Biomedicine Database were searched up to November 18, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing monotherapies (OGC, IVGC, ROGC and OR) in patients with moderate-to-severe active GO were selected. The main efficacy measures were the response rate, the standard mean difference (SMD) in the reduction in the clinical activity score (CAS) and the mean difference (MD) in proptosis from baseline to the end of treatment. The main tolerability measure was the risk ratio (RR) for adverse events. The pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the RevMan software, version 5.1. Results Seven published RCTs involving 328 participants were included in the present meta-analysis, including IVGC versus OGC (3 trials), ROGC versus OGC (3 trials) and OR versus OGC (1 trial). IVGC was more effective than OGC in response rate (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.181.87) and had an obvious CAS reduction (SMD = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.131.25). IVGC caused fewer adverse events than OGC. ROGC and OGC had no statistically significant difference in response rate (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.941.42). OR also did not differ significantly compared with OGC (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.541.60). ROGC and OR had fewer adverse events, such as weight gain, compared with OGC. Conclusions For patients with GO in the moderate-to-severe active phase, current evidence gave priority to IVGC, which had a statistically significant advantage over OGC and caused fewer adverse events. ROGC and OR did not provide greater efficacy than OGC, although better tolerability and fewer adverse events were shown. PMID:26469187

  3. Groundwater Flow Model for Taos, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burck, P. W.; Barroll, P. W.; Core, A. B.; Rappuhn, D.

    2003-12-01

    The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer - Hydrology Bureau (OSE) has developed a regional groundwater flow model for Taos, New Mexico. The MODFLOW 2000 model will serve as a tool to evaluate alternatives in settlement negotiations in an on-going water rights adjudication. If current settlement negotiations fail, it is conceivable that the model might be used in support of litigation. OSE produced the model in cooperation with technical representatives of the various parties to the adjudication. Regional hydrogeologic data including well records, aquifer test results, stream flow measurements and seepage studies have been shared relatively freely among the parties. A recent deep drilling program conducted in conjunction with the negotiation effort has added substantially to the hydrogeologic data set. Among the hydrologic processes simulated by the model are mountain front recharge; areal recharge from precipitation; evapotranspiration; discharge from springs; river and stream flow; accretions to groundwater from irrigation return flow, seepage from acequias, canals, and ditches, and deep percolation; and pumping by municipal entities and mutual domestic water users associations. The resulting model files are available for all parties to review and evaluate. Comments are assessed and many have resulted in significant improvements to the model. At this stage, however, it is unclear whether adopting this cooperative approach will increase the likelihood of model acceptance by the parties.

  4. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  5. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. PMID:26897719

  6. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang Yu; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Chu, You Hua; Lee, William; Zhang, Zhi Wei; Cook, Kem H.; Norton, Timothy; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Alcock, Charles

    2015-11-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a nominal readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013. We present here an update on the status of the TAOS II survey, including the site development, camera fabrication, and project schedule.

  7. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves' ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased. PMID:24646903

  8. Digital Aeromagnetic Data and Derivative Products from a Helicopter Survey over the Town of Taos and Surrounding Areas, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Fugro Airborne Surveys Corporation

    2004-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a helicopter geophysical survey in northern New Mexico during October 2003. The survey covers the Town of Taos, Taos Pueblo, and surrounding communities in Taos County. Several derivative products from these data are also presented, including reduced-to-pole, horizontal gradient magnitude, and downward continued grids and images.

  9. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. )

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  10. Discrimination of airborne material particles from light scattering (TAOS) patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Chang, Richard K.

    2013-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) is an experimental method which collects the intensity pattern of monochromatic light scattered by a single, micron-sized airborne particle. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. The solution proposed herewith relies on a learning machine (LM): rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified. The LM consists of two interacting modules: a feature extraction module and a linear classifier. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine Fourier transform and non-linear operations. Linear classification relies on multivariate statistical analysis. Interaction enables supervised training of the LM. The application described in this article aims at discriminating the TAOS patterns of single bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis) from patterns of atmospheric aerosol and diesel soot particles. The latter are known to interfere with the detection of bacterial spores. Classification has been applied to a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns from various materials. Some classification experiments are described, where the size of training sets has been varied as well as many other parameters which control the classifier. By assuming all training and recognition patterns to come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to ? 20% false negatives from Bacillus subtilis particles and <= 11% false positives from environmental and diesel particles.

  11. Tao controls epithelial morphogenesis by promoting Fasciclin 2 endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan Manuel; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of epithelial cell shape, for example, changes in relative sizes of apical, basal, and lateral membranes, is a key mechanism driving morphogenesis. However, it is unclear how epithelial cells control the size of their membranes. In the epithelium of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary, cuboidal precursor cells transform into a squamous epithelium through a process that involves lateral membrane shortening coupled to apical membrane extension. In this paper, we report a mutation in the gene Tao, which resulted in the loss of this cuboidal to squamous transition. We show that the inability of Tao mutant cells to shorten their membranes was caused by the accumulation of the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin 2, the Drosophila N-CAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) homologue. Fasciclin 2 accumulation at the lateral membrane of Tao mutant cells prevented membrane shrinking and thereby inhibited morphogenesis. In wild-type cells, Tao initiated morphogenesis by promoting Fasciclin 2 endocytosis at the lateral membrane. Thus, we identify here a mechanism controlling the morphogenesis of a squamous epithelium. PMID:23266957

  12. Taos County, New Mexico. A Report on Manpower Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Employment Service, Santa Fe.

    The report of the New Mexico Smaller Communities Team under the Employment Security Commission (ESC) provides manpower information on Taos County's resources. Included in the report are pertinent data on the county's labor force and population. Also covered in this report are the history of the county; resources; local government, schools and

  13. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... (75 FR 71414-71415, November 23, 2010) to prepare an environmental impact statement for a proposal to... day parking lots and a new drop-off area; constructing the Taos Adventure Center (snowtubing and... pedestrian bridge. If the decision is to authorize a new skier drop-off area under TSV's SUP, the...

  14. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S; Hegeds, Laszlo; Laurberg, Peter; Kahaly, George J

    2015-09-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective reference intervals. In 2014 the European Thyroid Association Executive Committee, given the controversies regarding the treatment of Endo SHyper, formed a task force to develop clinical practice guidelines based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. The task force recognized that recent meta-analyses, including those based on large prospective cohort studies, indicate that SHyper is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease mortality, incident atrial fibrillation, heart failure, fractures and excess mortality in patients with serum TSH levels <0.1 mIU/l (grade 2 SHyper). Therefore, despite the absence of randomized prospective trials, there is evidence that treatment is indicated in patients older than 65 years with grade 2 SHyper to potentially avoid these serious cardiovascular events, fractures and the risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism. Treatment could be considered in patients older than 65 years with TSH levels 0.1-0.39 mIU/l (grade 1 SHyper) because of their increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and might also be reasonable in younger (<65 years) symptomatic patients with grade 2 SHyper because of the risk of progression, especially in the presence of symptoms and/or underlying risk factors or co-morbidity. Finally, the task force concluded that there are no data to support treating SHyper in younger asymptomatic patients with grade 1 SHyper. These patients should be followed without treatment due to the low risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism and the weaker evidence for adverse health outcomes. PMID:26558232

  15. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S.; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Laurberg, Peter; Kahaly, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective reference intervals. In 2014 the European Thyroid Association Executive Committee, given the controversies regarding the treatment of Endo SHyper, formed a task force to develop clinical practice guidelines based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. The task force recognized that recent meta-analyses, including those based on large prospective cohort studies, indicate that SHyper is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease mortality, incident atrial fibrillation, heart failure, fractures and excess mortality in patients with serum TSH levels <0.1 mIU/l (grade 2 SHyper). Therefore, despite the absence of randomized prospective trials, there is evidence that treatment is indicated in patients older than 65 years with grade 2 SHyper to potentially avoid these serious cardiovascular events, fractures and the risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism. Treatment could be considered in patients older than 65 years with TSH levels 0.1-0.39 mIU/l (grade 1 SHyper) because of their increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and might also be reasonable in younger (<65 years) symptomatic patients with grade 2 SHyper because of the risk of progression, especially in the presence of symptoms and/or underlying risk factors or co-morbidity. Finally, the task force concluded that there are no data to support treating SHyper in younger asymptomatic patients with grade 1 SHyper. These patients should be followed without treatment due to the low risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism and the weaker evidence for adverse health outcomes. PMID:26558232

  16. 2014 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, John; Brown, Rosalind S.; Daumerie, Chantal; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Negro, Roberto; Vaidya, Bijay

    2014-01-01

    This guideline has been produced as the official statement of the European Thyroid Association guideline committee. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy is defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal serum thyroxine concentration. Isolated hypothyroxinaemia (defined as a thyroxine level below the 2.5th centile of the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal TSH level) is also recognized in pregnancy. In the majority of SCH the cause is autoimmune thyroiditis but may also be due to iodine deficiency. The cause of isolated hypothyroxinaemia is usually not apparent, but iodine deficiency may be a factor. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. Levothyroxine therapy may ameliorate some of these with SCH but not in isolated hypothyroxinaemia. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with neuro-intellectual impairment of the child, but there is no evidence that maternal levothyroxine therapy improves this outcome. Targeted antenatal screening for thyroid function will miss a substantial percentage of women with thyroid dysfunction. In children SCH (serum TSH concentration >5.5-10 mU/l) normalizes in >70% and persists in the majority of the remaining patients over the subsequent 5 years, but rarely worsens. There is a lack of studies examining the impact of SCH on the neuropsychological development of children under the age of 3 years. In older children, the evidence for an association between SCH and impaired neuropsychological development is inconsistent. Good quality studies examining the effect of treatment of SCH in children are lacking. PMID:25114871

  17. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wang, S.; Ho, P.; Zhang, Z.; Cook, K.; Yen, W.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Richer, M.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small 1 km diameter) objects in the Transneptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (˜200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and high speed cameras comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. In this presentation, we will describe the project in detail and discuss the progress on the development of the survey infrastructure.

  18. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ho, P.; Yen, W.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Richer, M.; Cook, K.; Hsu, S.; Chen, H.; Chang, Y.; Hiriart, D.; Ricci, D.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Norton, T.; Geary, J.; Furesz, G.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (˜1 km diameter) objects in the Transneptunian region and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10^{-3} events per star per year) and short in duration (˜200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and high-speed cameras comprising arrays of custom CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. The survey will begin operation in 2016. This poster presents an update on the status of the site preparation and the technical development.

  19. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles A.; Cook, Kem H.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Hiriart, David; Ho, Paul T.; Lee, William H.; Melsheimer, Frank; Norton, Timothy; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Richer, Michael; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (< 10-3 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, México. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013.

  20. THE TAOS PROJECT: RESULTS FROM SEVEN YEARS OF SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-Y.; King, S.-K.; Cook, K. H.; Lee, T.; Granados, A. P.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Coehlo, N. K.; De Pater, I.; Kim, D.-W.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; and others

    2013-07-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) aims to detect serendipitous occultations of stars by small ({approx}1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10{sup -3} events per star per year) and short in duration ({approx}200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS monitors typically {approx}500 stars simultaneously at a 5 Hz readout cadence with four telescopes located at Lulin Observatory in central Taiwan. In this paper, we report the results of the search for small Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) in seven years of data. No occultation events were found, resulting in a 95% c.l. upper limit on the slope of the faint end of the KBO size distribution of q = 3.34-3.82, depending on the surface density at the break in the size distribution at a diameter of about 90 km.

  1. Immunotherapy in miscellaneous medical disorders Graves ophthalmopathy, asthma, and regional painful syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Michael; Fratianni, Carmel; Mamillapali, Chaitanya; Khardori, Romesh

    2012-05-01

    In Graves ophthalmopathy, immunotherapy is offering an opportunity of reducing bad outcomes that lead to disfigurement and impairment of vision. These therapies are not perfect; however, we now have a chance to achieve better outcomes. In asthma, immune therapy using passive immunity targeting key proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines and medications of their effects has opened an avenue of research into a safe and durable therapy. Omalizumab appears to be safe and effective in clinical use. In regional pain syndrome, immune mechanisms may be involved in sustaining long-standing pain, and IVIG may moderate pain sensitivity by reducing immune activation. PMID:22703859

  2. First Results From The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Lehner, M J; Coehlo, N K; Wang, J; Mondal, S; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Chen, W P; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, I; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2008-08-22

    Results from the first two years of data from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) are presented. Stars have been monitored photometrically at 4 Hz or 5 Hz to search for occultations by small ({approx}3 km) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). No statistically significant events were found, allowing us to present an upper bound to the size distribution of KBOs with diameters 0.5 km < D < 28 km.

  3. Protracted Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Graves' Ophthalmopathy: A Pilot Study of Clinical and Radiologic Response

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro de Deus Cardoso, Cejana; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Borri Wolosker, Angela Maria; Souhami, Luis; Gois Manso, Paulo; Souza Dias, Rodrigo; Comodo Segreto, Helena Regina; Araujo Segreto, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic response of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy given low-dose orbital radiotherapy (RT) with a protracted fractionation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients (36 orbits) received orbital RT with a total dose of 10 Gy, fractionated in 1 Gy once a week over 10 weeks. Of these, 9 patients received steroid therapy as well. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at 6 months after treatment. Clinical response assessment was carried out using three criteria: by physical examination, by a modified clinical activity score, and by a verbal questionnaire considering the 10 most common signs and symptoms of the disease. Radiologic response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Improvement in ocular pain, palpebral edema, visual acuity, and ocular motility was observed in all patients. Significant decrease in symptoms such as tearing (p < 0.001) diplopia (p = 0.008), conjunctival hyperemia (p = 0.002), and ocular grittiness (p = 0.031) also occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decrease in ocular muscle thickness and in the intensity of the T2 sequence signal in the majority of patients. Treatments were well tolerated, and to date no complications from treatment have been observed. There was no statistical difference in clinical and radiologic response between patients receiving RT alone and those receiving RT plus steroid therapy. Conclusion: RT delivered in at a low dose and in a protracted scheme should be considered as a useful therapeutic option for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  4. Doppler imaging of orbital vessels in the assessment of the activity and severity of thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pauk-Domańska, Magdalena; Sanocka, Urszula; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Patients with symptoms of thyroid-associated orbitopathy are classified on the basis of the clinical activity score (CAS) proposed by Mourits in 1989. Despite its undoubted clinical usefulness, it has several limitations which can decide about the success or failure of the implemented treatment. Numerous reports mention the presence of hemodynamic changes in orbital and bulbar vessels in the course of an orbitopathy called Graves’ disease. The usage of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of numerous ophthalmologic vascular diseases suggests that changes in thyroid-associated orbitopathy can correlate with the activity and severity of the disease. This paper presents the overview of the state-of-the-art concerning the usefulness of Doppler imaging in patient selection for the treatment of thyroid-associated orbitopathy. It has been shown that the velocity of blood flow in the superior ophthalmic vein, which is the most susceptible to changes in anatomical conditions in the enclosed orbital space, decreases in a statistically significant way. A decrease in blood flow velocity is closely associated with the active stage of the disease whereas reverse flow or its absence attest to severe orbitopathy and constitute a risk factor of ocular neuropathy. The activity of the inflammatory process in the eyeball is also confirmed by an increase in peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery as well as end-diastolic velocity (EDV) in the ophthalmic artery. Resistance index values decrease in the ophthalmic artery and increase in the central retinal artery mainly in cases with considerable expansion of the extraocular muscles. PMID:26807296

  5. Audiomagnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic framework of the Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, audiomagnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field. No interpretation of the data is included.

  6. Serum Th1 and Th2 profile cytokine level changes in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    My?liwiec, J; Kretowski, A; Topolska, J; Siewko, K; Jakubczyk, D; Szelachowska, M; Mikita, A; Kinalska, I

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of corticosteroids on Th1 and Th2 serum cytokine balance in patients with GO: IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-4 and IL-10. Further, we tested the hypothesis of an up-regulation of Th2 immune response during successful treatment with corticosteroids to explain their beneficial effect in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Serum cytokines were detected in three groups of subjects: 20 patients with Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy (Gd), 16 patients with clinical symptoms of ophthalmopathy (GO) (CAS over 3 points, last consultation record for GO less than a year old) and 16 healthy volunteers. Corticosteroid therapy consisted of intravenous infusions of methylprednisolone (MP) (2 series, 3 g each time) and subsequent treatment with oral prednisone (60 mg per day) in a tapering schedule. The serum samples were collected 24 hours before MP, 24 hours after MP, 14 days of treatment with prednisone and at the end of corticosteroid therapy. The levels of IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-4 and IL-10 in the serum were determined using ELISA. Statistical significance was estimated by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Our findings show a deviation to systemic Th2 profile cytokines in Graves' disease. In patients with GO, we found a significantly increased serum IL-10 concentration. In corticosteroid-responsive patients, the balance of serum cytokines IL-4/IFNgamma, IL-4/TNFalpha, IL-10/IFNgamma and IL-10/TNFalpha increased and remained upregulated until the end of the study. In non-responders, the balance of serum cytokines studied increased after methylprednisolone but declined markedly during continuation of the therapy with prednisone. In summary, our results show that efficient corticosteroid therapy may be related to its influence on Th2/Th1 profile cytokine balance. The upregulation of serum IL-4 and IL-10 during successful treatment with corticosteroids indicate the possibility of using these cytokines as predictors of the beneficial effect of corticosteroids in Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:11753760

  7. Web-based tools for the analysis of TAOS data and much more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, D.; Sprimont, P.-G.; Ayala, C.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Michel, R.; Navarro, S.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Nicastro, L.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2014-12-01

    We suggest a new web-based approach for browsing and visualizing data produced by a network of telescopes, such as those of the ongoing TAOS and the forthcoming TAOS II projects. We propose a modern client-side technology and we present two examples based on two software packages developed for different kinds of server-side database approaches. In spite our examples are specific for the browsing of TAOS light curves, the software is coded in a way to be suitable for the use in several types of astronomical projects.

  8. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    TAOS II is a next generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small objects (diameters between 0.5 and 30 km) in the Kuiper Belt. The project is a collaboration between the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The survey will operate three 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom camera comprising a focal plane array of CMOS imagers. Each camera will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. All telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation events while minimizing the false positive rate. This poster describes the project and reports on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.

  9. TAO1 kinase maintains chromosomal stability by facilitating proper congression of chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roshan L.; Tamura, Naoka; Fries, Anna; Levin, Nicolas; Clark, Joanna; Draviam, Viji M.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal instability can arise from defects in chromosomemicrotubule attachment. Using a variety of drug treatments, we show that TAO1 kinase is required for ensuring the normal congression of chromosomes. Depletion of TAO1 reduces the density of growing interphase and mitotic microtubules in human cells, showing TAO1's role in controlling microtubule dynamics. We demonstrate the aneugenic nature of chromosomemicrotubule attachment defects in TAO1-depleted cells using an error-correction assay. Our model further strengthens the emerging paradigm that microtubule regulatory pathways are important for resolving erroneous kinetochoremicrotubule attachments and maintaining the integrity of the genome, regardless of the spindle checkpoint status. PMID:24898139

  10. Comprehensive analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms defines the association of IL-12 gene with ophthalmopthy in Korean children with autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jung-Pil; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Baek, In-Cheol; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Shin, Dong-Hwan; Suh, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    In early onset autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) showing a strong genetic tendency, cytokines have been suggested to play a critical role in the development of AITD. To directly compare the influences of several cytokine gene polymorphisms, 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 cytokine genes were analyzed on 104 Korean children with AITD [Hashimoto's disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60 (thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, non-TAO = 31)] and 192 controls. Compared with healthy controls, any significant association with polymorphisms of cytokine genes was not found in HD and GD. Among GD patients, non-TAO group only showed significant associations with IL-12 C allele (rs3212227: A > C) (76.6% vs. 51.6%, OR = 0.3 [0.15-0.71], Pc = 0.007). Particularly, the frequency of IL-12C allele was significantly lower in the non-TAO group than in the TAO group (82.8% vs. 51.6%, Pc = 0.018). Our comprehensive analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms suggests that IL-12 gene may play impact on specific pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy in Korean children with AITD. PMID:26850223

  11. Drosophila gene tao-1 encodes proteins with and without a Ste20 kinase domain that affect cytoskeletal architecture and cell migration differently

    PubMed Central

    Pflanz, Ralf; Voigt, Aaron; Yakulov, Toma; Jckle, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Tao-1, the single representative of the Sterile 20 kinase subfamily in Drosophila, is best known for destabilizing microtubules at the actin-rich cortex, regulating the cytoskeletal architecture of cells. More recently, Tao-1 was shown to act in the SalvadorWartsHippo pathway by phosphorylating Hippo, regulating cell growth as well as cell polarity. Here, we show that tao-1 encodes two proteins, one with the Sterile 20 kinase domain (Tao-L) and one without it (Tao-S), and that they act in an antagonistic manner. Tao-L expression causes lamellipodia-like cell protrusions, whereas Tao-S expression results in filopodia-like structures that make cells stick to the surface they attach to. Ectopic Tao-1 expression in the anterior region of Drosophila embryos results in pole cell formation as normally observed at the posterior end. Tao-S expression causes primordial germ cells (PGCs) to adhere to the inner wall of the gut primordia and prevents proper transepithelial migration to the gonads. Conversely, RNAi knockdowns of Tao-1 cause disordered migration of PGCs out of the gut epithelium, their dispersal within the embryo and cell death. The results reveal a novel function of Tao-1 in cell migration, which is based on antagonistic activities of two proteins encoded by a single gene. PMID:25589578

  12. Influence of availability of TAO data on NCEP ocean data assimilation systems along the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun

    2015-08-01

    It is reasonable to assume that the quality of an ocean reanalysis will depend not only on the ocean data assimilation system but also on the availability of observational data. Among the data assimilated in the tropical Pacific, observations from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) moored array are an important contributor. Due to various reasons, in the last couple of years, TAO had a very low data delivery rate at some of the mooring sites. In this work, we examined the influence of the availability of in situ TAO data from all 10 equatorial mooring sites in 1999-2014 by comparing ocean temperature from two data assimilation systems at National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP): the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). Our working hypothesis is that missing of in situ observational data should lead to less observational constraint, and consequently, larger divergence between ocean reanalyses. Compared with periods of no in situ TAO observations, the disagreements of ocean temperature between CFSR and GODAS are indeed smaller when in situ TAO observations are available. The disagreements are largest along the thermocline due to its being the region of strongest variability. Thus, it is suggested that without the constraint of in situ TAO observations, the inconsistency between the ocean reanalyses from two NCEP data assimilation systems is larger, highlighting the contribution of TAO observations. Moreover, it is also suggested that the disagreement of ocean temperature between GODAS and CFSR is mainly caused by the difference of the models used in the assimilation systems and the impact of in situ TAO availability plays a secondary, but important role. To improve the quality of the assimilation products, it is necessary both to reduce model bias and to assimilate more high-quality data.

  13. Tao-1 Phosphorylates Hippo/MST kinases to Regulate the Hippo-Salvador-Warts Tumor Suppressor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, Julian C.; Vanderzalm, Pamela J.; Fehon, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies have shown that the Hippo-Salvador-Warts (HSW) pathway restrains tissue growth by phosphorylating and inactivating the oncoprotein Yorkie. How growth suppressive signals are transduced upstream of Hippo remains unclear. We show that the Sterile 20 family kinase, Tao-1, directly phosphorylates T195 in the Hippo activation loop and that, like other HSW pathway genes, Tao-1 functions to restrict cell proliferation in developing imaginal epithelia. This relationship appears to be evolutionarily conserved, because mammalian Tao-1 similarly affects MST kinases. In S2 cells Tao-1 mediates the effects of the upstream HSW components Merlin and Expanded, consistent with the idea that Tao-1 functions in tissues to regulate Hippo phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that one family of Ste20 kinases can activate another and identify Tao-1 as a component of the regulatory network controlling HSW pathway signaling, and therefore tissue growth, during development. PMID:22075147

  14. American Thyroid Association Statement on Surgical Application of Molecular Profiling for Thyroid Nodules: Current Impact on Perioperative Decision Making.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ferris RL; Baloch Z; Bernet V; Chen A; Fahey TJ 3rd; Ganly I; Hodak SP; Kebebew E; Patel KN; Shaha A; Steward DL; Tufano RP; Wiseman SM; Carty SE; American Thyroid Association Surgical Affairs Committee

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent advances in research on thyroid carcinogenesis have yielded applications of diagnostic molecular biomarkers and profiling panels in the management of thyroid nodules. The specific utility of these novel, clinically available molecular tests is becoming widely appreciated, especially in perioperative decision making by the surgeon regarding the need for surgery and the extent of initial resection.METHODS: A task force was convened by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association and was charged with writing this article.RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: This review covers the clinical scenarios by cytologic category for which the thyroid surgeon may find molecular profiling results useful, particularly for cases with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration cytology. Distinct strengths of each ancillary test are highlighted to convey the current status of this evolving field, which has already demonstrated the potential to streamline decision making and reduce unnecessary surgery, with the accompanying benefits. However, the performance of any diagnostic test, that is, its positive predictive value and negative predictive value, are exquisitely influenced by the prevalence of cancer in that cytologic category, which is known to vary widely at different medical centers. Thus, it is crucial for the clinician to know the prevalence of malignancy within each indeterminate cytologic category, at one's own institution. Without this information, the performance of the diagnostic tests discussed below may vary substantially.

  15. Alteration of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a disfiguring and sometimes blinding disease, which is characterized by inflammation and swelling of orbital tissues, with fibrosis and adipogenesis being predominant features. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression levels of fibrosis-related genes, especially that of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), are altered in orbital fibroblasts of patients with GO. The role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CTGF expression in GO orbital fibroblasts is also examined. By a SYBR Green-based real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR), we demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO were significantly higher than those of age-matched normal controls (p = 0.007, 0.037, and 0.002, respectively). In addition, the protein expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF analyzed by Western blot were also significantly higher in GO orbital fibroblasts (p = 0.046, 0.032, and 0.008, respectively) as compared with the control. Furthermore, after treatment of orbital fibroblasts with a sub-lethal dose of hydrogen peroxide (200 ?M H2O2), we found that the H2O2-induced increase of CTGF expression was more pronounced in the GO orbital fibroblasts as compared with those in normal controls (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.007). Importantly, pre-incubation with antioxidants including N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin C, respectively, resulted in significant attenuation of the induction of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts in response to H2O2 (p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the alteration of the expression of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts that may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of GO. Antioxidants may be used in combination with the therapeutic agents for effective treatment of GO. PMID:26599235

  16. Current perspectives on the role of orbital fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Dik, Willem A; Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an extra-thyroidal complication of Graves' disease (GD; Graves' hyperthyroidism) characterized by orbital tissue inflammation, expansion, remodeling and fibrosis. Although the initiating trigger of GO is still indistinct, excessive orbital fibroblast activity is at the heart of its pathogenesis. Orbital fibroblasts are activated by cellular interactions with immune cells and the soluble factors they secrete. Orbital fibroblasts, especially from GO patients, express the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-receptor; TSHR), and activation of the orbital fibroblast population by stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the TSHR may provide an important link between GD and GO. Furthermore, stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor have been proposed to contribute to orbital fibroblast activation in GO. Activated orbital fibroblasts produce inflammatory mediators thereby contributing to the orbital inflammatory process in GO. Moreover, orbital fibroblasts exhibit robust proliferative activity and extracellular matrix (especially hyaluronan) synthesizing capacity and can differentiate into adipocytes and myofibroblasts with disease progression, thereby contributing to tissue expansion/remodeling and fibrosis in GO. Orbital fibroblasts, especially those from GO patients, exhibit a hyper-responsive phenotype when compared to fibroblasts from other anatomical regions, which may further contribute to GO pathogenesis. Fibrocytes have been identified as additional source of orbital fibroblasts in GO, where they may contribute to orbital tissue inflammation, adipogenesis and remodeling/fibrosis. This review addresses our current view on the role that orbital fibroblasts fulfill in GO pathogenesis and both established as well as less established not fully crystallized concepts that need future studies will be discussed. PMID:26675405

  17. Genetic associations of FCRL3 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of Graves ophthalmopathy in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shanshan; Cai, Ting; Chen, Feng; He, Xuefei; Cui, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a form of autoimmune thyroid disease commonly found in approximately 25-50% patients with Graves’ disease. Both the thyroid-specific genes and immune-modulating genes are involved in susceptibility to GO. However, even though FCRL3 polymorphisms were also autoimmune-associated genes, no study has been performed regarding the association of FCRL3 with GO. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to conduct a basic case-control study in a Chinese population. Methods and materials: Seven SNPs were selected in this case-control study and 577 GD patients and 608 controls were recruited. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to assess the association between susceptibility of GO and FCRL3 polymorphisms with Stata software (Version 11.0, Stata Corp LP, USA). Results: The case-control analysis showed that three polymorphisms, FCRL3_3C, FCRL3_5C, FCRL3_6A, were significantly associated with raised risk of GO in a Chinese Han population in the allelic model [OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51, P = 0.003; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07-1.48, P = 0.005; OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.47, P = 0.007]. Conclusions: This case-control analysis confirmed that the FCRL3_3, FCRL3_5 and FCRL3_6 polymorphisms were associated with significantly increased risk of GO in a Chinese population. PMID:26629249

  18. Relationship between disease duration and predominant orbital T cell subset in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Aniszewski, J P; Valyasevi, R W; Bahn, R S

    2000-02-01

    We sought to determine whether the predominant orbital T helper (T(H)) cell subset in orbital T cell clones established from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might be related to disease duration. A total of 117 clones were established from orbital adipose/connective tissues of 6 GO patients, and cytokine production was measured in 57 CD3+CD4+ clones. T(H)1-type clones were predominant in cultures from patients with recent onset (<2 yr) Graves' hyperthyroidism (n = 44; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 57/29/14%) or GO (n = 53 clones; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 47/30/23%). In contrast, TH2-type clones predominated in cultures from patients with more remote onset (>2 yr) hyperthyroidism (n = 13; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 0/31/69%; P < 0.005) or GO (n = 4; TH1/TH0/TH2 = 0/25/75%; P = 0.05). In addition, we established T cell clones from 1 TH1-dominant patient with recent-onset thyroid and eye disease using either IL-2 (12.5 ng/mL) alone or IL-2 plus IL-4 (5 ng/mL) and found no shift toward recovery of TH2-type clones in the latter. In conclusion, although the CD3+CD4+ clones characterized were not necessarily tissue antigen specific, our findings suggest that cell-mediated (TH1-type) immune reactions may predominate in the orbit in early GO, whereas humoral immunity (TH2-type) might play the greater role in later stages of the disease. PMID:10690890

  19. Drosophila Schip1 Links Expanded and Tao-1 to Regulate Hippo Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyung-Lok; Augustine, George J; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Regulation of organ size is essential in animal development, and Hippo (Hpo) signaling is a major conserved mechanism for controlling organ growth. In Drosophila, Hpo and Warts kinases are core components of this pathway and function as tumor suppressors by inhibiting Yorkie (Yki). Expanded (Ex) is a regulator of the Hpo activity, but how they are linked is unknown. Here, we show that Schip1, a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Schwannomin interacting protein 1 (SCHIP1), provides a link between Ex and Hpo. Ex is required for apical localization of Schip1 in imaginal discs. Schip1 is necessary for promoting membrane localization and phosphorylation of Hpo by recruiting the Hpo kinase Tao-1. Taking these findings together, we conclude that Schip1 directly links Ex to Hpo signaling by recruiting Tao-1. This study provides insights into the mechanism of Tao-1 regulation and a potential growth control function for SCHIP1 in mammals. PMID:26954546

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes for antibodies generated by orbital tissue-infiltrating B-cells in Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaume, J.C.; Portolano, S.; Prummel, M.F.; McLachlan, S.M.; Rapoport, B.

    1994-02-01

    Graves` ophthalmopathy is a distressing autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Analysis of the genes for antibodies secreted by orbital tissue-infiltrating plasma cells might provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. The authors, therefore, constructed an immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and an immunoglobulin k light (L) chain cDNA library from the orbital tissue of a patient with active Graves` ophthalmopathy. Analysis of 15 H (IgG1) and 15 L (k) chains revealed a restricted spectrum of variable region genes. Fourteen of 15 variable k genes were about 94% homologous to the closest known germline gene, KL012. Thirteen of 15 H chain genes were 91% and 90% homologous to the closest germline genes, DP10 and hv1263, respectively. Remarkably, these germline genes also code for other autoantibodies to striated muscle (KL012) and thyroid peridase (KL012 and hv1263). These studies raise the possibility that particular germline genes may be associated with autoimmunity in humans. Further, the present study opens the way to identifying ocular autoantigens that may be the target of an humoral immune response. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A 63 kDa skeletal muscle protein associated with eye muscle inflammation in Graves' disease is identified as the calcium binding protein calsequestrin.

    PubMed

    Gunji, K; Kubota, S; Stolarski, C; Wengrowicz, S; Kennerdell, J S; Wall, J R

    1999-01-01

    It is generally accepted that thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease of the eye muscle (EM) and the surrounding orbital connective tissue in which circulating antibodies play an important role. Antibodies against EM membrane proteins of 63-67kDa mol. wt. seem to be the best markers of ophthalmopathy in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. We purified a 63 kDa EM protein using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technology and TAO patients' sera as probes, digested the protein with cyanogen bromide and sequenced immunoreactive peptides. We also screened a human EM library with a rabbit antiserum against 63-65 kDa proteins and affinity purified antibodies from a TAO patient's serum that reacted with a 55 kDa EM membrane protein. From partial sequence information and from DNA sequencing of positive cDNA clones, the protein was identified as calsequestrin, a 63 kDa calcium binding protein localized in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. As determined by Northern blotting, calsequestrin was expressed in EM and other skeletal muscle but not thyroid or fibroblasts. Calsequestrin is different from the "64 kDa protein", which has been identified as succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit, which has a corrected mol. wt. of 67 kDa. Serum antibodies against calsequestrin were found in 40% of patients with clinically active TAO, but in only 4% of those with stable eye disease, and in 5% of normal subjects, by immunoblotting. Although it is possible that autoimmunity against calsequestrin plays a role in the progressive EM damage that characterizes ophthalmopathy it is more likely that the antibodies are secondary to a reaction against some other cell membrane protein, such as the novel thyroid and eye muscle shared protein G2s or the TSH receptor. PMID:10052680

  2. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ... Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ...

  3. Tao-1 is a negative regulator of microtubule plus-end growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Picone, Remigio; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are dominated by events at microtubule plus ends as they switch between discrete phases of growth and shrinkage. Through their ability to generate force and direct polar cell transport, microtubules help to organise global cell shape and polarity. Conversely, because plus-end binding proteins render the dynamic instability of individual microtubules sensitive to the local intracellular environment, cyto-architecture also affects the overall distribution of microtubules. Despite the importance of plus-end regulation for understanding microtubule cytoskeletal organisation and dynamics, little is known about the signalling mechanisms that trigger changes in their behaviour in space and time. Here, we identify a microtubule-associated kinase, Drosophila Tao-1, as an important regulator of microtubule stability, plus-end dynamics and cell shape. Active Tao-1 kinase leads to the destabilisation of microtubules. Conversely, when Tao-1 function is compromised, rates of cortical-induced microtubule catastrophe are reduced and microtubules contacting the actin cortex continue to elongate, leading to the formation of long microtubule-based protrusions. These data reveal a role for Tao-1 in controlling the dynamic interplay between microtubule plus ends and the actin cortex in the regulation of cell form. PMID:20647372

  4. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

  5. 75 FR 66345 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM...

  6. The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

    2010-01-28

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

  7. Spontaneous hemorrhage from orbital cavernous hemangioma resulting in sudden onset of ophthalmopathy in an adult--case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Takahashi, Mayu; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Takehiro; Ueta, Kunihiro; Miyaoka, Ryo; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with a very rare case of spontaneous bleeding from an orbital cavernous hemangioma manifesting as sudden onset of ophthalmic pain, proptosis, diplopia, and nausea. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) revealed an intraconal, well-demarcated cystic mass with hemorrhage. The mass was immediately removed through a transcranial approach. Histological examination showed that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. Ophthalmopathy was resolved by surgery. Orbital cavernous hemangioma is very common in adults, but spontaneous bleeding is extremely rare relative to intracranial cavernous hemangiomas. This rare case emphasizes the importance of careful neuroimaging evaluation with MR imaging and CT for diagnosing orbital cavernous hemangioma associated with spontaneous bleeding. PMID:23095267

  8. The incidence of ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for Graves` disease: Prognostic factors and the role of methimazole

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, A.W.C.; Cheng, A.

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of development or exacerbation of Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO). This is thought to be associated with a surge of autoantibodies after RAI therapy. The role of methimazole (MMI), which possesses immunomodulatory action, in the prevention of GO was explored by studying 114 patients with Graves` disease. They were assigned randomly to receive either RAI alone or adjunctive antithyroid drugs, which consisted of MMI and L-T{sub 4} as a block-replacement therapy for 12 months and were followed for 2 yr. Thirty-five patients (30.7%) had GO at presentation. Twenty-one (18%) patients developed new GO, and six had worsening of preexisting GO. The development of hypothyroidism (P < 0.01) and an elevation of TSH (P < 0.05) were associated with increased risk of development or exacerbation of GO. The chance of development or exacerbation of GO is higher in those with no ophthalmopathy than in those with preexisting GO at presentation (P = 0.002). The incidence of development or exacerbation of GO was similar in the two treatment groups (RAI, 22.8%; adjunctive antithyroid drugs, 23.7%; P = NS). MMI was able to suppress the surge of TSH receptor antibody (TRAB) after RAI, but a surge in TRAB was not of prognostic significance for the development of GO after RAI. Patients who developed or had exacerbation of GO actually had lower TRAB at presentation (P = 0.02). The authors conclude that hypothyroidism with elevated TSH is an important adverse factor for the development or exacerbation of GO, and MMI was unable to prevent the development or exacerbation of GO after RAI. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Structural Characterization of New Layered Perovskites MLa 2Ti 2TaO 10 ( M=Cs, Rb) and NaLa 2Ti 2TaO 10 xH 2O ( x=2, 0.9, 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Young-Sik; Han, Chi-Hwan; Kim, Keon

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structures of n=3 Dion-Jacobson phases MLa2Ti2TaO10 (M=Cs, Rb) and NaLa2Ti2TaO10 xH2O (x=2, 0.9, 0) have been investigated by the Rietveld analysis of their powder XRD patterns. These compounds show the new-type ordering sequence of (Ti1/2Ta1/2)O6-TiO6-(Ti1/2Ta1/2)O6 in the tripled octahedra, corresponding to the niobium analogs of MLa2Ti2NbO10. They crystallize in the tetragonal system P4/mmm with lattice constants of a=3.84733(9) and c=15.4364(4) for CsLa2Ti2TaO10, and a=3.8342(2) and c=15.2776(9) for RbLa2Ti2TaO10. Sodium-exchanged phase was easily hydrated to NaLa2Ti2TaO10 2H2O, belonging to the space group I4/mmm with a=3.8399(3) and c=34.288(3) . Upon firing, NaLa2Ti2TaO102H2O was dehydrated to NaLa2Ti2TaO100.9H2O with P4/mmm at around 100C and then NaLa2Ti2TaO10 with I4/mmm at above 200C. The Na cations in two hydrates were surrounded with six oxygens, forming face-shared octahedra along (110) direction. These structural models, especially for the coordination environment of Na cations, were proposed for the first time.

  10. Two Early Gamma-ray Bursts Optical Afterglow Detections with TAOS Telescopes--GRB 071010B and GRB 071112C

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Urata, Y.

    2009-05-25

    We present on two early detections of GRB afterglows with the Taiwanese-American Occltation Sruvey (TAOS) telescopes. The robotic TAOS system has been devised so that the routine Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) survey is interrupted when a GRB alert is triggered. Our first detection, GRB 071010B was detected by TAOS 62 s after the burst and showed a weak early brightening during the observations. No significant correction with the prompt gamma-ray emission indicated that our optical emission detected is afterglow emission. The second detection of TAOS, GRB 071112C was detected 96 s after the burst, also showed a possible initial raising then followed a steep decay in the R-band light curve.

  11. Problematic Occurrence of Tyrosine Crystals in the Thai Soybean Paste Tao Chieo

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, T. W.; Bhumiratana, A.; Srisutipruti, A.

    1981-01-01

    In a Bangkok soy sauce factory that had recently converted to controlled inoculum and incubation for the koji stage of fermentation, a problem arose with unsightly white particles in the soybean paste condiment called tao chieo. This problem had not arisen during the previous history of the factory where the koji stage of the fermentation was uncontrolled. Microscopic examination of the particles showed that they were crystalline. Physical separation of the crystals followed by solvent extraction, recrystallization, chemical characterization, and spectroscopy showed that they consisted of tyrosine. Tao chieo prepared by using low- or high-protease strains of Aspergillus sp. indicated that the tyrosine crystals resulted from mold proteolysis of the soybean substrate. Addition of polyethylene glycol at the beginning of the moromi fermentation reduced the severity of crystal formation. Images PMID:16345734

  12. JNK Pathway Activation Is Controlled by Tao/TAOK3 to Modulate Ethanol Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Mimi E.; Lim, Jana P.; Heberlein, Ulrike; Wolf, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal signal transduction by the JNK MAP kinase pathway is altered by a broad array of stimuli including exposure to the widely abused drug ethanol, but the behavioral relevance and the regulation of JNK signaling is unclear. Here we demonstrate that JNK signaling functions downstream of the Sterile20 kinase family gene tao/Taok3 to regulate the behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure in both the fruit fly Drosophila and mice. In flies tao is required in neurons to promote sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of acute ethanol exposure and to establish specific brain structures. Reduced expression of key JNK pathway genes substantially rescued the structural and behavioral phenotypes of tao mutants. Decreasing and increasing JNK pathway activity resulted in increased and decreased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant properties of acute ethanol exposure, respectively. Further, JNK expression in a limited pattern of neurons that included brain regions implicated in ethanol responses was sufficient to restore normal behavior. Mice heterozygous for a disrupted allele of the homologous Taok3 gene (Taok3Gt) were resistant to the acute sedative effects of ethanol. JNK activity was constitutively increased in brains of Taok3Gt/+ mice, and acute induction of phospho-JNK in brain tissue by ethanol was occluded in Taok3Gt/+ mice. Finally, acute administration of a JNK inhibitor conferred resistance to the sedative effects of ethanol in wild-type but not Taok3Gt/+ mice. Taken together, these data support a role of a TAO/TAOK3-JNK neuronal signaling pathway in regulating sensitivity to acute ethanol exposure in flies and in mice. PMID:23227189

  13. Curanderismo in Taos County, New Mexico--a possible case of anthropological romanticism?

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, N; Stewart, D

    1983-12-01

    Interviews with 25 Spanish-Americans of Taos County, New Mexico, indicate that time and acculturation have greatly eroded the belief in and practice of curanderismo, the traditional folk medical system of the Southwest. Curanderismo in northern New Mexico today has moved from being a primary and important source of medical care to one used alternatively and very occasionally in cases of pediatric disorders, chronic illnesses and pain, and for those maladies still classified according to the traditional folk beliefs. PMID:6666104

  14. Curanderismo in Taos County, New Mexico—A Possible Case of Anthropological Romanticism?

    PubMed Central

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Stewart, David

    1983-01-01

    Interviews with 25 Spanish-Americans of Taos County, New Mexico, indicate that time and acculturation have greatly eroded the belief in and practice of curanderismo, the traditional folk medical system of the Southwest. Curanderismo in northern New Mexico today has moved from being a primary and important source of medical care to one used alternatively and very occasionally in cases of pediatric disorders, chronic illnesses and pain, and for those maladies still classified according to the traditional folk beliefs. PMID:6666104

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 ({+-}0.016), 0.072 ({+-}0.051), 0.012 ({+-}0.027), and 0.110 ({+-}0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  16. Electronic structure of Nd2-xCexSr2Cu2TaO10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattheiss, L. F.

    1992-11-01

    Nd2-xCexSr2Cu2TaO10 and Nd2-xCexSr2Cu2NbO10, two T'-phase cuprate superconductors (Tc~=28 K for x~=0.5) that have been studied recently by Cava et al., contain a pair of CuO2 planes that are sandwiched between fluorite-type Nd2-xCexO2 and perovskite-type SrO-TaO2-SrO (or SrO-NbO2-SrO) trilayers. The electronic structure of Nd2Sr2Cu2TaO10, the undoped end member of this body-centered-tetragonal phase, has been calculated with the use of the linear augmented-plane-wave method. The results show that the band filling for this undoped Nd phase is one electron below the half-filled ?*-band condition that characterizes typical cuprate superconductor parent compounds. Thus, the role of Ce doping in these Nd2-xCexSr2Cu2TaO10 or Nd2-xCexSr2Cu2NbO10 alloys is to reduce the overdoped concentration of holes within the CuO2 planes of the pure Nd-phase materials to the normal range (~0.2 holes/Cu atom) for cuprate superconductors.

