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Sample records for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

  1. 256 × 2 SPAD line sensor for time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krstaji?, Nikola; Levitt, James; Poland, Simon; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Henderson, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We present a CMOS chip 256 × 2 single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) line sensor, 23.78 µm pitch, 43.7% fill factor, custom designed for time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES). Integrating time-to-digital converters (TDCs) implement on-chip mono-exponential fluorescence lifetime pre-calculation allowing timing of 65k photons/pixel at 200 Hz line rate at 40 ps resolution using centre-of-mass method (CMM). Per pixel time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) histograms can also be generated with 320 ps bin resolution. We characterize performance in terms of dark count rate, instrument response function and lifetime uniformity for a set of fluorophores with lifetimes ranging from 4 ns to 6 ns. Lastly, we present fluorescence lifetime spectra of multicolor microspheres and skin autofluorescence acquired using a custom built spectrometer. In TCSPC mode, time-resolved spectra are acquired within 5 minutes whilst in CMM mode spectral lifetime signatures are acquired within 2 ms for fluorophore in cuvette and 200 ms for skin autofluorescence. We demonstrate CMOS line sensors to be a versatile tool for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy by providing parallelized and flexible spectral detection of fluorescence decay. PMID:25836796

  2. Time-resolved Hyperspectral Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Frequency Modulated Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    ,; Neill, M

    2012-07-01

    An intensity-modulated excitation light source is used together with a micro channel plate intensified CCD (ICCD) detector gated at a slightly different frequency to generate a beat frequency from a fluorescent sample. The addition of a spectrograph produces a hyperspectral time-resolved data product where the resulting beat frequency is detected with a low frame rate camera. Measuring the beat frequency of the spectrum as a function of time allows separation of the excited fluorescence from ambient constant light sources. The excitation and detector repetition rates are varied over a range of discrete frequencies, and the phase shift of the beat wave maps out the emission decay rate(s).

  3. Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Austin; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Thoury, Mathieu; Comelli, Daniela; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2009-11-15

    The analysis of various varnishes from different origins, which are commonly found on historical musical instruments was carried out for the first time with both fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy and laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Samples studied include varnishes prepared using shellac, and selected diterpenoid and triterpenoid resins from plants, and mixtures of these materials. Fluorescence excitation emission spectra have been collected from films of naturally aged varnishes. In parallel, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of varnishes provides means for discriminating between short- (less than 2.0 ns) and long-lived (greater than 7.5 ns) fluorescence emissions in each of these complex materials. Results suggest that complementary use of the two non destructive techniques allows a better understanding of the main fluorophores responsible for the emission in shellac, and further provides means for distinguishing the main classes of other varnishes based on differences in fluorescence lifetime behaviour. Spectrofluorimetric data and time resolved spectra presented here may form the basis for the interpretation of results from future in situ fluorescence examination and time resolved fluorescence imaging of varnished musical instruments. PMID:19782228

  4. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1996-07-01

    A family of sensors is presented with fluorescence decay-time measurements used as the sensing technique. The concept is to take a single fluorophore with a suitably long fluorescence decay time as the basic building block for numerous different sensors. Analyte recognition can be performed by different functional groups that are necessary for selective interaction with the analyte. To achieve this, the principle of excited-state electron transfer is applied with pyrene as the fluorophore. Therefore the same instrumentation based on a small, ambient air-nitrogen laser and solid-state electronics can be used to measure different analytes, for example, oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, potassium, ammonium, lead, cadmium, zinc, and phosphate.

  5. Revealing the photophysics of gold-nanobeacons via time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guoke; Simionesie, Dorin; Sefcik, Jan; Sutter, Jens U; Xue, Qingjiang; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jinliang; Birch, David J S; Chen, Yu

    2015-12-15

    We demonstrate that time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate the conformation states of hairpin DNA on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and energy transfer processes in Au-nanobeacons. Long-range fluorescence quenching of Cy5 by AuNPs has been found to be in good agreement with electrodynamics modeling. Moreover, time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) is shown to be promising for real-time monitoring of the hybridization kinetics of Au-nanobeacons, with up to 60% increase in decay time component and 300% increase in component fluorescence fraction observed. Our results also indicate the importance of the stem and spacer designs for the performance of Au-nanobeacons. PMID:26670500

  6. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 ; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  7. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Yankelevich, Diego R; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S; Marcu, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8-7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores. PMID:24689603

  8. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S.; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores. PMID:24689603

  9. Use of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate diagnostic value of collagen degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Joanna; Cyrankiewicz, Micha?; Wybranowski, Tomasz; Ziomkowska, Blanka; O?mia?owski, Borys; Obo?ska, Ewa; Augusty?ska, Beata; Kruszewski, Stefan; Kubica, Jacek

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of collagen degradation products (CDPs) may reflect the process of left ventricular remodeling (LVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic usefulness of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) in assessment of CDPs. The preliminary experiment was designed to establish if CDPs' characteristics might be visible by mean fluorescence lifetime (FLT) in determined conditions. The in vitro model of CDPs was prepared by conducting the hydrolysis of type III collagen. The FLT of samples was measured by the time-resolved spectrometer Life Spec II with the subnanosecond pulsed 360-nm EPLED diode. The FLTs were obtained by deconvolution analysis of the data using a multiexponential model of fluorescence decay. In order to determine the limit of traceability of CDPs, a comparison of different collagen/plasma ratio in samples was performed. The results of our study showed that the increase of added plasma to hydrolyzed collagen extended the mean FLT. Thus, the diagnosis of LVR based on measurements using TRFS is possible. However, it is important to point out the experiment was preliminary and further investigation in this field of research is crucial.