  17. Pirfenidone attenuates IL-1?-induced COX-2 and PGE2 production in orbital fibroblasts through suppression of NF-?B activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Hee; Back, Keum Ok; Kim, Hee Ja; Lee, Sang Yeul; Kook, Koung Hoon

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pirfenidone on interleukin (IL)-1?-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostaglandin (PG)E2 expression in orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO (n = 4) and non-TAO subjects (n = 4) were prepared. The level of PGE2 in orbital fibroblasts treated with IL-1? in the presence or absence of pirfenidone was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of pirfenidone on IL-1?-induced COX-2 expression in orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR analyses, and verified by Western blot. Activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) was evaluated by immunoblotting for inhibitor of ?B (I?B)? and phosphorylated I?B?, and DNA-binding activity of p50/p65 NF-?B was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) expression was assessed by RT-PCR in IL-1?-treated cells with or without pirfenidone. Pirfenidone significantly attenuated IL-1?-induced PGE2 release in both TAO and non-TAO cells. IL-1?-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression decreased significantly following co-treatment with pirfenidone. IL-1?-induced I?B? phosphorylation and degradation decreased in the presence of pirfenidone and led to decreased nuclear translocation and DNA binding of the active NF-?B complex. In our system, neither IL-1? nor pirfenidone co-treatment influenced IL-1R1 expression. Our results suggest that pirfenidone attenuates the IL-1?-induced PGE2/COX-2 production in TAO orbital fibroblasts, which is related with suppression of the NF-?B activation. PMID:23664858

  18. UPLC-QTOF-MS with chemical profiling approach for rapidly evaluating chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction was rapidly evaluated by UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx software. Two different kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction: water extract of mixed six constituent herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and dispensing granules decoction: mixed water extract of each individual herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, were prepared. Results Chemical difference was found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, and albiflorin, paeoniflorin, gallic acid, amygdalin, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were identified as the significantly changed components during decocting Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction. All the peaks of mass spectrum from Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction and each herb were extracted and integration by using QuanLynx. And the optimized data was used for linear regression analysis. The contribution of each herb in Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and the optimal compatibility proportion of dispensing granule decoction were derived from the linear regression equation. Conclusions The optimal dosage proportionality of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu dispensing granule decoction was obtained as 2.5:0.2:1:0.5:0.6:0.1 (DG : CX : BS : SD : TR : HH), which guided better clinic application of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction as dispensing granule decoctions usage, and it also provided some experimental data to reveal the compatibility rule of the relative TCM formulae. PMID:23176049

  19. Electrode-material dependent switching in TaO x memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ning; Zhang, M.-X.; Zhang, Lu; Yang, J. Joshua; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the effect of top electrode materials on the switching behavior of TaO x based memristors with an identical switching oxide layer and bottom electrode stack. We found that the virgin resistance, electroforming and switching performance depend heavily on the chemical property of the top electrode materials. In addition, the electrical properties of metal oxides formed with the top electrodes also contribute to the overall memristor performance, including the nonlinearity of the current-voltage relationship. These results provide insights into understanding of memristor behavior as well as approaches for device property engineering.

  20. The Present and Future of Occultation Surveys of the Outer Solar System: From TAOS to Whipple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica; Alcock, C.; Murray, S.; Werner, M.; TAOS Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    We have analyzed new data from the TAOS occultation survey and set new, sensitive upper limits to the number density of KBOs of diameter D<30 km, and of objects in Sedna-like orbits. We present the first constraints on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System based on occultation survey data. We show what future occultation programs must be able to do in order to survey comprehensively the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system, and describe a Discovery class mission, Whipple, that can achieve these goals.

  1. [An introduction of surgical update in 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Lan, X B; Zhang, H

    2016-03-01

    Both of the incidences of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer have increased in recent years, which have attracted extensive attention. Surgical treatment plays an important role on the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Usually patients will have an excellent prognosis after standard surgery, in the meantime, they will suffer from wrongly performed operation, which induces bad outcomes for the patients and their families both physically and psychologically, as well as economic burden. There are many guidelines concerning the suitable treatment for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer all over the world, and the most famous one is American Thyroid Association (ATA) Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and DTC in 1996 and the revised version in 2009. Over the past several years, there have been many advances in both the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules and DTC. As a result, the ATA had updated the guidelines in 2015. In this article, we introduced the surgical update in 2015 ATA management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and DTC compared to the 2009 version, which consists of appropriate operation for thyroid nodules and DTC, operation for pregnant women with DTC, lymph node dissection, completion thyroidectomy, appropriate perioperative approach to voice and parathyroid, and surgery for advanced cancer. PMID:26932883

  2. A genomic point mutation in the extracellular domain of the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bahn, R.S.; Dutton, C.M.; Heufelder, A.E.; Sarkar, G.

    1994-02-01

    Orbital and pretibial fibroblasts are targets of autoimmune attack in Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO) and pretibial dermopathy (PTD). The fibroblast autoantigen involved in these peripheral manifestations of Graves` disease and the reason for the association of GO and PTD with hyperthyroidism are unknown. RNA encoding the full-length extracellular domain of the TSH receptor has been demonstrated in orbital and dermal fibroblasts from patients with GO and normal subjects, suggesting a possible antigenic link between fibroblasts and thyrocytes. RNA was isolated from cultured orbital, pretibial, and abdominal fibroblasts obtained from patients with severe GO (n = 22) and normal subjects (n = 5). RNA was reverse transcribed, and the resulting cDNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using primers spanning overlapping regions of the entire extracellular domain of the TSH receptor. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an A for C substitution in the first position of codon 52 in 2 of the patients, both of whom had GO, PTD, and acropachy. Genomic DNA isolated from the 2 affected patients, and not from an additional 12 normal subjects, revealed the codon 52 mutation by direct sequencing and AciI restriction enzyme digestions. In conclusion, the authors have demonstrated the presence of a genomic point mutation, leading to a threonine for proline amino acid shift in the predicted peptide, in the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor in two patients with severe GO, PTD, acropachy, and high thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels. RNA encoding this mutant product was demonstrated in the fibroblasts of these patients. They suggest that the TSH receptor may be an important fibroblast autoantigen in GO and PTD, and that this mutant form of the receptor may have unique immunogenic properties. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Genetic Associations of Interleukin-related Genes with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kah Hie; Rong, Shi Song; Chong, Kelvin K. L.; Young, Alvin L.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is the commonest extra-thyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD). Associations between interleukin-related (IL) gene polymorphisms and GO have been reported in different populations. We aim to confirm such associations by conducting a meta-analysis. Totally 382 publications were retrieved in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 25/2/2015. After removing the duplicates and assessing the studies, we retrieved 16 studies that met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, involving 12 polymorphisms in 8 IL-related genes, and 1650 GO cases and 2909 GD controls. The summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. We found one polymorphism in IL1A (rs1800587, c.-889C>T) showing a suggestive association with GO in the meta-analysis (allelic model [T vs. C]: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.00–2.62, P = 0.050, I2 = 53.7%; recessive model [TT vs. TC + CC]: OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.07–5.37, P = 0.039, I2 = 23.6%; heterozygous model [TC vs. CC]: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04–2.22, P = 0.034, I2 = 37.0%). No association with GO was detected for the other 7 genes (IL1B, IL1RA, IL4, IL6, IL12B, IL13 and IL23R). Our results thus indicate that IL1A is likely to be a genetic biomarker for GO. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the associations of IL1A and other IL-related genes with GO. PMID:26578206

  4. Inhibitory Effects of ?-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress-Induced Adipogenesis in Orbital Fibroblasts From Patients With Graves Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sena; Byun, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jin Sook; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    A choice of the optimal treatment for Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a challenge due to the complexity of the pathogenesis. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is well known as a multifunctional antioxidant, helping to protect cells against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ALA on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and adipogenesis using primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO.Intracellular ROS levels and mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) were measured. After adipogenesis, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP)? and ?, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were investigated.H2O2 dose-dependently stimulated ROS production and HO-1 expression. Addition of ALA strongly attenuated ROS production and further increased HO-1 expression. However, by pretreatment of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), HO-1 inhibitor, ALA inhibition of ROS generation by H2O2 was abolished. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?-induced mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES were inhibited by ALA treatment. In this context, TNF?-induced phosphorylation of P65 was also inhibited. In addition, ALA dose-dependently inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. The expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including PPAR?, C/EBP?, and ?, was also inhibited.ALA is a potential therapeutic agent for GO because of the inhibitory effects on ROS production and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in prevention of adipose-tissue expansion. PMID:26765462

  5. A Small Molecule Antagonist Inhibits Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody-Induced Orbital Fibroblast Functions Involved in the Pathogenesis of Graves Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Kumar, Seema; Neumann, Susanne; Coenen, Michael; Iyer, Seethalakshmi; Chiriboga, Pamela; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by increased adipogenesis and hyaluronan (HA) production by orbital fibroblasts. Circulating autoantibodies (thyroid-stimulating antibodies [TSAbs]) directed at the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) on these cells stimulate or augment these cellular processes. A recently developed drug-like small molecule inverse agonist of TSHR, NCGC00229600, termed 1, binds to TSHR and blocks basal and stimulated signal transduction. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine whether 1 might inhibit HA production and relevant signaling pathways in orbital fibroblasts cultured in the presence of monoclonal TSAbs or bovine TSH (bTSH). Design: Primary cultures of undifferentiated GO orbital fibroblasts (n = 13) were untreated or treated with a TSAb (M22 or MS-1) or bTSH in serum-free medium, with or without 1 or a TSHR neutral antagonist, NCGC00242595, termed 2, which does not inhibit basal signaling but does inhibit stimulated signaling. Main Outcome Measures: cAMP production, Akt phosphorylation (Ser473pAkt in media and immunoblotting for pAkt/total Akt), and HA production were analyzed. Results: Compound 1 inhibited basal cAMP, pAkt, and HA production and that stimulated by M22 in undifferentiated orbital fibroblasts. Inhibition of HA production was dose-dependent, with a half-maximal inhibitory dose of 830 nM. This compound also inhibited MS-1- and bTSH-stimulated cAMP, pAkt, and HA production. Compound 2 did not inhibit basal HA production but did inhibit M22-stimulated HA production. Conclusions: Because cAMP, pAkt, and HA production are fibroblast functions that are activated via TSHR signaling and are important in the pathogenesis of GO, small molecule TSHR antagonists may prove to be effective in the treatment or prevention of the disease in the future. PMID:23482611

  6. TAOS: Taiwan-American Occultation Survey of Comet-Sized Objects in the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Several dozen minor planets with radii greater than 100 km have been detected beyond Neptune using large telescopes. The TAOS project is to measure directly the number of these KBOs (Kuiper Belt Objects) down to the typical size of cometary nuclei (a few km) and out as far as approximately 100 AU from the Sun. Because of their large distance, small sizes and presumed low albedos, these target objects are extremely faint. Three 50 cm wide field robotic telescopes with 2048 x 2048 CCD cameras will be deployed along a 7 km east-west baseline in or near Jade Mountain National Park in Taiwan. They will monitor approximately 3000 stars for occultations by KBOs in a coincidence mode, so that the sequence and timing of the three separate blinkings can be used to distinguish real events from false alarms. Follow-up imaging observations using large telescopes will yield albedos and orbits for some of the larger objects detected by TAOS. A fourth telescope on a north-south spur to refine the size information on occulting GABON is also being contemplated.

  7. Paleomagnetism and tectonic interpretations of the Taos Plateau volcanic field, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigate using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chron. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counter-clockwise rotating Espanola block.

  8. Bridging East and West--Or, a Bridge Too Far? Paulo Freire and the "Tao Te Ching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers key differences and similarities between Freirean and Taoist ideals. I limit my focus to the "Tao Te Ching" (attributed to Lao Tzu), paying brief attention to the origins of this classic work of Chinese philosophy before concentrating on several themes of relevance to Freire's work. An essay by James Fraser (1997), who makes

  9. Bridging East and West--Or, a Bridge Too Far? Paulo Freire and the "Tao Te Ching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers key differences and similarities between Freirean and Taoist ideals. I limit my focus to the "Tao Te Ching" (attributed to Lao Tzu), paying brief attention to the origins of this classic work of Chinese philosophy before concentrating on several themes of relevance to Freire's work. An essay by James Fraser (1997), who makes…

  10. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Interpretations of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to the late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigated using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chiron. Alternating field demagnetization, aided by principal component analysis, yields 55 sites with stable directions representing both normal and reversed polarities, and five sites indicating transitional fields. Mean direction of the normal and inverted reversed sites is I=49.3 deg. and D=356.7 deg. (alpha(sub 95)=3.6 deg). Angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is 16.3 deg, which is consistent with paleosecular variation model G, fit to data from the past 5 m.y. Comparison with the expected direction indicates no azimuthal rotation of the Taos Plateau volcanic field; inclination flattening for the southern part of the plateau is 8.3 deg +/- 5.3 deg. Previous paleomagnelic data indicate 10 deg- 15 deg counterclockwise rotation of die Espanola block to the south over the past 5 m.y. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counterclockwise rotating Espanola block.

  11. The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1994-01-01

    Among incident cases of GO in Olmsted County, Minnesota: GO affected females six times more frequently than males (86% versus 14% of cases, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 16 cases per 100,000 population per year for females and 2.9 cases per 100,000 population for males. The peak incidence rates were bimodal, occurring in the age groups 40 to 44 years and 60 to 64 years in females and 45 to 49 years and 65 to 69 years in males. Among patients with GO, approximately 90% had Graves' hyperthyroidism, 1% had primary hypothyroidism, 3% had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 5% were euthyroid. Eyelid retraction was the most common ophthalmic feature of autoimmune thyroid disease, being present either unilaterally or bilaterally in more than 90% of patients at some point in their clinical course. Exophthalmos of one or both eyes affected approximately 60% of patients, restrictive extraocular myopathy was apparent in about 40% of patients, and optic nerve dysfunction occurred in either one or both eyes in 6% of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Only 5% of patients had the complete constellation of classic findings: eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, optic nerve dysfunction, extraocular muscle involvement, and hyperthyroidism. Upper eyelid retraction, either unilateral or bilateral, was documented in approximately 75% of patients at the time of diagnosis of GO. Lid lag also was a frequent early sign, being present either unilaterally or bilaterally in 50% of patients at the initial examination. At the time of diagnosis of GO, the most frequent ocular symptom was pain or discomfort, which affected 30% of patients. Some degree of diplopia was noted by approximately 17% of patients, lacrimation or photophobia was present in about 15% to 20% of patients, and 7.5% of patients complained of blurred vision. Decreased vision attributable to optic neuropathy was present in less than 2% of eyes at the time of diagnosis of GO. Thyroid dermopathy and acropachy accompanied GO in approximately 4% and 1% of patients, respectively. Myasthenia gravis occurred in less than 1% of patients. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis was documented in less than 4% of patients. The median age at the time of diagnosis of GO was 43 years (range, 8 to 88). Among patients with hyperthyroidism, 61% developed ophthalmopathy within 1 year of the onset of thyrotoxicosis. Symptoms and signs for which statistically significant changes occurred between the initial and final examinations included lacrimation, pain or ocular discomfort, photophobia, eyelid retraction, lid lag, eyelid fullness, conjunctival injection, chemosis, and exophthalmos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7886878

  12. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the calsequestrin-1 gene are associated with Graves ophthalmopathy and Hashimotos thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Lahooti, Hooshang; Cultrone, Daniele; Edirimanne, Senarath; Walsh, John P; Delbridge, Leigh; Cregan, Patrick; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    Background The eye disorder associated with Graves disease, called Graves ophthalmopathy (GO), greatly reduces the quality of life in affected patients. Expression of the calsequestrin (CASQ1) protein in thyroid tissue may be the trigger for the development of eye muscle damage in patients with GO. We determined the prevalence of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders, GO, Graves hyperthyroidism (GH), or Hashimotos thyroiditis (HT) and control subjects with no personal or family history of autoimmune thyroid disorders. Furthermore, we measured the concentration of the CASQ1 protein in normal and Graves thyroid tissue, correlating levels with parameters of the eye signs, CASQ1 antibody levels, and the CASQ1 gene polymorphism rs74123279 and rs2275703. Methods High-quality genomic DNA was isolated from fresh blood samples, assayed for identification of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 SNPs in CASQ1 gene by MassARRAY SNP analysis using iPLEX technology of SEQUENOM. Results DNA samples from 300 patients and 106 control subjects (100 males, 306 females) with GO (n=74), GH (n=130), HT (n=96) and control subjects (n=106) were genotyped for the SNPs rs74123279, rs3747673 (n=405), and rs2275703 (n=407). The SNP rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 were identified as 1) common homozygous or wild type, 2) heterozygote, and 3) rare homozygous. Minor allele frequency for rs74123279, rs3747763, and rs2275703 were 21%, 40%, and 44%, respectively. Multiple comparisons of genotype frequency for rs74123279, rs3747763, and rs2275703 in the GO, GH, HT, and control groups showed P=0.06, 0.641, and 0.189, respectively. These results were substantiated by multiple comparison of alleles frequency for rs74123279, rs3838216, rs3747763, and rs2275703 in the GO, GH, HT, and control groups showed, P=0.36, 0.008, 0.66, and 0.05, respectively. Pairwise analysis of alleles frequency distribution in patients with GO showed significant probability for rs2275703, P=0.008. Conclusion Based on their evolutionary conservation and their significant prevalence, we suggest that CASQ1 gene SNPs rs74123279, rs3838216, and rs2275703 may be considered as genetic markers for GO. PMID:26445519

  13. Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy in a West African Population

    PubMed Central

    Onimode, Yetunde A.; Ankrah, Alfred; Adedapo, Kayode S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism continues to be a pressing public health concern in West Africa. Its prevalence in Africa has been quoted as 1.2%-9.9%, with Graves’ disease as its most common cause. Radioiodine-131 (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism recently commenced in two government hospitals in Ghana and Nigeria. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with RAI for primary hyperthyroidism at the National Centre for Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (NCRNM) from 2008-2013, and in the University College Hospital (UCH) from 2006-2013. Cure was defined as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism occurring at 6 months post-RAI. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21 and Epi Info version, categorical data were evaluated with the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. 94 patients were studied, aged 20-74 years; 78 were females, and 16 were males. 38 were Ghanaian and 56 Nigerian. The presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) made cure less likely (χ2 P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.118; 95% confidence interval, 0.027-0.518). Other factors assessed proved to be insignificant. Our findings suggest that hyperthyroid patients with TAO will benefit from a higher RAI dose than their counterparts without TAO. PMID:26912975

  14. Malignancy Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules: Comparison between the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and the 2014 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To compare malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules with the 2014 American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines and the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. From November 2013 to July 2014, 1293 thyroid nodules in 1241 patients (mean age, 50.8 years 13.5) were included in this study. All nodules measured at least 10 mm. Solidity, hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity, microlobulated to irregular margin, microcalcifications or mixed calcifications, and nonparallel shape were considered suspicious features at ultrasonography (US). A TIRADS category and the US pattern as determined with ATA guidelines were assigned to each nodule. The correlation between the TIRADS category or ATA pattern and the malignancy rate was evaluated with the Spearman rank test. Results Of the 1293 thyroid nodules, 1059 (81.9%) were benign and 234 (18.1%) were malignant. Forty-four of the 1293 nodules (3.4%) did not meet the criteria for the ATA patterns and were classified as "not specified." The malignancy rates of TIRADS category 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5 nodules were 1.9% (six of 316 nodules), 4.2% (17 of 408 nodules), 12.9% (33 of 256 nodules), 49.8% (130 of 261 nodules), and 92.3% (48 of 52 nodules), respectively, with significant differences between categories (P < .001). Malignancy rates of nodules with very low, low, intermediate, and high suspicion for malignancy with the ATA guidelines and not specified patterns were 2.7% (11 of 407 nodules), 3.1% (10 of 323 nodules), 16.7% (39 of 233 nodules), 58.0% (166 of 286 nodules), and 18.2% (eight of 44 nodules), respectively, with significant differences between patterns (P < .001). There was high correlation between classification with TIRADS (r = 1.000, P < .001) and ATA guidelines (r = 0.900, P = 0.037), without statistically significant differences (P = .873). Conclusion Both TIRADS and the ATA guidelines provide effective malignancy risk stratification for thyroid nodules. Nodules that do not meet the criteria for a specific pattern with the ATA guidelines have a relatively high risk of malignancy (18.2%). () RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26348102

  15. Practice Trends in Patients with Persistent Detectable Thyroglobulin and Negative Diagnostic Radioiodine Whole Body Scans: A Survey of American Thyroid Association Members

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Nancy; Bernet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of patients with thyroglobulin (Tg)-positive/scan-negative thyroid cancer remains challenging. American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommend potential use of empiric 131I therapy and various scanning modalities, but no standard for managing such cases exists. Methods: We surveyed ATA members to assess current practice in management of patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Members participated in a web-based survey of six case scenarios of Tg elevations but iodine scan negativity. Results: A total of 288 ATA members (80% male) participated. Patient age, sex, and basal and stimulated Tg varied between the cases. Respondents were asked their opinion regarding empiric 131I therapy use, including 131I dose, use and duration of low-iodine diet, thyroxine withdrawal or recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH), and utilization of additional imaging (neck ultrasound (US) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)) and reconsideration of 131I therapy. Between 16% and 51% recommended initial use of empiric 131I for the various scenarios. The majority chose a 131I dose between 75 and 150 mCi, and 73% employed a low-iodine diet for two or more weeks. Preference between thyroxine withdrawal versus rhTSH was evenly split. More than 98% obtained a neck US if empiric 131I was not given; 5289% would proceed to PET/CT if US was negative. Only 44% used rhTSH stimulation in PET scan preparation. 131I use was more common with stimulated Tg significantly >10?ng/mL. 131I therapy was slightly more likely with PET-positive (56%) than PET-negative status (45%). Respondents were split regarding empiric 131I if basal and stimulated Tg increased ?150% over two years. Providers in North America less commonly utilized 131I treatment than those from other areas. In the face of possible heterophilic antibody interference in the Tg assay, the majority did not recommend 131I therapy. Conclusions: Empiric 131I therapy is still utilized for patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Neck US is frequently used to further evaluate such cases as 18FDG-PET/CT, albeit the latter is used somewhat less often. Use of 131I therapy correlated with the degree of Tg elevation or development of Tg antibodies, and was recommended more commonly with PET-positive than PET-negative status in patients with lower Tg levels. 131I was less commonly used by providers within North America. PMID:25058708

  16. The size of smallest subnanometric voids estimated by positron annihilation method. Correction to the Tao-Eldrup model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgardzi?ska, B.

    2015-02-01

    The Tao-Eldrup model, commonly applied in estimation of free volume sizes in solids, uses the concept of infinitely deep potential well, which can lead to inaccuracies when the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime is very short (less than 1.5 ns). A simple correction allowing to estimate properly the free volume radii at the o-Ps lifetime down to 0.8 ns is proposed.

  17. Effect of host structure on the photoluminescence properties of Ln3TaO7:Eu3+ red phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linda Francis, T.; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Mahesh, S. K.; Sreena, T. S.; Parvathi Babu, S.

    2016-02-01

    Eu3+ doped Ln3TaO7 (Ln = La, Gd, Y, Lu) red phosphors were prepared using a solid state route. The Ln3+ substitution induces variation of crystalline structure from a defect fluorite to weberite types with increased ordering of the cations from Lu to La. These phosphors show strong absorptions at near UV wavelength and emit orange-red luminescence. The increased trend in luminescence lifetime further surmises uniform distribution of Eu3+ ions from Lu to La. The luminescence intensity and quantum efficiency are closely related to the degree of ordering of the cations in the lattice. The Eu3+ luminescence in La3TaO7 embodies the structural variation through intense multiband 5D0 → 7F0,1,2,4 transitions to only dominant hypersensitive electric dipole 5D0 → 7F2 transition. All the Eu3+ emission transitions (5D0 → 7F0,1,2,4) are more intense in La3TaO7 host due to increased polarizability and covalent nature of Eu3+ bonding environment with the surrounding.

  18. Understanding the resistive switching in thin-film Ta-O memristors by their d.c. switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Miao, Feng; Goldfarb, Ilan; Zhang, Max; Yang, J. Joshua; Pickett, Matthew D.; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley

    2012-02-01

    Tantalum oxide (Ta-O) memristor is a promising candidate for resistive switching memory (RRAM) technology as they have demonstrated outstanding features such as high endurance, high speed, and low power. However, the responsible mechanisms remain vague partly due to difficulties in characterizing the amorphous film structure, nanoscale active regions, coupled ionic and electronic transport, and intertwined electrochemical and thermochemical processes. Rich information about Ta-O memristors has been revealed by microscopic structural and chemical characterizations of Ta-O conduction channels combined with temperature-dependent transport measurements. As an alternative approach, we took perspectives from a statistical study of the switching behavior under d.c. excitation. We identified distinctive behaviors in device switching characteristics depending on the chemical compositions of conductance channel, and found close correlations with previous temperature-dependent transport measurements and X-ray photoemission (XPS) characterizations. We were able to gather further insight into the microscopic switching mechanisms based on these observations, revealing the granularity of the switching phenomena.

  19. Search for Small Trans-Neptunian Objects by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen-Ping; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F.B.; Byun, Y.I.; Chang, Y.H.; Cook, K.H.; Dave, R.; Giammarco, J.; Kim, D.W.; King, S.K.; Lee, T.; Lehner, M.; Lin, C.C.; Lin, H.C.; Lissauer, J.J.; Marshall, S.; Meinshausen, N.; Mondal, S.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Arizona U. /Yonsei U. /LLNL, Livermore /Pennsylvania U. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys. /NASA, Ames /SLAC /UC, Berkeley /Caltech

    2006-12-04

    The Taiwan-America Occultation Survey (TAOS) aims to determine the number of small icy bodies in the outer reach of the Solar System by means of stellar occultation. An array of 4 robotic small (D=0.5 m), wide-field (f/1.9) telescopes have been installed at Lulin Observatory in Taiwan to simultaneously monitor some thousand of stars for such rare occultation events. Because a typical occultation event by a TNO a few km across will last for only a fraction of a second, fast photometry is necessary. A special CCD readout scheme has been devised to allow for stellar photometry taken a few times per second. Effective analysis pipelines have been developed to process stellar light curves and to correlate any possible flux changes among all telescopes. A few billion photometric measurements have been collected since the routine survey began in early 2005. Our preliminary result of a very low detection rate suggests a deficit of small TNOs down to a few km size, consistent with the extrapolation of some recent studies of larger (30-100 km) TNOs.

  20. Low temperature reduction in Ta-O and Nb-O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, A.; Persson, J.; Schmelzer, B.; Szade, J.; Szot, K.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of thermal reduction in ultra-high vacuum was studied in films of tantalum and niobium oxides obtained by oxidation of deposited metallic layers. The obtained films appeared to be amorphous and their stoichiometry was not uniform. For the Ta based film the main component was Ta2O5 while for the oxidized Nb film the pentoxide was present in the topmost part of the film and the thickest layer had the electron density assigned to NbO2. Thermal reduction was studied with the use of in situ photoelectron spectroscopy which revealed for the Nb-O film a strong effect for temperature as low as 300 C. The Nb-O film reduced at 600 C exhibited dominating metallic-like electronic states assigned to NbO. For the Ta-O film the significant reduction process started above 600 C. At 900 C the film showed metallic-like states which can be attributed to Ta2O. A single crystal of Nb2O5 showed no effect of reduction for temperatures up to 500 C. A test performed with the use of local conductivity atomic force microscopy showed the most interesting bipolar-like resistive switching properties for the films reduced at temperatures up to 300 C.

  1. Characterization of Thermophilic Halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam Hot Spring, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yasawong, Montri; Areekit, Supatra; Pakpitchareon, Arda; Santiwatanakul, Somchai; Chansiri, Kosum

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.040 ?m in length and about 0.4 ?m in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 5560 C and at pH 78. Strain TD1 was able to grow on medium containing up to 10% NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The cellular fatty acid content was mainly C16:0, which comprised 25.04% of the total amount of cellular fatty acid. 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Aeribacillus pallidus DSM 3670T. Bayesian tree analysis strongly supported the idea that strain TD1 is affiliated with genus Aeribacillus, as Aeribacillus pallidus strain TD1. Although the 16S rDNA of A. pallidus strain TD1 is similar to that of A. pallidus DSM 3670T, some physiological properties and the cellular fatty acid profiles differ significantly. A. pallidus strain TD1 can produce extracellular pectate lyase, which has not been reported elsewhere for other bacterial strains in the genus Aeribacillus. A. pallidus strain TD1 may be a good candidate as a pectate lyase producer, which may have useful industrial applications. PMID:21954359

  2. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Lehner, M J; Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Alcock, C; Chen, W; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, L; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2009-11-13

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in lightcurves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS). We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar lightcurves obtained by our survey between 7 February 2005 and 31 December 2006 with a total of {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup 9} three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  3. MST3 Kinase Phosphorylates TAO1/2 to Enable Myosin Va Function in Promoting Spine Synapse Development

    PubMed Central

    Ultanir, Sila K.; Yadav, Smita; Hertz, Nicholas T.; Oses-Prieto, Juan A.; Claxton, Suzanne; Burlingame, Alma L.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Jan, Lily Y.; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian Sterile 20 (Ste20)-like kinase 3 (MST3) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase capable of enhancing axon outgrowth. Whether and how MST3 kinase signaling might regulate development of dendritic filopodia and spine synapses is unknown. Through shRNA-mediated depletion of MST3 and kinase-dead MST3 expression in developing hippocampal cultures, we found that MST3 is necessary for proper filopodia, dendritic spine, and excitatory synapse development. Knockdown of MST3 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons via in utero electroporation also reduced spine density in vivo. Using chemical genetics, we discovered thirteen candidate MST3 substrates and identified the phosphorylation sites. Among the identified MST3 substrates, TAO kinases regulate dendritic filopodia and spine development, similar to MST3. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development in the mammalian CNS. PMID:25456499

  4. MST3 kinase phosphorylates TAO1/2 to enable Myosin Va function in promoting spine synapse development.

    PubMed

    Ultanir, Sila K; Yadav, Smita; Hertz, Nicholas T; Oses-Prieto, Juan A; Claxton, Suzanne; Burlingame, Alma L; Shokat, Kevan M; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian Sterile 20 (Ste20)-like kinase 3 (MST3) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase capable of enhancing axon outgrowth. Whether and how MST3 kinase signaling might regulate development of dendritic filopodia and spine synapses is unknown. Through shRNA-mediated depletion of MST3 and kinase-dead MST3 expression in developing hippocampal cultures, we found that MST3 is necessary for proper filopodia, dendritic spine, and excitatory synapse development. Knockdown of MST3 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons via in utero electroporation also reduced spine density in vivo. Using chemical genetics, we discovered thirteen candidate MST3 substrates and identified the phosphorylation sites. Among the identified MST3 substrates, TAO kinases regulate dendritic filopodia and spine development, similar to MST3. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development in the mammalian CNS. PMID:25456499

  5. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Taos, NM, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Town of Taos in New Mexico. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services’ (STS) SORB 33™ ad...

  6. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Taos, NM, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Town of Taos in New Mexico. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services (STS) SORB 33 ad...

  7. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and <11% false positives from all other aerosol particles. The most effective operations have consisted of thresholding TAOS patterns in order to reject defective ones, and forming training sets from three or four pattern classes. The presented automated classification method may be adapted into a real-time operation technique, capable of detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles.

  8. Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga2O3-Ta2O5 system and the structure of Ba6Ga21TaO40.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiang; Yu, Xiaodi; Kuang, Xiaojun; Su, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) ternary system at 1200 °C were determined. The A(6)B(10)O(30) tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) related solution in the BaO-Ta(2)O(5) subsystem dissolved up to ~11 mol % Ga(2)O(3), forming a ternary trapezoid-shaped TTB-related solid solution region defined by the BaTa(2)O(6), Ba(1.1)Ta(5)O(13.6), Ba(1.58)Ga(0.92)Ta(4.08)O(13.16), and Ba(6)GaTa(9)O(30) compositions in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Two ternary phases Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) and eight-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite solid solution Ba(8)Ga(4-x)Ta(4+0.6x)O(24) were confirmed in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) crystallized in a monoclinic cell of a = 15.9130(2) Å, b = 11.7309(1) Å, c = 5.13593(6) Å, β = 107.7893(9)°, and Z = 1 in space group C2/m. The structure of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was solved by the charge flipping method, and it represents a three-dimensional (3D) mixed GaO(4) tetrahedral and GaO(6)/TaO(6) octahedral framework, forming mixed 1D 5/6-fold tunnels that accommodate the Ba cations along the c axis. The electrical property of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was characterized by using ac impedance spectroscopy. PMID:22734887

  9. Inhibitory Effects of α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress-Induced Adipogenesis in Orbital Fibroblasts From Patients With Graves Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sena; Byun, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jin Sook; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A choice of the optimal treatment for Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a challenge due to the complexity of the pathogenesis. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is well known as a multifunctional antioxidant, helping to protect cells against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ALA on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and adipogenesis using primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO. Intracellular ROS levels and mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) were measured. After adipogenesis, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP)α and β, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were investigated. H2O2 dose-dependently stimulated ROS production and HO-1 expression. Addition of ALA strongly attenuated ROS production and further increased HO-1 expression. However, by pretreatment of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), HO-1 inhibitor, ALA inhibition of ROS generation by H2O2 was abolished. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES were inhibited by ALA treatment. In this context, TNFα-induced phosphorylation of P65 was also inhibited. In addition, ALA dose-dependently inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. The expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, and β, was also inhibited. ALA is a potential therapeutic agent for GO because of the inhibitory effects on ROS production and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in prevention of adipose-tissue expansion. PMID:26765462

  10. The ferroelectricity in perovskite K0.85Ba0.15TaO3+0.075 nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingyu; Xu, Chong; Chen, Yan; Ding, Qingfeng; Yuan, Hongming; Sun, Fengyue; Feng, Shouhua

    2015-08-01

    The perovskite K0.85Ba0.15TaO3+0.075 nanocrystallites have been synthesized by mild hydrothermal method for the first time. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the crystallographic structure is a primitive cubic, space group Pm-3m with a unit cell edge a=4.00 . Heavily Ba doped in K-site was achieved in the perovskite structure with excess oxygen to balance the charge. The chemical substitution changes the crystal structure and electronic structure of KTaO3, which has an impact on its polarization property and induce a ferroelectric phase. The temperature-dependent dielectric response from 300 K to 600 K and hysteresis loop at 300 K provide direct evidence for the ferroelectric character. Its Curie temperature has been obtained from relative dielectric and thermal analysis (TC=460 K).

  11. Dietary shift in corallivorous Drupella snails following a major bleaching event at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; Scott, C.; True, J. D.

    2013-06-01

    The island Koh Tao in the western Gulf of Thailand suffered severe coral bleaching in 2010. Its mushroom coral fauna of 20 species was surveyed during the bleaching in 2010 and after the bleaching in 2011. Multi-species assemblages of free-living mushroom corals occurred around the island, two of which were invaded by corallivorous Drupella snails after the bleaching. Previously these gastropods were known to mainly consume branching corals and hardly any mushroom corals. The snails were found preying on four fungiid species, three of which were susceptible to bleaching. The dietary shift became apparent after populations of preferred prey species (Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae) had died during the bleaching event. It seems that bleaching mortality reduced the availability of preferred prey, causing the corallivores to switch to less preferred species that occur in dense aggregations.

  12. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-04-15

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  13. Coordination of Recombination with Meiotic Progression in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germline by KIN-18, a TAO Kinase That Regulates the Timing of MPK-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yizhi; Donlevy, Sean; Smolikove, Sarit

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a tightly regulated process requiring coordination of diverse events. A conserved ERK/MAPK-signaling cascade plays an essential role in the regulation of meiotic progression. The Thousand And One kinase (TAO) kinase is a MAPK kinase kinase, the meiotic role of which is unknown. We have analyzed the meiotic functions of KIN-18, the homolog of mammalian TAO kinases, in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that KIN-18 is essential for normal meiotic progression; mutants exhibit accelerated meiotic recombination as detected both by analysis of recombination intermediates and by crossover outcome. In addition, ectopic germ-cell differentiation and enhanced levels of apoptosis were observed in kin-18 mutants. These defects correlate with ectopic activation of MPK-1 that includes premature, missing, and reoccurring MPK-1 activation. Late progression defects in kin-18 mutants are suppressed by inhibiting an upstream activator of MPK-1 signaling, KSR-2. However, the acceleration of recombination events observed in kin-18 mutants is largely MPK-1-independent. Our data suggest that KIN-18 coordinates meiotic progression by modulating the timing of MPK-1 activation and the progression of recombination events. The regulation of the timing of MPK-1 activation ensures the proper timing of apoptosis and is required for the formation of functional oocytes. Meiosis is a conserved process; thus, revealing that KIN-18 is a novel regulator of meiotic progression in C. elegans would help to elucidate TAO kinase's role in germline development in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26510792

  14. Regulation of IL-1 Receptor Antagonist by TSH in Fibrocytes and Orbital Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Context: The IL-1 family plays important roles in normal physiology and mediates inflammation. The actions of IL-1 are modulated by multiple IL-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA), including intracellular and secreted forms. IL-1 has been implicated in autoimmunity, such as that occurring in Graves' disease (GD) and its inflammatory orbital manifestation, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). We have previously reported that CD34+ fibrocytes, monocyte-lineage bone marrow-derived cells, express functional TSH receptor, the central antigen in GD. When activated by TSH, they produce IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?. Moreover, they infiltrate the orbit in TAO in which they transition into CD34+ fibroblasts and comprise a population of orbital fibroblasts (OFs). Little is known currently about any relationship between TSH, TSH receptor, and the IL-1 pathway. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether TSH regulates IL-1RA in fibrocytes and OFs. Design/Setting/Participants: Fibrocytes and OFs were collected and analyzed from healthy individuals and those with GD in an academic clinical practice. Main Outcome Measures: Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, reporter gene assays, and cell transfections were performed. Results: TSH induces the expression of IL-1RA in fibrocytes and GD-OFs. The patterns of induction diverge quantitatively and qualitatively in the two cell types. This results from relatively small effects on gene transcription-related events but a greater influence on secreted IL-1RA and intracellular IL-1RA mRNA stabilities. These actions of TSH are dependent on the intermediate induction of IL-1? and IL-1?. Conclusions: Our findings for the first time directly link activities of the TSH and IL-1 pathways. Furthermore, they identify novel molecular interactions that could be targeted as therapy for TAO. PMID:24446657

  15. Origin of stratiform sediment-hosted manganese carbonate ore deposits: Examples from Molango, Mexico, and TaoJiang, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okita, P.M.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1992-01-01

    Carbonate and sulfide minerals from the Molango, Mexico, and TaoJiang, China, Mn deposits display similar and distinctive ??34S and ??13C patterns in intervals of manganese carbonate mineralization. ??13C-values for Mn-bearing carbonate range from -17.8 to +0.5??? (PDB), with the most negative values occurring in high-grade ore zones that are composed predominantly of rhodochrosite. In contrast, calcite from below, within and above Mn-carbonate zones at Molango has ??13C???0??? (PDB). Markedly negative ??13C data indicate that a large proportion of the carbon in Mn-carbonates was derived from organic matter oxidation. Diagenetic reactions using MnO2 and SO2-4 to oxidize sedimentary organic matter were the principle causes of such 12C enrichment. Pyrite content and sulfide ?? 34S-values also show distinctive variations. In unmineralized rocks, very negative ??34S-values (avg. < -21??? CDT) and abundant pyrite content suggest that pyrite formed from diagenetic, bacteriogenic sulfate reduction. In contrast, Mn-bearing horizons typically contain only trace amounts of pyrite (e.g., <0.5 wt% S with ??34S-values 34S-enriched, in some cases to nearly the value for contemporaneous seawater. 34S-enriched pyrite from the Mn-carbonate intervals indicates sulfide precipitation in an environment that underwent extensive SO2-4 reduction, and was largely a closed system with regard to exchange of sulfate and dissolved sulfide with normal seawater. The occasional occurrence of 34S-depleted pyrite within Mn-carbonate zones dominated by 34S-enriched pyrite is evidence that closed-system conditions were intermittent and limited to local pore waters and did not involve entire sedimentary basins. Mn-carbonate precipitation may have occluded porosity in the surficial sediments, thus establishing an effective barrier to SO2-4 exchange with overlying seawater. Similar isotopic and mineralogic characteristics from both the Molango and TaoJiang deposits, widely separated in geologic time and space, suggest they were formed similarly by MnO2 precipitation at the margins of dysaerobic to anoxic marine basins. Mn-carbonate formed predominantly by early-diagenetic reduction of Mn-oxides via oxidation of organic matter in near-surface sediments. In addition to MnCO3 precipitation, organic matter oxidation reactions resulted in oxidation of FeS to Fe-oxides such as magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The latter process explains anomalously low pyrite content and abundant Fe-oxide minerals in ore zones dominated by rhodochrosite. ?? 1992.

  16. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Costilla Peak area, Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Big Costilla Peak, New Mex.&nash;Colo. quadrangle and adjacent parts of three other 7.5 minute quadrangles: Amalia, New Mex.–Colo., Latir Peak, New Mex., and Comanche Point, New Mex. The study area is in the southwesternmost part of that segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as the Culebra Range; the Taos Range segment lies to the southwest of Costilla Creek and its tributary, Comanche Creek. The map area extends over all but the northernmost part of the Big Costilla horst, a late Cenozoic uplift of Proterozoic (1.7-Ga and less than 1.4-Ga) rocks that is largely surrounded by down-faulted middle to late Cenozoic (about 40 Ma to about 1 Ma) rocks exposed at significantly lower elevations. This horst is bounded on the northwest side by the San Pedro horst and Culebra graben, on the northeast and east sides by the Devils Park graben, and on the southwest side by the (about 30 Ma to about 25 Ma) Latir volcanic field. The area of this volcanic field, at the north end of the Taos Range, has undergone significantly greater extension than the area to the north of Costilla Creek. The horsts and grabens discussed above are all peripheral structures on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin, which is the axial part of the (about 26 Ma to present) Rio Grande rift at the latitude of the map. The Raton Basin lies to the east of the Culebra segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This foreland basin formed during, and is related to, the original uplift of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains which was driven by tectonic contraction of the Laramide (about 70 Ma to about 40 Ma) orogeny. Renewed uplift and structural modification of these mountains has occurred during formation of the Rio Grande rift. Surficial deposits in the study area include alluvial, mass-movement, and glacial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age.

  17. Autoimmune thyroiditis associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO)

    PubMed Central

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Gonivada, Jayadevappa; Noroozpour, Zahra; Prasad, Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic’s syndrome) is a rare relapsing demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves and shares many clinical and radiological features with multiple sclerosis. The association of NMO with other autoimmune diseases was reported, but very few reports described association with autoimmune thyroid disease. Early differentiation between NMO and multiple sclerosis is very important as the natural course and treatment regimens differ significantly. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted initially with vomiting, hiccups and paraesthesias but was not diagnosed with NMO and presented with a severe progression of the disease. The patient was also diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid which progressed from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism. NMO diagnosis was established with seropositivity for NMO-IgG and MRI showing longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (3 or more spinal segments). In spite of treatment, the response was poor due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:26633965

  18. Autoimmune thyroiditis associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    PubMed

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Gonivada, Jayadevappa; Noroozpour, Zahra; Prasad, Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic's syndrome) is a rare relapsing demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves and shares many clinical and radiological features with multiple sclerosis. The association of NMO with other autoimmune diseases was reported, but very few reports described association with autoimmune thyroid disease. Early differentiation between NMO and multiple sclerosis is very important as the natural course and treatment regimens differ significantly. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted initially with vomiting, hiccups and paraesthesias but was not diagnosed with NMO and presented with a severe progression of the disease. The patient was also diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid which progressed from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism. NMO diagnosis was established with seropositivity for NMO-IgG and MRI showing longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (3 or more spinal segments). In spite of treatment, the response was poor due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:26633965

  19. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  20. Conundrums in the legal protection of migrant workers' health rights and relative resolutions: implications from the case of Tseng Hei-tao.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The deteriorating situation of migrant workers' health rights protection was once again highlighted in the case of Tseng Hei-tao. This case explicitly and implicitly showed that four conundrums--the Employment Restriction Conundrum, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legal Conundrum, the Morality Conundrum and the Identity Conundrum--are barriers to migrant workers' right protection. The health rights of migrant workers could be safeguarded by abolishing the outdated household registration system designed in the planned economy era, improving the rule of law, and strengthening administrative supervisions. This would fundamentally remove these barriers and thus contribute to migrant workers' health rights protection. PMID:23073738

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of tannic acid contaminated wastewater by RuO2/IrO2/TaO2-coated titanium and graphite anodes.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, M; Muthukumar, M; Raju, G Bhaskar

    2010-12-14

    The electrochemical oxidation of tannic acid contaminated wastewater by RuO2/IrO2/TaO2-coated titanium and graphite anodes has been investigated. The effect of the process variables, such as initial pH, current density, processing time, concentration of the electrolyte and anode materials, on the degradation of tannic acid was studied. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, chloride ion concentration and UV-Vis spectra were examined and discussed. The maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 94% was achieved at pH 5, operated at the current density of 8.10 mA/cm2, electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 0.1 M and at 60 min of electrolysis using graphite anodes. The experimental results showed that the electrochemical oxidation process could effectively reduce the COD from the tannic acid contaminated wastewater. An acidic pH showed the maximum reduction of COD compared with neutral and alkaline pH. Increase in current density, process time and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration with the increase in COD removal. Graphite anodes showed maximum removal of COD and better tannic acid degradation when compared with RuO2/IrO2/TaO2-coated titanium anodes. PMID:21275257

  2. Analysis of meteorological data and water chemistry of Latir Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico, 1985-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Roybal, R.G.; Risser, D.W.; Somers, Georgene

    1994-01-01

    Data were analyzed to determine the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and water of the Latir Lakes in Taos County New Mexico, from 1985 to 1988. The Latir Lakes consist of a series of nine paternoster lakes that range in altitude from 11,061 to 11,893 feet above sea level. The pH of wet precipitation generally ranged from 4.6 to 5.5 and the specific conductance of wet precipitation ranged from 1 to 18 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius from December 1985 through September 1988. Snowpack chemistry data indicate a change in the specific conductance, pH, and alkalinity of the snowpack from month to month. The dominant cation in the snowpack is calcium, and the dominant anions are nitrate and sulfate. The samples having the smallest values of specific conductance generally did not contain measurable alkalinity. When the snowpack starts to melt in the spring, specific conductance of the entire snowpack decreases, consistent with the hypothesis that the initial fluid draining from the snowpack transports a large amount of dissolved material out of the snowpack. Water chemistries in the Latir Lakes are similar although specific conductance increases downstream from lake 9 to lake 1. Calcium is the dominant cation and the ions that produce alkalinity are the dominant anions. Concentrations of sodium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate do not vary substantially from year to year or during the year in a particular lake. Alkalinity and calcium concentration, however, do vary from year to year and during the year. The pH of outflow from the Latir Lakes varies from lake to lake and from year to year. In 1986, the range in pH in the lakes was less than 1 unit in mid-June, but was greater than 2.5 units by late October. The pH generally was larger than 7.0 in all of the lakes and was as large as 9.9 in several of the lakes during the period of study. The pH of outflow water generally increases from early spring to late summer in the Latir Lakes, and snowmelt does not seem to cause the pH to decrease in the lakes. Depth profiles of selected lakes indicate that the dissolved-oxygen concentration approaches zero below the thermocline. This suggests biological oxidation of organic matter in the lower zones in these lakes. Because many organisms cannot live in water containing small dissolved-oxygen concentrations, large volumes of water in lakes 9 and 3 probably are not suitable for habitation during the summer months.

  3. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  4. The Tao of myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jonathan L.; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Lonial, Sagar; Lee, Kelvin P.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy in which significant advances have been observed during the last 15 years. Our understanding of the disease has been advanced through its molecular characterization. We have also seen improvements in patient care with the development of 2 new classes of active agents, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), resulting in a significant improvement in overall survival of myeloma patients such that it can now be debated as to whether some subsets of myeloma patients can be cured. However, the advances in our understanding of myeloma biology occurred in parallel with advances in treatment as opposed to being directly informed by the research. Moreover, the molecular characterization of malignant plasma cells would not have predicted the effectiveness of these novel therapies. We hypothesize that proteasome inhibitors and IMiDs are highly active because malignant plasma cells are constrained by many of the characteristics of their normal counterparts and these novel therapies target both normal plasma cell biology and the cancer biology of myeloma. Thus, a better understanding of normal plasma cell biology will likely yield as many actionable targets as mapping the genomic landscape of this disease. PMID:25097176

  5. An assessment of equatorial variability and surface currents in FOAM-NEMO against observations, including the TAO Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, Patrick; Storkey, Dave; Blockley, Ed; Guiavarc'h, Catherine; Siddorn, John; Barciela, Rosa

    2010-05-01

    The Met Office run daily analyses and 5 day forecasts using several operational configurations of the Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) system, using the NEMO ocean and LIM2 sea ice models. These configurations include the degree global (ORCA025); the 1/12th degree regional North Atlantic; the 1/12th degree regional Indian Ocean; and the 1/12th degree regional Mediterranean domains. Hindcast analyses of all these operational configurations have been run for the period 2007 to 2008, both with and without data assimilation. Mean model drifts were estimated from the difference between the 2008 annual means for the assimilative and free runs. Qualitative assessment of simulated equatorial sea surface height between the AVISO observations and the assimilative global model indicated good agreement. In the free running global model there was a drift in sea surface height associated with a global freshwater imbalance. However, when this drift was removed the simulated sea surface height agreed reasonably well both with the observations and with the assimilative model. Qualitative assessment of simulated equatorial SST against the OSTIA observational analysis also indicated good agreement. Assessment of the simulated Pacific equatorial zonal flows with data assimilation against observations also indicated reasonably qualitative agreement. Surface currents were assessed quantitatively against observations at ~45 TAO Array moorings for the Global and Indian Ocean models through visual inspection, correlation, several cost functions, RMS, mean errors, Taylor diagrams etc. Visual inspection suggested that zonal (u) currents are less challenging to model accurately than the meridional flows (v) due to their lower variability and consistent direction. They also confirmed that there is considerable variability in model skill between individual locations, over the two year period. The overall global equatorial quantitative assessment suggest that the assimilative global model had good skill (r=0.77) for zonal currents but poor skill (r=0.46) for meridional currents. By comparison, the non-assimilative global model had average skill (r=0.67) for zonal flows but poor skill (r=0.36) for meridional flows. In both runs, a band of negative mean bias of the order of 20cm/s is evident along the equator in all ocean. For both global model runs, skills (defined in terms of r) appeared to be highest in the Indian Ocean (assimilative model u and v, r values of 0.77 and 0.63, respectively), medium in the Pacific Ocean (assimilative model u and v, r values of 0.78 and 0.43, respectively) and lowest in the Atlantic Ocean (assimilative model u and v, r values of 0.58 and 0.33, respectively). In the Indian Ocean region, for the global assimilative ocean model correlations for u and v, respectively were good (r=0.77) and average (r=0.63) whilst for the non-assimilative model they were also good (r=0.73) and average (r=0.66). The regional 1/12th degree Indian Ocean model had similar skill to the global degree ocean model at simulating equatorial currents, i.e. no additional skill was evident for the higher resolution model.

  6. Amygdalin isolated from Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) extracts induces the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese medicine formulation ISF-1 (also known as Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang) for post-stroke rehabilitation could increase the expression of growth-regulating protein follistatin by approximately 4-fold. This study aims to identify the active compounds of ISF-1 for the induction of follistatin expression. Methods Active compounds in ISF-1 responsible for induction of follistatin were identified by a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction, HPLC separation and RT-PCR detection. The aqueous extracts of seven ISF-1 ingredients including Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) and the S. Persicae-derived fractions were assayed for the induction of follistatin mRNA expression in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells by RT-PCR. The concentrations of isolated compounds were proportionally normalized to the reported IC50 concentration (5.8 mg/mL) of the formulation ISF-1 in HepG2. The active fractions were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC on a C18 column and identified by mass spectrometry. Results Three ingredients of ISF-1, namely S. Persicae (Tao Ren), Pheretima (Di Long), and Flos Carthami (Hong Hua), induced the expression of follistatin mRNA. Among these, the ingredient S. Persicae were the most active, and amygdalin from S. Persicae extract was identified as a novel follistatin inducer. Amygdalin stimulated the growth of skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Amygdalin isolated from S. Persicae extract in ISF-1 through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure induced the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines. PMID:25237385

  7. Eye muscle antibodies in patients with ocular myasthenia gravis: possible mechanism for eye muscle inflammation in acetylcholine-receptor antibody-negative patients.

    PubMed

    Gunji, K; Skolnick, C; Bednarczuk, T; Benes, S; Ackrell, B A; Cochran, B; Kennerdell, J S; Wall, J R

    1998-06-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder generally thought to be caused by an antibody-mediated attack against the skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine (Ach) receptor (AchR) at the neuromuscular junction. Extraocular muscle weakness and double vision are present in about 90% of patients with myasthenia gravis and are the predominant complaints in about 20% of patients, when the condition is called ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). While serum antibodies against the AchR are detected in most patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG), they are not found in about one-third of patients with the ocular variety, and epidemiological, clinical, and serological studies suggest that OMG and GMG are two separate diseases. Both forms of myasthenia gravis are sometimes associated with thyroid autoimmunity or thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). We have therefore tested the sera of patients with GMG and OMG by Western blotting for antibodies against porcine eye muscle membrane proteins in general, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) specifically for reaction with two skeletal muscle antigens which are prominent marker antigens for TAO, namely, the calcium-binding protein calsequestrin and the so-called "64-kDa protein." The 64-kDa protein has recently been identified as the flavoprotein subunit of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Patients with ophthalmopathy and myasthenia were excluded. Nine of the patients had associated Graves' hyperthyroidism without evident ophthalmopathy and one had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Antibodies against porcine eye muscle membrane antigens of M(r) 15-110 kDa were detected in patients with GMG or OMG, one or more antibodies being detected in 100% of patients with GMG and in 88% of those with OMG. The most frequently found antibodies were those targeting eye muscle membrane proteins of 15, 67, and 110 kDa. Antibodies reactive with purified calsequestrin (63 kDa) were detected in 21% of patients with OMG but in no patient with GMG. Antibodies recognizing purified succinate dehydrogenase (67 kDa) were found in 42% of patients with OMG, in 100% (5 of 5) of patients with GMG, and in 48% of all patients with myasthenia gravis not associated with Graves' hyperthyroidism. There was no close correlation between any eye muscle-reactive antibody and antibodies against the AchR in either group of myasthenic patients. The findings support the notion that immunoreactivity against skeletal muscle proteins other than the AchR may play a role in the development of the muscle weakness in AchR antibody-negative patients with OMG and GMG, although it is unlikely that any of the antibodies demonstrated in this study are directly implicated. Similarly, while the demonstration of antibodies reactive with eye muscle antigens associated with TAO in patients with OMG raises the possibility that the link between the ocular lesions of myasthenia gravis and Graves' disease may be autoimmunity against a common antigen(s), it is more likely that both disorders are mediated by cytotoxic T cells recognizing another cell membrane antigen, such as the novel thyroid and eye muscle shared protein G2s, and that serum antibodies reactive with succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit and calsequestrin are markers of an immune-mediated eye muscle reaction. PMID:9646837

  8. Revised specifications and current development status of MIMIZUKU: the mid-infrared instrument for the TAO 6.5-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kato, Natsuko M.; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kohno, Kotaro; Konishi, Masahiro; Koshida, Shintaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Soyano, Takao; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanab, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Tateuchi, Ken; Todo, Soya; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2014-07-01

    The MIMIZUKU is the first-generation mid-infrared instrument for the TAO 6.5-m telescope. It challenges to prove the origin of dust and the formation of planets with its unique capabilities, wide wavelength coverage and precise calibration capability. The wide wavelength coverage (2-38 ?m) is achieved by three switchable cameras, NIR, MIR-S, and MIR-L. The specifications of the cameras are revised. A 5?m-cutoff HAWAII-1RG is decided to be installed in the NIR camera. The optical design of the MIR-L camera is modified to avoid detector saturation. Its final F-number is extended from 5.2 to 10.5. With these modifications, the field of view of the NIR and MIR-L camera becomes 1.2' 1.2' and 31" 31", respectively. The sensitivity of each camera is estimated based on the revised specifications. The precise calibration is achieved by the "Field Stacker" mechanism, which enables the simultaneous observation of the target and the calibration object in different fields. The up-and-down motion of the cryostat (~ 1 t), critical for the Field Stacker, is confirmed to have enough speed (4 mm/s) and position accuracy (~ 50 ?m). A control panel for the Field Stacker is completed, and its controllers are successfully installed. The current specifications and the development status are reported.

  9. Validating satellite altimeter measurements of internal tides with long-term TAO/TRITON buoy observations at 2°S-156°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Dong-Ping; Chen, Dake

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry is regularly used to map the global distribution of mode-1 internal tides. Validating altimeter measurements of internal tides with in situ data is difficult as the mooring observations typically are too short compared with the altimetry. Here taking advantage of the long-term (since 1999) Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) buoy observations at 2°S-156°E located at a TOPEX/Poseidon crossover in a region of strong internal tides, direct comparisons are made between altimeter and in situ measurements over a common 15 year period. The hourly buoy data are decimated every 9.9 day to emulate altimeter measurements. The altimeter and decimated buoy data are highly coherent at the aliased semidiurnal period (~60 day), and they agree well for the stationary semidiurnal internal tide. For the nonstationary internal tide, which consists of a significant annual cycle, the demodulated amplitude from the altimeter appears to be contaminated by nontidal signals. The demodulated amplitude from the decimated buoy data, on the other hand, is capable of resolving the temporal variability. This suggests the potential of mapping nonstationary internal tides from satellites.

  10. Regional vegetation dynamics and its response to climate change—a case study in the Tao River Basin in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changbin; Qi, Jiaguo; Yang, Linshan; Wang, Shuaibing; Yang, Wenjin; Zhu, Gaofeng; Zou, Songbing; Zhang, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The 30-year normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series from AVHRR/MODIS satellite sensors was used in this study to assess the regional vegetation dynamic changes in the Tao River Basin, which cuts across the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) and the Southwestern Loess Plateau (SLP). First, principal component and correlation analyses were carried out to determine the key climatic variables driving ecological change in the region. Then, regression models were tested to correlate NDVI with the selected climatic variables to determine their predictive power. Finally, Sen’s slope method was used to determine how terrestrial vegetation has responded to regional climate change in the region. The results indicated an average winter season NDVI value of 0.14 in the ETP but only 0.04 in the SLP. Primarily driven by increasing temperature, vegetation growth has generally been enhanced since 1981; spring NDVI increased by 0.03 every 10 years in the ETP and 0.02 in the SLP. Further, results from trend analyses suggest vegetation growth in the ETP shifted to earlier-start and earlier-end dates, however in the SLP, the growing season has been extended with an earlier-start and later-end date. The precipitation threshold for vegetation germination, measured by the cumulative spring rainfall, was found to be 44 mm for both the ETP and SLP.

  11. Proteomic Identification of Nrf2-Mediated Phase II Enzymes Critical for Protection of Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation Injury in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hong-yi; Li, Li; Yu, Jie; Chen, Lu; Huang, Yong-liang; Ning, Ling; Jiang, Zhuyun; Yang, Na; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2014-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used in China for cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of THSWD associated with the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury are largely unknown. The current study applied the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics to investigate the different protein profiles in PC12 cells with and without the treatment of THSWD. Twenty-six proteins affected by THSWD were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Gene ontology analysis showed that those proteins participated in several important biological processes and exhibited diverse molecular functions. In particular, six of them were found to be phase II antioxidant enzymes, which were regulated by NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Quantitative PCR further confirmed a dose-dependent induction of the six phase II enzymes by THSWD at the transcription level. Moreover, the individual ingredients of THSWD were discovered to synergistically contribute to the induction of phase II enzymes. Importantly, THSWD's protection against oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep) induced cell death was significantly attenuated by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides, suggesting the protection of THSWD may be likely regulated at least in part by Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes. Thus, our data will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of THSWD. PMID:24949080

  12. Massively Parallel Assimilation of TOGA/TAO and Topex/Poseidon Measurements into a Quasi Isopycnal Ocean General Circulation Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Borovikov, Anna Y.; Suarez, Max

    1999-01-01

    A massively parallel ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)is used to assimilate temperature data from the TOGA/TAO array and altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON into a Pacific basin version of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP)ls quasi-isopycnal ocean general circulation model. The EnKF is an approximate Kalman filter in which the error-covariance propagation step is modeled by the integration of multiple instances of a numerical model. An estimate of the true error covariances is then inferred from the distribution of the ensemble of model state vectors. This inplementation of the filter takes advantage of the inherent parallelism in the EnKF algorithm by running all the model instances concurrently. The Kalman filter update step also occurs in parallel by having each processor process the observations that occur in the region of physical space for which it is responsible. The massively parallel data assimilation system is validated by withholding some of the data and then quantifying the extent to which the withheld information can be inferred from the assimilation of the remaining data. The distributions of the forecast and analysis error covariances predicted by the ENKF are also examined.

  13. Structures and magnetic properties of new fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=Eu-Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space groups C2221 and Cmcm, respectively. The results of the Rietveld analysis for LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) indicate that there exists no structural ordering of the Ln and Y ions at the eight-coordinate 4b site and the seven-coordinate 8c site, but the larger Ln ions occupy the eight-coordinate 4b site rather than the seven-coordinate 8c site, with increasing the Ln ionic radius. On the other hand, the results of the Rietveld analysis for the X-ray diffraction profiles of LaTb2RuO7 showed that La and Tb atoms are almost situated at the eight-coordinated site (4a site) and seven-coordinated site (8g site), respectively, i.e., cation ordering occurs on the 4a and 8g sites. All compounds LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) are paramagnetic down to 1.8 K. On the other hand, LaTb2RuO7 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 17 K. In addition, another magnetic anomaly has been found at 10 K. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat for LaTb2RuO7 indicates that the magnetic transitions at 10 and 17 K are due to the magnetic ordering of Tb3+ and Ru5+ ions, respectively.

  14. Regional Vegetation Dynamics and Its Response to Climate Change—A Case Study in the Tao River Basin in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, J.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    Stretching across the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the southwestern Loess Plateau, the Tao River Basin (TRB) is an ideal ecosystem to study eco-hydrological processes in a contiguous landscape but climatically different schemes. In this study, we used the normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, derived from AVHRR/MODIS satellite sensors, to quantify the regional vegetation dynamic changes in the TRB and determine the key climatic factors driving these changes in the past 30 years through principal component and correlation analyses. We then developed regression models to predict NDVI changes as a function of the climatic factors. Using Sen's slope trend analysis of the climatic data and the regression models we examined how terrestrial vegetation has responded to regional climate change in the TRB. The regression results showed the average winter base NDVI values of 0.14 and 0.04 in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the southwestern Loess Plateau, respectively. Primarily driven by increasing temperature, the vegetation growth has generally been enhanced since 1981; the spring NDVI increased by 0.03 every 10 years in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and 0.02/10 years in the southwestern Loess Plateau. The Sen's slope trend analyses showed that the vegetation growing season in the eastern Tibetan Plateau shifted to an earlier start and earlier end, but in contrast the southwestern Loess Plateau experienced an earlier start but later end. The precipitation threshold for vegetation germination is a cumulative spring rainfall of 44 mm; less than this precipitation indicates a spring drought and less vegetation growth.

  15. The optimization of Ag/Ag2S electrode using carrier electroplating of nano silver particles and its preliminary application to offshore Kueishan Tao, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qian; Pan, Yi-wen; Huang, Yuan-feng; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication-induced ocean acidification is causing a dramatic ecologic change in the coastal ocean. A more acidic ocean would lead to more volatile H2S in the coastal ocean, especially in the area where shallow hydrothermal vents exist. Therefore, the early detection of H2S and its associates is needed. In this study, the preparation method for and the detection limit of an Ag/Ag2S electrode were optimized by coating the electrode with micro-scale to nano-scale silver particles. The size of the silver particles was dependent on the electroplating power used to produce them: (1) direct current power made micrometer scale silver particles, and (2) direct current carrier power made nano-scale silver particles. As a result, the detection limits of [S2-] of the Ag/Ag2S electrode made using direct current and direct carrier current were improved to 1×10-5 mol L-1 and 1×10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Such improvements were mostly due to the fact that nano silver particles have larger surface area and higher surface energy. The Ag/Ag2S electrode made by direct carrier current method was then mounted to a multi-parameter sensor (including a pH and an Eh electrode) used to search of new hydrothermal vents near the Kueishan Tao in May, 2011. A new hydrothermal vent was discovered based on pH, Eh and H2S anomalies at three depths. A clear [S2-] signal anomaly was observed from the top sensor indicating the dispersive pattern of the hot fluid near this shallow vent site. This could also provide additional information on the dispersion pattern of anthropogenic pollutants in the coastal ocean.

  16. Teaching the Tao of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    1979-01-01

    Describes a course offered at the University of Toronto. The course deals with the new world view of the nature of reality and the parallels of the concepts with modern physics and Eastern mysticism. (Author/SA)

  17. The Tao of Whole Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Meguido

    1989-01-01

    Uses the philosophy of Taoism as a metaphor in describing the whole language approach to language arts instruction. The discussion covers the key principles that inform the whole language approach, the resulting holistic nature of language programs, and the role of the teacher in this approach. (16 references) (CLB)

  18. Evaluation of a technique for estimation of extraocular muscle volume using 2D MRI.

    PubMed

    Firbank, M J; Coulthard, A

    2000-12-01

    Measurements of extraocular muscle volume may be useful as an outcome indicator in the assessment of treatment options in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. In this study, a technique for estimating extraocular muscle volume from two-dimensional T1 weighted MR images acquired in the coronal plane is described. For each image slice, the cross-sectional area of individual extraocular muscles was estimated using a combination of semi-automated outlining based on a local thresholding technique and manual outlining where thresholding was not possible. The technique was assessed using three sets of images: a computer-generated virtual image set with "extraocular muscles" of known volumes; a set of images from 19 biochemically and clinically euthyroid patients; and images from 7 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. From the computer-generated images, the accuracy was determined as 7.6%. Intraobserver agreement was investigated using repeated MRI scans on a single subject and repeat outlining of muscles on five sets of images from different subjects. The mean difference between repeat measurements was 2% (SD 5.9%). We conclude that two-dimensional MR images can be used to determine changes in muscle volume of greater than 12% during treatment of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. PMID:11205672

  19. Reconstruction of the 1997/1998 El Nino from TOPEX/POSEIDON and TOGA/TAO Data Using a Massively Parallel Pacific-Ocean Model and Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, C. L.; Rienecker, M.; Borovikov, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Two massively parallel data assimilation systems in which the model forecast-error covariances are estimated from the distribution of an ensemble of model integrations are applied to the assimilation of 97-98 TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and TOGA/TAO temperature data into a Pacific basin version the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP)ls quasi-isopycnal ocean general circulation model. in the first system, ensemble of model runs forced by an ensemble of atmospheric model simulations is used to calculate asymptotic error statistics. The data assimilation then occurs in the reduced phase space spanned by the corresponding leading empirical orthogonal functions. The second system is an ensemble Kalman filter in which new error statistics are computed during each assimilation cycle from the time-dependent ensemble distribution. The data assimilation experiments are conducted on NSIPP's 512-processor CRAY T3E. The two data assimilation systems are validated by withholding part of the data and quantifying the extent to which the withheld information can be inferred from the assimilation of the remaining data. The pros and cons of each system are discussed.

  20. Re-examination of siRNA specificity questions role of PICH and Tao1 in the spindle checkpoint and identifies Mad2 as a sensitive target for small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hbner, Nadja C; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Kaulich, Manuel; Descombes, Patrick; Poser, Ina; Nigg, Erich A

    2010-04-01

    The DNA-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) has recently been implicated in spindle checkpoint (SAC) signaling (Baumann et al., Cell 128(1):101-114, 2007). Depletion of PICH by siRNA abolished the SAC and resulted in an apparently selective loss of Mad2 from kinetochores, suggesting a role for PICH in the regulation of the Mad1-Mad2 interaction. An apparent rescue of SAC functionality by overexpression of PICH in PICH-depleted cells initially seemed to confirm a role for PICH in the SAC. However, we have subsequently discovered that all PICH-directed siRNA oligonucleotides that abolish the SAC also reduce Mad2 mRNA and protein expression. This reduction is functionally significant, as PICH siRNA does not abolish SAC activity in a cell line that harbors a bacterial artificial chromosome driving the expression of murine Mad2. Moreover, we identified several siRNA duplexes that effectively deplete PICH but do not significantly affect SAC functionality or Mad2 abundance or localization. Finally, we discovered that the ability of overexpressed PICH to restore SAC activity in PICH-depleted cells depends on sequestration of the mitotic kinase Plk1 rather than ATPase activity of PICH, pointing to an underlying mechanism of "bypass suppression." In support of this view, depletion or inhibition of Plk1 also rescued SAC activity in cells harboring low levels of Mad2. This observation suggests that a reduction of Plk1 activity partially compensates for reduced Mad2 levels and argues that Plk1 normally reduces the strength of SAC signaling. Collectively, our results question the role of PICH in the SAC and instead identify Mad2 as a sensitive off target for small RNA duplexes. In support of the latter conclusion, our evidence suggests that an off-target effect on Mad2 may also contribute to explain the apparent role of the Tao1 kinase in SAC signaling. PMID:19904549

  1. The Tao of Teaching: Romance and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stefan

    1991-01-01

    Because college teaching aims to elevate, not entertain, it must be nourished and appreciated as a pedagogical alchemy mixing facts and feelings, ideas and skills, history and mystery. The current debate on educational reform should focus more on quality of learning experience, and on how to create and sustain it. (MSE)

  2. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  3. Some Clinical Aspects in Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis Associated with Thyroid Differentiated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZOSIN, Ioana; GOLU, Ioana; CORNIANU, Marioara; VLAD, Mihaela; BALASA, Melania

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was reported with a heterogeneous incidence. The wide distribution of this association may be related to differences in the level of morphological examination, autoimmunity used criteria, patient selection, surgical indication, genetic background, geographical and environmental factors. Some consider the coexistence of these two entities a coincidental one, others suspecting a causative link between these conditions. Methods: This retrospective paper included 216 patients with HT, issued from an iodine-replete area. 21 cases of nodular HT were investigated by means of: thyroid functional tests (TFT), immunological determinations, thyroid ultrasonography (US) and cytological analysis. All cases were operated because of different reasons: compressive symptoms and signs, suspicious sonographic features and certain cytological smears (malignant, indeterminate and non-diagnostic). Results: The morphologic investigation revealed 9 patients with DTC and 12 cases with benign thyroid disease (BTD). None of the US analyzed characteristics provided sufficient accuracy for the diagnosis of DTC in cases with HT. The preoperative cytological examination by means of fine-needle-aspiration biopsy (FNAB) showed a better sensitivity and specificity vs. US criteria. Conclusion: The coexistence of HT with DTC represents a clinical reality with yet unknown significance. The difficulty of diagnosis imposes the corroboration of different types of investigations. The best diagnostic accuracy seems to be offered by thyroid US and thyroid cytological investigation. PMID:23483569

  4. 77 FR 59703 - Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., a full length parallel taxiway, runway lighting, navigational aids, runway safety areas (RSA... shift of the RSA Runway Object Free Area (ROFA), and Runway Protection Zone (RPZ), establishment of...

  5. Trouble in Paradise: Self-Assessment and the Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I outline how and why I have established a self-assessment system for class participation scores in an English-speaking skills course at a Japanese university. I explain how my experience with one particular student, who personally admitted to having abused the system, led me to realize that elements from Yin and Yang have been…

  6. 75 FR 81437 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (75 FR 66345) Docket No. FAA-2010-0842. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  7. Learning To Teach at the Elbows: The Tao of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Allan

    1996-01-01

    The dialogical relationship between Confucianism and Taoism serves as a framework for examining the interplay between learning as socioculturally mediated activity and critical reflection in preservice teacher education. Article highlights a summer elementary school science program that involves preservice teachers, university faculty, and a local…

  8. Tao Rising: Sexism and Feminist/Transpersonal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Llewlee L.

    This report presents a dialectical model of identity development which is based on observations of how the self evolves within the context of feminist/transpersonal therapy. Developmental stages which are identified include fusion (Stage I), differentiation (Stage II), and integration (Stage III) of the Child (asserting) and Parent (nurturing)…

  9. Tao of Gateway: Providing Internet Access to Licensed Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Gregory A.; Garrison, William V.

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates an approach for providing networked access to licensed databases over the Internet by positioning the library between patron and vendor. Describes how the gateway systems and database connection servers work and discusses how treatment of security has evolved with the introduction of the World Wide Web. Outlines plans to reimplement…

  10. Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonio C.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Burman, Kenneth D.; Cappola, Anne R.; Celi, Francesco S.; Cooper, David S.; Kim, Brian W.; Peeters, Robin P.; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Sawka, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. Methods: Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. Results: We reviewed the following therapeutic categories: (i) levothyroxine therapy, (ii) non–levothyroxine-based thyroid hormone therapies, and (iii) use of thyroid hormone analogs. The second category included thyroid extracts, synthetic combination therapy, triiodothyronine therapy, and compounded thyroid hormones. Conclusions: We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. We found no consistently strong evidence for the superiority of alternative preparations (e.g., levothyroxine–liothyronine combination therapy, or thyroid extract therapy, or others) over monotherapy with levothyroxine, in improving health outcomes. Some examples of future research needs include the development of superior biomarkers of euthyroidism to supplement thyrotropin measurements, mechanistic research on serum triiodothyronine levels (including effects of age and disease status, relationship with tissue concentrations, as well as potential therapeutic targeting), and long-term outcome clinical trials testing combination therapy or thyroid extracts (including subgroup effects). Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile. PMID:25266247

  11. 77 FR 36994 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Intent (75 FR 71414-71415, November 23, 2010) to prepare an environmental impact statement for a proposal... corrected notice of intent was published in the Federal Register on September 29, 2011 (76 FR 60451... (NOA) for the draft EIS in the Federal Register on January 13, 2012 (77 FR 2060). Revised Dates:...

  12. Pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease--does autoimmunity against the TSH receptor explain all cases?

    PubMed

    Wall, Jack R; Lahooti, Hooshang

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, or thyroid eye disease (TED), is a complex inflammatory disorder of the eye that, as its name implies, is usually associated with thyroid disease. Clinical observation supports the existence of three main TED subtypes, namely ocular myopathy, congestive myopathy, and mixed congestive and myopathic ophthalmopathy. Although the precise pathophysiology of TED remains unclear, it is likely to reflect an autoimmune reaction involving sensitised T lymphocytes and autoantibodies directed against a specific orbital or thyroid-and-orbital shared antigen(s). One well-studied candidate in this immune reaction is the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which is also expressed in the orbital fibroblast and preadipocyte. Most patients with ophthalmopathy have associated Graves' disease, 10% have Hashimoto's thyroiditis in which the eye changes are often mild and expressed mainly as upper eyelid retraction (UER), and 10% have no apparent associated thyroid disease - so-called "euthyroid Graves' disease". Ophthalmopathy can also occur in some patients with transient thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, and Graves' disease many years after treatment of the hyperthyroidism - situations where TSHR antibodies are not expected to be present, suggesting that the relationship between TSHR antibodies and the eye disorder has not been established for all cases. In our studies of TED we have investigated the nature and significance of antibodies targeting other eye muscle and orbital connective tissue (OCT) antigens, in particular the calcium binding protein calsequestrin (CASQ1) and the orbital fibroblast membrane antigen collagen XIII. Our working hypotheses for the pathogenesis of TED are: i) the initial reaction in the orbit is antibody and T lymphocyte targeting of the TSHR in the OCT compartment, and ii) the associated extra ocular and upper eyelid muscle inflammation reflects either autoimmunity against primary skeletal muscle antigens such as CASQ1 or a secondary, non specific effect of the OCT reactions as proposed by the main proponents of the "TSHR hypothesis". Here, we review the evidence that autoimmunity against the TSHR expressed in the orbit can be implicated in the development of all cases of TED. Although there is a close general correlation between ophthalmopathy and TSHR antibodies there are many exceptions, suggesting that the continued study of the possible role of autoimmunity against calsequestrin and collagen XIII is justified. PMID:20464711

  13. [Pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease - does autoimmunity against the TSH receptor explain all cases?].

    PubMed

    Wall, Jack R; Lahooti, Hooshang

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, or thyroid eye disease (TED), is a complex inflammatory disorder of the eye that, as its name implies, is usually associated with thyroid disease. Clinical observation supports the existence of three main TED subtypes, namely ocular myopathy, congestive myopathy, and mixed congestive and myopathic ophthalmopathy. Although the precise pathophysiology of TED remains unclear, it is likely to reflect an autoimmune reaction involving sensitised T lymphocytes and autoantibodies directed against a specific orbital or thyroid-and-orbital shared antigen(s). One well-studied candidate in this immune reaction is the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which is also expressed in the orbital fibroblast and preadipocyte. Most patients with ophthalmopathy have associated Graves' disease, 10% have Hashimoto's thyroiditis in which the eye changes are often mild and expressed mainly as upper eyelid retraction (UER), and 10% have no apparent associated thyroid disease - so-called "euthyroid Graves' disease". Ophthalmopathy can also occur in some patients with transient thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, and Graves' disease many years after treatment of the hyperthyroidism - situations where TSHR antibodies are not expected to be present, suggesting that the relationship between TSHR antibodies and the eye disorder has not been established for all cases. In our studies of TED we have investigated the nature and significance of antibodies targeting other eye muscle and orbital connective tissue (OCT) antigens, in particular the calcium binding protein calsequestrin (CASQ1) and the orbital fibroblast membrane antigen collagen XIII. Our working hypotheses for the pathogenesis of TED are: i) the initial reaction in the orbit is antibody and T lymphocyte targeting of the TSHR in the OCT compartment, and ii) the associated extra ocular and upper eyelid muscle inflammation reflects either autoimmunity against primary skeletal muscle antigens such as CASQ1 or a secondary, non specific effect of the OCT reactions as proposed by the main proponents of the "TSHR hypothesis". Here, we review the evidence that autoimmunity against the TSHR expressed in the orbit can be implicated in the development of all cases of TED. Although there is a close general correlation between ophthalmopathy and TSHR antibodies there are many exceptions, suggesting that the continued study of the possible role of autoimmunity against calsequestrin and collagen XIII is justified. PMID:22125104

  14. Ophthalmopathy in a broiler breeder flock reared in dark-out housing.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T S; French, J D; Fletcher, O J

    1986-01-01

    Eight 22-week-old broiler breeder replacements were presented from a flock experiencing a mild mortality problem. Approximately 2-3% of the birds were not getting onto the slats to eat or drink. The birds had been reared in dark-out houses under an experimental lighting schedule. Upon examination, several birds appeared blind or partially blind; others exhibited a photophobic response. Two birds lacked a unilateral menace reflex. No other gross abnormalities or lesions were noted. Histopathologic sections of the eyes revealed retinal degeneration and detachment with early degenerative lesions in one lens. The breeder flock came into production normally but peaked below average. Light intensity in the pullet house was measured at 0.3 footcandles (3.2 lux). Although the lighting program under which the pullets were grown is suspect, the etiology of the disorder remains unclear. PMID:3767820

  15. Neurological manifestations of Graves’ disease: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mangaraj, Swayamsidha; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is characterized by a hyperfunctioning thyroid gland due to stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor by autoantibodies directed against it. Apart from thyrotoxicosis, other clinical manifestations include ophthalmopathy, dermopathy, and rarely acropachy. GD is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder, and hence is associated with various other autoimmune disorders. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is one such disease, which is seen with patients of GD and vice versa. Though the association of GD and myasthenia is known, subtle manifestations of latter can be frequently missed in routine clinical practice. The coexistence of GD and ocular MG poses a significant diagnostic dilemma to treating physicians. The ocular manifestations of myasthenia can be easily missed in case of GD and falsely attributed to thyroid associated ophthalmopathy due to closely mimicking presentations of both. Hence, a high degree of the clinical vigil is necessary in such cases to appreciate their presence. We present a similar case which exemplifies the above said that the clinical challenge in diagnosing coexistent GD and ocular myasthenia. PMID:26933368

  16. Geologic map of the Ojo Caliente Quadrangle, Rio Arriba and Taos Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1986-11-01

    The Ojo Caliente area forms part of the western limb of the Espanola basin within the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico (Manley, 1979; May, 1979). The geology consists of Miocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks that rest unconformably on, or are faulted against, Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks. The Miocene rocks dip gently to the southeast, except where the attitudes are controlled by faulting or by the underlying basement topography. The Precambrian and Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by Quaternary pediment and river gravels, loess, travertine, landslide debris, and alluvium. The Precambrian rocks are faulted into horsts in several areas by north - northeast - trending normal faults.

  17. Materials Data on TaO2F (SG:131) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. The Tao of Supervision: Taoist Insights into the Theory and Practice of Educational Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    There are three approaches to educational supervision: the applied science approach, the interpretive-practical approach, and the critical/emancipatory approach. From a Taoist perspective, conflicting supervision theories or proposals should be welcomed, not resisted. By accepting a diversity of views to inform practice, a balance or centeredness…

  19. Materials Data on Li3TaO4 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Eu3TaO6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Geologic map of the Sunshine 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens and is preserved as poorly exposed fault scarps that cut lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano, north of the map area. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in relatively young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2) the relative youth of the deposits has resulted in only modest displacements on most faults, and (3) some of the faults may have significant strike-slip components that do not result in large vertical offsets that are readily apparent in offset of sub-horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as certain either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations.

  2. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the

  3. Materials Data on Na3Ca2TaO6 (SG:70) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Association of MICA Alleles with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Jung, Min Ho; Park, So Hyun; Baek, In Cheol; Choi, Hee-Baeg; Kim, Tai-Gyu; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Background. Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is a ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. We aimed to assess the association of MICA polymorphism with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in Korean children. Methods. Eighty-one patients with AITD were recruited. We analyzed MICA polymorphisms by PCR-SSP and compared the results with those of 70 healthy controls. Results. In AITD, the allele frequencies of MICA?010 (OR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.303.76, P < 0.003, Pc < 0.042) were higher than those of controls. Patients who did not have thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy showed higher frequencies of MICA?010 (OR = 2.99; 95% CI, 1.476.08, P < 0.003, Pc < 0.042) and lower frequencies of MICA?008 (OR = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.010.62, P < 0.001, Pc < 0.014) compared to those of controls. HLA-B?46, which shows the strongest association with AITD compared with other HLA alleles, showed the strongest linkage disequilibrium with MICA?010. Analyses of the associations between MICA?010 and HLA-B?46 with AITD suggest an association of the MICA allele with AITD. Conclusions. Our results suggest that innate immunity might contribute to the pathogenesis of AITD. PMID:23209462

  5. Localization of the human 64kD autoantigen D1 to myofibrils in a subset of extraocular muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fowler, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the tissue-specific expression pattern of the 64kD human autoantigen D1, a tropomodulin-related protein that may be involved in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. METHODS. Recombinant 64kD human autoantigen D1 was generated in a bacterial expression system and used to immunize rabbits. Specific antibodies were affinity-purified and used for Western blots on normal and hyperthyroid rat and rabbit tissue, and immunofluorescence localization on cryosections of rat tissue. RESULTS. Anti-64kD human autoantigen D1 antibodies recognize specifically a approximately 70kD polypeptide in western blots of extraocular muscle, sternothyroid muscle, and smooth muscle. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrates that the 64kD human autoantigen D1 localizes to myofibrils in slow fibers from rat extraocular and sternothyroid muscle. The level of this protein is not altered in extraocular muscles from hyperthyroid rabbits. CONCLUSIONS. The 64kD human autoantigen D1 is expressed in slow fibers of extraocular and sternothyroid muscles as a component of myofibrils, and is not upregulated in conditions of hyperthyroidism.

  6. Movement as a Metaphor: How Persistence, the Tao, and the Wisdom of the Ostrich Helped Build School Dance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Those who advocate for dance in education inevitably face many roadblocks, including ignorance of how dance can contribute to education, implementation of standardized performance assessments, lack of funding, entrenched issues of politics and power, and fear and discomfort about the body. It is dance teachers' responsibility to enlighten,

  7. 77 FR 31036 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Taos Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    .... The New Mexico State Director signed the ROD on May 24, 2012, which constitutes the final decision of... plan completed in 1988, provides updated management decisions regarding land tenure adjustments, land... La Cienega ACEC, land tenure adjustment opportunities in El Palacio, travel management,...

  8. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-H.; Lehner, M. J.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Bianco, F. B.; Alcock, C.; Chen, W.-P.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Coehlo, N. K.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in light curves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey. We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar light curves obtained by our survey between 2005 February 7 and 2006 December 31 with a total of ~4.5 109 three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  9. Insights from SMPY's Greatest Former Child Prodigies: Drs. Terence ("Terry") Tao and Lenhard ("Lenny") Ng Reflect on Their Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Michelle C.; Stanley, Julian C.; Ng, Lenhard; Ng, Jack; Gross, Miraca U. M.; Tao, Terence; Tao, Billy

    2006-01-01

    If the academic needs of the most profoundly gifted students can be met through the use of existing educational practices, specialists in gifted education can assume that the educational needs of less able, but still academically talented, students can also be met by using some combination of these strategies as well. This paper illustrates the…

  10. Insights from SMPY's Greatest Former Child Prodigies: Drs. Terence ("Terry") Tao and Lenhard ("Lenny") Ng Reflect on Their Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Michelle C.; Stanley, Julian C.; Ng, Lenhard; Ng, Jack; Gross, Miraca U. M.; Tao, Terence; Tao, Billy

    2006-01-01

    If the academic needs of the most profoundly gifted students can be met through the use of existing educational practices, specialists in gifted education can assume that the educational needs of less able, but still academically talented, students can also be met by using some combination of these strategies as well. This paper illustrates the

  11. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and

  12. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  13. 77 FR 38375 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Taos Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    .... All comments on the FEIS are to be submitted to Mr. Dean McMath of the FAA, at the address shown in... COMMENTS: Dean McMath, ASW-613, Regional Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Aviation...

  14. Pentraxin-3 Is a TSH-Inducible Protein in Human Fibrocytes and Orbital Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Atkins, Stephen J; Fernando, Roshini; Wei, Rui-Li; Smith, Terry J

    2015-11-01

    CD34(+) fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived monocyte progenitor cells that traffic to sites of tissue injury and repair. They putatively infiltrate the orbit in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy where they appear to transition into CD34(+) orbital fibroblasts (OFs) that interact with residential CD34(-) fibroblasts. A unique phenotypic attribute of fibrocytes and CD34(+) OFs is their expression of the functional thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and other "thyroid-specific" proteins. When activated through TSHR, fibrocytes express a number of cytokines and other inflammatory genes. Here we sought to determine whether pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), an acute-phase protein involved in inflammation and autoimmunity, might be induced by TSH in fibrocytes and OFs. These cells were collected from patients with Graves disease and healthy individuals. PTX-3 mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR, protein was determined by ELISA and Western blot, and PTX-3 gene promoter activity was assessed with reporter assays. PTX-3 expression was induced by TSH in both cell types, regardless of the health status of the donor and was a consequence of increased steady-state PTX-3 mRNA levels. M22, a TSHR-activating monoclonal antibody, also induced PTX-3. The induction could be attenuated by dexamethasone and by IGF-I receptor-blocking antibodies, teprotumumab and 1H7. TSH effects were mediated through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin/p70(s6k), Janus tyrosine kinase 2 pathways, and enhanced PTX-3 mRNA stability. These findings indicate that PTX-3 is a TSH target gene, the expression of which can be induced in fibrocytes and OFs. They suggest that PTX-3 might represent a previously unidentified nexus between the thyroid axis and the mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling. PMID:26287404

  15. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease. PMID:26361258

  16. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Thyroid Association. (2014). Thyroid nodules . Rahib, L., Smith, B. D., Aizenberg, R., Rosenzweig, A. B., Fleshman, ... American Thyroid Association. (2014). Thyroid nodules . Rahib, L., Smith, B. D., Aizenberg, R., Rosenzweig, A. B., Fleshman, ...