  10. Probing Ternary Complex Equilibria of Crown Ether Ligands by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ternary complex formation with solvent molecules and other adventitious ligands may compromise the performance of metal-ion-selective fluorescent probes. As Ca(II) can accommodate more than 6 donors in the first coordination sphere, commonly used crown ether ligands are prone to ternary complex formation with this cation. The steric strain imposed by auxiliary ligands, however, may result in an ensemble of rapidly equilibrating coordination species with varying degrees of interaction between the cation and the specific donor atoms mediating the fluorescence response, thus diminishing the change in fluorescence properties upon Ca(II) binding. To explore the influence of ligand architecture on these equilibria, we tethered two structurally distinct aza-15-crown-5 ligands to pyrazoline fluorophores as reporters. Due to ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) quenching of the fluorophore by the ligand moiety, the fluorescence decay profile directly reflects the species composition in the ground state. By adjusting the PET driving force through electronic tuning of the pyrazoline fluorophores, we were able to differentiate between species with only subtle variations in PET donor abilities. Concluding from a global analysis of the corresponding fluorescence decay profiles, the coordination species composition was indeed strongly dependent on the ligand architecture. Altogether, the combination of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with selective tuning of the PET driving force represents an effective analytical tool to study dynamic coordination equilibria and thus to optimize ligand architectures for the design of high-contrast cation-responsive fluorescence switches. PMID:25313708

  11. Probing ternary complex equilibria of crown ether ligands by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M Thomas; Sumalekshmy, S; Sarwar, Mysha; Beck, Hillary; Crooke, Stephen; Fahrni, Christoph J

    2014-12-11

    Ternary complex formation with solvent molecules and other adventitious ligands may compromise the performance of metal-ion-selective fluorescent probes. As Ca(II) can accommodate more than 6 donors in the first coordination sphere, commonly used crown ether ligands are prone to ternary complex formation with this cation. The steric strain imposed by auxiliary ligands, however, may result in an ensemble of rapidly equilibrating coordination species with varying degrees of interaction between the cation and the specific donor atoms mediating the fluorescence response, thus diminishing the change in fluorescence properties upon Ca(II) binding. To explore the influence of ligand architecture on these equilibria, we tethered two structurally distinct aza-15-crown-5 ligands to pyrazoline fluorophores as reporters. Due to ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) quenching of the fluorophore by the ligand moiety, the fluorescence decay profile directly reflects the species composition in the ground state. By adjusting the PET driving force through electronic tuning of the pyrazoline fluorophores, we were able to differentiate between species with only subtle variations in PET donor abilities. Concluding from a global analysis of the corresponding fluorescence decay profiles, the coordination species composition was indeed strongly dependent on the ligand architecture. Altogether, the combination of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with selective tuning of the PET driving force represents an effective analytical tool to study dynamic coordination equilibria and thus to optimize ligand architectures for the design of high-contrast cation-responsive fluorescence switches. PMID:25313708

  12. Structure and dynamics of a DNA: polymerase complex by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, David P.; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    1990-05-01

    The interaction of a fluorescent DNA primer:template with the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I has been studied in solution using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The excited-state decay behavior and internal reorientation dynamics of a dansyl sulfonamide probe connected by a propyl chain to a modified uridine base in the primer strand were very sensitive to the local probe environment and exhibited characteristic changes upon binding of Kienow fragment to the DNA and elongation of the primer strand. Between 5 and 7 bases of duplex DNA upstream of the 3' primer terminus were protected from the solvent by the Kienow fragment and the strength of DNA:protein contacts varied within this region, being strongest at the 3' primer terminus. About 5% of the substrates were bound in a second spatially distinct site on the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Kienow fragment was consistent with this being the active site for 3'->5' exonuclease activity.

  13. Time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectroscopy of visible and near infrared dyes in picosecond dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) dyes absorb and emit light within the range from 700 to 900 nm have several benefits in biological studies for one- and/or two-photon excitation for deeper penetration of tissues. These molecules undergo vibrational and rotational motion in the relaxation of the excited electronic states, Due to the less than ideal anisotropy behavior of NIR dyes stemming from the fluorophores elongated structures and short fluorescence lifetime in picosecond range, no significant efforts have been made to recognize the theory of these dyes in time-resolved polarization dynamics. In this study, the depolarization of the fluorescence due to emission from rotational deactivation in solution will be measured with the excitation of a linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse and a streak camera. The theory, experiment and application of the ultrafast fluorescence polarization dynamics and anisotropy are illustrated with examples of two of the most important medical based dyes. One is NIR dye, namely Indocyanine Green (ICG) and is compared with Fluorescein which is in visible range with much longer lifetime. A set of first-order linear differential equations was developed to model fluorescence polarization dynamics of NIR dye in picosecond range. Using this model, the important parameters of ultrafast polarization spectroscopy were identified: risetime, initial time, fluorescence lifetime, and rotation times.

  14. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4.).

    PubMed

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-10-27

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution. PMID:26460936

  15. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed. PMID:25577254

  16. Fluorescent DNA base analogs: preparation, incorporation into oligonucleotides, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstrasser, Remo A.

    1996-04-01

    The synthesis of fluorescent DNA base analogs that can replace the natural bases adenine, thymine and cytosine and their incorporation into synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides is described. The effect on the stability of such modified nucleotides like 2-aminopurine and some pteridine derivatives, is studied by thermal melting studies and comparison with the corresponding unaltered oligonucleotides. The fluorescence spectroscopic properties and several applications of these new fluorescent DNA probes are described in greater detail. Structural information on the conformation of special oligonucleotides like hairpins, junctions and bulged duplexes can be obtained from fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence depolarization data. For example the fluorescence lifetime pattern of 2-aminopurine is a sensitive indicator of DNA base pairing. As examples the structure of the oligonucleotide-linker junction in a synthetically linked oligonucleotide hairpin and the base-pairing of the first 'deoxyribozyme' are discussed. A third application uses doubly, i.e., donor and acceptor, labeled oligonucleotides to measure distances by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