  17. Herbal compound Naoshuantong capsule attenuates retinal injury in ischemia/reperfusion rat model by inhibiting apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuangxin; Gao, Yang; Yu, Qiang; Feng, Liangqi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ischemic ophthalmopathy threatens peoples lives and health. The herbal compound medication, Naoshuantong capsule, plays a critical role in the treatment of cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases; however, the roles and mechanisms of action of Naoshuantong capsule in ischemic ophthalmopathy is unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect and mechanism of action of Naoshuantong capsule on ischemic ophthalmopathy in rats. Methods: In this study a rat model of ischemic ophthalmopathy was constructed using a high intra-ocular pressure-induced ischemia/reperfusion model. The effects of Naoshuantong capsule on ischemic ophthalmopathy were detected using electroretinography, and changes in retinal ultrastructure were examined by HE staining and electron microscopy. The mechanism of action of Naoshuantong capsule on ischemic ophthalmopathy was explored by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results: Rat models of ischemic ophthalmopathy were successfully constructed by intra-ocular hypertension, which presented decreased amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG-b) wave and total retinal thickness, intracellular damage, increased expression of Bax and caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Treatment with Naoshuantong capsule attenuated the changes and damage to the ischemic retina in the rat model, inhibited the over-expression of Bax and caspase 3, and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our study indicated that Naoshuantong capsule attenuates retinal damage in rat models of ischemic ophthalmopathy, possibly by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:26550135

  18. Disturbances of Modulating Molecules (FOXP3, CTLA-4/CD28/B7, and CD40/CD40L) mRNA Expressions in the Orbital Tissue from Patients with Severe Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Przemyslaw; Eckstein, Anja; Luczynski, Wlodzimierz; Johnson, Kristian; Kretowski, Adam; Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, Alina; Gorska, Maria; Szamatowicz, Jacek; Chyczewski, Lech; Mysliwiec, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between the expression of orbital tissue mRNA for FOXP3, CTLA-4/CD28/CD80/CD86, and CD40/CD40 and the severity of Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Material and Methods. Orbital tissue was obtained from 26 patients with GO, with mild (n = 6) or severe GO (n = 20), and 7 healthy controls. The expression of mRNA of FOXP3, CTLA-4/CD28/CD80/CD86, CD40/CD40L was measured by RT-PCR. TCR and CD3 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results. Higher mRNA for FoxP3 (relative expression: 1.4) and CD40 (1.27) and lower expression of CTLA-4 (0.61) were found in the GO tissues versus controls. In severe GO as compared to mild GO higher mRNA expression for FoxP3 (1.35) and CD40 (1.4) and lower expression for CTLA-4 (0.78), CD28 (0.62), and CD40L (0.56) were found. A positive correlation was found between FOXP3 mRNA and CD3 infiltration (R = 0.796, P = 0.0000001). Conclusions. The enhanced FOXP3 mRNA expression in GO samples may suggest the dysfunction of FOXP3 cells in the severe GO. The diminished mRNA expression of CTLA-4 in severe GO may indicate inadequate T regulatory function. The enhanced mRNA expression of CD40 in severe GO and negative correlation to CRP mRNA may suggest their role in the active and inactive GO. PMID:25653477

  19. Mutation in type II procollagen (COL2A1) that substitutes aspartate for glycine alpha 1-67 and that causes cataracts and retinal detachment: evidence for molecular heterogeneity in the Wagner syndrome and the Stickler syndrome (arthro-ophthalmopathy)

    PubMed Central

    Krkk, J; Ritvaniemi, P; Haataja, L; Kriinen, H; Kivirikko, K I; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1993-01-01

    A search for mutations in the gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1) was carried out in affected members of a family with early-onset cataracts, lattice degeneration of the retina, and retinal detachment. They had no symptoms suggestive of involvement of nonocular tissues, as is typically found in the Stickler syndrome. The COL2A1 gene was amplified with PCR, and the products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results suggested a mutation in one allele for exon 10. Sequencing of the fragment demonstrated a single-base mutation that converted the codon for glycine at position alpha 1-67 to aspartate. The mutation was found in three affected members of the family available for study but not in unaffected members or 100 unrelated individuals. Comparison with previously reported mutations suggested that mutations introducing premature termination codons in the COL2A1 gene are a frequent cause of the Stickler syndrome, but mutations in the COL2A1 gene that replace glycine codons with codons for bulkier amino acid can produce a broad spectrum of disorders that range from lethal chondrodysplasias to a syndrome involving only ocular tissues, similar to the syndrome in the family originally described by Wagner in 1938. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8317498

  20. The life of tropical Hot Event in November 2006 (HE0611) observed by advanced satellite sensors and the TAO/TRITON mooring array (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Qin, H.

    2010-12-01

    We have found Hot Event (HE), which is a short-term (about 20 days) large-scale (about 15x106km2) phenomenon with very high Sea Surface Temperature (SST>30 degC). A HE was identified in the tropical western Pacific in November 2006, which is named HE0611. Two parts (HE0611-East and -West) with very high SST connected to form HE0611. SST in HE0611-West increases quickly with large diurnal SST variations, which is caused by large solar radiation and suppressed latent heat flux. Formation mechanism of HE0611-East is completely different; its very high SST is supported sub-surface high SST anomaly associated with the El Nino. Cloud motion wind and cloud cover data have shown deep convective systems with divergent air flows in HE0611-East. High-level convergence was derived from cloud motion winds over HE0611-West. Cloud-free conditions with convergent flow were considered to be related to the deep convection over HE0611-East. These interactions through the whole troposphere over HE0611 (Figure 1) may have been a true appearance of “remote convection” which has been suggested as a mechanism of very high SST generation in tropical oceans. Using satellite-observed surface winds and atmospheric sounding data, the collapse process of HE0611 is investigated. Sudden strengthening of the subtropical-high-enhanced surface easterly winds moved a deep convective system from HE0611-East to -West. A cloud fraction separated from the moved deep convection may have lifted air parcels for initiation of a new convection system in HE0611-West. A pronounced increase of surface level convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the decrease of convective inhibition indicated enhanced convective instability over HE0611-West. Increases of the mass mixing rate and equivalent potential temperature in the boundary layer were caused by water vapor supply associated with the very high SST in HE0611-West, which enhanced CAPE for the deep convection development. With the development of deep convection over HE0611-West, HE0611 ended when the very high SST was destroyed by increased heat fluxes and enhanced mechanical mixing in the surface layer. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the interaction between HE0611-West and -East when the deep convective system developed over HE0611-East. Solar radiation and latent heat flux for HE0611-West and -East are listed at the bottom.

  1. Open system magnetic evolution of the taos plateau volcanic field, Northern New Mexico. I - The petrology and geochemistry of the servilleta basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, M. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Mcmillan, N. J.; Moorbath, S.; Hoefs, J.

    1986-01-01

    MULTIFIT, an embodiment of the conceptual structure needed in modeling multisource and multiprocess magmatic systems, is described. This program, which uses familiar materials balance methodology and the equilibrium form of the Rayleigh equations, links evolutionary arrays, which is turn collectively relate the starting and final compositions of a given magmatic system. Moreover, MULTIFIT incorporates variations within major element data arrays; the linkage between them can be tested using an extension of the least squares algorithm, which selects the best branch point according to the minimum-sum-of-squared-residuals criterion. Advantages and disadvantages of the materials balance approach used in this program are discussed, an example is provided, and equations utilized by MULTIFIT are summarized. While MULTIFIT may not be the best approach for poorly constrained models involving partial melting for complex mixing, it may ultimately prove useful for ascertaining trace element partition coefficients in magnetic systems.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Life Situations of Rural Youth from Two Different Cultural Settings: Northern Taos County, New Mexico, and Eastern Holmes County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    A comparative, interpretive analysis of the social organization of contrasting groups of rural youth from New Mexico ad Ohio was approached from an ethnomethodological perspective, relying on direct observation, intensive personal interviews, and key informants to produce a broader understanding of particular youth coping with their social

  3. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn occurred as a result of chemical precipitation of these metals from ground water upstream in the Red River. Comparisons of the geochemistry of the post-1979 sediment core with both mine wastes and with premining sediment from the vicinity of the Questa mine indicate that both are possible sources for this new component of sediment. Existing data have not resolved this enigma.

  4. Complete set of material constants of single domain (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal and their orientation dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Limei; Li, Shiyang; Sang, Shijing; Wang, Junjun; Huo, Xiaoqing; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    A self-consistent complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for single domain Ta modified (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) crystal was determined. This full set constant for single domain KNN-based crystals allowed the prediction of orientation dependence of the longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic coefficients, and electromechanical coupling factors. The maximum piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were found to exist near [001]C. In addition, material constants of [001]C poled domain engineered single crystal with 4?mm symmetry were experimentally measured and compared with the calculated values. Based on this, extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectricity was estimated to be ?20%. PMID:25489119

  5. Complete set of material constants of single domain (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal and their orientation dependence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Limei; Li, Shiyang; Sang, Shijing; Wang, Junjun; Huo, Xiaoqing; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-11-24

    A self-consistent complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for single domain Ta modified (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) crystal was determined. This full set constant for single domain KNN-based crystals allowed the prediction of orientation dependence of the longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic coefficients, and electromechanical coupling factors. The maximum piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were found to exist near [001] C . In addition, material constants of [001] C poled domain engineered single crystal with 4?mm symmetry were experimentally measured and compared with the calculated values. Based on this, extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectricity was estimated to be ?20%. PMID:25489119

  6. Digital data from the Questa-San Luis and Santa Fe East helicopter magnetic surveys in Santa Fe and Taos Counties, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; Geophex Ltd.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in December, 2005. One survey covers the eastern edge of the San Luis basin, including the towns of Questa, New Mexico and San Luis, Colorado. A second survey covers the mountain front east of Santa Fe, New Mexico, including the town of Chimayo and portions of the Pueblos of Tesuque and Nambe. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August 1936 VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CAMPO SANTO WALL (RESTORED) - Chapel of Padre Antonio Jose Martinez, Garden of Irving Couse, Taos, Taos County, NM

  8. 16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  9. 14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  10. 15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  11. 17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  12. 18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  13. Who Goes There? Linking Remote Cameras and Schoolyard Science to Empower Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn; Ernst, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Taking Action Opportunities (TAO) is a curriculum that combines guided reflection, a focus on the local environment, and innovative use of wildlife technology to empower student action toward improving the environment. TAO is experientially based and uses remote cameras as a tool for schoolyard exploration. Through TAO, students engage in research

  14. Who Goes There? Linking Remote Cameras and Schoolyard Science to Empower Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn; Ernst, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Taking Action Opportunities (TAO) is a curriculum that combines guided reflection, a focus on the local environment, and innovative use of wildlife technology to empower student action toward improving the environment. TAO is experientially based and uses remote cameras as a tool for schoolyard exploration. Through TAO, students engage in research…

  15. Taoism and Its Implications for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Hsiao-Peng; Chang, Chun-Yen; MacRaven, Maggie Maeve

    As one of the major schools of thought in ancient China, Taoism centers on the concept of "Tao", the Way, which has two distinct characteristics: (1) Tao itself can be deemed as a final "reality" that is equivalent to the ontology of the Universe; and (2) Tao itself cannot be defined directly by human language. Taoism posits a holistically…

  16. Characterization of a Self-sufficient Trans-Anethole Oxygenase from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongfei; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2013-01-01

    A novel flavoprotein monooxygenase, trans-anethole oxygenase (TAO), from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1, which is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of trans-anethole to p-anisaldehyde, was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified. Enzymatic kinetics of diverse substrates and cofactors revealed that TAO is likely to be a novel self-sufficient flavoprotein monooxygenase. Enzyme assays of GST-TAO demonstrated that TAO catalyzed a trans-anethole oxidation reaction without auxiliary component enzyme-like electron-transfer flavin reductases. The single component TAO had the ability to reduce flavin cofactors and simultaneously oxidize trans-anthole to p-anisaldehyde. In the processes of reduction of flavin and oxidation of trans-anethole, TAO accepted various flavin and NAD(P)H cofactors. TAO also catalyzed oxidation of isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole, all of which contain the 2-propenyl functional group on the aromatic ring structure with different catalytic efficiency. TAO had the greatest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) with the original substrate, trans-anethole. Investigation about partially deleted mutants of TAO indicated that reductase active sites appeared to be located near the N terminal. Site directed mutagenesis studies also proved that the proposed flavin binding sites, Trp-38, Thr-43, Tyr-55, were critical for flavin reduction. However, disruption of any portion of TAO eliminated the oxygenase activity. PMID:24066043

  17. Interaction of Ta-O and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ta/Pd (0-2.4 nm)/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Ta structured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C. Y.; Fu, H. R.; Zhang, X.; Tian, N.; Wang, P. W.

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was realized by inserting Pd layer into the stack of Ta/Pd (0-2.4 nm)/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Ta. The realization of PMA is accompanied by the (Co, Fe)-O reduction at Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO interface under annealing. Without inserting Pd layer, the annealed Ta/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Ta film presents an in-plane magnetization. Through X-ray photoelectron spectrometry analyzes, it was found that the oxygen was enriched at the interface of Ta/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5. This work clarifies that the inserted Pd layer effectively blocks the diffusion of interfacial oxygen to Ta layer, achieving the beneficial redox reaction at Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO interface to realize PMA.

  18. Treatment of antipsychotic-associated obesity with a GLP-1 receptor agonistprotocol for an investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study: the TAO study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ishy, Pelle L; Knop, Filip K; Broberg, Brian V; Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jrgensen, Niklas R; Andersen, Ulrik B; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthj, Birte Y; Ebdrup, Bjrn H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic medication is widely associated with dysmetabolism including obesity and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular-related diseases and early death. Obesity is considered the single most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interventions against antipsychotic-associated obesity are limited and insufficient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their bodyweight-lowering effects have also been recognised in patients with non-diabetes. The primary endpoint of this trial is weight loss after 3?months of treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide once weekly) in patients with non-diabetic schizophrenia with antipsychotic-associated obesity. Secondary endpoints include physiological and metabolic measurements, various psychopathological and cognitive measures, and structural and functional brain MRI. Methods and analysis 40 obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotic drugs will be randomised to subcutaneous injection of exenatide once weekly (2?mg) or placebo for 3?months, adjunctive to their antipsychotic treatment. Ethics and dissemination The trial has been approved by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the National Committee on Health Research Ethics and the Danish Data Protection Agency. Trial participation presupposes theoral and written patient informed consent. An external, independent monitoring committee (Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital) will monitor the study according to the GCP Guidelines. Trial data, including positive, negative and inconclusive results, will be presented at national and international scientific meetings and conferences. Papers will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01794429; National Committee on Health Research Ethics project number: 36378; EudraCT nr: 2012-005404-17; The Danish Data Protection Agency project number: RHP-2012-027. PMID:24401727

  19. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were determined on selected samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mercury, sulfate stable isotope composition (d34S and d18O of sulfate), stable isotope composition of water (d2H and d18O of water) were measured for selected samples. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and 3He and 3H were measured for age dating on selected samples. Linear regressions from the Straight Creek ground-water data were used to compare ground-water chemistry trends in non-Straight Creek ground waters with Straight Creek alluvial ground-water chemistry dilution trends. Most of the solute trends for the ground waters are similar to those for Straight Creek but there are some notable exceptions. In lithologies that contain substantial pyrite mineralization, acid waters form with similar chemistries to those in Straight Creek and all the waters tend to be calcium-sulfate type. Hottentot ground waters contain substantially lower calcium concentrations relative to those in Straight Creek. This anomaly results from the exposure of rhyolite porphyry in the Hottentot scar and weathering zone. The rhyolite contains less calcium than the altered andesites and tuffs in the Straight Creek catchment and probably does not have the abundant gypsum and calcite. The Hansen ground waters have reached gypsum saturation and have similar calcium, magnesium, and beryllium concentrations as Straight Creek ground waters but have lower concentrations of fluoride, manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, copper, and lithium. Lower concentrations of elements related to mineralization at Hansen likely reflect the more distal location of Hansen with respect to intrusive centers that provided the heat source for hydrothermal alteration. The other ground water with water chemistry trends that are outside the Straight Creek trends was from an alluvial well from Capulin Canyon (CC2A). Although it had pH values near 6.0 and most major ions similar to the other Capulin Canyon ground waters, it contained high concentrations

  20. A-SITE-AND/OR B-SITE-MODIFIED PBZRTIO3 MATERIALS AND (PB, SR, CA, BA, MG) (ZR, TI,NB, TA)O3 FILMS HAVING UTILITY IN FERROELECTRIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES AND HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN FILM MICROACTUATORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor); Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  1. Circulating Angiogenic Factors in Patients with Thromboangiitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Hewing, Bernd; Stangl, Verena; Stangl, Karl; Enke-Melzer, Kathrin; Baumann, Gert; Ludwig, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Background Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, also known as Buerger's disease) is a non-atherosclerotic inflammatory vascular disease that primarily affects arteries in the extremities of young adult smokers. Since the etiology of TAO is still unknown, therapeutic options are limited. Recent attempts in therapeutic angiogenesis have been promising. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate angiogenic processes and factors including circulating progenitor cells in TAO. Methodology/Principal Findings TAO patients with critical limb ischemia and age- and gender-matched nonsmokers and smokers without cardiovascular disease (n?=?12 in each group) were enrolled in the study. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood showed significantly decreased levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+ progenitor cells in TAO patients and in smokers compared to nonsmokers. In contrast to both control groups, the proportion of CD45dimCD34+ progenitor cells co-expressing VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) was significantly elevated in TAO patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of common angiogenic factors (such as VEGF) did not clearly point to pro- or antiangiogenic conditions in serum or plasma of TAO patients. Serum of TAO patients and controls was evaluated in proliferation, migration (scratch assay) and spheroid sprouting assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Serum of TAO patients exhibited a diminished sprouting capacity of HUVECs compared to both control groups. Proliferation and migration of endothelial cells were impaired after treatment with serum of TAO patients. Conclusion Levels of circulating progenitor cells were altered in TAO patients compared to healthy nonsmokers and smokers. Furthermore, serum of TAO patients exhibited an antiangiogenic activity (impaired endothelial cell sprouting, migration and proliferation) on endothelial cells, which may contribute to vascular pathology in this patient population. PMID:22506045

  2. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  3. kin-18, a C. elegans protein kinase involved in feeding

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Kevin S.; Hutchison, Michele; Avery, Leon; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2015-01-01

    TAO1 and TAO2 are recently described protein kinases whose initial characterization has placed them at the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase kinase (MEKK) level of stress-responsive MAPK pathways. Because their physiological roles have not been identified, we sought to study their C. elegans homolog to learn more about their functions. kin-18 encodes a previously uncharacterized protein in C. elegans whose catalytic domain shares over 60% identity with TAO1 and TAO2. We demonstrate that KIN-18 is a protein of 120 kDa whose promoter is active in the pharynx and intestine of C. elegans. To learn more about TAO/KIN-18 function, we studied how expression of constitutively active forms of TAO1 or KIN-18 would affect the physiology of intact worms. Strains of C. elegans expressing active forms of TAO1 or KIN-18 exhibit altered pharyngeal electrophysiology as measured by electropharyngeogram. These worms grow more slowly and lay fewer eggs, phenotypes that could result from reduced feeding. We have also identified a C. elegans gene that encodes a protein kinase similar to mammalian MAPK/ERK Kinase (MEK) 4 whose promoter is active in the pharynx. It is phosphorylated by TAO1 in vitro and physically interacts with TAO1. PMID:11733138

  4. 36 CFR 200.2 - Field organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cody. Region 3, Southwestern Region (Regional Forester, Federal Bldg., 517 Gold Ave. SW., Albuquerque... Williams. Prescott Prescott. Tonto Phoenix. New Mexico Carson Taos. Cibola Albuquerque. Gila Silver...

  5. 36 CFR 200.2 - Field organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cody. Region 3, Southwestern Region (Regional Forester, Federal Bldg., 517 Gold Ave. SW., Albuquerque... Williams. Prescott Prescott. Tonto Phoenix. New Mexico Carson Taos. Cibola Albuquerque. Gila Silver...

  6. 36 CFR 200.2 - Field organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cody. Region 3, Southwestern Region (Regional Forester, Federal Bldg., 517 Gold Ave. SW., Albuquerque... Williams. Prescott Prescott. Tonto Phoenix. New Mexico Carson Taos. Cibola Albuquerque. Gila Silver...

  7. 36 CFR 200.2 - Field organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cody. Region 3, Southwestern Region (Regional Forester, Federal Bldg., 517 Gold Ave. SW., Albuquerque... Williams. Prescott Prescott. Tonto Phoenix. New Mexico Carson Taos. Cibola Albuquerque. Gila Silver...

  8. Eye findings and immunological markers in probands and their euthyroid relatives from a single family with multiple cases of thyroid autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ophthalmopathy is a common manifestation of Graves disease (GD) occurring in up to 50% of patients. Mild eye signs are also common in patients with Hashimotos thyroiditis. Whilst a genetic predisposition to GD has been demonstrated this is not the case for the ophthalmopathy which often runs a separate course. Objective We determined the prevalences of eye and eyelid signs and positive thyroid and orbital antibody tests in first and second degree relatives from a single family with multiple cases of Graves disease, ophthalmopathy and Hashimotos thyroiditis. Design The study cohort comprised 16 subjects from the same family, 4 probands namely, 3 with GD and one with Hashimotos thyroiditis and hypothyroidism and 12 of their euthyroid first or second degree relatives. We measured antibodies against calsequestrin (CASQ1) and collagen XIII in an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays and TSH-Receptor (TSH-R) antibodies as i) TSH-R binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) and ii) thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI). Eye signs were classified and quantified using the clinical activity score (CAS), NOSPECS classes, Nunery types 1 and 2 and the margin-reflex-distance (MRD) as a measure of upper eyelid retraction (UER). Main outcomes Whilst significant ophthalmopathy was uncommon in the relatives, mild eye signs, in particular UER, were demonstrated in about a third of them. The presence of eye signs was moderately, but not significantly, associated with the detection of CASQ1 and collagen XIII antibodies, but not TSH-R antibodies. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a significant prevalence of positive orbital antibody tests and ophthalmopathy in probands with thyroid autoimmunity and their euthyroid relatives, favouring a role of genetic factors in the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:22742084

  9. 77 FR 38801 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    .... 20120198, Draft EIS, FHWA, TX, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment B, Construction, from SH-288 to IH... Plan, Improvements, Construction and Operation of Various Improvements, Town of Taos, Taos County, NM... Park Road Final Vehicle Management Plan, Implementation, Denali National Park and Preserve, AK,...

  10. Turning Patrons into Partners When Choosing an Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Terry

    2004-01-01

    UCLA, which has one of the top 10 research libraries in the country, has been using Taos software since 1996. However in 2001, Sirsi Corp. announced that it was freezing development on Taos software. As the associate university librarian for information technology at UCLA, the author relates that it was his responsibility to lead the way through

  11. Turning Patrons into Partners When Choosing an Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Terry

    2004-01-01

    UCLA, which has one of the top 10 research libraries in the country, has been using Taos software since 1996. However in 2001, Sirsi Corp. announced that it was freezing development on Taos software. As the associate university librarian for information technology at UCLA, the author relates that it was his responsibility to lead the way through…

  12. Thyroid Nodules

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the base of your throat (near your Adam's apple) that regulates body functions such as heart rate, ... needed. Other Organizations Endocrine Society American Thyroid Association, Inc. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Questions to Ask ...

  13. TOOLKIT FOR ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-10-13

    The TAO project focuses on the development of software for large scale optimization problems. TAO uses an object-oriented design to create a flexible toolkit with strong emphasis on the reuse of external tools where appropriate. Our design enables bi-directional connection to lower level linear algebra support (for example, parallel sparse matrix data structures) as well as higher level application frameworks. The Toolkist for Advanced Optimization (TAO) is aimed at teh solution of large-scale optimization problemsmore » on high-performance architectures. Our main goals are portability, performance, scalable parallelism, and an interface independent of the architecture. TAO is suitable for both single-processor and massively-parallel architectures. The current version of TAO has algorithms for unconstrained and bound-constrained optimization.« less

  14. Exophthalmos: A Forgotten Clinical Sign of Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giugni, Aldo Schenone; Mani, Shylaja; Kannan, Subramanian; Hatipoglu, Betul

    2013-01-01

    Exophthalmos is typically associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Although originally described by Harvey Cushing, exophthalmos is an underappreciated sign of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case of a 38-year-old female who presented with severe bilateral proptosis and was subsequently diagnosed with Cushings disease. We discuss the possible mechanisms causing exophthalmos in patients with either endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolemia. PMID:23555062

  15. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-14

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  16. Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Fatourechi, Vahab

    2005-01-01

    Pretibial myxedema or localized myxedema or thyroid dermopathy is an autoimmune manifestation of Graves' disease. It also occasionally occurs in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Lesions of thyroid dermopathy are usually asymptomatic and have only cosmetic importance. Advanced forms of dermopathy are associated with elephantiasis or thyroid acropachy. Almost all cases of thyroid dermopathy are associated with relatively severe ophthalmopathy. Usually ophthalmopathy appears first and dermopathy much later. All patients with localized myxedema have high serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, indicating the severity of the autoimmune condition. Occurrence of thyroid dermopathy in areas other than pretibial skin indicates a systemic process. Similar to Graves' ophthalmopathy, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors in the connective tissue may be the antigen responsible for the immune process. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms are involved in the stimulation of fibroblasts and the production of large amounts of glycosaminoglycans. Localization in the pretibial area relates to mechanical factors and dependent position. Diagnosis of thyroid dermopathy is based on signs and typical pretibial skin lesions in association with a history of Graves' hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy. In some cases, skin biopsy is needed for confirmation. The lesions are usually mild and are overshadowed by more symptomatic ophthalmopathy. Most cases of thyroid dermopathy do not require any therapy. In mildly severe symptomatic cases and when there is cosmetic concern, topical corticosteroids applied under occlusive dressing are beneficial. In more severe cases, systemic immunomodulation may be necessary; however, conclusive evidence for long-term efficacy of these modalities is lacking. When significant edema and elephantiasis are present, local compressive therapy may have added benefit. In mild cases that do not require treatment, 50% of patients achieve complete remission after several years. Severe cases that receive topical corticosteroids or other therapies do not have a better outcome than untreated milder cases. Current treatment modalities for thyroid dermopathy and acropachy are at best palliative. Better and safer means of immunomodulation are needed. PMID:16252929

  17. Damping of thermoacoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    1982-01-01

    A commonly encountered and troublesome problem in cryogenic systems is related to the occurrence of thermoacoustic oscillations (TAO). The oscillations are accompanied by large heat fluxes which can cause large increases in the boiloff from dewars. Such a boiloff can lead to a serious degradation in performance. It appears, therefore, highly advisable to incorporate mechanisms for damping TAO in those parts of the system where there oscillations might occur. The present investigation is concerned with the criteria for the design of such damping mechanisms. Attention is given to the theory regrading the suppression of TAO, a damper consisting of a capillary with a surge tank, and porous solid dampers.

  18. Obstruction of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Due to Emboli from the Thoracic Aorta in a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  19. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies. PMID:26355261

  20. A-site- and/or B-site-modified PbZrTiO3 materials and (Pb, Sr, Ca, Ba, Mg) (Zr, Ti, Nb, Ta)O3 films having utility in ferroelectric random access memories and high performance thin film microactuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor); Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  1. 78 FR 55075 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...- 20130724AGJ, From TAOS PUEBLO, NM, To SPRINGER, NM; GALAXY SYRACUSE LICENSEE LLC, Station WKRH, Facility ID 56996, BPH-20130708ABZ, From MINETTO, NY, To FAIR HAVEN, NY; GALAXY SYRACUSE LICENSEE LLC, Station...

  2. Indian Land Claims in Maine and Elsewhere: A Long, Costly Path.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviewing Indian land claims and their impact on anti-Indian groups, states, Indian Claims Commission, and the federal government, this article reviews the Maine land claim, Taos Blue Lake, and the Submarginal Lands Act of 1933. (RTS)

  3. Transient Aortic Occlusion Augments Collateral Blood Flow and Reduces Mortality During Severe Ischemia due to Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Dong, Bin; Todd, Kathryn G; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Winship, Ian R

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral collateral circulation provides alternative vascular routes for blood to reach ischemic tissues during stroke. Collateral therapeutics attempt to augment flow through these collateral channels to reduce ischemia and brain damage during acute ischemic stroke. Transient aortic occlusion (TAO) has pre-clinical data suggesting that it can augment collateral blood flow and clinical data suggesting a benefit for patients with moderate cortical strokes. By diverting blood from the periphery towards the cerebral circulation, TAO has the potential to augment primary collateral flow at the circle of Willis and thereby improve outcome even during large, hemispheric strokes. Using proximal middle and anterior cerebral artery occlusion in rats, we demonstrate that TAO reduces mortality and improves collateral blood flow in severely ischemic animals. As such, TAO may be an effective therapy to reduce early mortality during severe ischemia associated with proximal occlusions. PMID:26706246

  4. 75 FR 29717 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community.... ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Drury Inn, 4310 The 25 Way, NE., in the Taos Room,...

  5. Bustin Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    Protein Section, Laboratory of Metabolism Principal Investigator: Dr. Michael Bustin Staff Scientists: Dr. Yuri V. Postnikov Dr. Takashi Furusawa Research Associates: Dr. Mark Rochman Postdoctoral Associates: Dr. Eric Ciappio Dr. Tao Deng Dr. Jamie Kugler

  6. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... onto the soil surface by any method and which subsequently is mechanically incorporated into the soil...; all New Mexico counties except Taos County; Kansas; Missouri; Illinois; Indiana; Ohio; Pennsylvania... except: Arizona, California, and (except) Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania,...

  7. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... onto the soil surface by any method and which subsequently is mechanically incorporated into the soil...; all New Mexico counties except Taos County; Kansas; Missouri; Illinois; Indiana; Ohio; Pennsylvania... except: Arizona, California, and (except) Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania,...

  8. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... onto the soil surface by any method and which subsequently is mechanically incorporated into the soil...; all New Mexico counties except Taos County; Kansas; Missouri; Illinois; Indiana; Ohio; Pennsylvania... except: Arizona, California, and (except) Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania,...

  9. Trypanosome Alternative Oxidase Possesses both an N-Terminal and Internal Mitochondrial Targeting Signal

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, VaNae; Singha, Ujjal K.; Smith, Joseph T.; Weems, Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of mitochondrial targeting signals (MTS) by receptor translocases of outer and inner membranes of mitochondria is one of the prerequisites for import of nucleus-encoded proteins into this organelle. The MTS for a majority of trypanosomatid mitochondrial proteins have not been well defined. Here we analyzed the targeting signal for trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), which functions as the sole terminal oxidase in the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei. Deleting the first 10 of 24 amino acids predicted to be the classical N-terminal MTS of TAO did not affect its import into mitochondria in vitro. Furthermore, ectopically expressed TAO was targeted to mitochondria in both forms of the parasite even after deletion of first 40 amino acid residues. However, deletion of more than 20 amino acid residues from the N terminus reduced the efficiency of import. These data suggest that besides an N-terminal MTS, TAO possesses an internal mitochondrial targeting signal. In addition, both the N-terminal MTS and the mature TAO protein were able to target a cytosolic protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), to a T. brucei mitochondrion. Further analysis identified a cryptic internal MTS of TAO, located within amino acid residues 115 to 146, which was fully capable of targeting DHFR to mitochondria. The internal signal was more efficient than the N-terminal MTS for import of this heterologous protein. Together, these results show that TAO possesses a cleavable N-terminal MTS as well as an internal MTS and that these signals act together for efficient import of TAO into mitochondria. PMID:24562910

  10. Trypanosome alternative oxidase possesses both an N-terminal and internal mitochondrial targeting signal.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Vanae; Singha, Ujjal K; Smith, Joseph T; Weems, Ebony; Chaudhuri, Minu

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of mitochondrial targeting signals (MTS) by receptor translocases of outer and inner membranes of mitochondria is one of the prerequisites for import of nucleus-encoded proteins into this organelle. The MTS for a majority of trypanosomatid mitochondrial proteins have not been well defined. Here we analyzed the targeting signal for trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), which functions as the sole terminal oxidase in the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei. Deleting the first 10 of 24 amino acids predicted to be the classical N-terminal MTS of TAO did not affect its import into mitochondria in vitro. Furthermore, ectopically expressed TAO was targeted to mitochondria in both forms of the parasite even after deletion of first 40 amino acid residues. However, deletion of more than 20 amino acid residues from the N terminus reduced the efficiency of import. These data suggest that besides an N-terminal MTS, TAO possesses an internal mitochondrial targeting signal. In addition, both the N-terminal MTS and the mature TAO protein were able to target a cytosolic protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), to a T. brucei mitochondrion. Further analysis identified a cryptic internal MTS of TAO, located within amino acid residues 115 to 146, which was fully capable of targeting DHFR to mitochondria. The internal signal was more efficient than the N-terminal MTS for import of this heterologous protein. Together, these results show that TAO possesses a cleavable N-terminal MTS as well as an internal MTS and that these signals act together for efficient import of TAO into mitochondria. PMID:24562910

  11. Etiopathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans current practices

    PubMed Central

    Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Dalio, Marcelo; vora, Paulo RB; Piccinato, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a segmental inflammatory occlusive disorder that affects small- and medium-sized arteries, and arm and leg veins of young smokers. Several different diagnostic criteria have been offered for the diagnosis of TAO. Clinically, it manifests as migratory thrombophlebitis or signs of arterial insufficiency in the extremities. It is characterized by highly cellular and inflammatory occlusive thrombi, primarily of the distal extremities. Thromboses are often occlusive and sometimes display moderate, nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate, consisting mostly of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear cells and rare multinuclear giant cells. The immune system appears to play a critical role in the etiology of TAO. However, knowledge about immunological aspects involved in the progression of vascular tissue inflammation, and consequently, the evolution of this disease, is still limited. There are several studies that suggest the involvement of genetic factors and results have shown increasing levels of antiendothelial cell antibodies in patients with active disease. Vasodilation is impaired in patients with TAO. TAO disorder may actually be an autoimmune disorder, probably initiated by an unknown antigen in the vascular endothelium, possibly a component of nicotine. There are various therapies available for treatment of TAO, but the major and indispensable measure is smoking cessation. Except for discontinuation of tobacco use, no forms of therapy are definitive. Sympathectomy, cilostazol and prostaglandin analogues (prostacyclin or prostaglandin E) have been used in specific conditions. Recently, therapeutic angiogenesis with autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells has been studied in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:22477511

  12. Nonstoichiometric control of tunnel-filling order, thermal expansion, and dielectric relaxation in tetragonal tungsten Bronzes Ba0.5-xTaO3-x.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengjuan; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Fengqi; Wang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jiang; Kuang, Xiaojun; Vron, Emmanuel; Porcher, Florence; Suchomel, Matthew R; Wang, Jing; Allix, Mathieu

    2015-09-21

    Ordering of interpolated Ba(2+) chains and alternate Ta-O rows (TaO)(3+) in the pentagonal tunnels of tetragonal tungsten bronzes (TTB) is controlled by the nonstoichiometry in the highly nonstoichiometric Ba0.5-xTaO3-x system. In Ba0.22TaO2.72, the filling of Ba(2+) and (TaO)(3+) groups is partially ordered along the ab-plane of the simple TTB structure, resulting in a ?2-type TTB superstructure (Pbmm), while in Ba0.175TaO2.675, the pentagonal tunnel filling is completely ordered along the b-axis of the simple TTB structure, leading to a triple TTB superstructure (P21212). Both superstructures show completely empty square tunnels favoring Ba(2+) conduction and feature unusual accommodation of Ta(5+) cations in the small triangular tunnels. In contrast with stoichiometric Ba6GaTa9O30, which shows linear thermal expansion of the cell parameters and monotonic decrease of permittivity with temperature within 100-800 K, these TTB superstructures and slightly nonstoichiometric simple TTB Ba0.4TaO2.9 display abnormally broad and frequency-dependent extrinsic dielectric relaxations in 10(3)-10(5) Hz above room temperature, a linear deviation of the c-axis thermal expansion around 600 K, and high dielectric permittivity ?60-95 at 1 MHz at room temperature. PMID:26347025

  13. Trypanosoma brucei: differential requirement of membrane potential for import of proteins into mitochondria in two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Williams, Shuntae; Saha, Lipi; Singha, Ujjal K; Chaudhuri, Minu

    2008-03-01

    Trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) and the cytochrome oxidase (COX) are two developmentally regulated terminal oxidases of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we have compared the import of TAO and cytochrome oxidase subunit IV (COIV), two stage-specific nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins, into the bloodstream and procyclic form mitochondria of T. brucei to understand the import processes in two different developmental stages. Under in vitro conditions TAO and COIV were imported and processed into isolated mitochondria from both the bloodstream and procyclic forms. With mitochondria isolated from the procyclic form, the import of TAO and COIV was dependent on the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (delta psi) and required protein(s) on the outer membrane. Import of these proteins also depended on the presence of both internal and external ATP. However, import of TAO and COIV into isolated mitochondria from the bloodstream form was not inhibited after the mitochondrial delta psi was dissipated by valinomycin, CCCP, or valinomycin and oligomycin in combination. In contrast, import of these proteins into bloodstream mitochondria was abolished after the hydrolysis of ATP by apyrase or removal of the ATP and ATP-generating system, suggesting that import is dependent on the presence of external ATP. Together, these data suggest that nuclear encoded proteins such as TAO and COIV are imported in the mitochondria of the bloodstream and the procyclic forms via different mechanism. Differential import conditions of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins of T. brucei possibly help it to adapt to different life forms. PMID:18021773

  14. [Perioperative treatment for the urgent orbital decompression surgery in a 30-weeks pregnant woman with Graves' orbitopathy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; López-Herrera-Rodríguez, D; Domínguez-Blanco, A; Medina-de Moya, I; Sánchez-Carrillo, F

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a rare extra-thyroid complication usually associated with Graves' disease. This disease can occur in the euthyroid pregnant patient. Graves' orbitopathy is characterized by eyelid retraction, proptosis, extraocular muscle dysfunction, and periorbital edema. In some cases an emergency surgical repair may be required to avoid irreversible vision loss. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman in her 30th gestational week, who suffered from Graves' ophthalmopathy, severe exophthalmia, and visual acuity decrease. Following consultations among anesthesiologists, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, endocrinologists, obstetricians and the patient, it was decided to perform a surgical orbital wall decompression. The anesthetic and perioperative implications associated with gestational age and the considerations for this surgical procedure, and how to avoid increasing intraocular pressure are discussed. PMID:23835254

  15. New insights into pathogenesis and potential therapeutic options for Graves orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Warwar, R E

    1999-10-01

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the seemingly heterogeneous tissues of the thyroid and orbit. Evidence suggests that these tissues share a common antigen: the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor protein. It is speculated that this antigen (which is present in orbital tissue in both normal patients and patients with Graves disease), together with the humoral factors present in the serum of patients with Graves disease, forms the basis for the immunologic attack seen in Graves ophthalmopathy. Once the immune response has been activated, a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines propagate inflammation, leading to the clinical findings typical of Graves ophthalmopathy. Knowledge of the specific inflammatory mediators involved may someday lead to the development of specific, clinically available immunomodulatory therapies for Graves eye disease. PMID:10621552

  16. Elephantiasic pretibial myxedema in a patient with graves disease that resolved after 131I treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haifang; Jiang, Xue; Pan, Mingzhi; Huang, Rui

    2014-08-01

    Pretibial myxedema is a rare manifestation of Graves disease and is generally associated with ophthalmopathy. Steroids, immunoglobulin, or rituximab can have some therapeutic effect but not curative. Here we reported a 45-year-old man with history of hyperthyroidism for 20 years who developed severe bilateral pretibial myxedema. Three months after the treatment with I for his Graves disease, his pretibial myxedema was significantly improved. PMID:24830877

  17. Significance of tissue specific and tissue non specific autoimmune reactions of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kiljanski, J; Nebes, V; Wall, J R

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the many immunologic abnormalities demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with Graves' disease (GD) and the broad spectrum of clinical features with which patients may present has not yet been addressed in detail. In this review we examine the evidence to support the notion that GD could be considered a multi-system autoimmune disorder in which tissue damage is restricted to the thyroid gland, connective tissue of the skin and orbit, extra-ocular and other skeletal muscles and, possibly, the lacrimal glands. Apart from the well recognized reactions of autoantibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes with epitopes on the thyroid specific TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, in patients with hyperthyroidism, there is also good evidence for autoantibody and, to a lesser extent, T lymphocyte reactivity with several eye muscle, other skeletal muscle and connective tissue, antigens in patients with ophthalmopathy, systemic myopathy, dermopathy and acropachy. There is also some evidence for immunoreactivity against lacrimal gland antigens in patients with ophthalmopathy associated with other features of GD. There are, in addition, a variety of organ non-specific reactions in GD; antinuclear antibodies are detected in serum from about one-third of patients with hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, while from 5% to 10% have antibodies reactive with several other ubiquitous tissue proteins. Cloned proteins which are autoantigenic in some patients with hyperthyroidism or Hashimoto's thyroiditis and ophthalmopathy include collagen XIII, nebulin, the calcium binding protein calmitine, and the Mac-II antigen. All antibodies reactive with eye muscle antigens, except the 64 kDa protein which is also expressed in the thyroid, cross react with the same, or a related, protein in other skeletal muscle. Future research should focus on the underlying mechanisms for this broad loss of tolerance to self antigens and the effect of environmental factors such as stress, radioiodine and viral infection of the thyroid gland and other target tissues, in precipitating disease. PMID:8828951

  18. Identification and partial purification of a stage-specific 33 kDa mitochondrial protein as the alternative oxidase of the Trypanosoma brucei brucei bloodstream trypomastigotes.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, M; Ajayi, W; Temple, S; Hill, G C

    1995-01-01

    The glycerophosphate oxidase (GPO), the unique terminal oxidase of bloodstream trypanosome (TAO), appears to be functionally similar to the alternative oxidases of some plants and higher fungi. Immunoblotting of mitochondrial proteins of bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei with monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies to Sauromatum guttatum (voodoo lily) and Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) alternative oxidases respectively revealed two proteins of about 33 kDa (p33) and 68 kDa (p68). These proteins are not present in procyclic trypomastigotes. Electrophoresis under rigorous denaturing conditions indicated p68 to be the dimer of p33. Indirect immunofluorescent studies of bloodstream and procyclic trypomastigotes with monoclonal antibody to plant alternative oxidase also showed the localization of 33 kDa protein in the mitochondria of the bloodstream trypomastigotes. The functional TAO activity could be solubilized efficiently from the mitochondrial membrane of the bloodstream trypomastigotes by 1% NP-40 or 10 mM lauryl maltoside. When fractionated by Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography, p33 was co-purified with the TAO enzymatic activity. The apparent molecular size of the active enzyme complex was found to be 160 kDa. Gradual disappearance of the 33 kDa protein and the TAO enzymatic activity were well correlated during in vitro differentiation of the bloodstream to procyclic trypomastigotes. This study implies that the net biosynthesis of p33, an essential subunit of TAO, is decreased during differentiation from bloodstream to procyclic trypomastigotes. PMID:7581322

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Yasutoshi; Shiba, Tomoo; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Moore, Anthony; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial membrane protein and a non-proton-pumping ubiquinol oxidase that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. In the African trypanosomes, trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) functions as a cytochrome-independent terminal oxidase that is essential for survival in the mammalian host; hence, theenzyme is considered to be a promising drug target for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. In the present study, recombinant TAO (rTAO) overexpressed in haem-deficient Escherichia coli was purified and crystallized at 293?K by thehanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 400 as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100?K and were processed to 2.9? resolution with 93.1% completeness and an overall R merge of 9.5%. The TAO crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.11, b = 136.44, c = 223.06?. Assuming the presence of two rTAO molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 38?kDa), the calculated Matthews coefficient (V M) was 3.2?3?Da?1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 61.0%. This is the first report of a crystal of the membrane-bound diiron proteins, which include AOXs. PMID:20208159

  20. Experimental and analytical study of thermal acoustic oscillations. [in the transfer and storage of cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal acoustic oscillations (TAO) data base was expanded by running a large number of tubes over a wide range of parameters known to affect the TAO phenomenon. These parameters include tube length, wall thickness, diameter, material, insertion length and length-to-diameter ratio. Emphasis was placed on getting good boiloff data. A large quantity of data was obtained, reduced, correlated and analyzed and is presented. Also presented are comparisons with previous types of correlations. These comparisons show that the boiloff data did not correlate with intensity. The data did correlate in the form used by Rott, that is boiloff versus TAO pressure squared times frequency to the one-half power. However, this latter correlation required a different set of correlation constants, slope and intercept, for each tube tested.

  1. Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioether Amido Sulfonate (Lodyne) in AFFF-Amended Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Houtz, Erika F; Yi, Shan; Field, Jennifer A; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (FtTAoS) were characterized by determining the fate of the compounds in soil and medium microcosms amended with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) solution. The biotransformation of FtTAoS occurred in live microcosms over approximately 40 days and produced 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FtS), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FtUCA), 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FtCA), and C4 to C8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Two biotransformation products corresponding to singly and doubly oxygenated forms of 6:2 FtTAoS were also identified through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and liquid chromatography tandem-MS. An oxidative assay was used to indirectly quantify the total concentration of polyfluorinated compounds and check the mass balance. The assay produced near complete mass recovery of FtTAoS after biotransformation, with 10% (mol/mol) of the amended FtTAoS accounted for in FtS, FtCA, and PFCA products. The transformation rates of identified products appear to be slow relative to FtTAoS, indicating that some intermediates may persist in the environment. This study confirms some of the sources of FtS and PFCAs in groundwater and soil at AFFF-impacted sites and suggests that fluorinated intermediates that are not routinely measured during the biotransformation of PFASs may accumulate. PMID:26042823

  2. Structural and electronic investigations of PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 constructed from α-U3O8 types of layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Maggard, Paul A.

    2015-09-01

    The PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 phases were prepared by ion-exchange and solid-state methods, respectively, and their structures were characterized by neutron time-of-flight diffraction and Rietveld refinement methods (PbTa4O11, R 3 (No. 146), a=6.23700(2) Å, c=36.8613(1) Å; BiTa7O19, P 6 bar c 2 (No. 188), a=6.2197(2) Å, c=20.02981(9) Å). Their structures are comprised of layers of TaO6 octahedra surrounded by three 7-coordinate Pb(II) cations or two 8-coordinate Bi(III) cations. These layers alternate down the c-axis with α-U3O8 types of single and double TaO7 pentagonal bipyramid layers. In contrast to earlier studies, both phases are found to crystallize in noncentrosymmetric structures. Symmetry-lowering structural distortions within PbTa4O11, i.e. R 3 bar c →R3, are found to be a result of the displacement of the Ta atoms within the TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra, towards the apical and facial oxygen atoms, respectively. In BiTa7O19, relatively lower reaction temperatures leads to an ordering of the Bi/Ta cations within a lower-symmetry structure, i.e., P63/mcm→ P 6 bar c 2 . In the absence of Bi/Ta site disorder, the Ta-O-Ta bond angles decrease and the Ta-O bond distances increase within the TaO7 double layers. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal two particle morphologies for PbTa4O11, hexagonal rods and finer irregularly-shaped particles, while BiTa7O19 forms as aggregates of irregularly-shaped particles. Electronic-structure calculations confirm the highest-energy valence band states are comprised of O 2p-orbitals and the respective Pb 6s-orbital and Bi 6s-orbital contributions. The lowest-energy conduction band states are composed of Ta 5d-orbital contributions that are delocalized over the TaO6 octahedra and layers of TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The symmetry-lowering distortions in the PbTa4O11 structure, and the resulting effects on its electronic structure, lead to its relatively higher photocatalytic activity compared to similar structures without these distortions.

  3. [In vitro activity of roxithromycin compared to 5 other macrolides against staphylococci].

    PubMed

    Brun, Y; Coulet, M; Forey, F; Fleurette, J

    1988-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the bacteriostatic activity of roxithromycin (RU) to those of erythromycin (ERY), troleandomycin (TAO), spiramycin (SPI), josamycin (JOS) and midekamycin (MID) against staphylococci strains. 239 strains of hospital origin were analysed: S. aureus (139), coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (100). The MIC were determined by the agar dilution method. The modal MIC, the MIC 50 and 90 observed for the both groups of strains are given according to species and antibiotics. This study gives the opportunity to classify the 6 antibiotics in a decreasing order considering their antistaphylococcal activity: RU = ERY, TAO = SPI, JOS = MID. No difference was noticeable between S. aureus and CNS strains. PMID:3054736

  4. Diplopia in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Appen, R E; Wendelborn, D; Nolten, W E

    1982-05-01

    Diplopia without obvious exophthalmos, caused by infiltrative endocrine ophthalmopathy, developed in 12 patients with clinical and laboratory confirmation of autoimmune thyroid disease. In eight patients, the diplopia alone prompted medical attention, which led to the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. A hypotropia secondary to restrictive tightening of the inferior rectus muscle, producing vertical diplopia, was the most common manifestation of the disorder. The ocular muscle imbalance in autoimmune thyroid disease is caused by mechanical orbital restriction of the extraocular muscle, not by an innervational defect. Evidence of orbital restriction of the eye muscles can establish the diagnosis, regardless of the patient's thyroid function. PMID:6896274

  5. Recurrent oculomotor neuritis related to autoimmune hypothyroidism. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Yeon; Rhee, Hak Young; Shin, Hae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmopathy related to thyroid disease is due mainly to diffuse periorbital or eye muscle inflammation. It is more common in Grave's hyperthyroidism and rare in Hashimoto's hypothyroidism. Here we report a case of recurrent oculomotor nerve palsy associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. Brain MRI revealed enhancement of the oculomotor nerves. Despite thyroid hormone replacement therapy, oculomotor nerve palsy recurred at the side contralateral to the initially involved nerve and the autoimmune antibody titer remained high. The symptom was responsive to high-dose steroid therapy. PMID:26454483

  6. Diagnosis and management of Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Jody

    2003-01-01

    GRAVES' DISEASE IS CHARACTERIZED BY HYPERTHYROIDISM, diffuse goitre, ophthalmopathy and, rarely, dermopathy. Although diagnostic testing is straightforward once Graves' disease is suspected, physicians need to be aware of heterogeneous and even atypical presentations of the disease, particularly in elderly patients. Because morbidity may be associated with even subtle forms of hyperthyroidism, treatment promoting long-term euthyroidism is necessary. Although all of the available treatments are effective, compliance is best assured by a full discussion of the risks and benefits of each approach. This review focuses on issues of diagnosis and management that will allow the primary care physician to identify patients with Graves' disease and guide them to recovery. PMID:12615754

  7. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with shallow orbits and floppy eyelid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ezra, Daniel G; Derriman, Lucia; Mellingtion, Faye E; Jayaram, Hari; Badia, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous globe luxation is a rare and distressing phenomenon. We report three cases which characterise the aetiology of spontaneous anterior globe luxation in the presence of a shallow orbital configuration and lax eyelids. All patients suffered from floppy eyelid syndrome (FES). Orbital imaging revealed no orbital masses and normal extraocular muscles. Shallow orbits with significant globe projection was noted. There was no clinical, radiological or serological evidence of thyroid ophthalmopathy. In this group of patients, the aetiology of spontaneous globe luxation is likely to be contingent on both shallow orbits and lax eyelids. The different treatment options for this condition are considered. PMID:18307149

  8. Single crystalline tantalum oxychloride microcubes: controllable synthesis, formation mechanism and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hao; Xu, Leilei; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo

    2015-08-11

    Single crystalline microcubes of a new tantalum compound, tantalum oxychloride (TaO2.18Cl0.64), have been fabricated hydrothermally in a concentrated aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid. They contain a superstructure and exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production due to the improved light harvest and facilitated charge transport. PMID:26143863

  9. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The

  10. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural

  11. THE TAIWAN-AMERICAN OCCULTATION SURVEY PROJECT STELLAR VARIABILITY. I. DETECTION OF LOW-AMPLITUDE {delta} SCUTI STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C.; Wright, N. J.; Bianco, F. B.; Lehner, M. J.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kyeong, J.; Lee, B.-C.; Axelrod, T.; Chen, W.-P.; Lin, H.-C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Rice, J. A.; Cook, K. H.; Marshall, S. L.; Dave, R.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Porrata, R.

    2010-02-15

    We analyzed data accumulated during 2005 and 2006 by the Taiwan-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) in order to detect short-period variable stars (periods of {approx}<1 hr) such as {delta} Scuti. TAOS is designed for the detection of stellar occultation by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects and is operating four 50 cm telescopes at an effective cadence of 5 Hz. The four telescopes simultaneously monitor the same patch of the sky in order to reduce false positives. To detect short-period variables, we used the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT) in as much as the data points in TAOS light curves are evenly spaced. Using FFT, we found 41 short-period variables with amplitudes smaller than a few hundredths of a magnitude and periods of about an hour, which suggest that they are low-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars. The light curves of TAOS {delta} Scuti stars are accessible online at the Time Series Center Web site (http://timemachine.iic.harvard.edu)

  12. Cultural Issues of School Dropouts in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yuk King; Tsang, Bill Y. P.; Kwok, Diana K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the 150 years of British colonial governance in Hong Kong, Chinese collectivist culture continues to be a dominant source of influence in the learning context of students (Cheng, 1998; Salili, Lai and Leung, 2004; Tao and Hong, 2000), placing a great emphasis on education and effort (Salili and Lai, 2003). Education is viewed as the

  13. The Plumed Serpent and the Red Atlantis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, William

    1988-01-01

    Examines work of author D.H. Lawrence and John Collier, later Bureau of Indian Affairs Commissioner, during 1920s when they stayed as Mabel Dodge Luhan's guests in Taos, New Mexico. Examines their perceptions of Pueblo Indian culture, federal-Indian relationship, and Indian influences on Lawrence's and Collier's work. (TES)

  14. Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and

  15. The Role of Discursive Resources in Science Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper addresses a debate between two hypotheses of children's development of conceptual understandings of the Earth. The authors aim to investigate whether culture influences students' conceptions of the Earth. However, one questionable assumption shared among conception and conceptual change studies is that researchers…

  16. The Role of Discursive Resources in Science Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper addresses a debate between two hypotheses of children's development of conceptual understandings of the Earth. The authors aim to investigate whether culture influences students' conceptions of the Earth. However, one questionable assumption shared among conception and conceptual change studies is that researchers

  17. The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration, September 12-14, 2002, in Taos, New Mexico. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  18. Mining the Values in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Schools must provide opportunities for students to discover what is most worth knowing, as they prepare to be citizens, good workers, good private individuals. Formal curriculum is one vehicle for teaching Tao (universal path to becoming a good person). Hidden curriculum can also convey profound teachings, if a spirit of fairness predominates,…

  19. President Nixon Sets New Indian Policies and Goals: A New Era for the American Indians; The American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard M.

    The July 8, 1970 President's Message to the United States Congress on the American Indians is presented in this paper. The speech covered self-determination without termination, the repeal of the termination law, Indian directed programs, the restoration of Blue Lake to Taos Pueblo, local school control, economic development legislation, Indian

  20. An Inventory of Natural, Human, and Social Overhead Capital Resources in North-Central New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey; Eastman, Clyde

    Concerned with the north-central area of New Mexico (Rio Arriba, Taos, Colfax, Mora, Santa Fe, and San Miguel counties), this inventory describes the situation and delineation of the region, the natural resources (physical characteristics, land, land-ownership patterns, land-use patterns, land-title problems, water resources, and minerals); human

  1. Curing the Medical Manpower Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1973-01-01

    The OEO-funded Sangre de Cristo Comprehensive Health System in Costilla and Conejos Counties, Colorado, and northern Taos County, New Mexico, utilizes medical practitioners who are certified to practice a variety of medical techniques under the supervision of licensed physicians. (JM)

  2. 76 FR 51361 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Taos, Mayor Darren Cordova; Approval of Agenda and July 27, 2011 Meeting Minutes. 1:30 p.m. Public... Nominating Committee (Section V, F. of NNMCAB Bylaws), Deb Shaw; ] Election of Chair and Vice Chair for.... Phone (505) 995-0393; Fax (505) 989-1752 or e- mail: msantistevan@doeal.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  3. Killing Mosquitoes and Keeping Practice: Teacher Education as Sustaining Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, David Lee

    2013-01-01

    The moral and ethical charge of teaching and teacher education includes sustaining equanimity and paradox, and maintaining poise amongst contradicting policies and interests. This paper draws upon the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching to address some paradoxes in education and teacher preparation. Specifically, the article looks at four chapters of the…

  4. Taoist Lessons for Educational Leaders: Gentle Pathways to Resolving Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This book explores ways in which educational leaders can apply the wisdom of the Tao in their day-to-day work in schools. It offers an alternative to the standard ways of western thinking to give the leader more possibilities when confronting a situation. We tend to value immediate and decisive action, winning, directing, and getting one's way.…

  5. Killing Mosquitoes and Keeping Practice: Teacher Education as Sustaining Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, David Lee

    2013-01-01

    The moral and ethical charge of teaching and teacher education includes sustaining equanimity and paradox, and maintaining poise amongst contradicting policies and interests. This paper draws upon the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching to address some paradoxes in education and teacher preparation. Specifically, the article looks at four chapters of the

  6. Cultural Issues of School Dropouts in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yuk King; Tsang, Bill Y. P.; Kwok, Diana K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the 150 years of British colonial governance in Hong Kong, Chinese collectivist culture continues to be a dominant source of influence in the learning context of students (Cheng, 1998; Salili, Lai and Leung, 2004; Tao and Hong, 2000), placing a great emphasis on education and effort (Salili and Lai, 2003). Education is viewed as the…

  7. Remarkable charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device with (TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.1} composite charge-storage dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, K.; Ou, X.; Cao, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Lu, W.; Xu, B.; Li, A. D.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J. Liu, Z. G.; Lan, X. X.; Gong, C. J.

    2014-06-30

    A memory device p-Si/SiO{sub 2}/(TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.1}(TAO-81)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt was fabricated, in which a composite of two high-k dielectrics with a thickness of 1 nm was employed as the charge-trapping layer to enhance the charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device. At an applied gate voltage of ±9 V, TAO-81 memory device shows a memory window of 8.83 V in its C-V curve. It also shows a fast response to a short voltage pulse of 10{sup −5} s. The charge-trapping capability, the endurance, and retention characteristics of TAO-81 memory device can be improved by introducing double TAO-81 charge-trapping layers intercalated by an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The charge-trapping mechanism in the memory device is mainly ascribed to the generation of the electron-occupied defect level in the band gap of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced by the inter-diffusion between TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  8. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation

  9. 77 FR 11573 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Notice of Inventory Completion in the Federal Register (66 FR 10906-10909, Tuesday, February 20, 2001... Register (76 FR 58037-58038, Monday, September 19, 2011). At an unknown date prior to 2002, human remains... Taos, New Mexico; and the Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. For one case, identified as Office of...

  10. The Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Thromboangiitis obliterans: Is It Still a Mystery?

    PubMed

    Ma?ecki, Rafa?; Kluz, Joanna; Prze?dziecka-Do?yk, Joanna; Adamiec, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a rare disease of unknown etiology that results in the occlusion of limb arteries located distally to the elbow and knee. Despite the fact that more than one hundred years have passed since its first description, knowledge on the pathogenesis of TAO and precipitating factors is still limited. Due to a lack of decisive noninvasive diagnostic methods and geographical differences in the prevalence of this condition, data on TAO epidemiology also remains sparse. This review presents important evidence on the pathogenesis and the course of the condition, as well as diagnostic modalities, with a focus on differential diagnosis. Theories on the pathogenesis of TAO include the theory of an infectious disease, coagulation disorders and injury to vascular endothelium resulting in activation of the inflammatory response. Differential diagnosis should exclude thoracic outlet syndrome, blue toe syndrome, infectious endocarditis, popliteal entrapment syndrome, Takayasu disease, primary and secondary systemic vasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome, infection with the anaerobic Clostridium sp. bacilli and some less common conditions. PMID:26771983

  11. 75 FR 24686 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Ohkay Owingeh Conference Center, North Taos Highway 68, San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico 87566. FOR...

  12. 75 FR 53280 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Pueblo Sur, Taos, New Mexico 87571. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  13. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The…

  14. Group Counseling With Emotionally Disturbed School Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Peter

    The application of group counseling to emotionally disturbed school children in Chinese culture was examined. Two junior high schools located in Tao-Yuan Province were randomly selected with two eighth-grade classes randomly selected from each school. Ten emotionally disturbed students were chosen from each class and randomly assigned to two

  15. 77 FR 31034 - Notice of Public Meeting, Farmington District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Mexico. Planned agenda items include discussion of a proposed transportation plan for the Taos Field..., New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: In... Management Plan. Felicia J. Probert, Acting Associate State Director, New Mexico. BILLING CODE 4310-VB-P...

  16. Theoretical study on low dielectric loss perovskites Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kageyama, Keisuke; Higuchi, Yukio; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke

    2015-10-01

    We performed first-principles theoretical calculations on microwave dielectric compounds Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, to clarify the origin of high Q characteristics in the Zn/Ta ordered structure. It was found that Zn atoms suppress the intrinsic ferroelectric nature of Slater mode vibration in TaO6 octahedra. This results in the improvement of harmonicity in lattice vibration. There are two important mechanisms. One is the compression of TaO6 octahedra by adjacent ZnO6, and then the double-well potential that TaO6 originally has is narrowed to be single-well with higher harmonicity. The other is the weakening of the covalent character of Ta-O bonds by adjacent Zn atoms, which is the origin of the double-well potential. In the fully ordered Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, all Ta atoms are adjacent to Zn atoms, where Zn atoms have the maximum effect on improving harmonicity. Thus, highly ordered Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 with prolonged heat treatment exhibits a high Q value.

  17. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM... remains was made by the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) professional staff in...

  18. The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico: An Analysis of the Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibrario, Dominic J.

    Educational systems (both tribal and formal) of the Pueblo Indians, including Taos, San Juan, Tesuque, Zia, Zuni, and the Bernalillo District in New Mexico, were analyzed. The analysis included discerning whether or not (1) the Pueblos' traditional culture and heritage is being taught and to what extent and (2) bilingual and bicultural studies

  19. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... spread onto the soil surface by any method and which subsequently is mechanically incorporated into the soil in a timely manner and at the proper depth will also be considered planted. 2. Insured Crop The... except Taos County; Kansas; Missouri; Illinois; Indiana; Ohio; Pennsylvania; New York; Massachusetts;...

  20. The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey Project Stellar Variability. II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Coehlo, N. K.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lehner, M. J.; Lin, H.-C.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey datacovering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred daysare a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17h30m6.s7, decl. = 2717'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg2 field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, ? Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  1. Grover

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Grover was built in just four months in 1971 by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program (called the Branch of Astrogeology at the time) and used to training Apollo 15-17 astronauts at the Cinder Lakes training ground near Flagstaff, in California's Mojave Desert, and in the Rio Grande gorge near Taos...

  2. 76 FR 70120 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Taos Highway 68, San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico 87566. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice...

  3. Taoist Lessons for Educational Leaders: Gentle Pathways to Resolving Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This book explores ways in which educational leaders can apply the wisdom of the Tao in their day-to-day work in schools. It offers an alternative to the standard ways of western thinking to give the leader more possibilities when confronting a situation. We tend to value immediate and decisive action, winning, directing, and getting one's way.

  4. We Shared the Same Chapter: Collaboration, Learning, and Transformation from the 2008 Subsistence, the Environment, and Community Well-Being Native Youth Exchange in Old Harbor, Alaska Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Laurie; Di Piero, Daniela; Espinoza, Flowers; Simeonoff, Teacon; Faraday, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    On a small island belonging to the Alutiiq people of Old Harbor, 11 people sat around a campfire. Two community leaders, a nonprofit organizer, an academic scholar, a native filmmaker, and six young people from the Indian reservation of Taos Pueblo in New Mexico gathered after a day of interacting with Old Harbor residents--fishing, hunting and…

  5. Harbor in the Storm: Institutional Research in the Age of Accountability. NEAIR 36th Annual Conference Proceedings (Baltimore, Maryland, November 7-10, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessandro, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The NEAIR 2009 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Baltimore, Maryland conference. Papers in this document include: (1) A Principle Components Analysis of The Determinants of Student Satisfaction at a Historically Black Institution (Tao Gong and Jacqueline V. Parham); (2) Assessing and Enhancing Graduates'

  6. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  7. Efficacy of corticosteroids and external beam radiation in the management of moderate to severe thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Zoumalan, Christopher I; Cockerham, Kimberly P; Turbin, Roger E; Volpe, Nicholas J; Kazim, Michael; Douglas, Raymond S; Feldon, Steven E

    2007-09-01

    Thyroid Eye Disease (TED, Graves ophthalmopathy, thyroid ophthalmopathy) is the most common cause of orbital inflammation and proptosis in adults. There is no agreement on its management although corticosteroids and external beam orbital radiation (XRT) have traditionally been believed to provide benefit in active inflammation. Our review of the published literature in English disclosed an overall corticosteroid-mediated treatment response of 66.9% in a total of 834 treated patients who had moderate or severe TED. Intravenous corticosteroids used in repeated weekly pulses were more effective (overall favorable response = 74.6%, n = 177) and had fewer side effects than daily oral corticosteroids (overall favorable response = 55.5%, n = 265). A combination of corticosteroid and radiation therapy seemed to be more effective than corticosteroids alone. Our conclusions are tempered by a notable lack of standardization within and between study designs, treatment protocols, and outcome measures. Accordingly, the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS), American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) and the Orbital Society, in conjunction with Neuro-Ophthalmology Research and Development Consortium (NORDIC), will investigate the design and funding of a multi-center controlled trial. PMID:17895822

  8. The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification schemes are useful in the formulation of differential diagnoses. Thoughtful commentary has been devoted to the classification of blepharoptosis, but the causes of eyelid retraction have received less attention in published reports. Although eyelid retraction most frequently is associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy, numerous other entities may cause the sign. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. METHODS: A series of patients with eyelid retraction was studied, and pertinent published reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with different causes for eyelid retraction are described. Normal thyroid function and regulation were confirmed in all patients in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy could not be excluded by clinical, biochemical, or historical criteria. CONCLUSION: Based on a series of patients and reported cases, a differential diagnosis for eyelid retraction is proposed using a classification system comprising three categories (neurogenic, myogenic, and mechanistic). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B PMID:8719687

  9. AB173. Heterozygous carriers of classical homocystinuria tend to have higher fasting serum homocysteine concentrations than non-carriers in a folate deficiency area where has inordinately high homocystinuria prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Lu, Yung-Hsiu; Chen, Ya-Chi; Pai, Ju-Shan; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The newborn screening of homocystinuria in Taiwan has started since 1984. Out of 5 million newborns screened, only 3 newborns (Han Taiwanese) suffering from homocystinuria were detected in this newborn screening program. The prevalence is less than 1 in 1 million. However we recently found 8 patients presenting with homocystinuria in an Austronesian Taiwanese Tao tribe. All the Tao patients are homozygous for a novel mutation (p.D47E, c.141T > A). Among the 428 adult islanders screened for the D47E mutation, approximately 1 in 7.78 is a carrier of the mutation, and an estimated 1 in 240 islanders suffered from homocystinuria. This is the highest known prevalence of homocystinuria worldwide. The expression study revealed that this p.D47E mutation interferes not only with the function but also with the stability of the CBS protein in vivo. We evaluated if the CBS carriers tend to have higher fasting serum tHcy concentrations than non-carriers in presence of folate deficiency. Methods The serum tHcy and folate levels before and after folate replacement was measured in 48 adult Tao carriers, 40 age-matched Tao non-carriers and 40 age-matched Han Taiwanese controls. Results We found that serum tHcy level of the Tao CBS carriers (17.93.8 mol/L) was significantly higher than in Tao non-carriers (15.73.5 mol/L; P<0.008) in the presence of folate deficiency. Of note, the difference in tHcy levels between the carriers and non-carriers was eliminated by folate supplementation (carriers: 13.652.13 mol/L; non-carriers: 12.393.25 mol/L, P=0.321). This finding implies that CBS carriers tend to have the risk of cardiovascular disease in presence of folate deficiency. Conclusions CBS carriers tend to have a higher tHcy level in the presence of folate deficiency than non-carriers. Although many reports have indicated that CBS carriers are not associated with cardiovascular disease, the risk for CBS carriers with folate deficiency has not been well studied. Owing to a significantly elevated level of fasting tHcy without methionine loading, this finding implies that CBS carriers tend to have the risk of cardiovascular disease in presence of folate deficiency.

  10. Cation-vacancy-induced low coercive field in La-modified SrBi2Ta2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Oikawa, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2004-04-01

    We studied the effects of La modification on the crystal structure and the ferroelectric polarization properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT). The Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction demonstrated that La3+ substitution, preferentially at the Sr2+ site (perovskite A site), resulted in A-site vacancies for charge compensation. Polarization measurements revealed that La modification led to a much lower coercive field and a larger remanent polarization. The tilt angle of the TaO6 octahedra from the c axis remained constant, but La modification decreased the tilt angle along the polarization direction (the component along the a axis). The results for Ca-, Ba-, and Pb-substituted SBT, as well as La-modified SBT, indicated that the TaO6 octahedral tilt along the a axis is closely related to coercive field for the SBT system.

  11. Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Yeon; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Young-Hwan; Han, Jin-Woo; Han, Jeong-Min; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2008-01-28

    The homogeneously aligned liquid crystal display on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via ion beam (IB) irradiation was first embodied with controllability of pretilt angle depending on incident angle of the IB. As a result of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis, the intensity of Ta-O and O-Ta bondings as a function of incident angle behaved reversely with the pretilt angle and the lowest amplitude was observed at 45 deg. It revealed that the creation of pretilt angle was attributed to the irradiation of the IB by breaking Ta-O and O-Ta bonding so orientational order was generated by directional IB. Comparable electro-optical characteristics to rubbed polyimide were also achieved.

  12. Investigation of Pt/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3/Ti-Al-O/Si heterostructure as metal/ferroelectric/insulator/semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. J.; Fu, G. S.; Li, M.; Jia, D. M.; Jia, Y. L.; Liu, B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Pt/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3(PZT)/Ti-Al-O(TAO)/Si heterostructure has been fabricated as the metal/ferroelectric/insulator/semiconductor structure. It is found that PZT film is polycrystalline, and TAO film is amorphous. Moreover, the memory windows are 3.4 V, 5.9 V, 8.6 V, and 11.2 V corresponding, respectively, to the voltages of 10 V, 12 V, 14 V, and 16 V, indicating that the memory window increases linearly with the increase of applied voltage, which can be attributed to the increase of the polarization and coercive voltage of the Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 film. The leakage current density of the device, measured at 15 V, is 3.54 10-6 A/cm2, is favorable for the device application.

  13. CORBA Evaluations for the BABAR Online System

    SciTech Connect

    Glanzman, Thomas

    1998-11-03

    The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a software system to deal with distributed object computing. The release of CORBA version 2, and real implementations from numerous vendors (both freeware and payware) have made its use very attractive for interprocess and interprocessor communication within an object-oriented software system. A number of object request brokers (ORBs) were evaluated for possible use within the BABAR Online system. Given an expectation for a reasonable level of performance within the Online system, it was essential to characterize the behavior and test the response of these products prior to their adoption. This paper summarizes the results of a systematic performance study of six ORB products. The products tested include: Visibroker, Orbix, DAIS, Omnibroker, OmniORB2, and TAO. Performance results of ORB products, including a test of TCP/IP sockets, are compared. These tests resulted in the adoption of the TAO ORB for use within the BABAR Online system.

  14. Benchmark solutions for MHD solver development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhen; Ni, MingJiu

    2013-02-01

    A benchmark solution is of great importance in validating algorithms and codes for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Hunt and Shercliff's solutions are usually employed as benchmarks for MHD flows in a duct with insulated walls or with thin conductive walls, in which wall effects on MHD are represented by the wall conductance ratio. With wall thickness resolved, it is stressed that the solution of Sloan and Smith's and the solution of Butler's can be used to check the error of the thin wall approximation condition used for Hunt's solutions. It is noted that Tao and Ni's solutions can be used as a benchmark for MHD flows in a duct with wall symmetrical or unsymmetrical, thick or thin. When the walls are symmetrical, Tao and Ni's solutions are reduced to Sloan and Smith's solution and Butler's solution, respectively.

  15. Global Regularity for a Class of Generalized Magnetohydrodynamic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiahong

    2011-06-01

    It remains unknown whether or not smooth solutions of the 3D incompressible MHD equations can develop finite-time singularities. One major difficulty is due to the fact that the dissipation given by the Laplacian operator is insufficient to control the nonlinearity and for this reason the 3D MHD equations are sometimes regarded as "supercritical". This paper presents a global regularity result for the generalized MHD equations with a class of hyperdissipation. This result is inspired by a recent work of Terence Tao on a generalized Navier-Stokes equations (T. Tao, Global regularity for a logarithmically supercritical hyperdissipative Navier-Stokes equations, arXiv: 0906.3070v3 [math.AP] 20 June 2009), but the result for the MHD equations is not completely parallel to that for the Navier-Stokes equations. Besov space techniques are employed to establish the result for the MHD equations.

  16. Treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) with high-potency vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Jimnez-Gallo, David; Albarrn-Planelles, Cristina; Arjona-Aguilera, Cintia; Blanco-Snchez, German; Rodrguez-Mateos, Mara Eugenia; Linares-Barrios, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease is a vascular inflammatory thrombotic occlusive and segmental disease affecting distal small and medium-sized arteries of the limbs. Tobacco is the main trigger factor and avoiding it is the main treatment. Frequently, it is necessary to use high-potency vasodilators, such as iloprost, bosentan, sildenafil, or alprostadil, to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of amputation. Iloprost is the only one that has been shown to be effective in randomized clinical trials. We report the third case of TAO treated with sildenafil and a new case treated with bosentan. This condition can be diagnosed and treated by a dermatologist. We would like to highlight the excellent clinical response despite the fact that patients continued to smoke. This finding may have important therapeutic implications because early treatment may prevent amputation and can be effective even during the process of giving up smoking. PMID:25649782

  17. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J L; Teo, K L; Zheng, K; Sun, X W

    2016-03-18

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction. PMID:26878415

  18. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod–TaO x –p-GaN heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. L.; Teo, K. L.; Zheng, K.; Sun, X. W.

    2016-03-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN–sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO–TaO x –p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction.

  19. Angularly-resolved elastic light scattering of micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B.

    From microbiology to astrophysics, the scientific community has long embraced elastic light scattering from small particles as a diagnostic tool. Elastic light scattering has an extremely large scattering cross-section, allowing for single particle interrogation. This is critical in applications where trace amounts of suspect particles are to be detected in a diverse background of natural aerosols. By angularly-resolving the elastically scattered light, features can be detected in these patterns that are sensitive to a particle's morphology (shape, size, internal structure, and composition). An apparatus to collect LA TAOS (Large-Angle Two-dimensional Angular Optical Scattering) patterns from single particles in-situ and in real-time was designed and constructed. The setup utilizes a cross-beam trigger system to minimize the effects of the aberration coma stemming from the main collection optic, an ellipsoidal mirror. LA TAOS patterns of ambient aerosols were collected and analyzed. Approximately 15% of the ambient aerosol had a sphere-like shape. The refractive index of these spheres was estimated by curve-fitting to Lorenz-Mie theory. In addition, the island features prevalent in the LA TAOS pattern were analyzed. Metrics generated from these were used to get partial discrimination between clusters of Bacillus subtilis spores (a simulant for anthrax) and aerosol particles found in the ambient atmosphere. A novel experimental setup for collecting simultaneously LA TAOS patterns at two wavelengths in the mid-infrared was also implemented. With this setup, the relative strength of single-particle absorption could be discerned at the two illuminating wavelengths.

  20. Geologic map of the Latir Volcanic Field, and adjacent areas, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Reed, J.C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Development of the Rio Grande Rift beginning at about 15 Ma was accompanied by development of the north-south trending normal faults along the western foot of the Taos Range. The rift is filled with thousands of meters of clastic sediments interleaved with basalt flows, some as young as 3.6 Ma. The bounding faults of the rift cut the Questa Caldera so that the western part of the original structure is now deeply buried beneath the rift fill.

  1. Switching Kinetic of VCM-Based Memristor: Evolution and Positioning of Nanofilament.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The filament in aAu/Ta2 O5 /Au system is analyzed and determined to be a nanoscaled TaO2-x filament. A shrunken anode localizes the filament formation and the defect boundary leads to faster accumulation of oxygen vacancies. The defect changes the switching domination between electron transport and oxygen-vacancy migration. The migration of oxygen vacancies limits the filament dynamics, indicating the crucial role played by oxygen defects. PMID:26193454

  2. Apollo 16 prime and backup crewmen during geological field trip in New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Dr. Lee Silver (pointing foregroung), California Institute of Technology, calls a geological feature near Taos, New Mexico, to the attention of Apollo 16 prime and backup crewmen during a geological field trip. The crewmen, from left to right, are Astronauts Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot; Fred W. Haise Jr., backup commander; Edgar D. Mitchell, backup Lunar Module pilot; and John W. Young, commander.

  3. Is quinine a suitable probe to assess the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4?

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Paine, Mary F; Pusek, Susan N; Watkins, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the antimalarial agent quinine as a potential in vivo probe for hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. Methods Ten healthy adult volunteers received, by randomized crossover design, either a single oral dose of quinine sulphate (600 mg) alone, or quinine sulphate (600 mg) plus the CYP3A4 inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO; 500 mg every 8 h). Plasma and urine samples were collected before quinine administration, and up to 48 h thereafter, then analysed by h.p.l.c. for both quinine and its CYP3A4-generated metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine. During both phases, the erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) was administered at specific times to assess hepatic CYP3A4 activity. Results Compared with control, TAO treatment significantly decreased the mean time-averaged ERMBT result by 77% (95% CI, 68, 85%), the mean apparent oral clearance of quinine (CL/F) by 45% (95% CI, 39, 52%), and the mean apparent formation clearance of 3-hydroxyquinine (CL3-OH) by 81% (95% CI, 76, 87%). There was no correlation between the TAO-mediated percent decrease in the time-averaged ERMBT result and the percent decrease in CL/F or in CL3-OH. When TAO and control treatments were analysed separately, there were no significant correlations between the time-averaged ERMBT result and CL/F, CL3-OH, or single plasma quinine concentration at 12, 24, and 48 h. Conclusions Quinine may be a useful probe to detect inhibition of liver CYP3A4 activity within an individual. Further studies are needed to determine whether it can provide a quantitative measure of CYP3A4 activity suitable for intersubject comparison. PMID:12492613

  4. Use of Ocean Remote Sensing Data to Enhance Predictions with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Surface height, sea surface temperature and surface wind observations from satellites have given a detailed time sequence of the initiation and evolution of the 1997/98 El Nino. The data have beet complementary to the subsurface TAO moored data in their spatial resolution and extent. The impact of satellite observations on seasonal prediction in the tropical Pacific using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model will be presented.

  5. The value of FDG-PET in the diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans--a case series.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Gerald; Milosavljevic, Robert; Belaj, Klara; Gary, Thomas; Rief, Peter; Hafner, Franz; Lipp, Rainer W; Brodmann, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is an inflammatory vascular disease affecting dominantly the vessels of the extremities and is etiologically strongly associated with tobacco consumption. Different imaging techniques are generally used to exclude potential differential diagnoses. We investigated the value of (18) F-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18) F]FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of TAO. All consecutive patients with diagnosed TAO between Nov 2001 and Nov 2003 at our institution who underwent [(18) F]FDG-PET in the diagnostic workup were analyzed retrospectively. Whole-body scans were conducted after a fasting period of at least 6 h and blood glucose levels lower than 180 mg/dl. The primary endpoint was defined as significantly increased vascular FDG uptake. Tracer uptake was visually determined and, in accordance with strength, divided into grades 0 to 3. In total, ten patients were statistically evaluated. The median patient age at the date of the first [(18) F]FDG-PET was 41.5 years. Repetitive FDG-PET imaging was performed in seven out of ten patients (70 %). The endpoint was objectified in one of the initial examinations (10 %) and in another one out of seven follow-up scans (14.3 %). One positive [(18) F]FDG-PET was observed in the pelvic vessels and the other in the infrapopliteal arteries. Therefore, increased tracer uptake could be observed in two examinations on two different patients (both with grade 3 tracer uptake) out of 17 conducted [(18) F]FDG-PETs in total. The [(18) F]FDG-PET was not a suitable investigative procedure for the diagnosis of TAO in the present patient cohort. PMID:24794493

  6. The Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory: Cloud-based Mock Galaxy Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren J.; Tonini, Chiara; Hodkinson, Luke; Hassan, Amr H.; Garel, Thibault; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Hegarty, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    We introduce the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO), an online virtual laboratory that houses mock observations of galaxy survey data. Such mocks have become an integral part of the modern analysis pipeline. However, building them requires expert knowledge of galaxy modeling and simulation techniques, significant investment in software development, and access to high performance computing. These requirements make it difficult for a small research team or individual to quickly build a mock catalog suited to their needs. To address this TAO offers access to multiple cosmological simulations and semi-analytic galaxy formation models from an intuitive and clean web interface. Results can be funnelled through science modules and sent to a dedicated supercomputer for further processing and manipulation. These modules include the ability to (1) construct custom observer light cones from the simulation data cubes; (2) generate the stellar emission from star formation histories, apply dust extinction, and compute absolute and/or apparent magnitudes; and (3) produce mock images of the sky. All of TAO’s features can be accessed without any programming requirements. The modular nature of TAO opens it up for further expansion in the future.

  7. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  8. The detection of stellar occultations by Kuiper belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chyng-Lan

    A rich population of ``comets'' in the flattened annulus beyond Neptune, known as the Kuiper Belt, has been inferred and more than four hundred of its larger members have been directly observed to date (Jewitt 1999 [14]). The Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS), a collaboration between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Academia Sinica and National Central University, will estimate directly the number of comets in the Kuiper Belt, by measuring the rate of occultations of stars by these objects, using an array of three to four 20in wide-field robotic telescopes. Some 3,000 stars will be monitored, resulting in about 300 million photometric measurements per night. Since the size distribution of these comets is unknown for cometary radii ~20 km, estimated event rates range from 10 to 4000 a year. The TAOS survey will help characterize the Kuiper Belt, which is useful to constrain theories regarding the origin of our Solar System. To optimize the success of TAOS, we have used elaborate simulations and statistical methods to investigate opposing methods of gathering and processing the data, resulting in different detection schemes, with the aim of maximizing the detection rate. The consequent estimated detection efficiencies will be used to guide the choice of various operational parameters determining the mode of actual observation when the telescopes come on line and begin routine observation.

  9. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease)Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rahul; Kumar Prabhuswamy, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a nonatherosclerotic, segmental inflammatory disease that most commonly affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins in the upper and lower extremities. Cigarette smoking has been implicated as the main etiology of the disease. In eastern parts of the world TAO forms 4060% of peripheral vascular diseases. Clinical features and angiographic finding are the basis of early diagnosis of TAO. Abstinence from smoking is the only definitive treatment to prevent disease progression. Medical management in form of aspirin, pentoxyfylline, cilostazol, and verapamil increase pain-free walking distance in intermittent claudication, but long term usage fails to prevent disease progression in patients who continue to smoke. Surgical treatment in form of revascularization, lumbar sympathectomy, omentopexy, and Ilizarov techniques help reduce pain and promote healing of trophic changes. Newer treatment modalities like spinal cord stimulation, prostacyclin, bosentan, VEGF, and stem cell therapy have shown promising results. Latest treatment options include peripheral mononuclear stem cell, and adipose tissue derived mononuclear stem cells have been shown to be effective in preventing disease progression, decrease major amputation rates, and improving quality of life. PMID:24102033

  10. Variability in equatorial Pacific sea surface topography during the verification phase of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Mcphaden, Michael J.; Picaut, Joel

    1994-01-01

    As part of the verification phase of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission, 10-day gridded fields of altimeter data derived from TOPEX geophysical data records are compared with 10-day gridded fields of dynamic height derived from more than 60 moorings of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TOGA-TAO) array in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Access to TAO data in real time permits the first 500 days of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission to be placed in the context of complementary, in-situ measurements of surface winds, sea surface temperatures, and upper ocean thermal structure, as well as the time history of these variables prior to launch. Analysis of the space-time structure in the TOPEX and TAO surface topography data increases sea level variability primarily due to equatorial Kelvin wave activity generated by intense wind bursts west of the date line in association with the 1991-1993 El Nino. Cross correlations between the two data sets are generally greater than 0.7, with root mean square (RMS) differences less than 4 cm. However, for reasons not fully understood, correlations drop to less than 0.5 in certain regions off the equator in the eastern Pacific and RMS differences can be greater than 5 cm north of the equator in the central and eastern Pacific.