  17. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy from bacteria subjected to bactericidal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Alimova, Alexandra; Siddique, Masood; Savage, Howard E.; Shah, Mahendra; Rosen, Richard; Alfano, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The time-resolved and steady-state changes in fluorescence were investigated from one spore-forming (Bacillus subtilis) and four non-spore forming (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria subjected to different bactericidal agents. The bactericidal agents were sodium hypochlorite (bleach) hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and UV light exposure. Application of sodium hypochlorite resulted in an almost total lose of fluorescence signal and large decrease in the optical density of the bacterial suspension. Addition of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a 35% decrease in emission intensity fom the Sa and an 85-95% decrease for the other bacteria. Ultraviolet light exposure resulted in a 5-35% decrease in the emission intensity of the tryptophan band. The addition of formaldehyde to the bacteria did not result in significant changes in the steady-state emission intensity, but did shift the tryptophan emission peak position to shorter wavelengths by 3 to 5 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements showed that the fluorescence lifetime of tryptophan in the bacteria could not be described by a single exponential decay, and was similar to that of tryptophan in neutral aqueous solution. Upon addition of formaldehyde to the Gram positive bacteria (Bs and Sa) the strength of the short lifetime component increased dramatically, while for the Gram negative bacteria, a smaller increase was observed. These fluorescence changes reflect the different mechanisms of the bactericidal agents and may provide a useful tool to monitor the effectiveness of disinfectants.

  18. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the assessment of skin photoaging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Campos, Carolina; Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    pathology. The optical properties of these intrinsic fluorophores respond to the microenvironment and the metabolic status, thus making fluorescence spectroscopy a valuable tool to study the conditions of biological tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hairless mice skin metabolic changes during the photoaging process through lifetime and fluorescence measurements targeting NADH and FAD. Two lasers centered at 378 nm and 445 nm, respectively, perform excitation of NADH and FAD. The fluorescence acquisition is carried out at mice dorsal and ventral regions throughout the photoaging protocol and aging process. Differences in fluorescence and lifetime data between young and photoaged mice measurements were observed. The endogenous fluorescence spectrum of photoaged dorsal skin showed an increase compared to young and aged skin. Lifetime of bound NADH and free FAD presented an increase in the first week that continued until the end of the protocol. Aging process is being investigated to complement the information obtained from fluorescence data and lifetime of photoaging process.

  19. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE�s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE�s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  20. Energy transfer in the chlorophyll f-containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris, analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshiyuki; Chen, Min; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Tomo, Tatsuya

    2015-08-01

    We prepared thylakoid membranes from Halomicronema hongdechloris cells grown under white fluorescent light or light from far-red (740 nm) light-emitting diodes, and observed their energy-transfer processes shortly after light excitation. Excitation-relaxation processes were examined by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Two time-resolved fluorescence techniques were used: time-correlated single photon counting and fluorescence up-conversion methods. The thylakoids from the cells grown under white light contained chlorophyll (Chl) a of different energies, but were devoid of Chl f. At room temperature, the excitation energy was equilibrated among the Chl a pools with a time constant of 6.6 ps. Conversely, the thylakoids from the cells grown under far-red light possessed both Chl a and Chl f. Two energy-transfer pathways from Chl a to Chl f were identified with time constants of 1.3 and 5.0 ps, and the excitation energy was equilibrated between the Chl a and Chl f pools at room temperature. We also examined the energy-transfer pathways from phycobilisome to the two photosystems under white-light cultivation. PMID:25648637

  1. The Open, the Closed, and the Empty: Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Computational Analysis of RC-LH1 Complexes

    E-print Network

    Ullmann, G. Matthias

    The Open, the Closed, and the Empty: Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Computational of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl a) and carotenoid (Car) molecules and that self-assemble to produce the native pigment-function relationships employing a large variety of spin resonance18-23 and optical spectroscopies.24-31 From

  2. Time resolved fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals using single molecule spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Brent R

    2005-01-01

    A wide variety of spectroscopic studies of CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) are presented in this thesis, all studying some aspect of the temporal evolution of NC fluorescence tinder different conditions. In particular the methods ...

  3. In Situ Planetary Mineralogy Using Simultaneous Time Resolved Fluorescence and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman , G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is one of the primary methods of mineralogical analysis in the laboratory, and more recently in the field. Because of its versatility and ability to interrogate rocks in their natural form it is one of the front runners for the next generation of in situ instruments designed to explore adverse set of solar system bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, the Moon, and other primitive bodies such as asteroids and the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos), as well as for pre-selection of rock and soil samples for potential cache and return missions.

  4. Conformational dynamics of bovine Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase revealed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of the single tyrosine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, S T; Stella, L; Gratton, E

    1994-01-01

    The structural dynamics of bovine erythrocyte Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (BSOD) was studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. BSOD is a homodimer containing a single tyrosine residue (and no tryptophan) per subunit. Frequency-domain fluorometry revealed a heterogeneous fluorescence decay that could be described with a Lorentzian distribution of lifetimes. The lifetime distribution parameters (center and width) were markedly dependent on temperature. The distribution center (average lifetime) displayed Arrhenius behavior with an Ea of 4.2 kcal/mol, in contrast with an Ea of 7.4 kcal/mol for the single-exponential decay of L-tyrosine. This indicated that thermal quenching of tyrosine emission was not solely responsible for the effect of temperature on the lifetimes of BSOD. The distribution width was broad (1 ns at 8 degrees C) and decreased significantly at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the width of the lifetime distribution increased in parallel to increasing viscosity of the medium. The combined effects of temperature and viscosity on the fluorescence decay suggest the existence of multiple conformational substrates in BSOD that interconvert during the excited-state lifetime. Denaturation of BSOD by guanidine hydrochloride produced an increase in the lifetime distribution width, indicating a larger number of conformations probed by the tyrosine residue in the denatured state. The rotational mobility of the tyrosine in BSOD was also investigated. Analysis of fluorescence anisotropy decay data enabled resolution of two rotational correlation times. One correlation time corresponded to a fast (picosecond) rotation that contributed 62% of the anisotropy decay and likely reported local mobility of the tyrosine ring. The longer correlation time was 50% of the expected value for rotation of the whole (dimeric) BSOD molecule and appeared to reflect segmental motions in the protein in addition to overall tumbling. Comparison between rotational correlation times and fluorescence lifetimes of BSOD indicates that the heterogeneity in lifetimes does not arise from mobility of the tyrosine per se, but rather from dynamics of the protein matrix surrounding this residue which affect its fluorescence decay. PMID:8038390

  5. Comparison of beetroot extracts originating from several sites using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabasovi?, M. S.; Ševi?, D.; Terzi?, M.; Marinkovi?, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) juice contains a large number of fluorophores which can fluoresce. There is a growing interest in beetroot extracts analysis. In contrast, there is only limited information about beetroot obtained without sample preparation and/or extraction of components from the sample. In this work, we continue our previous study (Rabasovi? et al 2009 Acta Phys. Pol. A 116 570-2), analyzing and comparing beetroot extracts from several sites, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the fluorescence of samples at different excitation wavelengths (340-470?nm) and for different sample dilutions.