  11. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)<10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) as well as the defect-free nature of the ALD dielectric and ZnO channel layers, the TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high stability and flexibility: field-effect mobility>20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing<0.4 V decade(-1) after extended bias-stressing (>10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times). PMID:26436832

  12. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.7410.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.5290.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  13. Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Thyrotoxicosis for Nonthyroid Surgery with Peripheral Nerve Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Buget, Mehmet I.; Sencan, Bilge; Varansu, Giray; Kucukay, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic condition caused by an elevation in thyroid hormone levels. The disorder has a variety of causes, manifestations, and therapies. Several clinical features of thyrotoxicosis are due to sympathetic stimulation with increased beta-adrenoreceptor upregulation and sensitization to catecholamine. Anaesthetic management of thyrotoxicosis patients using neuraxial block has been described in literature; however, to our knowledge, there are no reports of peripheral nerve block utilization. Here, we report on the anaesthetic management of a patient with thyroiditis-associated thyrotoxicosis undergoing emergency surgery via a femoral and sciatic nerve block. PMID:26885409

  14. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902444

  15. Use of Vandetanib in Metastatic Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid in a Pediatric Patient With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vidya K; Ronghe, Milind; MacGregor, Fiona B; Bradshaw, Nicola; Davidson, Rosemarie; Welbury, Richard; Reed, Nicholas; Shaikh, Mohamad G

    2016-03-01

    We describe a child with advanced, metastatic, inoperable medullary carcinoma of thyroid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B and rearranged during transfection mutation with a positive response to vandetanib treatment. He responded well with a fall in calcitonin levels and a reduction in size of the thyroid malignancy, lymph nodes, and pulmonary metastases. He has been on vandetanib for 4 years with good clinical and biochemical response. Vandetanib has a role in the treatment of patients including children with inoperable locally advanced and metastatic medullary carcinoma of thyroid. More information is needed on its use in children and long-term outcome. PMID:26479990

  16. [Orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Pedroli, G L; Hamedani, M; Barraco, P; Oubaaz, A; Morax, S

    2001-03-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man presenting bilateral progressive proptosis with diplopia, weight loss, tachycardia, nervosity, and stomach pain. These signs seemed at first to favor a diagnosis of Graves'ophthalmopathy. Thyroid tests were negative and the initial orbital CT scan was considered normal. A new radiological investigation 4 months later in our hospital revealed typical hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles compatible with orbital metastasis. The systemic investigations demonstrated a pulmonary tumor, multiple hepatic lesions, and several pigmented nodules of gastric mucosa. The pathology of pulmonary and gastric specimens confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. The primary lesion remains unknown. The authors discuss the differential diagnoses of orbital metastasis and the radiological characteristics of orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma. PMID:11285445

  17. Case report of Graves' disease manifesting with odynophagia and heartburn.

    PubMed

    Evsyutina, Yulia; Trukhmanov, Alexander; Ivashkin, Vladimir; Storonova, Olga; Godjello, Elina

    2015-12-28

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease, which can manifest with a variety of extrathyroidal clinical syndromes like ophthalmopathy, pretibial myxedema (dermopathy), acropathy, cardiomyopathy, and encephalopathy. Though quite rare, this disease can also manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. We report a clinical case of Graves' disease manifesting with dysfunction of the esophagus and heartburn in a 61-year-old man. In the muscular layer of the esophagus we found dystrophic changes led to its atony, which was documented by endoscopy and high-resolution manometry. The pathology features of esophageal symptoms were: focal proliferation of the basal cells, vascular distension, and dystrophy of the epithelial cells. Antithyroid treatment led to decrease of all clinical symptoms after 5 d of Thiamazole administration. Complete restoration of peristalsis in the esophagus, according to manometry, was observed in 1 mo after initiation of treatment. PMID:26730171

  18. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  19. Stickler syndrome, ocular-only variants and a key diagnostic role for the ophthalmologist

    PubMed Central

    Snead, M P; McNinch, A M; Poulson, A V; Bearcroft, P; Silverman, B; Gomersall, P; Parfect, V; Richards, A J

    2011-01-01

    The entity described by Gunnar Stickler, which included hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy associated with retinal detachment, has recently been recognised to consist of a number of subgroups, which might now more correctly be referred to as the Stickler syndromes. They are the most common clinical manifestation of the type II/XI collagenopathies and are the most common cause of inherited rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. This review article is intended to provide the ophthalmologist with an update on current research, subgroups, and their diagnosis together with a brief overview of allied conditions to be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis. We highlight the recently identified subgroups with a high risk of retinal detachment but with minimal or absent systemic involvementa particularly important group for the ophthalmologist to identify. PMID:21921955

  20. Surgical approaches to cavernous haemangiomas of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Brusati, R; Goisis, M; Biglioli, F; M Guareschi; Nucci, P; Gianni, A B; Miglior, S

    2007-09-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas are the most common orbital masses and the second most common cause of unilateral proptosis after thyroid ophthalmopathy. We retrospectively analysed 19 patients with retrobulbar cavernous haemangiomas, 9 of whom had lateral orbitotomy to remove retrobulbar cavernous haemangiomas located superior (n=4), inferior (n=2) or lateral (n=3) to the optic nerve. Seven patients had lateral orbitotomy together with an anterior medial approach to gain access to retrobulbar cavernous haemangiomas located medially to the optic nerve in the posterior half of the orbit. An anterior approach was used in 3 patient with an anteriorly located cavernous haemangioma. We describe here the planning of surgical treatment based on the site of the lesion. PMID:17215063

  1. [Zheng Yu-lin, a founder of the acupuncture and moxibustion cause of new China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-zhe; Liu, Jun-chi; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Jun-jiang

    2007-07-01

    Mr. ZHENG Yu-lin is one of the most outstanding acupuncture scientists in the modern times in our country. He inherits the learning handed down in a family and is bold in making innovations, successfully combines the exercises to benefit the internal organs with Chinese traditional acupuncture needling methods, forming a set of unique Zheng's needling methods, which is used for treatment of severe ophthalmopathy with excellent therapeutic effects, and is famed the world over. Main achievements: took on scientific researches of acupuncture and moxibustion, teaching and clinical works in the first stage of establishment of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicinel trains a large number of famous specificities of acupuncture and moxibustion for new China; advocates study on channel essence; cures stubborn diseases for leaders of friend countries undertaking the great trust of the central leaders for many times, becoming an important ties of Chinese political foreign affairs. PMID:17722840

  2. Case report of Graves disease manifesting with odynophagia and heartburn

    PubMed Central

    Evsyutina, Yulia; Trukhmanov, Alexander; Ivashkin, Vladimir; Storonova, Olga; Godjello, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disease, which can manifest with a variety of extrathyroidal clinical syndromes like ophthalmopathy, pretibial myxedema (dermopathy), acropathy, cardiomyopathy, and encephalopathy. Though quite rare, this disease can also manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. We report a clinical case of Graves disease manifesting with dysfunction of the esophagus and heartburn in a 61-year-old man. In the muscular layer of the esophagus we found dystrophic changes led to its atony, which was documented by endoscopy and high-resolution manometry. The pathology features of esophageal symptoms were: focal proliferation of the basal cells, vascular distension, and dystrophy of the epithelial cells. Antithyroid treatment led to decrease of all clinical symptoms after 5 d of Thiamazole administration. Complete restoration of peristalsis in the esophagus, according to manometry, was observed in 1 mo after initiation of treatment. PMID:26730171

  3. A LATE BRITTLE COMPONENT OF MOTION WITHIN THE DUCTILE EASTERN SIERRA CREST SHEAR ZONE (ESCSZ) ALONG THE EASTERN BOUNDARY OF THE TOLUMNE BATHOLITH IN THE SADDLEBAG LAKE, CA AREA. WHITESIDES, Andrew1, ENRIQUEZ, Marcus2 , HARDY, Jill1 , EHRET, Philip1, IANNONE, Monika1, CULBERT, Kristan1 GROSS, Ben3, LODEWYK, Jessica3, CAO, Wenrong1 , ZHANG, Tao1, MEMETI, Valbone3, PATERSON, Scott1 SCHMIDT, Keegan4. (1) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, awhitesi@usc.edu , (2) Department of Geological Sciences, Cal State L.A., 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, (3) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Campus Box 1169, 1 Brookings Dr, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, (4) Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Lewis-Clark State College, 500 8th Ave., Lewiston, ID 83501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesides, A. S.; Enriquez, M.; Hardy, J.; Ehret, P.; Iannone, M.; Culbert, K. N.; Gross, M. B.; Lodewyk, J.; Cao, W.; Zhang, T.; Memeti, V.; Paterson, S. R.; Schmidt, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    During mapping (by the Undergraduate Team Research program, University of Southern California) in the Saddlebag Lake pendant just along the eastern margin of the Tuolumne batholith we have discovered a brittle slip component in the ESCSZ that juxtaposes largely metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock packages. The metasedimentary package is dominated by bedded sandstones and siltstones and local conglomerates whereas the metavolcanics show a large range of volcanic and volcaniclastic units. All of the units dip steeply and have an average N-NW strike. Dextral oblique ductile shear is distributed in domains in both rock packages with varying width from ~2 km in the South to ~1 km in the North. Shear sense in planes at high angles to a steep to SW plunging mineral lineation include S-C structures, shear bands, asymmetrical folding, sigma and delta clasts, and asymmetrical boudins. Partitioning of shear is common with the metarhyolites and metasediments showing higher non-coaxial strain than in the metaandesite and metadacite units. Map-scale “z-shaped” asymmetrical folds within the shear zone are also consistent with dextral shearing. Folded and sheared dikes of the 88-85 Ma Cathedral Peak phase of the Tuolumne batholith are common in the shear zone. A newly discovered brittle slip surface with breccias, gouge, and local pseudotachylite and large quartz veins was also mapped in the center of the ductile shear zone typically along the contact between the western metasedimentary and eastern metavolcanics (often a metarhyolite at the contact) on the east. Local slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes indicate that the brittle fault also had oblique dextral movement, similar to the ductile shear zone. In the mapped area no dikes originating from the TB cross the brittle fault and some are terminated at the brittle fault surface We interpret these observations to indicate northward displacement of the metasedimentary package by first ductile then brittle faulting during cooling and possibly uplift of this region with the youngest motion post 82 Ma.

  4. Effects of Fine-Scale Wind Direction Information on Retrieval of Surface Layer Wind Speed From SAR Ocean Surface Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyant, M. C.; Foster, R. C.; Stern, H.; Vachon, P. W.; Mourad, P. D.

    2002-12-01

    Wind speed retrievals from C-band SAR sea surface imagery using algorithms such as CMOD4 or CMOD_IFR2 depend significantly on the assumed local surface wind direction. To evaluate this dependence, we present retrievals of surface wind speed from RADARSAT SAR images acquired during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) off the coast of North Carolina in November and December 1999, and retrievals from ScanSAR scenes acquired over the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project (TAO) 95 W buoys during April and May 2000. These cases include moderate and low wind regimes and stable and unstable boundary layer stratification. A few images contain the signature of boundary layer roll vortices. SAR backscatter images can provide wind speed retrievals of ~300m resolution or better, as compared with a typical 25-km scatterometer footprint. SAR wind retrievals typically rely on wind-direction input from relatively coarse numerical models or from a buoy point source. When present, the signature of roll vortices in an image is often used to assign wind direction. Even so, the SAR wind speed images often show wind variability over regions much smaller than typical scatterometer footprints. The question remains: How much of this apparent variability is due to spatial changes in wind direction rather than wind speed? For the SHOWEX cases we coordinated 50km LongEZ flight legs at ~20m above the sea surface with the SAR overpasses. These surface layer flights provide km-scale wind-direction input for the CMOD4 algorithm. The fine-scale wind-speed and flux measurements also provide 10m wind-speed estimates to compare with the retrieved wind speeds. We present our evaluation of SAR wind retrievals obtained from applying the various wind-direction inputs. We also show the sensitivity of winds retrieved over the TAO array when nearly coincident QuikSCAT scatterometer wind directions are applied instead of point-source winds from TAO buoys.

  5. First-principles density functional calculation of electrochemical stability of fast Li ion conducting garnet-type oxides.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masanobu; Kotobuki, Masashi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Nogami, Masayuki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-28

    The research and development of rechargeable all-ceramic lithium batteries are vital to realize their considerable advantages over existing commercial lithium ion batteries in terms of size, energy density, and safety. A key part of such effort is the development of solid-state electrolyte materials with high Li(+) conductivity and good electrochemical stability; lithium-containing oxides with a garnet-type structure are known to satisfy the requirements to achieve both features. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the electrochemical stability of garnet-type Li(x)La(3)M(2)O(12) (M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi; x = 5 or 7) materials against Li metal. We found that the electrochemical stability of such materials depends on their composition and structure. The electrochemical stability against Li metal was improved when a cation M was chosen with a low effective nuclear charge, that is, with a high screening constant for an unoccupied orbital. In fact, both our computational and experimental results show that Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12) and Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) are inert to Li metal. In addition, the linkage of MO(6) octahedra in the crystal structure affects the electrochemical stability. For example, perovskite-type La(1/3)TaO(3) was found, both experimentally and computationally, to react with Li metal owing to the corner-sharing MO(6) octahedral network of La(1/3)TaO(3), even though it has the same constituent elements as garnet-type Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) (which is inert to Li metal and features isolated TaO(6) octahedra). PMID:22711381

  6. High speed wide field CMOS camera for Transneptunian Automatic Occultation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Geary, John C.; Amato, Stephen M.; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Furesz, Gabor; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Chang, Yin-Chang; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Lehner, Matthew; Norton, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a three robotic telescope project to detect the stellar occultation events generated by Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs). TAOS II project aims to monitor about 10000 stars simultaneously at 20Hz to enable statistically significant event rate. The TAOS II camera is designed to cover the 1.7 degree diameter field of view (FoV) of the 1.3m telescope with 10 mosaic 4.5kx2k CMOS sensors. The new CMOS sensor has a back illumination thinned structure and high sensitivity to provide similar performance to that of the backillumination thinned CCDs. The sensor provides two parallel and eight serial decoders so the region of interests can be addressed and read out separately through different output channels efficiently. The pixel scale is about 0.6"/pix with the 16?m pixels. The sensors, mounted on a single Invar plate, are cooled to the operation temperature of about 200K by a cryogenic cooler. The Invar plate is connected to the dewar body through a supporting ring with three G10 bipods. The deformation of the cold plate is less than 10?m to ensure the sensor surface is always within 40?m of focus range. The control electronics consists of analog part and a Xilinx FPGA based digital circuit. For each field star, 88 pixels box will be readout. The pixel rate for each channel is about 1Mpix/s and the total pixel rate for each camera is about 80Mpix/s. The FPGA module will calculate the total flux and also the centroid coordinates for every field star in each exposure.

  7. Non-gaussianity and Statistical Anisotropy in Cosmological Inflationary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the statistical descriptors for some cosmological inflationary models that allow us to get large levels of non-gaussianity and violations of statistical isotropy. Basically, we study two different class of models: a model that include only scalar field perturbations, specifically a subclass of small-field slow-roll models of inflation with canonical kinetic terms, and models that admit both vector and scalar field perturbations. We study the former to show that it is possible to attain very high, including observable, values for the levels of non-gaussianity f_{NL} and tao_{NL} in the bispectrum B_zeta and trispectrum T_zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation zeta respectively. Such a result is obtained by taking care of loop corrections in the spectrum P_zeta, the bispectrum B_zeta and the trispectrum T_zeta . Sizeable values for f_{NL} and tao_{NL} arise even if zeta is generated during inflation. For the latter we study the spectrum P_zeta, bispectrum B_zeta and trispectrum $T_zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation when zeta is generated by scalar and vector field perturbations. The tree-level and one-loop contributions from vector field perturbations are worked out considering the possibility that the one-loop contributions may be dominant over the tree level terms. The levels of non-gaussianity f_{NL} and tao_{NL}, are calculated and related to the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g_zeta . For very small amounts of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, the levels of non-gaussianity may be very high, in some cases exceeding the current observational limit.

  8. The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shirley S Y

    2005-04-01

    Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically. PMID:15817045

  9. The energy landscape of uranyl-peroxide species.

    PubMed

    Tiferet, Eitan; Gil, Adrià; Bo, Carles; Shvareva, Tatiana Y; Nyman, May; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-03-24

    Nanoscale uranyl peroxide clusters containing UO2(2+) groups bonded through peroxide bridges to form polynuclear molecular species (polyoxometalates) exist both in solution and in the solid state. There is an extensive family of clusters containing 28 uranium atoms (U28 clusters), with an encapsulated anion in the center, for example, [UO2(O2)(3-x)(OH)(x)(4-)], [Nb(O2)4(3-)], or [Ta(O2)4(3-)]. The negative charge of these clusters is balanced by alkali ions, both encapsulated, and located exterior to the cluster. The present study reports measurement of enthalpy of formation for two such U28 compounds, one of which is uranyl centered and the other is peroxotantalate centered. The [(Ta(O2)4]-centered U28 capsule is energetically more stable than the [(UO2)(O2)3]-centered capsule. These data, along with our prior studies on other uranyl-peroxide solids, are used to explore the energy landscape and define thermochemical trends in alkali-uranyl-peroxide systems. It was suggested that the energetic role of charge-balancing alkali ions and their electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged uranyl-peroxide species is the dominant factor in defining energetic stability. These experimental data were supported by DFT calculations, which agree that the [(Ta(O2)4]-centered U28 capsule is more stable than the uranyl-centered capsule. Moreover, the relative stability is controlled by the interactions of the encapsulated alkalis with the encapsulated anion. Thus, the role of alkali-anion interactions was shown to be important at all length scales of uranyl-peroxide species: in both comparing clusters to clusters; and clusters to monomers or extended solids. PMID:24604754

  10. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  11. Association of Leukocyte Telomere Length with Oxidative Stress in Yoga Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Keerthi, Gorantla Shravya; Kumar, Chintala Kiran; Reddy, Natham Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Yoga is a mind-body modulation technique that has been shown to have beneficial effects on various diseases related to various systems in the body. However, the molecular basis of mechanism of action is not clear. Hence, this study was designed to study the leukocyte telomere biology and its relation with homocysteine and oxidative stress in yoga practitioners. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving Yoga practitioners aged 3040 y with minimum of two years yoga practice (Yoga group) and age, gender and body mass index matched sedentary healthy general population with no medical problems (Control group). Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), fasting plasma homocysteine was measured by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography assay and the oxidative stress was assessed with total antioxidant status (TAOS), malondialdehyde (MDA) measured by calorimetry. Results: The LTL was shorter in control group than in yoga group (p<0.001). The TAOS was more in yoga group when compared to control group (p=0.008), MDA and homocysteine was high in control group when compared to Yoga group (p<0.001). Further, the LTL was positively correlated with TAOS (r=0.841, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with MDA (r=-0.931, p<0.001) and Homocysteine (r=-0.756, p<0.001). Conclusion: The LTL is well-preserved in people who practice Yoga regularly with lower systemic oxidative stress compared to those who have a relatively sedentary lifestyle despite lack of any medical disorders. The habitual yoga practice seems to inhibit replicative cellular senescence. PMID:25954614

  12. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  13. A selector device based on graphene-oxide heterostructures for memristor crossbar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Miao; Lian, Xiaojuan; Pan, Yiming; Zeng, Junwen; Wang, Chengyu; Liu, Erfu; Wang, Baigeng; Yang, J. Joshua; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu

    2015-08-01

    Most of the potential applications of memristive devices adopt crossbar architecture for ultra-high density. One of the biggest challenges of the crossbar architecture is severe residue leakage current (sneak path) issue. A possible solution is introducing a selector device with strong nonlinear current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics in series with each memristor in crossbar arrays. Here, we demonstrate a novel selector device based on graphene-oxide heterostructures, which successfully converts a typical linear TaO x memristor into a nonlinear device. The origin of the nonlinearity in the heterostructures is studied in detail, which highlights an important role of the graphene-oxide interfaces.

  14. Impact of diurnally-varying skin temperature on surface fluxes over the tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.

    Multi-year hourly data of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity from the TOGA TAO moored buoys over the tropical Pacific along with our derived hourly sea surface skin temperature data are analyzed to show that there are substantial diurnal variations of monthly averaged surface fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and momentum (e.g., one-third of the cases show monthly averaged latent heat diurnal amplitudes greater than 20 Wm-2). Daily or monthly average surface temperatures cannot provide such flux variations, suggesting that numerical modeling may require the inclusion of the diurnal variation of surface skin temperature.

  15. Ocean Thermal and Color Evolution During the 1997/1998 ENSO Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele

    1998-01-01

    A reduced gravity primitive equation modeling and assimilation system is used to study the evolution of the tropical Pacific during the 1997/1998 ENSO cycle. The modeling/assimilation scheme ingests satellite altimeter data and TAO temperature profiles and uses SSM/I satellite derived winds as surface boundary forcing. The four-dimensional structure of the upper ocean circulation structure will be compared against available in situ observations across the Pacific basin. In particular, variability near the Galapagos Islands will be highlighted during the spring of 1998 when phytoplankton concentrations were observed to increase a hundred-fold over a two week period.

  16. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCE): Improvements and Applications for Studying Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Zeng, Xiping; Li, Xiaowen; Matsui, Toshi; Mohr, Karen; Posselt, Derek; Chern, Jiundar; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Norris, Peter M.; Kang, In-Sik; Choi, Ildae; Hou, Arthur; Lau, K.-M.; Yang, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Convection is the primary transport process in the Earth's atmosphere. About two-thirds of the Earth's rainfall and severe floods derive from convection. In addition, two-thirds of the global rain falls in the tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) have been used to improve our understanding of cloud and precipitation processes and phenomena from micro-scale to cloud-scale and mesoscale as well as their interactions with radiation and surface processes. CRMs use sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes and can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems. CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past three decades. It is amulti-dimensional non-hydrostatic CRM that can simulate clouds and cloud systems in different environments. Early improvements and testing were presented in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003a). A review on the application of the GCE to the understanding of precipitation processes can be found in Simpson and Tao (1993) and Tao (2003). In this paper, recent model improvements (microphysics, radiation and land surface processes) are described along with their impact and performance on cloud and precipitation events in different geographic locations via comparisons with observations. In addition, recent advanced applications of the GCE are presented that include understanding the physical processes responsible for diurnal variation, examining the impact of aerosols (cloud condensation nuclei or CCN and ice nuclei or IN) on precipitation processes, utilizing a satellite simulator to improve the microphysics, providing better simulations for satellite-derived latent heating retrieval, and coupling with a general circulation model to improve the representation of precipitation processes.

  17. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2?/SOD, level of NF-?B protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  18. Tropical Pacific Observing for the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legler, David M.; Hill, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    More than 60 scientists and program officials from 13 countries met at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) 2020 Workshop. The workshop, although motivated in part by the dramatic decline of NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoy reporting from mid-2012 to early 2014 (see http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-07/aging-el-nino-buoys-getting-fixed-as-weather-forecasts-at-risk.html), evaluated the needs for tropical Pacific observing and initiated efforts to develop a more resilient and integrative observing system for the future.

  19. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-06-04

    TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints,more » and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.« less

  20. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: Basaltic Plagioclase from Earth, Moon, Mars and 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Major, minor and trace element analysis of silicates has allowed for the study of planetary basalts in a comparative planetary mineralogy context. We continue this initiative by exploring the chemistry of plagioclase feldspar in basalts from the Earth, Moon, Mars and 4 Vesta. This paper presents new data on plagioclase from six terrestrial basalt suites including Keweenawan, Island Arc, Hawaiian, Columbia Plateau, Taos Plateau, and Ocean Floor; six lunar basalt suites including Apollo 11 Low K, Apollo 12 Ilmenite, Apollo 12 Olivine, Apollo 12 Pigeonite, Apollo 15 Olivine, and Apollo 15 Pigeonite; two basaltic martian meteorites, Shergotty and QUE 94201; and one unequilibrated eucrite, Pasamonte.

  1. An Extended Kalman Filter to Assimilate Altimetric Data into a Non-Linear Model of the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourdeau, L.; Verron, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    A new implementation of the extended Kaman filter is developed for the purpose of assimilating altimetric observations into a primitive equation model of the tropical Pacific. Its specificity consists in defining the errors into a reduced basis that evolves in time with the model dynamic. Validation by twin experiments is conducted and the method is shown to be efficient in quasi real conditions. Data from the first 2 years of the Topex/Poseidon mission are assimilated into the Gent & Cane [1989] model. Assimilation results are evaluated against independent in situ data, namely TAO mooring observations.

  2. Elimination of Thermal Acoustic Oscillations in Cryogenic Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. J.; Gu, Y.

    2006-04-01

    Thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) were recently observed and eliminated in two vacuum-housing cryogenic pumps. This paper documents the results of research performed to identify the critical parameters that affect thermal acoustic oscillations in a vacuum-housing cryogenic pump. Techniques for simplifying this complex oscillation system were developed so that an existing mathematical model for a straight tube with uniform radius could be applied. Based on the simplified model, criteria were defined. These criteria provide design guidelines to prevent thermal acoustic oscillations from occurring inside vacuum-housing cryogenic pumps.

  3. Phase stability of cubic pyrochlore rare earth tantalate pinning additives in YBa2Cu3O7- superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Sung Hun; Cantoni, Claudia; Zuev, Yuri L; Specht, Eliot D; Goyal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Phase stability of cubic-pyrochlore-structured RE3TaO7 (RTO, where RE = rare earth elements) pinning additives in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO) superconductor and the pinning properties influenced by RTO addition into YBCO films were investigated. RTO completely reacts with YBCO and is converted to cubic-double-perovskite-structured Ba2RETaO6 (BRETO), a more thermodynamically stable tantalate phase within YBCO. In RTO-doped YBCO films, BRETO self-assembled nanocolumnns align along the c-axis of the film and play a major role in the improvement of flux pinning and Jc performance over wide magnetic field and angular ranges.

  4. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  5. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-04

    TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints, and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.

  6. Preventing and reversing vacuum-induced optical losses in high-finesse tantalum (V) oxide mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenkovi?, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-07-13

    High-finesse optical cavities placed under vacuum are foundational platforms in quantum information science with photons and atoms. We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO?-Ta?O? dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial low loss levels. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta?O?, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO?. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO? passivating the Ta?O? surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism. PMID:26191861

  7. Negative impacts of ultraviolet-A radiation on antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers of African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ultraviolet-A (UVA) effects on biochemical, oxidative stress and antioxidant changes using aquatic species. The destructive effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was revealed in terms of the carbonyl protein (CP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant (TAO) in the gills, kidney, liver, muscles and skin. Also, glucose, total lipid, total protein and cortisol content of fish serums was detected. These parameters can be used as biomarkers to identify the negative effects of UVA radiation (20, 60 and 180 min per day) for 3 days in different tissues of Clarias gariepinus. There was a significant decrease in the activity of SOD, CAT, Gpx, GSH, G6PDH, LDH, and TAO in all of the examined tissues. The pattern of GR activity in UVA exposed groups showed no significant differences compared with the control group. However, CP, LPO and DNA damage were increased significantly with exposure periods in all of the examined tissues. The exposure to different doses of UVA caused hypoglycaemia, hypolipidimia and hypoproteinimia. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after UV exposure when compared with the control group. In conclusion, UVA exposure with different time periods has been shown to have negative effects on the blood biochemistry, hormonal and antioxidant capacity of Clarias gariepinus tissues. PMID:26084758

  8. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90° < θ < 165° and 0° < phi < 360°) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in phi). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,phi), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method.

  9. Geochemical associations and availability of cadmium (Cd) in a paddy field system, northwestern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kosolsaksakul, Peerapat; Farmer, John G; Oliver, Ian W; Graham, Margaret C

    2014-04-01

    The Mae Tao watershed, northwest Thailand, has become contaminated with cadmium (Cd) as a result of zinc ore extraction (Padaeng deposit) in the nearby Thanon-Thongchai mountains. Consumption of contaminated rice has led to documented human health impacts. The aim of this study was to elucidate transfer pathways from creek and canal waters to the paddy field soils near Baan Mae Tao Mai village and to determine the relationship between Cd speciation in the soil and uptake by rice plants. Transfer mainly occurred in association with particulate matter during flooding and channel dredging and, in contrast with many other studies, most of the soil Cd was associated with exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions. Moreover, there was a linear relationship between soil total Cd and rice grain Cd (R(2)=0.715), but a stronger relationship between both the Tessier-exchangeable soil Cd and the BCR-exchangeable soil Cd and rice grain Cd (R(2)=0.898 and 0.862, respectively). PMID:24502996

  10. The IAU Early Japanese Radio Astronomy Project: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Stewart, Ron

    2012-09-01

    Japan was one of those nations that make an early start in radio astronomy, when solar observations began at both the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and at Osaka University in 1949. The research at the TAO accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s under the capable direction of Professor Hatanaka, while an equally-vibrant program was developed independently at Toyokawa by Professor Tanaka from Nagoya University. In this paper, after briefly describing the Osaka University initiative we will outline the instruments developed at Toyokawa and Mitaka, review the research programs carried out with them and introduce the scientific staff who played so important a role in the early development of Japanese radio astronomy. Following the success of the WG's Early French Radio Astronomy Project (seven papers were published), an ambitious IAU project to systematically document early developments in Japanese radio astronomy and publish the results in a series of research papers in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage was launched in December 2010. Further research visits to Tokyo were made by the second author in 2011 and 2012, and two papers have now been completed and a start made on a third.

  11. Pressure-induced amorphization in single-crystal Ta2O5 nanowires: a kinetic mechanism and improved electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    L, Xujie; Hu, Qingyang; Yang, Wenge; Bai, Ligang; Sheng, Howard; Wang, Lin; Huang, Fuqiang; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J; Zhao, Yusheng

    2013-09-18

    Pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in single-crystal Ta2O5 nanowires is observed at 19 GPa, and the obtained amorphous Ta2O5 nanowires show significant improvement in electrical conductivity. The phase transition process is unveiled by monitoring structural evolution with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, pair distribution function, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The first principles calculations reveal the phonon modes softening during compression at particular bonds, and the analysis on the electron localization function also shows bond strength weakening at the same positions. On the basis of the experimental and theoretical results, a kinetic PIA mechanism is proposed and demonstrated systematically that amorphization is initiated by the disruption of connectivity between polyhedra (TaO6 octahedra or TaO7 bipyramids) at the particular weak-bonding positions along the a axis in the unit cell. The one-dimensional morphology is well-preserved for the pressure-induced amorphous Ta2O5, and the electrical conductivity is improved by an order of magnitude compared to traditional amorphous forms. Such pressure-induced amorphous nanomaterials with unique properties surpassing those in either crystalline or conventional amorphous phases hold great promise for numerous applications in the future. PMID:23968372

  12. Ground-based Tropospheric Measurements of CH4, C2H6, N2O and CO over Toronto and Comparisons with the GEOS-Chem Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, C.; Taylor, J. R.; Jones, D. B.; Strong, K.

    2009-05-01

    We present recent tropospheric trace gas columns retrieved using a ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO). TAO is located in downtown Toronto (43.66 N, 79.40 W, 174 m above sea level), and has been recording high-resolution solar absorption spectra on a regular basis since May 2002. The trace gas retrievals are performed using the optimal estimation method implemented semi-empirically with the SFIT2 algorithm. The time series of the total columns from May 2002 to December 2008 are presented here for tropospheric species CH4, C2H6, N2O and CO. The retrievals used the suggested spectral microwindows from the "Upper Free Troposphere Observations from a European Ground-Based FTIR Network" (UFTIR). The time series are compared to the GEOS-Chem model, which is a global 3-D chemical transport model of atmospheric composition driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). We assess both the measurement retrieval parameters and the model emissions inventories, and interpret the measurements in terms of atmospheric processes.

  13. Urinary cadmium level in children between nine to fifteen years old in three Sub-districts of Tak Province in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwong, S.; Sthiannopkao, S.; Kim, K. W.; Chuenchoojit, S.; Poopatpiboon, K.; Poodendean, C.; Supanpaiboon, W.

    2009-07-01

    Urinary cadmium (UCd) is an indicator of the long term exposure of human health. The objective of this research was to study UCd of people aged between 9 to 12 and 13 to 15 years old in both sexes in Prathadpadeang, in Mae Tao and Mae Ku. 849 urines were collected, and determined by using the ICP-MS. The results revealed that 64.30% had UCd less than 1 μg/gCr. XUCd in 3 Sub-districts were 0.132 μg/gCr in Prathadpadeang, 0.141 μg/gCr in Mae Tao, and 0.105 μg/gCr in Mae Ku. The difference in the 3 Sub-districts was significant. XUCd were 0.125 μg/gCr and 0.129 μg/gCr in boys and girls, and 0.119 μg/gCr and 0.135 μg/gCr in age group 9-12 and 13-15 years old.

  14. (Ln = Pr, Nd, M = Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noked, O.; Melchior, A.; Shuker, R.; Steininger, R.; Kennedy, B. J.; Sterer, E.

    2014-06-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction measurements have demonstrated that the cation-deficient perovskites Pr1/3NbO3, Pr1/3TaO3, Nd1/3NbO3, and Nd1/3TaO3 undergo irreversible pressure-induced amorphization (PIA). This occurs near 14.5 GPa for the niobates and 18.5 GPa for the tantalates. The unit cell volumes of the four oxides show an almost linear decrease as the pressure is increased. It is concluded that the PIA transition occurs at higher pressures in the tantalates due to the lower MO6 initial tilting at ambient conditions, which is associated with the larger atomic mass of the tantalum. The behavior of these oxides is compared to that of CaTiO3, and the role of both the weakening of the M-O-M π-bonding and the cation vacancies on the observed structural changes is discussed.

  15. Colloidal metal oxide nanoparticle systems: the new promising way to prevent antibiotic resistance during treatment of local infectious processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasenkov, Y.; Frolov, G.; Pogorelsky, I.; Latuta, N.; Gusev, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Leont'ev, V.

    2015-11-01

    New bactericidal containing nanoparticles colloids for application in dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, urology, obstetrics, gynaecology, ENT, proctology have been developed. The various water colloidal nanodispersive systems of metals and oxides have been obtained by means of electric impulse – condensation (electroerosion) method. These systems are based pure elements and alloys of argentum (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3), tantalum oxide (TaO), vanadium oxide (VO2), cobalt oxide (CoO), tantalum dioxide TaO2, zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO) and mixed suspensions of titanium, aluminium and molybdenum oxides. The research has been made on culture of dentobacterial plaque and mixed culture issued from gingival spaces. The composition of culture was identified with S.aureus, S.epidermidis and nonfermentable kinds of E.coli. The observation period lasted more than nineteen days. All solutions showed highly prolonged bactericidal activity in dilutions from the whole solution 1-20 mg/L. The bactericidal activity of powder specimen of silica containing Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles used as dental filling material and disintegrates of composite materials (produced by “StomaDent” CJSC) have been studied. Tested materials have long (up to 19 days and more) bactericidal activity.

  16. CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

    2009-12-01

    The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

  17. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  18. Hemodynamic study of ischemic limb by velocity measurement in foot

    SciTech Connect

    Shionoya, S.; Hirai, M.; Kawai, S.; Ohta, T.; Seko, T.

    1981-07-01

    By means of a tracer technique with 99mTc-pertechnetate, provided with seven zonal regions of interest, 6 mm in width, placed at equal spaces of 18 mm, from the toe tip to the midfoot at a right angle to the long axis of the foot, arterial flow velocity in the foot during reactive hyperemia was measured. The mean velocity in the foot was 5.66 +/- 1.78 cm/sec in 14 normal limbs, 1.58 +/- 1.07 cm/sec in 29 limbs with distal thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), 0.89 +/- 0.61 cm/sec in 13 limbs with proximal TAO, and 0.97 +/- 0.85 cm/sec in 15 limbs with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). The velocity returned to normal in all 12 limbs after successful arterial reconstruction, whereas the foot or toe blood pressure remained pathologic in 9 of the 12 limbs postoperatively; the velocity reverted to normal in 4 of 13 limbs after lumbar sympathectomy. When the velocity was normalized after operation, the ulceration healed favorably, and the ischemic limb was salvaged. The most characteristic feature of peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity was a stagnation of arterial circulation in the foot, and the flow velocity in the foot was a sensitive predictive index of limb salvage.

  19. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers and vascular risk factors in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    El Boghdady, Noha Ahmed; Badr, Gamal Ali

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The pathogenesis of DPN is complex and involves an intertwined array of mechanisms. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the association of oxidative stress and vascular risk factors with the prevalence of DPN and to determine the role of these biochemical parameters in the prognosis of DPN. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 40 clinically healthy individuals were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 40 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy, and group 2 consisted of 60 patients with DPN. Erythrocytes glutathione (GSH) level, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as serum ceruloplasmin (Cp), total antioxidants (TAO), endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity were estimated. A significant decrease of erythrocyte GSH was observed in groups 1 and 2 relative to the controls. An increase in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), MDA, NOx, GGT, Cp, TAO, Hcy and ET-1 was noted in patients with DPN. In conclusion, oxidative stress biomarkers and vascular risk factors could be important in the pathogenesis of DPN. The measurement of serum GGT and Hcy in addition to HbA1c and disease duration could facilitate the early detection of neuropathy in diabetic patients. PMID:22315139

  20. Retraction.

    PubMed

    2015-10-15

    This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Authors 'Cross-talk of alpha tocopherol-associated protein and JNK controls the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells' by Baoyi Zhu, Xiaojuan Li, Yuying Zhang, Chunwei Ye, Yu Wang, Songwang Cai, Huaiqiu Huang, Yi Cai, Shuyuan Yeh, Zhenhua Huang, Ruihan Chen, Yiran Tao and Xingqiao Wen The above article, published online on 28 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Peter Lichter, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The Retraction has been agreed due to errors that were detected in Fig. 6b. Some images were duplicated and erroneously presented as unique. Although the authors firmly stand by the major conclusion of this paper, they believe the most responsible course of action is to retract it. Reference Zhu, B., Li, X., Zhang, Y., Ye, C., Wang, Y., Cai, S., Huang, H., Cai, Y., Yeh, S., Huang, Z., Chen, R., Tao, Y. and Wen, X. (2013), Cross-talk of alpha tocopherol-associated protein and JNK controls the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Int. J. Cancer, 132: 2270-2282. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27927. PMID:26252812

  1. The San Pedro Mártir Transit Observations Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Davide; Rámon Fox, Gerardo; Ayala, Carmen; Navarro, Samuel; Brown Sevilla, Samantha; Fox Machado, Lester; Curiel, Salvador; Michel, Raul; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of the TAOS-II project, aimed at the observation of small-size Kuiper Belt Object occultations, we present the first transit observation program carried on using the facilities of the San Pedro Mártir Observatory (Baja California, Mexico).The involved telescopes consist in a traditional 84cm telescope, a robotic 1.5m, and a traditional 2.12m. The project consist in validating the possibility to use these facilities to observe known Hot Jupiters, in order to set up a follow-up strategy for specific TAOS-II alerts.15 exoplanetary transits were successfully observed in 2014, in several photometric bands (U, V, R, r, and i).We present a panoramic of the project and the results of the fit of first two objects, WASP-39 and WASP-43, which are also the subject of a manuscript in preparation.Moreover, we are exploring 3D ray tracing models to model the system basing on our results, using the software SHAPE.

  2. Total Columns and Vertical Profiles of Carbon Monoxide Measured Over Toronto Using a Ground-Based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) Spectrometer: Comparisons With Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Data (Jan 2002 - Sep 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiacek, A.; Taylor, J. R.; Strong, K.; Liu, J.; Bremer, H.; Drummond, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    A high-resolution Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer is the primary instrument at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), established in 2001. Continuous measurements of solar absorption spectra using narrow band optical filters began in October 2001 for the purpose of building a long-term data set of key species related to climate change and mid-latitude atmospheric chemistry, and for the validation of satellite instruments. Measurements have greater temporal coverage in the summer and fall months due to favourable weather conditions. Total columns and low-resolution vertical profiles of carbon monoxide have been derived from the high-resolution (0.004 cm-1) solar absorption spectra recorded at TAO using lines in the (1-0) transition region near 4.7 ? m. Microwindows were chosen to approximately match Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) averaging kernels and spectra were analyzed using the SFIT-2 optimal estimation method retrieval algorithm (developed at NASA Langley Research Centre, USA, and National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand.) Monochromatic transmittances were calculated in the forward model assuming a Voigt line shape and using the HITRAN 2000+ spectral database, NCEP temperature and pressure profiles as well as volume mixing ratio a priori information for CO and interfering species. The averaging kernels of both observation platforms have been considered in the analysis. Comparisons between ground-based solar absorption FTIR and MOPITT total columns and vertical profiles will be presented.

  3. Vasovagal reflex emergency caused by Riedel's thyroiditis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Kang, Hua; Hai, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare type of chronic thyroiditis, associated with fibroinflammatory process and invasion into surrounding tissues, leading to compressive symptoms. A 45-year-old man had a left thyroid mass, presenting with hypotension and bradycardia many times. He was diagnosed with vasovagal reflex caused by cervical vessel compression due to a thyroid lesion. We performed the emergency operation, and most of the left thyroid was removed to relieve the compression on cervical vessels. The result of pathology proved to be Riedel's thyroiditis. The vasovagal reflex did not occur any more during the 28-month follow up, except on the 3(rd) day after the surgery. Six months after the thyroidectomy, the patient was found to have retroperitoneal fibrosis, diagnosed by biopsy during a laparotomy for biliary disease. Riedel's thyroiditis can lead to a vasovagal episode and might not be a primary thyroid disease but rather a manifestation of the systemic disorder, multifocal fibrosclerosis. PMID:23644007

  4. Terminology and nomenclature schemes for reporting thyroid cytopathology: An overview.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer; Rossi, Esther Diana; Chandra, Ashish; Ali, Syed Z

    2015-07-01

    The clinical management of thyroid nodules begins with a cytologic diagnosis. Current multidisciplinary approaches to thyroid nodule management rely on clear and concise diagnoses that can be reliably and reproducibly interpreted across institutions. Ultimately, this clinical necessity has led to multidisciplinary bodies throughout the world to develop standardized reporting formats which have themselves evolved over time. Herein we review the three major international nomenclatures for reporting thyroid cytopathology, including, the British Thyroid Association and Royal College of Pathologists (Thy), the Italian Consensus (TIR) and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Alignment of these three diagnostic terminologies and the emergence of a single internationally agreed upon one has the potential to lead to more succinct, evidence-driven clinical management algorithms. PMID:25680862

  5. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  6. Single unit filter-aided method for fast proteomic analysis of tear fluid.