  6. Effect of ouabain on metabolic oxidative state in living cardiomyocytes evaluated by time-resolved spectroscopy of endogenous NAD(P)H fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorvatova, Alzbeta; Elzwiei, Fathia; Mateasik, Anton; Chorvat, Dusan

    2012-10-01

    Time-resolved spectrometry of endogenous nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] fluorescence is a useful method to evaluate metabolic oxidative state in living cells. Ouabain is a well-known pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, the effects of which on myocardial metabolism were recently demonstrated. Mechanisms implicated in these actions are still poorly understood. We investigate the effect of ouabain on the metabolic oxidative state of living cardiac cells identified by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of mitochondrial NAD(P)H. Spectral unmixing is used to resolve individual NAD(P)H fluorescence components. Ouabain decreased the integral intensity of NAD(P)H fluorescence, leading to a reduced component amplitudes ratio corresponding to a change in metabolic state. We also noted that lactate/pyruvate, affecting the cytosolic NADH gradient, increased the effect of ouabain on the component amplitudes ratio. Cell oxidation levels, evaluated as the percentage of oxidized NAD(P)H, decreased exponentially with rising concentrations of the cardiac glycoside. Ouabain also stimulated the mitochondrial NADH production. Our study sheds a new light on the role that ouabain plays in the regulation of metabolic state, and presents perspective on a noninvasive, pharmaceutical approach for testing the effect of drugs on the mitochondrial metabolism by means of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in living cells.

  7. Superconducting microbolometers for time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Devoret, Michel H.

    Superconducting microbolometers for time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy Daniel F. Santavicca niobium microbolometers designed for time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond, superconducting devices, time-resolved spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The superconducting microbolometer has been

  8. Time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence in flavodoxins.

    PubMed

    Leenders, R; Roslund, J; Visser, A J

    1995-12-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of tryptophan in flavodoxins isolated from the bacteriaDesulfovibrio gigas, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Clostridium beijerinckii, andMegasphaera elsdenii were examined. The fluorescence decays were recorded using pulsed synchrotron radiation as the excitation source and time-correlated single-photon counting in detection. The results were analyzed as lifetime distributions using the maximum entropy method. Comparison of the fluorescence decays of normal and flavin mononucleotide-depleted flavodoxins demonstrates that radiationless energy transfer from tryptophan to flavin occurs in all flavodoxins investigated. On comparing the lifetime distribution patterns of apo and holoflavodoxins, it was noticed that a certain amount of apoprotein is present in all holoflavodoxin samples. The three-dimensional structure of two flavodoxins allowed us to compare experimental with theoretical transfer rates and the results were in fair agreement. PMID:24226911

  9. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOEpatents

    Deka, Chiranjit (Miami, FL); Steinkamp, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated cw laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes.

  10. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOEpatents

    Deka, C.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements are disclosed for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated CW laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes. 12 figs.

  11. Time-resolved fluorescence: 1996-1998

    PubMed

    Kricka; Stanley

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence continues to provide comprehensive literature surveys which will be published in most issues. These are a continuation of the literature surveys begun in 1986 in the Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence which, up until 1998, encompassed more than 6000 references cited by year or specialized topic. With this newly named journal these searches are expanding to reflect the journal's wider scope. In future we will cover all fundamental and applied aspects of biological and chemical luminescence and include not only bioluminescence and chemiluminescence but also fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, electrochemiluminescence, phosphorescence, sonoluminescence, lyoluminescence and triboluminescence. The compilers would be pleased to receive any comments from the readership. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10398560

  12. Interaction of Cm(III) and Am(III) with human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicole; Fröhlich, Daniel R; Panak, Petra J

    2014-05-14

    The complexation of Cm(III) with human serum transferrin was investigated in a pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). At pH ? 7.4 Cm(III) is incorporated at the Fe(III) binding site of transferrin whereas at lower pH a partially bound Cm(III) transferrin species is formed. At physiological temperature (310 K) at pH 7.4, about 70% of the partially bound and 30% of the incorporated Cm(III) transferrin species are present in solution. The Cm(III) results obtained by TRLFS are in very good agreement with Am(III) EXAFS results, confirming the incorporation of Am(III) at the Fe(III) binding site at pH 8.5. PMID:24626477

  13. Interaction of quinine sulfate with anionic micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate: A time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at different pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.

    2015-09-01

    Photophysical behavior and rotational relaxation dynamics of quinine sulfate (QS) in anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH have been studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It has been observed that the cationic form of quinine sulfate (at pH 2) forms a fluorescent ion pair complex with the surfactant molecules at lower concentrations of surfactant. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, the probe molecules bind strongly with the micelles and reside at the water-micelle interface. At pH 7, QS is singly protonated in bulk aqueous solution. At lower concentrations of SDS aggregation between probe and surfactant molecules has been observed. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, an additional fluorescence peak corresponding to dicationic form of QS appears and this has been attributed to double protonation of the QS molecule in micellar solution. At pH 7, in the presence of SDS micelles, the photophysical properties of QS showed substantial changes compared to that in the bulk water solution. At pH 12, an increase in fluorescence intensity and lifetime has been observed and this has been attributed to the increase in radiative rate due to the incorporation of QS at the micelle-water interface. The local pH at micellar surface has been found different from the pH of bulk solution.