    PubMed

    Aass, Cecilie; Norheim, Ingrid; Eriksen, Erik Fink; Thorsby, Per M; Pepaj, Milaim

    2015-07-01

    Human tear fluid is a complex mixture containing high concentrations of proteins and is increasingly becoming an important source for studying protein biomarkers of eye-related diseases such as Graves' ophthalmopathy. Today, the Schirmer tear test is the most widely used technique for tear collection. However, sample handling and protein extraction from these strips have been highly challenging. Cutting and removal of the Schirmer strips after extraction, which may lead to sample loss prior to downstream analysis, are some of the challenges to consider. To address some of these limitations, we have developed a single-unit filter-aided method for both sample handling and protein extraction. In addition, we systematically investigated the most suitable conditions for protein extraction from these strips. Among the different extraction conditions applied, extraction with 100 mM ammonium bicarbonate containing 50 mM NaCl resulted in the highest number of identified proteins using one-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Moreover, 1526 proteins were identified when the optimized extraction method was combined with two-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis, demonstrating the applicability of this novel approach to the study of the tear proteome. This dataset of identified proteins represents a comprehensive catalogue of the tear proteome and may serve as a list for future biomarker research. PMID:25862084

  7. Osteoarthritis associated with mild chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice expressing alpha 1(IX) collagen chains with a central deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, K; Ono, K; Miyazaki, J; Olsen, B R; Muragaki, Y; Adachi, E; Yamamura, K; Kimura, T

    1993-01-01

    Type IX collagen, containing molecules of the three distinct polypeptides alpha 1(IX), alpha 2(IX), and alpha 3(IX), is an interesting hybrid extracellular matrix component in cartilage and eye tissues, with the properties of both a proteoglycan and a collagen. The alpha 1 (IX) chain has two forms, as a result of the tissue-specific utilization of two alternative promoters; the alpha 2(IX) chain carries a covalently attached glycosaminoglycan side chain. We have introduced a gene construct controlled by a tissue-specific promoter/enhancer and expressing a truncated alpha 1(IX) chain into mice. Examination of the offspring of two different founders revealed pathological changes similar to osteoarthritis in the articular cartilage of knee joints. In addition, mice homozygous for the transgene developed mild chondrodysplasia (i.e., mild dwarfism, anterior tonguing in the vertebral bodies, and ophthalmopathy). The relative ratio of transgene product to the endogenous alpha 1(IX) chain was approximately one in homozygotes and less than one in heterozygotes. Therefore, the phenotypic severity correlated well with the level of transgene expression. These findings suggest that mutations in type IX collagen genes may cause certain forms of osteoarthritis and chondrodysplasia in humans. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8464901

  8. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  9. Targeting chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 in thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 and its chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11) are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Under the influence of interferon(IFN)γ, the IFNγ-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) is secreted by thyrocytes, orbital fibroblasts and preadipocytes. In tissue, Th1 lymphocytes are recruited; hence IFNγ is enhanced, which stimulates CXCL10 secretion reiterating the autoimmune process. The presence of elevated levels of CXCL10 in peripheral liquids is considered a marker of Th1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating CXCL10 (sCXCL10) have been shown in patients with AT, overall with hypothyroidism. In GD and GO patients high sCXCL10 have been shown particularly in the active disease. A modulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ or - α agonists on CXCR3 chemokines in AT, GD and GO and the immuno-modulatory effect of methimazole on CXCR3 chemokines in GD have been shown. Further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new molecules that act as antagonists of CXCR3, or block CXCL10, in autoimmune disorders, and many interesting patents have been recently applied. PMID:24953644

  10. IP-10 in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ruffilli, I; Ferrari, S M; Colaci, M; Ferri, C; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A

    2014-08-01

    The interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was initially identified as a chemokine that is induced by interferon (IFN)-γ. IP-10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3). IP-10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjogren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of IP-10 by (CD)4+, CD8+, and natural killer is dependent on IFN-γ. Under the influence of IFN-γ, IP-10 is secreted by thyrocytes. Determination of high level of IP-10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of a T helper 1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating IP-10, have been shown in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Among patients with AT, IP-10 levels were significantly higher in those with a hypoechoic ultrasonographic pattern, which is a sign of a more severe lympho-monocytic infiltration, and in those with hypothyroidism. For these reasons, it has been postulated that IP-10 could be a marker of a stronger and more aggressive inflammatory response in the thyroid, subsequently leading to thyroid destruction and hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed to investigate whether IP-10 is a novel therapeutic target in AT. PMID:24977661

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  12. [Thyrotoxic hypocalemic periodic paralysis: report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Dias, José Côdo Albino; Moura, Betânia Silva de; Gomes, Erika Figueiredo; Mirachi, Guilherme Borim; Metzger Filho, Otto; Dias, Cristina Borim Côdo

    2004-12-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is a rare hyperthyroidism complication much more frequent in Asians and Caucasians. We present 3 cases of THPP occurring in Brazilian male patients with 28 years old (y) (Case 1), 29 y (Case 2) and 60 y (Case 3), respectively. They were admitted following an episode of flacid paralysis of extremities. Whereas case 1 reported recurring episodes of paralysis crises, cases 2 and 3 reported only one episode. Signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, such as weigh loss, diaphoresis, extremities tremor, palpitation and mild diffuse goiter were present in the first case; while the second case only presented ophthalmopathy and the third patient referred that 2 years before his admission he presented an episode of cardiac arrhythmia but did not have thyroid function evaluation at that time. Their laboratory findings were hypokalemia, low TSH and raised free T4. They were treated with intravenous potassium, oral propranolol and tiamazol with remission of the symptoms. We report these cases to emphasize the importance of recognizing hyperthyroid periodic paralyses to avoid missing a treatable and curable condition. PMID:15761566

  13. [Tobacco smoking in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Warmuz-Stangierska, Izabela; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Florek, Ewa; Rabska-Pietrzak, Barbara; Sawicka, Joanna; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of cigarette smoking in hyperthyroidism patients. The study group included patients with Graves-Basedow disease (GB): n = 317 (32.9%), patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO): n = 108 (11.2%), patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG) n = 511 (53%) and 28 (2.9%) patients with toxic adenoma (TA). Evaluation of tabacco smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was performed on the base of questionnaire acording to Fagerström test. The comparison of GO and GB indicate increased tabacco smoking in GO (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.22-0.59). The frequencies of tacacco smoking displayed significantly increased in GB and TNG patients (OR=0.39; 95%CI: 0.28-0.56). Further analys of patients with GO and TA presented statistcal significance in group of smoking and non-smoking (OR=0.26; 95%CI: 0,073-0,95). In other cases we didn't found a significant influence of tobacco smoking on thyroid disease. The effect of smoking was more pronounced in Graves' patients (particulary in the patients with GO) than in other thyroid patients. Smoking among patients with thyroid disease (GO and GB disease) is associated with developing of anxiety and fright, depression and problems with social relations sphere. PMID:16521936

  14. The replication of the association of the rs9355610 within 6p27 with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tozaki, Teruaki; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2013-09-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is largely unknown. However, genetic susceptibility is believed to play a major role. Recently, Chu et al. conducted a genome-wide association study in a Chinese Han population and identified two novel GD susceptibility loci within 4p14 (rs6832151) and 6q27 (rs9355610). The objective of the study was to replicate these associations in a Japanese population. We analyzed rs6832151 and rs9355610 genotypes in a case-control study based on 457 Japanese AITD patients (286 GD and 171 HT patients) and 222 matched Japanese controls using the high-resolution melting and unlabeled probe methods. Case-control association studies were performed using the c and Fisher's exact tests with Yates correction. We found a significant allelic association between AITD and rs9355610 located in 6q27 (p = 0.023). GD was significantly associated with this SNP (p = 0.0055), while HT showed no significant associations with any SNPs. Moreover, when patients with GD were stratified according to Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), there were no allelic associations with GO. These findings suggest the presence of AITD susceptibilty genes, especially in distinct subgroups of GD, in or near 6q27. PMID:24001206

  15. Psoriasis and uveitis: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Naiara Abreu de Azevedo; de Oliveira, Maria de Ftima Paim; Follador, Ivonise; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Rgo, Vitria Regina

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic, chronic, immunologically mediated disease, with significant genetic and environmental influences. It affects from 1 to 3% of the world population. Recently, the relation between psoriasis and different comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome, has become extremely relevant. Uveitis is characterized by a process of intraocular inflammation resulting from various causes. Considering psoriasis and uveitis as immune-mediated diseases, this study aims to evaluate the possible association of psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis with uveitis and its subtypes. Few studies have evaluated the association of uveitis and psoriasis without joint involvement. It seems that psoriasis without arthropathy is not a risk factor for the development of uveitis. Uveitis tends to develop more frequently in patients with arthropathy or pustular psoriasis than in patients with other forms of psoriasis. Ophthalmic examination should be performed periodically in patients with psoriasis and uveitis. If ophthalmopathy is diagnosed, the patient should receive adequate treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs or immunomodulators to prevent vision loss. PMID:23197207

  16. Aesthetic Refinements in Patients with Prominent Eyes.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dirk F; Schwaiger, Nina; Wiedner, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of prominent eyes is still a challenging task. As well as the surgery, proper preoperative diagnosis differentiating between patients with and without Graves ophthalmopathy plays an important role. In functionally asymptomatic patients with Graves disease suffering from the aesthetic impairment of prominent eyes, the transpalpebral decompression by intraorbital fat removal technique has been proved to be reliable, effective, safe, and easily performed by a trained and experienced oculoplastic surgeon. This technique provides long-lasting results, leading to improvement not only in visual function but also in personal well-being and in the patient's social life, with a high benefit-to-risk ratio. The most powerful tool to treat the lower lid deformity and malar bags in patients without Graves disease is the subperiosteal midface lift. It shortens the lid-cheek junction and blends the retaining periorbital ligaments. Furthermore, it adds volume to the lower lid and gives a stable support. By the nature of the procedure, it also turns a negative into a positive vector. In experienced hands, Olivari's orbital decompression and Hester's midface lift are ideal options for the treatment of prominent eyes. PMID:26667639

  17. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit. PMID:20347457

  18. A fourth example suggests that premature termination codons in the COL2A1 gene are a common cause of the Stickler syndrome: Analysis of the COL2A1 gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritvaniemi, P.; Hyland, J.; Kivirikko, K.I. ); Ignatius, J. ); Prockop, D.J. ); Ala-Kokko, L. Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA )

    1993-07-01

    A series of oligonucleotide primers was designed to generate polymerase chain reaction products that contained exons 6 to 49 of the human gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1) and that could be used to detect sequence variations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. To improve the sensitivity of the analysis, GC clamps were introduced into one primer of each pair. The procedure successfully detected 10 neutral single-base variations in the gene. In addition, the procedure detected a single-base deletion in exon 43 that introduced a premature termination codon in exon 44 and caused the Stickler syndrome (arthro-ophthalmopathy) in one family. The mutation is the fourth mutation in the COL2A1 gene shown to cause the Stickler syndrome. The mutation is similar to the first three mutations causing the disease in that they also introduced premature termination signals. Since only one mutation introducing a premature termination codon was found in the course of defining 120 or more mutations in type I and III procollagens, the results suggest that such mutations may have a special relationship to the Stickler syndrome. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Prognostic Value of 99mTc-Pertechnetate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Radioiodine Therapy in a Cohort of Chinese Graves' Disease Patients: A Pilot Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Haifeng; Hu, Shu; Fan, Rong; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tian, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study is to assess the prognostic value of 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy for predicting the outcomes of fixed low dose of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in a cohort of Chinese Graves' disease (GD) patients. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study of GD patients who received RIT with a single dose of radioiodine (5?mCi). All the patients received 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy prior to RIT. Thyroid mass, 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake, gender, age at diagnosis, duration of the disease, ophthalmopathy, and serum levels of FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 prior to RIT were analyzed as potential interference factors for outcomes of RIT. Results. One hundred and eighteen GD patients who completed RIT were followed up for 12 months. The outcomes (euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism) were found to be significantly associated with thyroid mass and 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake. Patients with thyroid mass ? 40.1?g or 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake ? 15.2% had higher treatment success. Conclusions. A fixed low dose of 5?mCi radioiodine seems to be practical and effective for the treatment of Chinese GD patients with thyroid mass ? 40.1?g and 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake ? 15.2%. This study demonstrates 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy is an important prognostic factor for predicting the outcomes of RIT. PMID:25879041

  20. COL9A2 and COL9A3 mutations in canine autosomal recessive Oculo-skeletal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Guyon, Richard; Kukekova, Anna; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Johnson, Jennifer; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Oculo-skeletal dysplasia segregates in two canine breeds, the Labrador retriever and samoyed, in which the causative loci have been termed drd1 and drd2, respectively. Affected dogs exhibit short-limbed dwarfism together with severe ocular defects, and this phenotype is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait in both breeds. The clinical and pathological appearance resembles human hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathies such as Stickler syndrome, or Marshall Syndrome, although these human disorders are usually dominant. Linkage studies in drd1-informative pedigrees mapped the locus to canine chromosome 24, and led to the identification of an insertional mutation in exon 1 of the gene COL9A3 that cosegregates with the disease. The drd2 locus was similarly mapped to canine chromosome 15 and shown to cosegregate with a 1,267 bp deletion mutation in the 5? end of COL9A2. Both mutations affect the COL3 domain of the respective gene. Northern analysis showed reduced RNA expression in affected retina compared to normal. These models offer potential for studies such as protein-protein interactions between different members of the collagen gene family; regulation and expression of these genes in retina and cartilage, and even opportunities for gene therapy. PMID:20686772

  1. Clinical Utility of TSH Receptor Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    Context: TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) cause Graves' disease (GD) hyperthyroidism. Widely available TRAb measurement methods have been significantly improved recently. However, the role of TRAb measurement in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, the prediction of remission of GD hyperthyroidism, the prediction of fetal/neonatal thyrotoxicosis, and the clinical assessment of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) are controversial. Evidence Acquisition: We reviewed and analyzed the literature reporting primary data on the clinical use of TRAb. We focused our analyses on clinical studies analyzing third-generation TRAb assays. Evidence Synthesis: The performance of TRAb in the differential diagnosis of overt hyperthyroidism is excellent, with sensitivity and specificity in the upper 90%. TRAb can accurately predict short-term relapses of hyperthyroidism after a course of antithyroid drugs but are less effective in predicting long-term relapses or remissions. Pregnancies in women with GD with negative TRAb are highly unlikely to result in fetal hyperthyroidism, whereas high titers of TRAb in pregnancy require careful fetal monitoring. GD patients with GO frequently have high TRAb levels. However, there are insufficient data to use the test to predict the clinical course of GO and response to treatment. Conclusions: Third-generation TRAb assays are suitable in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. In GD, TRAb should be tested before deciding whether methimazole can be stopped. TRAb should be used in pregnant women with GD to assess the risk of fetal thyrotoxicosis. The use of TRAb in GO requires further studies. PMID:23539719

  2. Improvements to our Understanding of Toronto-Area Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Cynthia

    Using eleven years of trace gas column measurements at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), along with data from complementary sources, such as satellites, surface in situ measurements, and nearby rural column measurements, this thesis aims to improve our understanding of the sources of air pollution and the causes of variability in atmospheric composition over the Toronto area. The relative influence of chemical production and direct emissions on Toronto-area O3 and CO were determined using GEOS-Chem model simulations. 28 pollution events (defined as enhanced O3 or CO lower-tropospheric (0-5 km) columns that coincided with surface O3 exceedances) were found in the TAO dataset between 2002 and 2010. O3 columns over Toronto during pollution events are influenced by urban and industrial anthropogenic NOx emissions, biogenic isoprene emissions from the eastern United States, and soil NOx emissions from the mid- and western United States. During pollution events, Toronto CO columns are greatly influenced by nearby fossil fuel emissions and isoprene oxidation. C2H6 columns are often enhanced during pollution events, as the sources of C2H6 are similar to those of O3 and CO. HCN columns are assumed to be enhanced in biomass burning plumes, and thus, aid in identifying transport of biomass burning emissions over Toronto. Sensitivity to meteorological conditions was examined as well, and five case studies were presented in detail. Passage of the polar vortex over the Toronto area was determined by increases in scaled potential vorticity (PV) that coincide with outliers in the HF stratospheric time series. Confirmed with polar PV maps and reductions in N2O stratospheric columns, 53 polar intrusion events were identified in the 2002 to 2013 TAO time series. The effect on HF, HCl, O3, and N 2O was studied, and we found these events caused a significant increase in HF-column winter/spring variability, and a small increase (on average) in stratospheric O3 columns. The results of this thesis have contributed to improving our understanding of the causes and variability of ozone air quality and stratospheric ozone over a major metropolitan area.

  3. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2015-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and there were few XBT profiles in those regions. The results suggest that multiple ocean data assimilation systems should be used to assess sensitivity of ocean analyses to changes in the distribution of ocean observations to get more robust results that can guide the design of future tropical Pacific observing systems.

  4. An Improved Method for TIMS High Precision Nd Isotopic Analysis of Very Small Aliquots (1- 10ng) With Example Application in Garnet Sm/Nd Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, E. F.; Harvey, J.; Mehl, L. Y.; Peterman, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Technological and scientific developments have demonstrated both the attainability and the utility of very high precision (i.e. 5-20ppm 2 σ) Nd isotopic measurements with TIMS. However such high precision has been limited to relatively large aliquots of Nd, on the order of several hundred nanograms. Several potential applications of precise Nd isotopic measurements, including garnet Sm/Nd geochronology, do not always permit such large samples, instead yielding only a few nanograms of Nd. We have explored and tested an improved method for Nd isotopic analysis of such small (1-10ng) aliquots of Nd using the NdO+ method with a Triton TIMS at Boston University. Analyzing Nd isotopes as the oxide is a well known technique, frequently involving an oxygen bleed valve. Instead, we forego the bleed valve and load samples with a TaO slurry which provides the oxygen source. Using an in-house Nd isotopic standard solution, 4ng loads easily yield stable 2.0-2.5 volt beams resulting in internal precisions of 10ppm 2 σ RSE. Within barrel external precision of 4ng loads of the Nd standard is 13ppm 2 σ RSD (n=20). Long term (6 months, six analysts) external precision of 4ng loads of the standard is currently 23ppm 2 σ RSD (n=55) suggesting that further improvements are possible. As a further test of this method, we dissolved a natural rock sample (a metapelite), separated the Nd using TRU- spec and MLA column chemistry, and loaded nineteen 4ng loads in one barrel. Within barrel external precision was 21ppm 2 σ RSD (n=18). This precision represents a significant advance over previous NdO+ analyses of small samples using an oxygen bleed valve. The TaO loading method for small Nd aliquots is useful in Sm/Nd garnet geochronology as exemplified by two case studies. Garnets from eclogite facies gneisses from Norway ran very well with 2.4-18ng loads and yielded age precision as good as 0.8 million years 2 σ. Conversely, garnets from blueschist facies rocks from Sifnos, Greece, ran poorly with similarly sized 1-17ng loads and consequently yielded generally poorer age precision. Differences between the two garnet sample suites must relate to the garnets themselves (notably including much lower Nd concentration in Sifnos garnets), not the identical column chemistry nor the TaO loading method. Additional procedures may be required to cleanly separate Nd from samples where Nd concentrations are very low (≪1ppm). As always, clean separation and column chemistry represents an unavoidable limiting factor in achieving precise isotopic measurements.

  5. Influence of Several Parameters on Frost Growth in Low Temperature Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Koji; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi

    In order to increase the coefficient of performance of heat exchangers under frosting conditions such as in air conditioners, showcases, and unit coolers, it is necessary to elucidate the frost deposition mechanism in low temperature environments. Frost properties were measured at air temperature below 0°C. The experimental results were analyzed and a simulation model of frost growth in low temperature environments was developed. In the simulation model, frost growth during the crystal growth period was calculated by using the ice column model of Tao et al. and during the subsequent frost growth period, another model was used; the frost growth was calculated according to diffusion into the frost layer on the basis of Fick's law and the model of Le Gall et al. The simulations were performed to calculate the frost growth on a flat plate and the influences of several parameters on frosting phenomenon were elucidated at air temperature of about 0°C.

  6. Coastline Remote Sensing Monitoring and Change Analysis of Bohai Bay from 2000 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, S.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Ren, G.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the extraction of coastline information by selecting 5 remotely sensed images of HJ-1B CCD and Landsat-7 ETM+ in the year of 2000, 2005 and 2010, change of coastline of Bohai bay in the first decade of 21st Century is analyzed. Results reveal that: (1) The whole coastline of Bohai Bay kept lengthening and moving seaward; (2) Among the littoral cities of Bohai Bay, the lengths of coastlines between Tangshan and Tianjin increased continuously; (3) Harbor coastline was the only one that continues to lengthen among 6 types of coastline; (4) The coastline types transformed mutually mainly in Binhai Developing Park of Tianjin, Caofeidian Developing Park of Tangshan, Tao-er River estuary and Yellow River estuary in Yellow River Delta. Construction and extension of saline, cultivated fields and harbors were the main driving factors causing the change of Bohai Bay coastline.

  7. Occurrence of Thermoacoustic Phenomena at 0.8 K, 4 K and above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stautner, W.; Chen, R.; Xu, M.; Rochford, J.; Trigger, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoacoustics in cryogenics continues to be a very interesting phenomenon which is still poorly understood but often experienced unexpectedly in experiments where it causes unacceptable heat leaks. The authors report on the appearance and onset of this unwanted occurrence at temperatures below 35 K. A number of physical experiments are presented, where the authors had the means to take quantitative measurements of the heat leak caused by these pressure oscillations in apparatus with bent tubes ranging from 4.55 and 4.7 mm inner diameter, with heat stationing links. The parameters which indicate the likelihood of inadvertently developing these thermoacoustic oscillations are presented and means developed to avoiding them in that instance are given. Furthermore, we had the rare opportunity to record and analyze 4 K TAOs experienced on a test setup and present the simple method that was used to eliminate them.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Nakamurella multipartita type strain (Y-104T)

    SciTech Connect

    Tice, Hope; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Sims, David; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Meincke, Linda; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Detter, J. Chris; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Nakamurella multipartita (Yoshimi et al. 1996) Tao et al. 2004 is the type species of the small one-species genus Nakamurella in the actinomycetal suborder Frankineae. The nonmotile, coccus-shaped strain was isolated from activated sludge acclimated with sugar-containing synthetic wastewater, and is able of accumulating large amounts of polysaccharides in its cells. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Nakamurellaceae. The 6,060,298 bp long single replicon genome with its 5415 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Low voltage two-state-variable memristor model of vacancy-drift resistive switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Ge, Ning; Joshua Yang, J.; Li, Zhiyong; Stanley Williams, R.; Chen, Yiran

    2015-04-01

    We illustrate a heuristic two-state-variable memristor model of charged O vacancy-drift resistive switches that include the effects of internal Joule heating on both the electronic transport and the drift velocity (i.e., switching speed) of vacancies in the switching material. The dynamical state variables correspond to the cross-sectional area of a conducting channel in the device and the gap between the end of the channel and one of the electrodes. The model was calibrated against low voltage pulse-sweep and state-test data collected from a TaO x memristor so that the contributions of the channel gap, area and temperature to switching can be analyzed. The model agrees well with experimental results for long switching times and low-to-intermediate voltage operation.

  10. Order within disorder: The atomic structure of ion-beam sputtered amorphous tantala (a-Ta?O?)

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiri, Riccardo; Liou, Franklin; Abernathy, Matthew R.; Lin, Angie C.; Kim, Namjun; Mehta, Apurva; Shyam, Badri; Byer, Robert L.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Hart, Martin; MacLaren, Ian; Martin, Iain W.; Route, Roger K.; Rowan, Sheila; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Fejer, Martin M.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous tantala (a-Ta?O?) is a technologically important material often used in high-performance coatings. Understanding this material at the atomic level provides a way to further improve performance. This work details extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements of a-Ta?O? coatings, where high-quality experimental data and theoretical fits have allowed a detailed interpretation of the nearest-neighbor distributions. It was found that the tantalum atom is surrounded by four shells of atoms in sequence; oxygen, tantalum, oxygen, and tantalum. A discussion is also included on how these models can be interpreted within the context of published crystalline Ta?O? and other a-T?O? studies.

  11. Forward modelling of the Bureba escarpment (Rioja Trough, N-Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mike, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    In this work I use the numerical model TAO to study the evolution of the Bureba escarpment, sitting at the watershed between Duero and Ebro Basins and draining into the Rioja Trough. Facies correlation across this area is troublesome through lack of age-dates and therefore timing of tectonosedimentary events is controversial. Numerical modelling should shed some light on the evolution of this area. To that end I have run homogeneous and heterogeneous models for a range of values of erodability, runoff and elastic thickness. The models demonstrate that the tilting of the NE Duero could have resulted from isostatic compensation to erosion in the Rioja Trough and that the Bureba escarpment is a natural barrier to erosion preventing escarpment retreat for at least the next 1 My.

  12. Fowrward modeeling of the Bureba escarpment (Rioja Trough, N-Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mike, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    In this work I use the numerical model TAO to study the evolution of the Bureba escarpment, sitting at the watershed between Duero and Ebro Basins and draining into the Rioja Trough. Facies correlation across this area is troublesome through lack of age-dates and therefore timing of tectonosedimentary events is controversial. Numerical modelling should shed some light on the evolution of this area. To that end I have run homogeneous and heterogeneous models for a range of values of erodability, runoff and elastic thickness. The models demonstrate that the tilting of the NE Duero could have resulted from isostatic compensation to erosion in the Rioja Trough and that the Bureba escarpment is a natural barrier to erosion preventing escarpment retreat for at least the next 1 My.

  13. An enhanced Whipple Bumper system - Impact resistance of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J.; Mount, A.; Herren, K.; Nettles, A.; Semmel, C.; Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    For long-duration space flights where human occupation is expected, micrometeroid and debris shields are necessary to prevent puncture of the pressure vessels. Current 'Whipple Bumper' designs range from single thin sheets of aluminum to complicated structures of many energy absorbing layers. This paper details the results of an experimental program tao determine the increased protection afforded by intermediate bumpers made of composite material structures. Various configurations of honeycomb support structures sandwiched between layers of materials such as Kevlar, Spectra, aluminum, and others are inserted between the bumper and pressure shell. The areal densities of each new material structure are maintained constant so that the results compare directly with single-sheet aluminum intermediate bumpers.

  14. Double-hybrid density-functional theory with meta-generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Souvi, Sidi M. O. Sharkas, Kamal; Toulouse, Julien; CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris

    2014-02-28

    We extend the previously proposed one-parameter double-hybrid density-functional theory [K. Sharkas, J. Toulouse, and A. Savin, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064113 (2011)] to meta-generalized-gradient-approximation (meta-GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. We construct several variants of one-parameter double-hybrid approximations using the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA functional and test them on test sets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. The most accurate variant uses the uniform coordinate scaling of the density and of the kinetic energy density in the correlation functional, and improves over both standard Kohn-Sham TPSS and second-order Møller-Plesset calculations.

  15. Crystal structures and phase transitions in Sr doped Ba2InTaO6 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qingdi; Tan, Teck-Yee; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Hester, James R.

    2013-10-01

    The crystal structures of the double perovskites of the type Ba2-xSrxInTaO6 have been studied by synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction methods. The structures are based on ordered array of the tilted InO6 and TaO6 octahedra, with the Ba/Sr cations being completely disordered. The structure evolves from cubic to monoclinic Fm3barm?x~0.6I4/m?x~1.2I2/m?x~1.6P21/n. The changes in the symmetry induced by replacing the Ba with Sr have been identified by a symmetry-mode analysis. Variable temperature S-XRD studies of selected examples have shown that heating the samples induces the same sequence of transitions observed in the composition dependent studies.

  16. Chasing shadows in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica

    The characteristics of the populations of objects that inhabit the outer solar system carry the fingerprint of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the solar system. Occultation surveys push the limit of observation into the very small and distant outer solar system objects, allowing us to set constraints on the structure of the Kuiper belt, Scattered disk and Sedna populations. I collected, reduced, and analyzed vast datasets looking for occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, both working with the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS) collaboration and leading the MMT/Megacam occultation effort. Having found no such events in my data, I was able to place upper limits on the Kuiper belt, scattered disk and Sedna population. These limits and their derivation are described here.

  17. Au13-nAgn clusters: a remarkably simple trend.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Francisco; Varas, Alejandro; Rogan, Jos; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Kiwi, Miguel

    2015-11-11

    The planar to three dimensional transition of Au13-nAgn clusters is investigated. To do so the low lying energy configurations for all possible concentrations (n values) are evaluated. Many thousands of possible conformations are examined. They are generated using the procedure developed by Rogan et al. in combination with the semi-empirical Gupta potential. A large fraction of these (the low lying energy ones) are minimized by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We employ the Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA functional and the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) GGA functional, and compare their results. The effect of spin-orbit coupling is studied as well as the s-d hybridization. As usual in this context the results are functional-dependent. However, both functionals lead to agreement as far as trends are concerned, yielding just two relevant motifs, but their results differ quantitatively. PMID:26513198

  18. Effect of poling temperature on piezoelectricity of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fang-Zhou; Wang, Ke; Jo, Wook; Lee, Jae-Shin; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Electrical poling is indispensable for endowing isotropic ferroelectric polycrystals with a net macroscopic polarization and hence piezoelectricity. However, little attention has been paid to the optimization of poling conditions in (K, Na)NbO3-based ceramics with a polymorphic phase transition. This study investigated the electrical properties of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3 lead-free piezoceramics as a function of the poling temperature. Peak piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 352 7 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor kp of 0.47 were obtained at the optimized poling temperature of 120 C, which crosses the polymorphic phase transition regime. In-depth analysis of the asymmetric polarization hysteresis loops and bipolar strain curves uncovered striking analogy between electrical poling and unipolar cycling in the current system, which is attributed to a competition between domain reorientation and space charge accumulation.

  19. Data assimilation technique of 2-dimensional vertical temperature transport model (Case study: Tropical Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurfitri, Suliskania; Putri, Mutiara Rachmat

    2015-09-01

    Data assimilation technique was applied into 2-dimensional vertical temperature transport model to improve temperature results especially at thermocline layer that have large change toward depth. The simple case experiment only applies on baroclinic condition in Tropical Pacific Ocean (2N and 137E - 140W). Model simulation was running for 2 years from January 1st 2011 to December 31st 2012 from surface to 500 m depth and verified to observation data from TAO (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean) at 3 locations, 147E, 165E, and 170W. Data assimilation procedure which applied at 3 locations (156E, 180W, and 155W) using Cressman analysis technique can reduce model's RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) toward depth until 55,7% and toward time until 64,5%. The largest error of model was found at 200 m depth, while the smallest found at the surface and 500 m depth.

  20. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  1. Ground-State Degeneracy of Topological Phases on Open Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ling-Yan; Wan, Yidun

    2015-02-01

    We relate the ground state degeneracy of a non-Abelian topological phase on a surface with boundaries to the anyon condensates that break the topological phase into a trivial phase. Specifically, we propose that gapped boundary conditions of the surface are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of condensates, each being able to completely break the phase, and we substantiate this by examples. The ground state degeneracy resulting from a particular boundary condition coincides with the number of confined topological sectors due to the corresponding condensation. These lead to a generalization of the Laughlin-Tao-Wu charge-pumping argument for Abelian fractional quantum Hall states to encompass non-Abelian topological phases, in the sense that an anyon loop of a confined anyon winding a nontrivial cycle can pump a condensed anyon from one boundary to another. Such generalized pumping may find applications in quantum control of anyons, eventually realizing topological quantum computation.

  2. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  3. The Eastern Equatorial Pacific Chlorophyll Dynamics: Update of the `Equatorial Box' Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberry, T.; Wang, X.; Murtugudde, R.; Behrenfeld, M.; Roesler, C.

    2006-12-01

    The `Equatorial Box' Project utilizes the mooring observations along the 125 and 140 TAO lines to provide carbon component data, including chlorophyll, primary production, POC and DOC. These parameters together with other oceanographic properties can be used to validate ocean circulation-ecosystem models. In turn, a validated model can offer considerable promise for not only filling the gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage from the available observations, but also enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the variability. Here, we present both measured and simulated vertical-meridional chlorophyll distributions and primary production along 125W and 140W. While there is a permanent layer of deep chlorophyll maximum at 30-60 m, there is no deep maximum in phytoplankton carbon biomass or primary production. Our analyses focus on impact of nutrient stress and light conditions on chlorophyll dynamics in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We also compare modeled primary productivity with ocean color derived rates.

  4. Ground-state degeneracy of topological phases on open surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Yan; Wan, Yidun

    2015-02-20

    We relate the ground state degeneracy of a non-Abelian topological phase on a surface with boundaries to the anyon condensates that break the topological phase into a trivial phase. Specifically, we propose that gapped boundary conditions of the surface are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of condensates, each being able to completely break the phase, and we substantiate this by examples. The ground state degeneracy resulting from a particular boundary condition coincides with the number of confined topological sectors due to the corresponding condensation. These lead to a generalization of the Laughlin-Tao-Wu charge-pumping argument for Abelian fractional quantum Hall states to encompass non-Abelian topological phases, in the sense that an anyon loop of a confined anyon winding a nontrivial cycle can pump a condensed anyon from one boundary to another. Such generalized pumping may find applications in quantum control of anyons, eventually realizing topological quantum computation. PMID:25763964

  5. Development of 4-Pixel-Array TES Microcalorimeters with Mushroom-Shaped Absorbers with Insulating Layers Supporting Overhang Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Maeda, M.; Ezaki, S.; Takano, A.; Matsumura, S.; Hara, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-08-01

    A four-pixel-array superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter with a mushroom-shaped absorber was developed for energy dispersive spectroscopy performed on a transmission electron microscope. The TES consists of a bilayer of Au/Ti with either a 120- or 50-nm thickness. The absorber is made from a Au layer and its stem is deposited in the center of the TES surface. A TaO insulating layer of 100-nm thickness is inserted between the overhang region of the absorber and the TES surface. Two types of microcalorimeter were fabricated with differing absorber thicknesses of 0.5 and 5.0 m. An energy resolution of 15 eV FWHM with 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained using the 0.5-m-type microcalorimeter.

  6. Design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, S.; Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Koshida, S.; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Mendez, R.

    2014-07-01

    A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.

  7. Health care in its right mind: medical harm and the knowledge revolution part one--the state of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Wendell W

    2012-01-01

    The "Tao of Medicine" is patient-centeredness and is most succinctly summarized by W.W. Mayo, MD, as, "the best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered, and in order that the sick may have the benefit of advancing knowledge, union of forces is necessary". This calling, also known by its more familiar designation, the Art of Medicine, is true for all times and all places, serving as our ideal, our law and our conscience. It, therefore, meets the definition of a universal. It is only a culture of safety that will support the Art of Medicine and sustain improvement within the deeply complex, tightly coupled and highly contextual world of health care delivery. PMID:22329252

  8. The role of discursive resources in science talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper addresses a debate between two hypotheses of children's development of conceptual understandings of the Earth. The authors aim to investigate whether culture influences students' conceptions of the Earth. However, one questionable assumption shared among conception and conceptual change studies is that researchers can identify children's mental models, through their discourse, to explain their conceptions of scientific phenomena. In this commentary, I challenge this assumption by looking closely at various interview data and examining different dimensions of interview discourse about the Earth. Based on my findings, I suggest that instead of seeing science talk as representations of mental models, we look at children's science talk as discursive practices mediated by the immediate social situation and the broader social milieu.

  9. Ocean data assimilation with background error covariance derived from OGCM outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Weiwei; Zhou, Guangqing; Wang, Huijun

    2004-04-01

    The background error covariance plays an important role in modern data assimilation and analysis systems by determining the spatial spreading of information in the data. A novel method based on model output is proposed to estimate background error covariance for use in Optimum Interpolation. At every model level, anisotropic correlation scales are obtained that give a more detailed description of the spatial correlation structure. Furthermore, the impact of the background field itself is included in the background error covariance. The methodology of the estimation is presented and the structure of the covariance is examined. The results of 20-year assimilation experiments are compared with observations from TOGA-TAO (The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean) array and other analysis data.

  10. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  11. Growth inhibition of selected food-borne bacteria, particularly Listeria monocytogenes, by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Thomasson, W R; Wu-Yuan, C D

    1990-10-01

    Six extracts from Chinese medicinal plants: Tin Men Chu, Sey Lau Pai, Siu Mao Heung, Bak Tao Yung, Kam Chin Chiu and Liao Ya, were tested for their inhibitory effect on selected food-borne bacteria by the well assay technique. Among them, Tin Men Chu, Siu Mao Heung and Sey Lau Pai inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi, Salm. enteritidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Alcaligenes faecalis, and three strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Two of these three extracts, Tin Men Chu and Siu Mao Heung, suppressed the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A in cabbage juice. This inhibition was prevented by the addition of protein but not sodium chloride. Plant extracts show potential to control the growth of food-borne bacteria. PMID:2127264

  12. COLUMBINE-HONDO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND WHEELER PEAK WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Columbine-Hondo Wilderness Study Area and the Wheeler Peak Wilderness, near Taos, New Mexico, were studied. Two areas within the study area and wilderness have substantiated mineral-resource potential for molybdenum and are surrounded by an area of probable molybdenum potential. A small area on the north side of the Columbine-Hondo Wilderness Study Area also has probable molybdenum potential; this area is peripheral to the Red River mining area, which includes the Questa mine. Two other areas within the study area and wilderness have probable mineral-resource potential for copper, lead, and zinc, and four areas have probable mineral-resource potential for gold and silver, as well as base metals.

  13. Voids in mixed-cation silicate glasses: Studies by positron annihilation lifetime and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Reben, M; Golis, E; Filipecki, J; Sitarz, M; Kotynia, K; Jeleń, P; Grelowska, I

    2014-08-14

    PALS in comparison with FTIR studies have been applied to investigate the structure of different oxide glasses. Three components of the positron lifetime τ (τ1 para- and τ3 ortho-positronium and τ2 intermediate lifetime component) and their intensities were obtained. The results of the calculation of mean values of positron lifetimes for the investigated glasses showed the existence of a long-living component on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra. From the Tao-Eldrup formula we can estimate the size of free volume. On the basis of the measurements we can conclude that the size and fraction of free volume reaches the biggest value for the fused silica glass. The degree of network polymerisation increases void size. PMID:24815814

  14. [Exploration of nursing art and aesthetic experiences: cross-disciplinary links and dialogues].

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shuh-Jen

    2013-08-01

    Interdisciplinary understanding is crucial for readers today. This article integrates the ideas of four care-aesthetics-column writers in order to illustrate and discuss nursing art and aesthetic care experiences in a cross-disciplinary conversation. This article reflects critically on the art, culture, and nature of nursing in the five themes of: 1) the shape of nursing knowledge, "science" or "art"?; 2) the caring arts: passively regulative or consciously creative labor?; 3) busy hospital workers: a landscape of persons and objects or the creators of the scenery?; 4) nursing skills, arts, and the Tao; and 5) art liberation: is the nursing profession in need of a revolution or fundamental reform? This article utilizes diverse and occasionally contradictory points of view together with practical examples in order to encourage readers to interlink their disparate professional nursing skills and draw aesthetic knowledge from multiple sources and experiences. PMID:23922088

  15. Validation of AIRS V6 Near Surface Air Temperature Over Ocean and Corresponding Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H. V. T.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Manning, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Version 6 (V6) with combined infrared and microwave (IR+MW) retrieval of near surface air temperature over ocean (NSAT) and sea surface skin temperature (SST) are compared to a network of moored buoys from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON), and the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), to determine accuracy and precision. AIRS IR+MW retrieval of SST and NSAT is influenced by the presence of thick clouds and this study documents its effects and the impact of the cloud cleared radiances on the retrieval. The first guess to the IR+MW retrieval, based on a neural network using most of the AIRS infrared and AMSU-A microwave spectrum, is able to get within range of buoy measurements and AIRS physical retrieval improves upon the first guess solution when cloud coverage is limited.

  16. An empirical model for silver tantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Aouadi, S. M.; Johnson, E. R.; Martini, A.

    2013-07-01

    A set of parameters for the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was developed to describe the perovskite silver tantalate (AgTaO3). First, MEAM parameters for AgO and TaO were determined based on the structural and elastic properties of the materials in a B1 reference structure predicted by density-functional theory (DFT). Then, using the fitted binary parameters, additional potential parameters were adjusted to enable the empirical potential to reproduce DFT-predicted lattice structure, elastic constants, cohesive energy and equation of state for the ternary AgTaO3. Finally, thermal expansion was predicted by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the newly developed potential and compared directly to experimental values. The agreement with known experimental data for AgTaO3 is satisfactory, and confirms that the new empirical model is a good starting point for further MD studies.

  17. First-principles study on phase transition and ferroelectricity in lithium niobate and tantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoura, Kazuaki; Ohta, Masataka; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phase transitions and ferroelectricity of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 have been investigated theoretically from first principles. The phonon analyses and the molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ferroelectric phase transition is not conventional displacive type but order-disorder type with strong correlation between cation displacements. According to the evaluated potential energy surfaces around the paraelectric structures, the large difference in ferroelectricity between the two oxides results from the little difference in short-range interionic interaction between Nb-O and Ta-O. As the results of the crystal orbital overlap population analyses, the different short-range interaction originates from the difference in covalency between Nb4d-O2p and Ta5d-O2p orbitals, particularly dxz-px/dyz-py orbitals (π orbitals), from the electronic point of view.

  18. Improving the outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via rough internal interfaces.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Boris; Kaiser, Inga; Hauss, Julian; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2010-11-01

    We present low-cost texturing methods to produce different surface roughnesses on glass substrates. Using sand blasting, abrasion and wet etching we achieve roughnesses of about 50 nm to 250 nm (root mean squared roughness Rq). These textured substrates are used as extraction elements for guided modes and substrate modes in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We evaporate 50 nm of the high index material Ta?O? on the textured substrate, which acts as waveguide layer, and flatten it with the transparent photoresist SU-8. On top of that, we fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO)-free OLEDs, which are characterized by electroluminescence and photoluminescence measurements. The devices with rough interfaces obtain an up to 37.4% and 15.5% (at 20 mA/cm) enhanced emission and it is shown that the enhancement is due to an increased outcoupling efficiency. PMID:21165096

  19. Estimation of vegetation cover at subpixel resolution using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the various approaches relevant to estimating canopy cover at subpixel resolution. The approaches are based on physical models of radiative transfer in non-homogeneous canopies and on empirical methods. The effects of vegetation shadows and topography are examined. Simple versions of the model are tested, using the Taos, New Mexico Study Area database. Emphasis has been placed on using relatively simple models requiring only one or two bands. Although most methods require some degree of ground truth, a two-band method is investigated whereby the percent cover can be estimated without ground truth by examining the limits of the data space. Future work is proposed which will incorporate additional surface parameters into the canopy cover algorithm, such as topography, leaf area, or shadows. The method involves deriving a probability density function for the percent canopy cover based on the joint probability density function of the observed radiances.

  20. First International Conference between West and EastLeonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti DOriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi Tao and Science will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  1. Modulation of Yeast Sln1 Kinase Activity by the Ccw12 Cell Wall Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Sandhya S.; Malone, Cheryl L.; Deschenes, Robert J.; Fassler, Jan S.

    2010-01-01

    The yeast Sln1p sensor kinase is best known as an osmosensor involved in the regulation of the hyperosmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Down-regulation of Sln1 kinase activity occurs under hypertonic conditions and leads to phosphorylation of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased osmotic stress-response gene expression. Conditions leading to kinase up-regulation include osmotic imbalance caused by glycerol retention in the glycerol channel mutant, fps1 (Tao, W., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 360–367). The hypothesis that Sln1p kinase activity is responsive to turgor was first suggested by the increased Sln1p kinase activity in mutants lacking Fps1p in which glycerol accumulation leads to water uptake. Also consistent with the turgor hypothesis is the observation that reduced turgor caused by treatment of cells with nystatin, a drug that increases membrane permeability and causes cell shrinkage, reduced Sln1p kinase activity (Tao, W., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 360–367; Reiser, V., Raitt, D. C., and Saito, H. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1035–1040). The turgor hypothesis is revisited here in the context of the identification and characterization of the cell wall gene, CCW12, as a determinant of Sln1p activity. Results of this analysis suggest that the activity of the plasma membrane localized Sln1p is affected by the presence or absence of specific outer cell wall proteins and that this effect is independent of turgor. PMID:18048366

  2. Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharada, M.; Suresh Babu, D.

    2012-10-01

    Glasses with formula 30Li2O 60B2O3xTa2O5 (10-x) Bi2O3 for x=0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 were prepared via normal melt quenching technique and characterized by refractive index and MDSC. Refractive index (?) and glass transition temperature (Tg) are found to increase with increase in dopant concentration. Impedance spectra of the samples were recorded in the frequency range 100 Hz-5 MHz in the temperature range 175-275 C. The plots are typical of those recorded for disordered systems. Conductivities and relaxation times are found to follow Arrhenius type of relation and activation energies are calculated. Optical absorption spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 200-900 nm range from which cutoff wavelength (?c) and optical band gap energy (Eg) are evaluated. ?c is found to decrease while Eg to increase with increase in composition. FTIR spectra of the samples were recorded in the frequency range 400-1500 cm-1 which exhibit characteristic bands corresponding to BO3, BO4 stretching vibrations and BO bending vibration. Tightening of the structure is indicated by increase in the vibration of BO3 at the cost of BO4 for 8 mol% of Ta2O5. This is in support of the highest value of Tg for this sample among the series. Raman spectra of the samples were recorded in the frequency range 200-1200 cm-1. With successive addition of Ta2O5, increase in the vibration of Ta-O groups TaO6 groups to be responsible for observed increase in ? and Tg. An attempt is made to prepare tantalum doped borate glasses and study them by spectroscopic techniques.

  3. The lower vitamin C plasma concentrations in elderly men compared with elderly women can partly be attributed to a volumetric dilution effect due to differences in fat-free mass.

    PubMed

    Jungert, Alexandra; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2015-03-14

    Women show higher vitamin C plasma concentrations than men, but the reasons for this observation still require elucidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether sex differences in vitamin C plasma concentrations are present in elderly subjects and whether these differences are due to sex-specific lifestyles, total antioxidant status (TAOS) and/or body composition. Fasting plasma concentrations of vitamin C were assessed by photometric detection in a cross-sectional study of 181 women and eighty-nine men aged 62-92 years. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Vitamin C intake was assessed with a 3 d estimated dietary record. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether sex is an independent predictor of vitamin C plasma concentrations by controlling for age, vitamin C intake, lifestyle factors, TAOS and body composition. Women showed higher vitamin C plasma concentrations than men (76 v. 62 μmol/l, P< 0·0001). In the multiple regression analysis, male sex was a negative predictor of vitamin C plasma concentrations (β = -0·214), as long as absolute fat-free mass (FFM) was not considered as a confounder. When absolute FFM was included, sex was no longer a predictor of vitamin C plasma concentrations, whereas absolute FFM (β = -0·216), physical activity level (β = 0·165), intake of vitamin C supplements (β = 0·164), age (β = 0·147) and smoking (β = -0·125) affected vitamin C plasma concentrations. The results indicate that a higher absolute FFM, and thus a higher distribution volume of vitamin C, contributes to lower vitamin C plasma concentrations in men than women. PMID:25735881

  4. Cs(TaO2)3(SeO3)2 and Cs(TiOF)3(SeO3)2: structural and second harmonic generation changes induced by the different d(0)-TM coordination octahedra.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xue-Li; Hu, Chun-Li; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2015-04-20

    Two new cesium selenites containing TaO6 or TiO4F2 octahedra, namely, Cs(TaO2)3(SeO3)2 (1) and Cs(TiOF)3(SeO3)2 (2), have been prepared using standard high temperature solid-state method and hydrothermal reaction, respectively. Compound 1 crystallizes in P3?m1 and features an unusual [(TaO2)3(SeO3)2](-) sandwich-like double layer in which two [Ta(1)O3(SeO3)](3-) layers are bridged by central Ta(2)O6 octahedra via corner-sharing, whereas Cs(TiOF)3(SeO3)2 with a polar space group P63mc features an interesting hexagonal tungsten oxide (HTO) layered topology and presents a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) of about 5 KDP (KH2PO4), which is much larger than those of A(VO2)3(QO3)2 (A = K, Tl, Rb, Cs, or NH4; Q = Se, Te) with a similar HTO layered structure. Cs(TiOF)3(SeO3)2 is also type-I phase matching. The SHG of above-mentioned HTO materials can be enhanced greatly with the replacement of VO6 octahedra by TiO4F2 octahedra. Furthermore, thermal stabilities, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, infrared spectra, relationship between crystal structure and SHG, and theoretical calculations were also reported. PMID:25835387

  5. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs. PMID:25460062

  6. Reactions of Hf+, Ta+, and W+ with O2 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Christopher S.; Li, Fengxia; Armentrout, P. B.

    2009-02-01

    The reactions of Hf+, Ta+, and W+ with O2 and CO are studied as a function of translational energy in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. All three reactions with O2 form diatomic metal oxide cations in exothermic reactions that occur at the collision rate. In the CO systems, formation of both diatomic metal oxide and metal carbide cations is observed to be endothermic. The energy-dependent cross sections in the latter systems are interpreted to give 0 K bond energies (in eV) of D0(HfC+) = 3.19 0.03, D0(TaC+) = 3.79 0.04, D0(WC+) = 4.76 0.09, D0(HfO+) = 6.91 0.11, D0(TaO+) = 7.10 0.12, and D0(WO+) = 6.77 0.07. The present experimental values for TaO+ and WC+ agree well with literature thermochemistry, those for HfO+ and WO+ refine the available literature bond energies, and those for HfC+ and TaC+ are the first measurements available. The nature of the bonding in MO+ and MC+ is discussed and compared for these three metal ions and analyzed using theoretical calculations at a B3LYP/HW+/6-311+G(3df) level of theory. Bond energies for all MO+ and MC+ species are calculated using geometries calculated at this level and single point energies determined at B3LYP, CCSD, CCSD(T), QCISD, and QCISD(T) levels of theory with the same basis set. Reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental bond energies for the three metal oxide and three metal carbide cations is found. Potential energy surfaces for reaction of the metal cations with CO are also calculated at the B3LYP level of theory and reveal additional information about the reaction mechanisms.