  14. In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Lam, Matthew; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Zhou, Feifei; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Dobbie, Allison; Tinling, Steven L.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Gregory Farwell, D.; Marcu, Laura

    2012-11-01

    Tissue diagnostic features generated by a bimodal technique integrating scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM) are investigated in an in vivo hamster oral carcinoma model. Tissue fluorescence is excited by a pulsed nitrogen laser and spectrally and temporally resolved using a set of filters/dichroic mirrors and a fast digitizer, respectively. A 41-MHz focused transducer (37-?m axial, 65-?m lateral resolution) is used for UBM scanning. Representative lesions of the different stages of carcinogenesis show that fluorescence characteristics complement ultrasonic features, and both correlate with histological findings. These results demonstrate that TRFS-UBM provide a wealth of co-registered, complementary data concerning tissue composition and structure as it relates to disease status. The direct co-registration of the TRFS data (sensitive to surface molecular changes) with the UBM data (sensitive to cross-sectional structural changes and depth of tumor invasion) is expected to play an important role in pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative determination of tumor margins.

  15. In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Lam, Matthew; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Zhou, Feifei; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Dobbie, Allison; Tinling, Steven L.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Gregory Farwell, D.; Marcu, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Tissue diagnostic features generated by a bimodal technique integrating scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM) are investigated in an in vivo hamster oral carcinoma model. Tissue fluorescence is excited by a pulsed nitrogen laser and spectrally and temporally resolved using a set of filters/dichroic mirrors and a fast digitizer, respectively. A 41-MHz focused transducer (37-?m axial, 65-?m lateral resolution) is used for UBM scanning. Representative lesions of the different stages of carcinogenesis show that fluorescence characteristics complement ultrasonic features, and both correlate with histological findings. These results demonstrate that TRFS-UBM provide a wealth of co-registered, complementary data concerning tissue composition and structure as it relates to disease status. The direct co-registration of the TRFS data (sensitive to surface molecular changes) with the UBM data (sensitive to cross-sectional structural changes and depth of tumor invasion) is expected to play an important role in pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative determination of tumor margins. PMID:23117798

  16. Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Cloutis, E.

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopic instruments are highly capable in the search for organics on Mars due to the potential to perform rapid and nondestructive measurements on unprepared samples. Upcoming and future Raman instruments are likely to also incorporate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) capabilities, which can be added for modest cost and complexity. We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain sub-ns fluorescence lifetime measurements of Mars-relevant organics and minerals if a fast time-gating capability is used with an intensified detector and a short ultraviolet laser pulse. This serves a primary purpose of discriminating mineral from short-lived (less than 10 ns) organic fluorescence, considered a potential biosignature. Additionally, lifetime measurements may assist in determining if more than one fluorescing species is present and provide information concerning the molecular structure as well as the local environment. Fast time-gating is also useful at longer visible or near-IR wavelengths, as this approach increases the sensitivity of the instrument to organic material by removing the majority of the fluorescence background from the Raman signal and reducing the effect of ambient light.

  17. Microviscosity of supercooled water confined within aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica as studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Namekawa, Manato; Itoh, Tetsuji; Teramae, Norio

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence dynamics of rhodamine B (RhB) immobilized on the pore surface of aminopropyl (AP)-modified mesoporous silica (diameter of the silica framework, 3.1 nm) was examined at temperatures between 293 and 193 K to study the microviscosity of supercooled water confined inside the pores. The mesoporous silica specimen with a dense AP layer (2.1 molecules nm(-2)) was prepared, and RhB isothiocyanate was covalently bound to part of the surface AP groups. The fluorescence lifetime of the surface RhB increased with decreasing temperature from 293 to 223 K, indicating that freezing of the confined water did not occur in this temperature range. The microviscosity of the supercooled confined water was evaluated from an analysis of the lifetime data based on a frequency-dependent friction model. PMID:23149606

  18. Fulvic acid complexation of Eu(III) and Cm(III) at elevated temperatures studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Gast, Michael; Panak, Petra J

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with three different aquatic fulvic acids (FA) was studied as a function of the temperature (T = 20-80 °C) in 0.1 M NaCl solution by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The speciation of both trivalent metal ions was determined by peak deconvolution of the recorded fluorescence spectra. For each studied metal ion-FA system only one complexed species is formed under the given experimental conditions. The stability constants at 20, 40, 60 and 80 °C (log??'(T)) were determined according to the charge neutralization model. The log??' (20 °C) for the different FAs show similar values (log??(20 °C) = 5.60-6.29). The stability constants increase continuously with increasing temperature by approximately 0.3-1.0 orders of magnitude. The reaction enthalpies and entropies are derived from the integrated Van't Hoff equation. The results show that all investigated complexation reactions are endothermic and entropy-driven. PMID:25207846

  19. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging of DNA Labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 Using Three-Photon Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Malak, Henryk; Schrader, Martin; Engelhardt, Peter; Kano, Hiroski; Hell, Stefan W.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the fluorescence spectral properties of the DNA stains DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, hydrochloride) and Hoechst 33342 (bis-benzimide, or 2,5?-bi-1H-benzimidazole2?-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)) with two-photon (2h?) and three-photon (3h?) excitation using femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser from 830 to 885 nm. The mode of excitation of DAPI bound to DNA changed from two-photon at 830 nm to three-photon at 885 nm. In contrast, Hoechst 33342 displayed only two-photon excitation from 830 to 885 nm. DAPI-DNA displayed the same emission spectra and decay times for 2h? and 3h? excitation. Hoechst 33342-DNA displayed the same intensity decay for excitation at 830 and 885 nm. Both probes displayed higher anisotropies for multiphoton excitation as compared to one-photon excitation with ultraviolet wavelengths, and DAPI-DNA displays a higher anisotropy for 3h? at 885 nm than for 2h? at 830 nm. We used 970-nm excitation of DAPI-stained chromosomes to obtain the first three-dimensional images with three-photon excitation. Three-photon excitation of DAPI-stained chromosomes at 970 nm was demonstrated by the power dependence in the fluorescence microscope. ImagesFIGURE 10FIGURE 11FIGURE 12 PMID:9017187

  20. Time-Resolved Synchronous Fluorescence for Biomedical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fales, Andrew; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents our most recent advances in synchronous fluorescence (SF) methodology for biomedical diagnostics. The SF method is characterized by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a constant wavelength interval between them. Compared to conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, the SF method simplifies the emission spectrum while enabling greater selectivity, and has been successfully used to detect subtle differences in the fluorescence emission signatures of biochemical species in cells and tissues. The SF method can be used in imaging to analyze dysplastic cells in vitro and tissue in vivo. Based on the SF method, here we demonstrate the feasibility of a time-resolved synchronous fluorescence (TRSF) method, which incorporates the intrinsic fluorescent decay characteristics of the fluorophores. Our prototype TRSF system has clearly shown its advantage in spectro-temporal separation of the fluorophores that were otherwise difficult to spectrally separate in SF spectroscopy. We envision that our previously-tested SF imaging and the newly-developed TRSF methods will combine their proven diagnostic potentials in cancer diagnosis to further improve the efficacy of SF-based biomedical diagnostics. PMID:26404289

  1. Time-resolved nanosecond fluorescence lifetime imaging and picosecond infrared spectroscopy of combretastatin A-4 in solution and in cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisby, Roger H.; Botchway, Stanley W.; Greetham, Greg M.; Hadfield, John A.; McGown, Alan T.; Parker, Anthony W.; Scherer, Kathrin M.; Towrie, Mike

    2012-08-01

    Fluorescence lifetime images of intrinsic fluorescence obtained with two-photon excitation at 630 nm are shown following uptake of a series of E-combretastatins into live cells, including human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that are the target for the anticancer activity of combretastatins. Images show distribution of the compounds within the cell cytoplasm and in structures identified as lipid droplets by comparison with images obtained following Nile red staining of the same cells. The intracellular fluorescent lifetimes are generally longer than in fluid solution as a consequence of the high viscosity of the cellular environment. Following incubation, the intracellular concentrations of a fluorinated derivative of E-combretastatin A-4 in HUVECs are between two and three orders of magnitude higher than the concentration in the surrounding medium. Evidence is presented to indicate that at moderate laser powers (up to 6 mW), it is possible to isomerize up to 25% of the combretastatin within the femtolitre focal volume of the femtosecond laser beam. This suggests that it may be possible to activate the E-combretastatin (with low cellular toxicity) to the Z-isomer with high anticancer drug activity using two-photon irradiation. The isomerization of Z- and E-combretastatins by 266 nm irradiation has been probed by ultrafast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Results for the E-isomer show a rapid loss of excess vibrational energy in the excited state with a lifetime of 7 ps, followed by a slower process with a lifetime of 500 ps corresponding to the return to the ground state as also determined from the fluorescence lifetime. In contrast, the Z-isomer, whilst also appearing to undergo a rapid cooling of the initial excited state, has a much shorter overall excited state lifetime of 14 ps. DedicationThis paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Christopher G Morgan (1949-2011). He was a valued colleague and friend at the University of Salford and made significant contributions to the development and applications of fluorescence lifetime imaging.

  2. Feasibility analysis of an epidermal glucose sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    , thus making fluorescence spectroscopy a potential tool for continu- osly monitoring glucose is to test the feasibility of using an embedded time-resolved fluorescence sensor for monitoring glucose or driving, for example. Therefore non- invasive and continuous glucose sensing is a priority in diabetes

  3. Time-resolved optical fluorescence spectroscopy of heterogeneous turbid media with special emphasis on brain tissue structures including diseased regions: A sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging based on near-infrared light provides a promising tool to differentiate diseased lesions from normal tissue. However, the measurement sensitivity of the fluorescence signals acquired at the output surface of the tissue is greatly influenced by the tissue structure, the optical properties, the location and the size of the target. In this paper, we present a numerical model based on the Monte Carlo method that allows to simulate time-resolved reflectance signals acquired on the surface of the scalp of a human head model bearing a fluorescent diseased region (tumor, glioma). The influence of tumor depth, tumor size and tumor shape evolution on the computed signals are analyzed by taking into account the multi-layered tissue structure. The simulations show that the mean-time-of-flight and the difference between two mean-times acquired at two source-detector distances are both relevant to this problem type. Furthermore, the simulations suggest that the use of the difference between mean-flight-times may be interesting to probe scattering changes that occur in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

  4. Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

    2014-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as unique fingerprints to identify motor oils by using the distinct TRF of motor oils. CDTRFIs are preferable to steady-state fluorescence spectra for classifying different motor oils, making CDTRFIs a particularly choice for the development of fluorescence-based methods for the discrimination and characterization of motor oils. The two-dimensional fluorescence contour diagrams contain more information, not only the changing shapes of the LIF spectra but also the relative intensity. The results indicate that motor oils can be differentiated based on the new proposed method, which provides reliable methods for analyzing and classifying motor oils. PMID:24988439

  5. Seventh international conference on time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Martinez, M.A.D.; Shreve, A.; Woodruff, W.H.

    1997-04-01

    The International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) is widely recognized as the major international forum for the discussion of advances in this rapidly growing field. The 1995 conference was the seventh in a series that began at Lake Placid, New York, 1982. Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the site of the Seventh International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, held from June 11 to 16, 1995. TRVS-7 was attended by 157 participants from 16 countries and 85 institutions, and research ranging across the full breadth of the field of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy was presented. Advances in both experimental capabilities for time-resolved vibrational measurements and in theoretical descriptions of time-resolved vibrational methods continue to occur, and several sessions of the conference were devoted to discussion of these advances and the associated new directions in TRVS. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the TRVS meetings, applications of time-resolved vibrational methods to problems in physics, biology, materials science, and chemistry comprised a large portion of the papers presented at the conference.