  7. APEmille: a parallel processor in the teraflop range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzi, E.

    1997-02-01

    APEmille is a SIMD parallel processor under development at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). It is the third machine of the APE family, following Ape and Ape100 and delivering peak performance in the Tflops range. APEmille is very well suited for Lattice QCD applications, both for its hardware characteristics and for its software and language features. APEmille is an array of custom arithmetic processors arranged on a tridimensional torus. The replicated processor is a pipelined VLIW device performing integer and single/double precision IEEE floating point operations. The processor is optimized for complex computations and has a peak performance of 528Mflop at 66MHz. Each replica has 8 Mbytes of locally addressable RAM. In principle an array of 2048 nodes is able to break the Tflops barrier. Two other custom processors are used for program flow control, global addressing and inter node communications. Fast nearest neighbour communications as well as longer distance communications and data broadcast are available. APEmille is interfaced to the external world by a PCI interface and a HIPPI channel. A network of PCs act as the host computer. The APE operating system and the cross compiler run on it. A powerful programming language named TAO is provided and is highly optimized for QCD. A C++ compiler is foreseen. The TAO language is as simple as Fortran but as powerful as object oriented languages. Specific data structures, operators and even statements can be defined by the user for each different application. Effort has been made to define the language constructs for QCD.

  8. [The biological clock in vertebrate embryogenesis as a mechanism of general control over the developmental organism].

    PubMed

    Gorodilov, Iu N

    2010-01-01

    The problem of understanding the role of the time factor in embryogenesis is still at the conceptual stage. At the same time, a number of rhythmic processes described in the embryogenesis of animals point to the involvement of a biological clock in this period of ontogenesis. Most of them (biochemical, biophysical, cytological) have been identified during the process of cleavage and have a duration equal to that of a single cleavage division tau0. The current paper considers mainly the development of salmon fish embryos, which, in comparison with the widely used models (Danio rerio, Orysias latipes), have some extra advantages: they are about twice as big at similar stages and develop 30-40 times slower. The most pronounced and rhythmical process in vertebrates is somitogenesis. The work presents a series of fundamental facts in relation to the temporal and spatial aspects of somitogenesis: 1) the formation of each new somite occurs within a constant time tauS; 2) this time is controlled to a high degree of accuracy; 3) the size of new somites (l(S)) along the anterioposterior axis is constant; 4) the temporal factor, in contrast to the spatial, plays the primary role during morphogenesis of somites. The rhythms tau0 and taoS in different species are equal or are multiples of each other, an indication of their common origin. A high degree of synchronism in embryo development from the start of cleavage to the end ofsomitogenesis is revealed. This proves the existence of constant temporal control of their development during most of the period of embryogenesis. It is proposed that the endogenic rhythms under discussion are responsible for the coordination and integration of multilevel processes in embryogenesis, compensating for the lack of a formed nervous system during this period. PMID:20873142

  9. Luminosity Correlations for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for Their Prompt and Afterglow Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, tau, for the standard Swift energy bands 50 - 100 keV and 100 - 200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L(sub iso) (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift GRBs taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, L(sub x), of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical XRT GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T(sub brk). We also present the L(sub x) - T(sub brk) relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation (rho = -0.65 for the L(sub iso) - tao and rho = -0.88 for the L(sub x) -T(sub brk) relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power law indices (-1.19 +/- 0.17 for L(sub iso) - tau and -1.10 +/- 0.03 for L(sub x) - T(sub brk)). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although tau and T(sub brk) represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L(sub iso) - tao) extrapolates into the second one for timescales tau similar to T(sub brk) This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  10. Retinopathy in non diabetics, diabetic retinopathy and oxidative stress: a new phenotype in Central Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mvitu Muaka, Moise; Masamba, Wayiza; Muizila Kini, Lucien; Longo Phemba, Igor; Kibokela Ndembe, Dalida; Tulomba Mona, Doris

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the rates of retinopathy without diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR), associated with some markers of oxidative stress, antioxidants and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS We determined the prevalence of DR in 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, that of retinopathy in 50 non diabetics, the levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-glutamyl transferase GT (GGT), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid, creatinine, albumin, total antioxidant status (TAOS), zinc, selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, glucose, apolipoprotein B (ApoB). RESULTS The prevalences of DR at 53y and Rtp at 62y were 44% (n=66) and 10% (n=5), respectively. The highest levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, TBARS, SOD, and OxLDL were in DR. The lowest levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, TAOS, and vitamin E were in DR. In the case-control study discriminant analysis, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, ApoB, 8-OHdG, creatinine, Zn, vitamin E, and WC distinguished significantly non-diabetics without DR (controls), T2DM patients without DR and T2DM patients with DR. CONCLUSION Anticipation of DR onset is significantly associated with the exageration of oxidative stress biomarkers or decrease of antioxidants in African type 2 diabetics. Prevention of oxidative stress and abdominal obesity is needed. Supplementation in vitamin C, D, and E should be recommended as complement therapies of T2DM. PMID:24790873

  11. Critical analysis of dimension reduction by a moment closure method in a population density approach to neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Ly, Cheng; Tranchina, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    Computational techniques within the population density function (PDF) framework have provided time-saving alternatives to classical Monte Carlo simulations of neural network activity. Efficiency of the PDF method is lost as the underlying neuron model is made more realistic and the number of state variables increases. In a detailed theoretical and computational study, we elucidate strengths and weaknesses of dimension reduction by a particular moment closure method (Cai, Tao, Shelley, & McLaughlin, 2004; Cai, Tao, Rangan, & McLaughlin, 2006) as applied to integrate-and-fire neurons that receive excitatory synaptic input only. When the unitary postsynaptic conductance event has a single-exponential time course, the evolution equation for the PDF is a partial differential integral equation in two state variables, voltage and excitatory conductance. In the moment closure method, one approximates the conditional kth centered moment of excitatory conductance given voltage by the corresponding unconditioned moment. The result is a system of k coupled partial differential equations with one state variable, voltage, and k coupled ordinary differential equations. Moment closure at k = 2 works well, and at k = 3 works even better, in the regime of high dynamically varying synaptic input rates. Both closures break down at lower synaptic input rates. Phase-plane analysis of the k = 2 problem with typical parameters proves, and reveals why, no steady-state solutions exist below a synaptic input rate that gives a firing rate of 59 s(1) in the full 2D problem. Closure at k = 3 fails for similar reasons. Low firing-rate solutions can be obtained only with parameters for the amplitude or kinetics (or both) of the unitary postsynaptic conductance event that are on the edge of the physiological range. We conclude that this dimension-reduction method gives ill-posed problems for a wide range of physiological parameters, and we suggest future directions. PMID:17571938

  12. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-12-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  13. Cytochrome P450 induction and metabolism of alkoxyresorufins, ethylmorphine and testosterone in cultured hepatocytes from goats, sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    van 't Klooster, G A; Blaauboer, B J; Noordhoek, J; van Miert, A S

    1993-11-17

    Very little is known of cytochrome P450 (P450) patterns and enzyme characteristics in food-producing animal species. Oxidative metabolism of alkoxyresorufins, ethylmorphine (EtM) and testosterone (TST) was used to monitor the effects of the P450 inducers phenobarbital (PB), beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), dexamethasone (DEX) and triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) in primary cultured hepatocytes from goats, sheep and cattle. BNF effectively and specifically induced ethoxyresorufin deethylase (> 20-fold), indicating the presence of an inducible P450 1A form, and down-regulated EtM demethylation and most selected TST hydroxylations. In non-induced hepatocyte cultures, TST was metabolized to 6 beta-, 2 beta-, 12 beta-, and 11 alpha-hydroxy-TST (OHT). PB and, to a lesser extent, DEX non-specifically induced all OHT formations, and EtM demethylation. TAO almost completely inhibited OHT formation and EtM demethylation. These results indicate the involvement of principally one P450 form, or a restricted number of related P450 forms, presumably belonging to the P450 3A subfamily. In western blot analysis, cross reactivity was found with rat anti-P450 3A1 and anti-sheep P450 3A. A more specific PB effect was observed for 16 alpha-OHT, which may be formed though a ruminant P450 2B form. None of the inducers influenced pentoxyresorufin depentylase (PROD) or EtM O-deethylation. Metabolite patterns and inducibility of selected activities in ruminant hepatocytes are in accordance with previous findings in goats in vivo. Cytochrome P450 characteristics in ruminants appear to differ from those in rats whereas similarities to the situation in humans appear to exist. PMID:8250964

  14. The Impact of Model Configuration and Large-Scale, Upper-Level Forcing on CRM-Simulated Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Starr, D.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D, see a brief review by Tao 2003). Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, at NOAA GFDL, at the U. K. Met. Office, at Colorado State University and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Tao 2003). At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (September 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (June 2-11, 1998), ARM (June 26-30, 1997) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 km domain (with 2-kilometer resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. However, there are difference in radiation, surface fluxes and precipitation characteristics. The 2D GCE model was used to perform a long-term integration on ARM/GCSS case 4 (22 days at the ARM southern Great Plains site in March 2000). Preliminary results showed a large temperature bias in the upper troposphere that had not been seen in previous tropical cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to determine the sensitivities to model configuration (ie., 2D in west-east, south-north or 3D), (2) to identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between 2D- and 3D-simulated ARM cloud systems, and (3) assess the impact of upper tropospheric forcing on tropical and ARM case 4 cases.

  15. The Impact of Model Configuration and Large-Scale, Upper-Level Forcing on CRM- Simulated Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Starr, D.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D, see a brief review by Tao 2003). Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, at NOAA GFDL, at the U. K. Met. Office, at Colorado State University and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Tao 2003). At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (September 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (June 2-11, 1998), ARM (June 26-30, 1997) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 by 512 km domain (with 2-km resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. However, there are difference in radiation, surface fluxes and precipitation characteristics. The 2D GCE model was used to perform a long-term integration on ARM/GCSS case 4 (22 days at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in March 2000). Preliminary results showed a large temperature bias in the upper troposphere that had not been seen in previous tropical cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to determine the sensitivities to model configuration (i.e., 2D in west-east, south-north or 3D), (2) to identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between 2D- and 3D-simulated ARM cloud systems, and (3) assess the impact of upper tropospheric forcing on tropical and ARM case 4 cases.

  16. Acclerator R&D for a Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.L.; Dugan, G.; Gibbons, L.; Palmer, M.; Patterson, R.; Sagan, D.; Smith, J.C.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Fields, J.; Urban, J.

    2008-11-26

    The goal of this project was to perform simulations of beam transport in linear colliders, with an emphasis on emittance dilution, spin polarization transport, and development and testing of beam based tuning algorithms. Our simulations are based on an existing object-oriented particle-tracking library, Bmad. To facilitate the efficient development of simulations, an accelerator design and analysis program based on Bmad has been developed called Tao (Tool for Accelerator Optics). The three beam-based alignment algorithms, Dispersion Free Steering, Ballistic Alignment (BA), and the Kubo Method have been implemented in Tao. We have studied the effects of magnet misalignments, BPM resolution, beam jitter, stray fields, BPM and steering magnet failure and the effects of various cavity shape wakefields. A parametric study has been conducted in the presence of the above types of errors for all three alignment algorithms. We find that BPM resolution has only modest impact on the effectiveness of beam based alignment. The DFS correction algorithm was found to be very robust in situations where there were BPM and/or steering magnet failures. The wakefields in the main linac are very weak and cause negligible emittance growth. Spin tracking was extended to study all accelerator components between the damping ring and the interaction point, including RF cavities and the helical undulator. We find that there is no significant depolarization in the RTML, main linac or beam delivery system and that the polarization is relatively insensitive to misalignment. We have developed an effective spin rotator. During the final year of the grant we exploited the computing power of our new linux cluster, along with the modeling codes that we had developed, to investigate damping ring physics and design, specifically as it relates to the CESR Test Accelerator project.

  17. Role of Tob55 on mitochondrial protein biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shvetank; Singha, Ujjal K; Chaudhuri, Minu

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins in parasitic protozoa like Trypanosoma brucei are poorly characterized. In fungi and higher eukaryotes, Tob55 is responsible for the assembly of ?-barrel proteins in the MOM. Here we show that T. brucei Tob55 (TbTob55) has considerable similarity in its primary and secondary structure to Tob55 from other species. TbTob55 is localized in T. brucei MOM and is essential for procyclic cell survival. Induction of Tob55 RNAi decreased the level of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) within 48 h. Although the primary effect is on VDAC, induction of TbTob55 RNAi for a longer time period also decreased the levels of other nucleus encoded mitochondrial proteins. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced at this later time point possibly due to a reduction in the level of the proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondrial structure was not altered due to depletion of Tob55. In vitro protein import of VDAC into mitochondria with a 50-60% reduction of TbTob55 was reduced about 40% in comparison to uninduced control. In addition, the import of presequence-containing proteins such as, cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 (COIV) and trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) was affected by about 20 % under this condition. Depletion of VDAC levels by RNAi did not affect the import of either COIV or TAO. Furthermore, TbTob55 over expression increased the steady state level of VDAC as well as the level of the assembled protein complex of VDAC, suggesting that similar to other eukaryotes TbTob55 is involved in assembly of MOM ?-barrel proteins and plays an indirect role in the biogenesis of mitochondrial preproteins destined for the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:20659504

  18. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, D

    1999-07-01

    Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism are usually produced by transplacental passage of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins. Most commonly, the thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins are a component of active maternal Graves' disease. However, such antibodies may continue to be produced after ablation of the thyroid by surgery, radioiodine, or by the immune mechanisms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Other mechanisms that have produced fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism include activating mutations of the stimulatory G protein in McCune-Albright syndrome and activating mutations of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Fetal hyperthyroidism may be associated with intrauterine growth retardation, nonimmune fetal hydrops, craniosynostosis, and intrauterine death. Features of this condition in the neonate include hyperkinesis, diarrhea, poor weight gain, vomiting, ophthalmopathy, cardiac failure and arrhythmias, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, hyperviscosity syndrome, thrombocytopenia, and craniosynostosis. The time course of thyrotoxicosis depends on etiology. Remission by 20 weeks is most common in neonatal Graves' disease; remission by 48 weeks is nearly always seen. A subset of these patients may have persistent disease when there is a strong family history of Graves' diseases. Disease persistence is characteristic of patients with activating mutations of the TSH receptor. Treatment of fetal hyperthyroidism comprises administration of antithyroid drugs to the mother. Fetal heart rate and fetal growth should be monitored. Ultrasonography may reveal changes in thyroid size. At times, cordocentesis may be useful for monitoring fetal thyroid function. Hyperthyroid neonates may be treated with antithyroid drugs, beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents, iodine, or iodinated contrast agents, and at times, with glucocorticoids and digoxin. Nonremitting causes of neonatal hyperthyroidism require ablative treatments such as thyroidectomy. PMID:10447021

  19. A{sup -2} {yields} G transition at the 3{prime} acceptor splice site of IVS17 characterizes the COL2A1 gene mutation in the original Stickler syndrome kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Ganguly, A.; Considine, E.

    1996-06-14

    Hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, or {open_quotes}Stickler syndrome,{close_quotes} is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia characterized by a variety of ocular and skeletal anomalies which frequently lead to retinal detachment and precocious osteoarthritis. A variety of mutations in the COL2A1 gene have been identified in {open_quotes}Stickler{close_quotes} families; in most cases studied thus far, the consequence of mutation is the premature generation of a stop codon. We report here the characterization of a COL2A1 gene mutation in the original kindred described by Stickler et al. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used to screen for mutations in the entire COL2A1 gene in an affected member from the kindred. A prominent heteroduplex species was noted in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from a region of the gene including exons 17 to 20. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA resulted in the identification of a base substitution at the A{sup -2} position of the 3{prime} splice acceptor site of IVS17. Sequencing of DNA from affected and unaffected family members confirmed that the mutation segregated with the disease phenotype. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of poly A+ RNA demonstrated that the mutant allele utilized a cryptic splice site in exon 18 of the gene, eliminating 16 bp at the start of exon 18. This frameshift eventually results in a premature termination codon. These findings are the first report of a splice site mutation in classical Stickler syndrome and they provide a satisfying historical context in which to view COL2A1 mutations in this dysplasia. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10 in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferri, Clodoveo; Fallahi, Poupak

    2014-03-01

    (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10 (CXCL10) belongs to the ELR(-) CXC subfamily chemokine. CXCL10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), a seven trans-membrane receptor coupled to G proteins. CXCL10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjögren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of CXCL10 by cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+, natural killer (NK) and NK-T cells is dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ, which is itself mediated by the interleukin-12 cytokine family. Under the influence of IFN-γ, CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, thyrocytes, preadipocytes, etc. Determination of high level of CXCL10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of host immune response, especially T helper (Th)1 orientated T-cells. In tissues, recruited Th1 lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 secretion from a variety of cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Further studies are needed to investigate interactions between chemokines and cytokines in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and to evaluate whether CXCL10 is a novel therapeutic target in various autoimmune diseases. PMID:24189283

  1. Corneal biomechanical properties in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Altan, C?gdem; Ozturker, Can; Aksoy, Ebru Funda; Demirok, Ahmet; Y?lmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of thyroid eye disease (TED) on the measurement of corneal biomechanical properties and the relationship between these parameters and disease manifestations. A total of 54 eyes of 27 individuals with TED and 52 eyes of 30 healthy control participants were enrolled. Thyroid ophthalmopathy activity was defined using the VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance/exposure) classification for TED. The intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), axial length (AL), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were taken from each patient. Corneal biomechanical properties, including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) and noncontact IOP measurements, Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg) and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) using the standard technique. Parameters such as best corrected visual acuity, axial length, central corneal thickness, and corneal curvature were not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). IOP measured with GAT was higher in participants with TED (p < 0.001). The CH of TED patients was significantly lower than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in the corneal resistance factor between groups. However, IOPg and IOPcc were significantly higher in TED patients. CH and VISA grading of TED patients showed a negative correlation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, TED affects the corneal biomechanical properties by decreasing CH. IOP with GAT and IOPg is found to be increased in these patients. As the severity of TED increases, CH decreases in these patients. PMID:24835350

  2. Graves Disease Is Associated with a Defective Expression of the Immune Regulatory Molecule Galectin-9 in Antigen-Presenting Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Hortensia; Rodrguez-Muoz, Ana; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Sampedro-Nuez, Miguel; Snchez-Madrid, Francisco; Gonzlez-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mnica

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) show defects in their immune-regulatory mechanisms. Herein we assessed the expression and function of galectin-1 and galectin-9 (Gal-1, Gal-9) in dendritic cells (DCs) from patients with AITD. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples from 25 patients with Graves disease (GD), 11 Hashimotos thyroiditis (HT), and 24 healthy subjects were studied. Thyroid tissue samples from 44 patients with AITD and 22 patients with goiter were also analyzed. Expression and function of Gal-1 and Gal-9 was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Results A diminished expression of Gal-9, but not of Gal-1, by peripheral blood DCs was observed in GD patients, mainly in those with Graves ophthalmopathy, and a significant negative association between disease severity and Gal-9 expression was detected. In addition, the mRNA levels of Gal-9 and its ligand TIM-3 were increased in thyroid tissue from AITD patients and its expression was associated with the levels of Th1/Th12/Th17 cytokines. Immunofluorescence studies proved that intrathyroidal Gal-9 expression was confined to DCs and macrophages. Finally, in vitro functional assays showed that exogenous Gal-9 had a suppressive effect on the release of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines by DC/lymphocyte autologous co-cultures from both AITD patients and healthy controls. Conclusions The altered pattern of expression of Gal-9 in peripheral blood DCs from GD patients, its correlation with disease severity as well as its ability to suppress cytokine release suggest that Gal-9 could be involved in the pathogenesis of AITD. PMID:25880730

  3. Matrix Expansion and Syncytial Aggregation of Syndecan-1+ Cells Underpin Villous Atrophy in Coeliac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salvestrini, Camilla; Lucas, Mark; Lionetti, Paolo; Torrente, Franco; James, Sean; Phillips, Alan D.; Murch, Simon H.

    2014-01-01

    Background We studied the expression of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in coeliac disease (CD) mucosa, as they are critical determinants of tissue volume, which increases in active disease. We also examined mucosal expression of IL-6, which stimulates excess GAG synthesis in disorders such as Grave's ophthalmopathy. Methods We stained archival jejunal biopsies from 5 children with CD at diagnosis, on gluten-free diet and challenge for sulphated GAGs. We then examined duodenal biopsies from 9 children with CD compared to 9 histological normal controls, staining for sulphated GAGs, heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG), short-chain HSPG (Δ-HSPG) and the proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138), which is expressed on epithelium and plasma cells. We confirmed findings with a second monoclonal in another 12 coeliac children. We determined mucosal IL-6 expression by immunohistochemistry and PCR in 9 further cases and controls, and used quantitative real time PCR for other Th17 pathway cytokines in an additional 10 cases and controls. Results In CD, HSPG expression was lost in the epithelial compartment but contrastingly maintained within an expanded lamina propria. Within the upper lamina propria, clusters of syndecan-1+ plasma cells formed extensive syncytial sheets, comprising adherent plasma cells, lysed cells with punctate cytoplasmic staining and shed syndecan ectodomains. A dense infiltrate of IL-6+ mononuclear cells was detected in active coeliac disease, also localised to the upper lamina propria, with significantly increased mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-17A but not IL-23 p19. Conclusions Matrix expansion, through syndecan-1+ cell recruitment and lamina propria GAG increase, underpins villous atrophy in coeliac disease. The syndecan-1+ cell syncytia and excess GAG production recapitulate elements of the invertebrate encapsulation reaction, itself dependent on insect transglutaminase and glutaminated early response proteins. As in other matrix expansion disorders, IL-6 is upregulated and represents a logical target for immunotherapy in patients with coeliac disease refractory to gluten-free diet. PMID:25198673

  4. Analysis of four families with the Stickler syndrome by linkage studies. Identification of a new premature stop codon in the COL2A1 gene in a family

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaventure, J.; Lasselin, C.; Toutain, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy which associates progressive myopia with vitreal degeneration and retinal detachment. Cleft palate, cranio-facial abnormalities, deafness and osteoarthritis are often associated symptoms. Genetic heterogeneity of this autosomal dominant disease was consistent with its large clinical variability. Linkage studies have provided evidence for cosegregation of the disease with COL2A1, the gene coding for type II collagen, in about 50% of the families. Four additional families are reported here. Linkage analyses by using a VNTR located in the 3{prime} region of the gene were achieved. In three families, positive lod scores were obtained with a cumulative maximal value of 3.5 at a recombination fraction of 0. In one of these families, single strand conformation analysis of 25 exons disclosed a new mutation in exon 42. Codon for glutamic acid at position a1-803 was converted into a stop codon. The mutation was detected in DNA samples from all the affected members of the family but not in the unaffected. This result confirms that most of the Stickler syndromes linked to COL2A1 are due to premature stop codons. In a second family, an abnormal SSCP pattern of exon 34 was detected in all the affected individuals. The mutation is likely to correspond to a splicing defect in the acceptor site of intron 33. In one family the disease did not segregate with the COL2A1 locus. Further linkage studies with intragenic dimorphic sites in the COL10A1 gene and highly polymorphic markers close to the COL9A1 locus indicated that this disorder did not result from defects in these two genes.

  5. Levels of regulatory T cells CD69(+)NKG2D(+)IL-10(+) are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ana; Vitales-Noyola, Marlen; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mónica

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). New subsets of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes that behave as regulatory cells have been recently reported. The role of these immunoregulatory lymphocytes has not been previously explored in AITD. We analyzed by multi-parametric flow cytometry different Treg cell subsets in peripheral blood from 32 patients with AITD and 19 controls, and in thyroid tissue from seven patients. The suppressive activity was measured by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. We found a significant increased percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+), CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+), and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells, in peripheral blood from GD patients compared to controls. The increase in CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) T cells was especially remarkable in patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and a significant positive correlation between GO activity and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) or CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells was also found. In addition, these cells were increased in patients with a more severe and/or prolonged disease. Thyroid from AITD patients showed an increased proportion of CD69(+) regulatory T cells subpopulations compared to autologous peripheral blood. The presence of CD69(+), NKG2D(+), and IL-10(+) cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro functional assays showed that CD69(+) Treg cells exerted an important suppressive effect on the activation of T effector cells in controls, but not in AITD patients. Our findings suggest that the levels of CD69(+) regulatory lymphocytes are increased in AITD patients, but they are apparently unable to down-modulate the autoimmune response and tissue damage. PMID:26100786

  6. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unilateral Orbital Lymphoma and Orbital Pseudo-Tumors: A Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Kazumi Tanyi, James A.; Stea, Baldassarre

    2009-04-01

    Orbital lymphoma and Grave's ophthalmopathy (GO) are successfully treated with radiation therapy. The lenses are blocked to prevent cataract formation. However, blocking of the lens by traditional methods can be difficult for tumors located anteriorly and extending into the retrobulbar space. We present a series of 3 patients with orbital lymphoma and 1 with GO treated with stereotactic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to spare normal structures, including the lens. Three patients with orbital lymphomas and 1 with unilateral GO were treated with IMRT using a linac with stereotactic capabilities. Avoidance structures included the ipsilateral lens and globe, the contralateral lens and globe, the chiasm, and the brainstem. Two patients with orbital lymphoma were treated with 24 Gy in 12 fractions, and 1 patient was treated with 30.6 Gy in 17 fractions. The patient with GO was treated with 20 Gy in 10 fractions. The dosimetry was analyzed to determine the dose to normal tissues. Patient follow-up varies between 8 and 24 months. The mean minimal dose to the ipsilateral lens was 13.6% of the total dose, the mean maximal dose was 33.5%, and the mean median dose was 19.3%. The mean median dose to the contralateral eye was 1.1% of the total dose. The mean median dose to the chiasm was 14.9% of the total dose. The mean median dose to the brainstem was 1.9% of the total dose. No cataracts or other complications were noted in the 4 patients treated with this technique so far. IMRT gives a more conformal treatment to the orbital contents while sparing normal tissues such as the ipsilateral lens and adjacent critical structures. This should result in fewer complications such as cataracts.

  7. Isolated skeletal muscle metastatic deposit in a patient with micropapillary carcinoma thyroid identified by 18F FDG PET CT.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Manjit; Sonik, Bhavya; Subramanyam, Padma; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

    2015-03-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid is said to be low risk differentiated thyroid malignancy with excellent prognosis. We report the identification of an isolated FDG avid muscle deposit in a treated case of micropapillary carcinoma of the right lobe and widely invasive follicular carcinoma of the left lobe thyroid gland. Patient was found to have an elevated thyroglobulin level with negative iodine scan (TENIS syndrome) on follow up at 6 months. An 18F FDG PET CT (18 fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography) whole body study revealed a solitary FDG avid deltoid muscle deposit which was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic papillary carcinoma. While follicular carcinoma is known to have distant metastases, this may be the first reported case of solitary skeletal metastases from micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid and probably the second reported skeletal muscle deposit from DTC detected on 18F FDG PET CT done following elevated thyroglobulin level and negative 131 iodine WB scan (TENIS). This case also assumes importance because it demonstrates possibility of metastases even from a micropapillary carcinoma in contrast to American Thyroid Association guidelines (2009) which suggests that micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid does not merit further treatment after a Total Thyroidectomy. PMID:25698468

  8. de Quervain thyroiditis in a young boy following hand-foot-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Engkakul, Pontipa; Mahachoklertwattana, Pat; Poomthavorn, Preamrudee

    2011-04-01

    de Quervain thyroiditis, also known as subacute thyroiditis, is a self-limited inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is extremely rare in children. The hallmarks for diagnosis are painful thyroid enlargement, elevated inflammatory markers, and decreased uptake of the thyroid gland on thyroid scintigraphy. Viral infection has been proposed to be associated with de Quervain thyroiditis. Coxsackie virus has been reported to be one of the viruses associated with the disease. To our knowledge, childhood de Quervain thyroiditis associated with hand-foot-mouth disease caused by coxsackie infection has never been reported. We report a 2.7-year-old boy who presented with typical features of de Quervain thyroiditis following hand-foot-mouth disease caused by coxsackie B4 infection. He had a brief thyrotoxic phase initially, followed by transient hypothyroid phase and euthyroidism thereafter. His thyroid scintigraphy showed a typical faint uptake at the diagnosis, and an improvement of the thyroid scan and uptake was shown 8 weeks later. He was treated with prednisolone and nearly complete resolution was documented within 2 months. Careful evaluation of the patient led to the correct diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:20886354

  9. Extent of surgery for papillary thyroid cancer: preoperative imaging and role of prophylactic and therapeutic neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Shen, Wen T; Gosnell, Jessica E

    2012-03-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has an excellent prognosis, yet lymph node metastases are common. Most authors agree that central and/or lateral lymph node dissection should be undertaken in patients with abnormal lymph nodes detected on ultrasound, physical examination or intraoperative inspection. However the appropriate extent of prophylactic lymph node dissection for clinically node-negative patients remains the subject of controversy. There have been no randomized trials to date to offer guidance on this issue. The 2006 guidelines of the American Thyroid Association recommended consideration of prophylactic bilateral central lymph node dissection (CLND) for all patients undergoing thyroidectomy for PTC. However, the absence of compelling evidence for a benefit in terms of recurrence or survival, and the potential for increased morbidity, have led many, including our institution, to take an approach of selective central lymph node dissection. This approach is guided by the detection of abnormal lymph nodes on preoperative ultrasound, on physical examination, or during surgery. Postoperatively, ultrasound by an experienced ultrasonographer is the mainstay of evaluation for lymph node recurrence and is combined with monitoring of thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody levels. Reoperative lymph node dissection is typically undertaken upon detection and fine needle aspiration (FNA) of involved lymph nodes 0.8 cm or greater in size. PMID:22278672

  10. Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Paulson, Jerome A; Baum, Carl; Brock-Utne, Alice C; Brumberg, Heather L; Campbell, Carla C; Lanphear, Bruce P; Lowry, Jennifer A; Osterhoudt, Kevin C; Sandel, Megan T; Spanier, Adam; Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-06-01

    Many women of reproductive age in the United States are marginally iodine deficient, perhaps because the salt in processed foods is not iodized. Iodine deficiency, per se, can interfere with normal brain development in their offspring; in addition, it increases vulnerability to the effects of certain environmental pollutants, such as nitrate, thiocyanate, and perchlorate. Although pregnant and lactating women should take a supplement containing adequate iodide, only about 15% do so. Such supplements, however, may not contain enough iodide and may not be labeled accurately. The American Thyroid Association recommends that pregnant and lactating women take a supplement with adequate iodide. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pregnant and lactating women also avoid exposure to excess nitrate, which would usually occur from contaminated well water, and thiocyanate, which is in cigarette smoke. Perchlorate is currently a candidate for regulation as a water pollutant. The Environmental Protection Agency should proceed with appropriate regulation, and the Food and Drug Administration should address the mislabeling of the iodine content of prenatal/lactation supplements. PMID:24864180

  11. High Body Mass Index Is an Indicator of Maternal Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroxinemia, and Thyroid-Peroxidase Antibody Positivity during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy complications and neurocognitive deficiencies in the developing fetus. Currently, some researchers demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with thyroid function in nonpregnant population. Hence, the American Thyroid Association recommended screening thyroid function in obese pregnant women; however, the evidence for this is weak. For this purpose, our study investigated the relationship between high BMI and thyroid functions during early pregnancy in Liaoning province, an iodine-sufficient region of China. Methods. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and BMI were determined in 6303 pregnant women. Results. BMI ? 25?kg/m2 may act as an indicator of hypothyroxinemia and TPOAb positivity and BMI ? 30?kg/m2 was associated with increases in the odds of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and TPOAb positivity. The prevalence of isolated hypothyroxinemia increased among pregnant women with BMI > 24?kg/m2. Conclusions. High BMI during early pregnancy may be an indicator of maternal thyroid dysfunction; for Asian women whose BMI > 24?kg/m2 and who are within 8 weeks of pregnancy, thyroid functions should be assessed especially. PMID:26273610

  12. Follicular thyroid carcinoma in a patient with myasthenia gravis and thymoma: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Ni, H; Htet, A

    2012-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoantibody-mediated disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction causing characteristic fatigable muscle weakness. Though it can be associated with tumours of the thymus as well as thyroid disorders, it is rare for both to coexist. The exact prevalence of thyroid carcinoma in MG with thymoma is not known but only about a dozen cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 38-year-old Myanmar lady who presented with weakness and breathlessness due to MG with neck swelling. On examination, she had fatigable proximal muscle weakness and thyroid enlargement with no obvious features of hyperthyroidism. Mediastinal widening and an enlarged thyroid gland were noted on her chest X-ray and chest CT. A subtotal thyroidectomy and thymectomy were done. The histology showed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and benign thymoma. The majority of the reported cases of thyroid carcinoma in association with MG were papillary carcinoma. Follicular carcinoma thyroid associated with MG has not yet been reported in the literature. PMID:23074376

  13. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Coincidence or Possible Link.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and often coexists with other autoimmune diseases, but Hashimoto's thyroiditis associated with an autosomal dominant neurofibromatosis type 1 is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 30-year-old Bengali woman presented to the OPD with complaints of aching pain and tingling sensation in her hands and feet. Physical examination revealed dysmorphic facies, nodular swelling in the neck, cafe-au-lait spots, and neurofibromas covering the entire surface of her body. Her thyroid hormones were within normal limits. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a cystic area in the left lobe of the gland, and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology revealed lymphocytic infiltration of the gland, suggesting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. High levels of autoimmune antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. When encountered with a patient of Neurofibromatosis type 1, a physician should be careful about the possibility of a concomitant autoimmune disease. Clinical presentation of neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome often overlaps and recent studies have implicated a mutation in NF1 gene in the etiology of NFNS. More extensive reports and further investigations of such patients having combination of neurofibromatosis type 1 and autoimmune thyroiditis will certainly provide better understanding of this link in the near future. PMID:23691379

  14. Pathology of Struma Ovarii: A Report of 96 Cases.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid tissue is a relatively frequent component of mature teratoma and can occur in 5-20% of cases. Struma ovarii is defined as ovarian goiter which comprises either entirely or predominantly thyroid tissue (>50%). This also includes cases of mature teratoma with less than 50% thyroid tissue but harboring thyroid-associated malignancy. A total of 118 patients with mature teratoma containing thyroid tissue were identified at our institution (1989 to 2014). Ninety-six cases were diagnosed struma ovarii, including 10 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 1 case of highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin (HDFCO), 5 cases of strumal carcinoid, and 80 cases of struma ovarii (53 cases of thyroid-only struma ovarii). Six cases had diffuse adenomatous hyperplasia, and seven cases had focal adenomatous hyperplasia. There was no recurrence on follow-up except one of the papillary thyroid carcinomas. Concurrent primary ovarian lesions included: serous cystadenoma-3, mucinous cystadenoma-4, Brenner tumor-3, thecoma-2, ovarian fibroma-1, and focal hilus cell hyperplasia-4 cases. In this series, papillary thyroid carcinoma and strumal carcinoid were the most common well-differentiated neoplasm/malignancies arising in struma ovarii; these demonstrate a minimal or no aggressive clinical behavior. PMID:26374222

  15. Reflections on the theory of "silver bullet" octreotide tracers: implications for ligand-receptor interactions in the age of peptides, heterodimers, receptor mosaics, truncated receptors, and multifractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The classical attitude of Nuclear Medicine practitioners on matters of peptide-receptor interactions has maintained an intrinsic monogamic character since many years. New advances in the field of biochemistry and even in clinical Nuclear Medicine have challenged this type of thinking, which prompted me to work on this review. The central issue of this paper will be the use of somatostatin analogs, i.e., octreotide, in clinical imaging procedures as well as in relation to neuroendocirne tumors. Newly described characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors such as the formation of receptor mosaics will be discussed. A small section will enumerate the regulatory processes found in the cell membrane. Possible new interpretations, other than tumor detection, based on imaging procedures with somatostatin analogs will be presented. The readers will be taken to situations such as inflammation, nociception, mechanosensing, chemosensing, fibrosis, taste, and vascularity where somatostatin is involved. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy will be used as a model for the development of multi-agent therapeutics. The final graphical summary depicts the multifactorial properties of ligand binding. PMID:22214590

  16. Maternal Hypothyroxinemia-Induced Neurodevelopmental Impairments in the Progeny.

    PubMed

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Maternal hypothyroxinemia can induce neurodevelopmental impairments in the developing fetus. We here review recent studies on the epidemiology and molecular mechanisms associated with this important public health issue. In 2011, the American Thyroid Association defined maternal hypothyroxinemia as low serum free thyroxine (FT4) levels (<5th or <10th percentile) existing in conjunction with normal serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels during pregnancy. Compared to clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia is more commonly found in pregnant women. Hypothyroxinemia usually ensues in response to several factors, such as mild iodine deficiency, environmental endocrine disrupters, or certain thyroid diseases. Unequivocal evidence demonstrates that maternal hypothyroxinemia leads to negative effects on fetal brain development, increasing the risks for cognitive deficits and poor psychomotor development in resulting progeny. In support of this, rodent models provide direct evidence of neurodevelopmental damage induced by maternal hypothyroxinemia, including dendritic and axonal growth limitation, neural abnormal location, and synaptic function alteration. The neurodevelopmental impairments induced by hypothyroxinemia suggest an independent role of T4. Increasing evidence indicates that adequate thyroxine is required for the mothers in order to protect against the abnormal brain development in their progeny. PMID:25666160

  17. DYSMICROBISM, INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE AND THYROIDITIS: ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, G; Tralongo, P; Amoroso, F; Damiani, P; Sinagra, E; Noto, M; Arculeo, V M; Jurjus Zein, R; Saad, W; Jurjus, A; Gerbino, A; Leone, A

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a large number of microbes that are collectively referred to as the microbiota. They interact with the hosting organism and some do contribute to the physiological maintenance of the general good health thru regulation of some metabolic processes while some others are essential for the synthesis of vitamins and short-chain fatty acids. The abnormal variation, in the quality and/or quantity of individual bacterial species residing in the gastro-intestinal tract, is called ?dysmicrobism?. The immune system of the host will respond to these changes at the intestinal mucosa level which could lead to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). This inflammatory immune response could subsequently extend to other organs and systems outside the digestive tract such as the thyroid, culminating in thyroiditis. The goal of the present study is to review and analyze data reported in the literature about thyroiditis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn?s Disease (CD). It was reported that similarities of some molecular bacterial components with molecular components of the host are considered among the factors causing IBD through an autoimmune reaction which could involve other non-immune cell types. The axis dysmicrobism-IBD-autoimmune reaction will be investigated as a possible etiopathogenic mechanism to Autoimmune Thyroiditis. If such is the case, then the employment of specific probiotic strains may represent a useful approach to moderate the immune system. PMID:26122213

  18. De Quervain thyroiditis in the course of H1N1 influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Michas, G; Alevetsovitis, G; Andrikou, I; Tsimiklis, S; Vryonis, E

    2014-01-01

    Background/aim: Viral infections have been frequently associated with subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the present case report we document a rare case of De Quervain thyroiditis in the course of H1N1 influenza infection. Description of the case: A 17-year-old previously healthy female that was treated in the General Hospital of Kalamata developed an influenza-like syndrome that was accompanied by palpitations, thyroid enlargement, and increased C-reactive protein. Polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed the diagnosis of H1N1 virus infection. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed to zero while the levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine were increased. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and thyroid function was gradually restored without evolving to a hypothyroid phase. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the second case described in the literature of De Quervain thyroiditis associated with H1N1 influenza infection. PMID:25125962

  19. Toward a high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesko, G. T.; Song, S.; Chang, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Turrin, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group [TVG] consists of five volcanic subgroups of which ~30 edifices have been identified, all in close proximity to the densely populated Taipei Basin to its south (Song et al., 2000, Journal of the Geological Society of China, in Chinese). Evidence of eruptions is in the form of mostly lava flows, with pyroclastic flows, and ash deposition (Tsai et al., 2010, TAO), consistent with vulcanian and plinian eruptions that are only minimally preserved because of the regions high weathering rate (Belousov et al., 2010, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research). The TVG is made up of calc-alkaline andesite, with few interspersed basaltic lava flows that bear geochemical signatures consistent with subduction volcanism, yet due to tectonic location Teng (1996, Geology) describes it as Ryukyu back-arc basin volcanism, and still others attribute volcanism here to post-collisional collapse of the Taiwan orogen (Wang et al., 1999, Tectonophysics and 2004, Journal of Petrology). Various TVG samples were previously K-Ar dated by Juang and Chen (1989, Bulletin of Central Geological Survey, in Chinese), Tsao (1994, Bulletin of Central Geological Survey, in Chinese), and 40Ar/39Ar whole rock analyses by Lee (1996, masters thesis, National Taiwan University) to suggest volcanism from 2.8-2.5Ma and then from 1.5-.22Ma after which volcanic events ceased. In contrast, radiocarbon dates obtained from charcoal in related sediment by Chen et al. (2010, TAO) and Belousov et al. (2010, Journal of Volcanology Geothermal Research) suggest volcanic activity was present at 20ka and 6ka respectively. The andesite samples are microcrystalline; therefore hand picked aliquots of groundmass from the hand magnetic fraction were subjected to several iterations of sonic rinse in glycine-based soap, then 4N HNO3, then quartz-distilled water in a preparation modified from Nicolaysen et al. (2000, EPSL). Samples were co-irradiated at the USGS facility in Denver using Alder Creek sanidine monitor standard, with an assumed age of 1.193.001Ma (Nomade et al., 2005, Chemical Geology). Multiple-grain step-heating analyses using 3 to 5 steps were executed on several aliquots of the samples using a VG5400 noble gas mass spectrometer equipped with a 30W CO2 laser. Ages were calculated using the isochron method on all the steps run for each sample in order to avoid the necessity of assuming an initial composition and so all of the data points from a single irradiation could be plotted together. The results have yielded ages far younger than previously reported in all of the TVG, with very unradiogenic Ar and with 40Ar/36Ar intercepts that are mostly higher than the atmospheric ratio of 298.560.31 (Lee et al., 2006, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta). The second eruptive stage (using eruptive stages mapped by Lai et al., 2010, TAO) yielded ages in different locations of .053.012Ma and .052.014Ma. A third sample that was previously mapped in this stage yielded an age of .17.03Ma. We have not yet been successful at obtaining reliable results on the stratigraphically youngest sample.

  20. Streamflow and water-quality trends of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, water years 1985 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Nolan, Emma O.

    2005-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque plans to divert San Juan-Chama Project water from the Rio Grande for potable water use. This report examines streamflow and water-quality trends in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande for water years 1985 to 2002 following the implementation of reservoir storage agreements in northern and central New Mexico. Streamflow/water-quality stations used for this study include the Rio Grande stations of Taos, Otowi, San Felipe, and Albuquerque and the Rio Chama station of Chamita. Water years 1985 to 2002 were a period of larger than average precipitation and streamflow compared to the stations. historical averages. Annual precipitation and streamflow trended downward during the study period because of a drought during 1999 to 2002. Streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande was divided into three distinct seasonal periods that corresponded to natural and anthropogenic influences: fall/winter baseflow (November through February), snowmelt runoff (March through June), and the irrigation/monsoon (July through October) seasons. A calcium bicarbonate water type was evident at all study area stations on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. Specific conductance increased downstream, but alkalinity and pH did not substantially change in the downstream direction. Nearly all nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were less than 1 milligram per liter for all stations. Median trace-element concentrations and maximum radionuclide concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Anthropogenic compounds were infrequently detected in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, and concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande varied spatially and temporally during water years 1985 to 2002. Specific conductance increased downstream in the Rio Grande during the fall/winter baseflow and snowmelt runoff seasons but was similar at the Taos, Otowi, and San Felipe stations during the irrigation/monsoon season. This similarity was a result of the release of stored water from Abiquiu Reservoir and Cochiti Lake, which masked the natural influences that increased specific conductance in the downstream direction during the other seasons. During all seasons, pH decreased and major ion concentrations remained stable at the Albuquerque station compared with the San Felipe station, but no single influence could be identified that caused these conditions. Manganese and uranium concentrations at the Otowi and San Felipe stations were largest during the fall/winter baseflow and smallest during the snowmelt runoff, indicating that ground-water inflows likely influenced these concentrations. Water-quality temporal trends were evaluated for selected constituents during the study period and during the individual seasons. Downward trends in major ion concentrations were similar in magnitude at the Taos and Otowi stations, indicating that an upstream influence and (or) the downward trend in annual precipitation was the main reason(s) for these trends. The stations most affected by reservoirs, Chamita and San Felipe, were the only stations at which downward trends in major ions were apparent for flow-adjusted concentrations but not for seasonally correlated low-adjusted concentrations, which indicates fewer seasonal differences at these stations due to reservoir operations.