  6. Time resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron infrared pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Lobo, R.P.S.M. |; Hirschmugl, C.J.; LaVeigne, J.; Reitze, D.H.; Tanner, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    Electron synchrotron storage rings, such as the VUV ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), produce short pulses of infrared (IR) radiation suitable for investigating the time-dependent phenomena in a variety of interesting experimental systems. In contrast to other pulses sources of IR, the synchrotron produces a continuum spectral output over the entire IR (and beyond), though at power levels typically below those obtained from laser systems. The infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) source is therefore well-suited as a probe using standard FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Here the authors describe the pump-probe spectroscopy facility being established at the NSLS and demonstrate the technique by measuring the photocarrier decay in a semiconductor.

  7. Time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton

    1995-05-01

    In response to the conference organizer's request, I am presenting a summary of the current status of medical optical imaging and spectroscopy. This is a topic which is advancing rapidly and on which there have been a number of conferences recently, and yet there has not been presented an overview of the field and some idea of what the advantages and disadvantages of the photon diffusion technology may be. Thus, this paper emphasizes diffusion waves for spectroscopy and imaging deep within the tissue and, at the same time, for providing specificity information of both absorption and scattering. In achieving this goal, I will not be able to cite all of the advantages of technologies that view the superficial layers of skin, retina, etc., on the one hand, nor those that measure the photons that have been scattered minimally on the transit between input and output. One of the main reasons for this is that specificity of the optical methods requires all of the information available: absorption and scattering of intrinsic signals naturally in the tissue, and of extrinsic signal due to contrast agents that have been artificially lodged in strategic tissue volumes. Since this paper is essentially the transcript of a lecture, it is not proposed as a topic review and does not contain full-scale bibliographic references, some of which may be found in a recent review elsewhere. This paper highlights what we all might accomplish in order to bring to bear with maximal effectiveness the optical method for altering the outcome of medical problems. I have not emphasized the mathematics of photon diffusion so well represented by the papers of this symposium volume. The achievable goals of the optical methods are to speed detection, improve diagnosis, guide therapy, and what appears in the minds of most, contribute to the improvement of medical economics. In order to fulfill these objectives, we will in the end have to demonstrate by lengthy and expensive clinical studies that the medical devices we develop are really what we think they are as determined by accepted procedures for clinical studies. This is a difficult and expensive route and one track along which many technologies will 'fall by the wayside'. However, our technology is maturing: we are obtaining numbers for important medical problems. It is indeed difficult to make these kinds of contributions; medical devices are not new. The choice of methods is manifold and the niches or windows of opportunity are circumscribed.

  8. Optical oxygen sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Chu, Ssu-Wei

    2015-07-01

    A new, simple signal processing, low-cost technique for the fabrication of a portable oxygen sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence is described. The sensing film uses the oxygen sensing dye platinum meso-tetra (pentfluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) embedded in a polymer matrix. The experimental results reveal that the PtTFPP-doped oxygen sensor has a sensitivity of 2.2 in the 0-100% range. A preparation procedure for coating the photodiodes with the oxygen sensor film that produces repetitive and reliable sensing devices is proposed. The developed time-resolved optical oxygen sensor is portable, low-cost, has simple signal processing, and lacks optical filter elements. It is a cost-effective alternative to traditional electrochemical-based oxygen sensors and provides a platform for other optical based sensors.

  9. Probing the conformation of DNA by time-resolved fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anita; Neely, Robert; Bonnist, Eleanor; Dryden, David; Daujotyte, Dalia; Grazulis, Saulius; Klimasauskas, Saulius; Lenz, Thomas; Weinhold, Elmar

    2006-03-01

    The fluorescent adenine analogue, 2-aminopurine (AP), is a widely used probe of DNA structure and dynamics. We have investigated the time-resolved fluorescence of AP-labelled duplexes in single crystals, in solution and in frozen matrices, to elucidate the influence of interbase interaction and base dynamics on the photophysics of AP. DNA undergoes conformational change in response to interaction with agents such as enzymes and drugs. Base flipping, induced by DNA methyltransferase enzymes, is a remarkable example of conformational distortion; the target nucleotide is rotated around the phosphate backbone, out of the duplex and into the enzyme active site. We will report the first time-resolved fluorescence measurements of single crystals of AP-labelled DNA duplexes complexed with methyltransferase enzymes (M.HhaI and M.TaqI). Correlation of these results with studies on the analogous solution-phase systems shows that the fluorescence response of AP is a definitive indicator of the base flipping mechanism. Moreover, the AP decay parameters provide detailed information on the nature of the interaction between enzyme and duplex.

  10. [System of ns time-resolved spectroscopy diagnosis and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei-Bo; Guo, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yong-min; Tang, Jun-Ping; Cheng, Liang; Xu, Qi-fuo

    2014-06-01

    Cathode plasma of high current electron beam diode is an important research on high power microwave and strong pulsed radio accelerator. It is a reliable method to study cathode plasma by diagnosing the cathode plasma parameters with non-contact spectroscopy measurement system. The present paper introduced the work principle, system composition and performance of the nanosecond (ns) time-resolved spectroscopy diagnosis system. Furthermore, it introduced the implementing method and the temporal relation of lower jitter synchronous trigger system. Simultaneously, the authors designed electromagnetic and radio shield room to protect the diagnosis system due to the high electromagnetic and high X-ray and ?-ray radiation, which seriously interferes with the system. Time-resolved spectroscopy experiment on brass (H62) cathode shows that, the element and matter composition of cathode plasma is clearly increase with the increase in the diode pulsed voltage and current magnitude. The spectroscopy diagnosis system could be of up to 10 ns time resolve capability. It's least is 2 ns. Synchronous trigger system's jitter is less than 4 ns. The spectroscopy diagnosis system will open a new way to study the cathode emission mechanism in depth. PMID:25358142

  11. Ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays using time-resolved fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Dickson, E F; Pollak, A; Diamandis, E P

    1995-05-01

    This article reviews the use of time-resolved fluorimetric detection of lanthanide chelate luminescence as a detection method for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays. Assay formats and detection methods, and the principle of time-resolved fluorimetric detection, are described. Detection systems, assay formats, reagents, and instrumentation for time-resolved fluorimetric detection are outlined. A review of published and commercially available immunoassays and DNA hybridization assays using time-resolved fluorimetric detection of lanthanide chelate luminescence is given. PMID:7667396

  12. Proceedings of BiOS, Photonics West 2001, No.4252-27, San Jose, 2001. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Dopamine

    E-print Network

    Okamoto, Koichi

    camera. The fluorescence decay curve was fitted by 1-exponentional functions, with the lifetime and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of information transporting processes. Keywords: Dopamine, Fluorescence, Lifetime, Time-space resolved laser microscopy #12;Proceedings of BiOS, Photonics West 2001, No

  13. Differential Hydration of Tricyanomethanide Observed by Time Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Daniel G.; Singh, Prabhat K.; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    The degenerate transition corresponding to asymmetric stretches of the D3h tricyanomethanide anion, C(CN)3-, in aqueous solution was investigated by linear FTIR spectroscopy, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, and 2D IR spectroscopy. Time resolved vibrational spectroscopy shows that water induces vibrational energy transfer between the degenerate asymmetric stretch modes of tricyanomethanide. The frequency-frequency correlation function and the vibrational energy transfer show two significantly different ultrafast time scales. The system is modeled with molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio calculations. A new model for theoretically describing the vibrational dynamics of a degenerate transition is presented. Microscopic models, where water interacts axially and radially with the ion, are suggested for the transition dipole reorientation mechanism. PMID:22934602

  14. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy investigation of the effect of 4-hydroxynonenal on endogenous NAD(P)H in living cardiac myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorvatova, Alzbeta; Aneba, Swida; Mateasik, Anton; Chorvat, Dusan; Comte, Blandine

    2013-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a major biochemical consequence of the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids in cell membranes and causes damage to membrane integrity and loss of protein function. 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), one of the most reactive products of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation of membrane phospholipids, has been shown to be capable of affecting both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) reduced [NAD(P)H] as well as NADH production. However, the understanding of its effects in living cardiac cells is still lacking. Our goal was to therefore investigate HNE effects on NAD(P)H noninvasively in living cardiomyocytes. Spectrally resolved lifetime detection of endogenous fluorescence, an innovative noninvasive technique, was employed. Individual fluorescence components were resolved by spectral linear unmixing approach. Gathered results revealed that HNE reduced the amplitude of both resolved NAD(P)H components in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, HNE increased flavoprotein fluorescence and responsiveness of the NAD(P)H component ratio to glutathione reductase (GR) inhibitor. HNE also increased the percentage of oxidized nucleotides and decreased maximal NADH production. Presented data indicate that HNE provoked an important cell oxidation by acting on NAD(P)H regulating systems in cardiomyocytes. Understanding the precise role of oxidative processes and their products in living cells is crucial for finding new noninvasive tools for biomedical diagnostics of pathophysiological states.

  15. Sensitive, time-resolved, broadband spectroscopy of single transient processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Baev, Ivan; Hellmig, Ortwin; Sengstock, Klaus; Baev, Valery M.

    2015-09-01

    Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser is applied to time-resolved measurements of transient gain and absorption in electrically excited Xe and Kr plasmas. The achieved time resolution for broadband spectral recording of a single process is 25 µs. For pulsed-periodic processes, the time resolution is limited by the laser pulse duration, which is set here to 3 µs. This pulse duration also predefines the effective absorption path length, which amounts to 900 m. The presented technique can be applied to multicomponent analysis of single transient processes such as shock tube experiments, pulse detonation engines, or explosives.

  16. Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy: a differential absorption approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Paola; Bassi, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    A method is presented for the estimate of spectral changes in the absorption properties of turbid media from time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy. The method relies on the hypothesis of constant scattering over the wavelength range of interest, but no limitations come from the sample size and shape as the method is derived directly from the Beer-Lambert law. The effects of a moderate spectral dependence of the scattering properties and of the non-ideal instrument response function were investigated theoretically, and the results were confirmed experimentally, showing that the method can be profitably applied in cases of practical interest. PMID:21073789

  17. Time-resolved study of microorganisms by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Haronikova, Andrea; Obruca, Stanislav; Bernatova, Silvie; Jezek, Jan; Siler, Martin; Mlynarikova, Katarina; Zemanek, Pavel

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of our investigations is to focus on the basic physiological mechanisms of microorganisms (yeast and bacteria), exposed to different conditions, by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. This study provides an insight into the mechanism of targeted stress factors or the influence of different cultivation times on species metabolism in vivo, in realtime and label free. We also focused on time-course study of physico-chemical properties of bacterial cells and cell cytoplasm with respect to the intracellular content of polyhydroxyalkanoates and to the production of yeast lipids or carotenoids.

  18. Analytical applications of time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a well established method for the study of molecular species. The power and utility of infrared spectroscopy cannot be contested. However, until recently it suffered from two major limitations. Dispersive infrared spectrometers suffered from relatively poor sensitivity. With the introduction of Fourier transform techniques to spectroscopy in general, and IR specifically, the sensitivity limitation has been overcome. The other deficit to traditional infrared spectroscopy is its poor time resolution. The measurement of transient phenomena was not possible with dispersive and Fourier transform instruments. The invention of the laser, and the development of non-linear optical techniques, provided a solution to the time-resolution conundrum. In 1979 Sorokin developed a time-resolved infrared absorption (TRISP) spectrometer based on the non-linear properties of alkali metal vapors (which are maintained by heat-pipe ovens). These vapors were used to generate a transient infrared continuum by stimulated electronic Raman scattering. This signal was used to probe a sample; after which a second non-linear process, four-wave mixing, upconverted the IR continuum into visible radiation. For the TRISP technique to be accepted as an analytical tool, however, the instrument needed to be evaluated using standard analytical criteria. A version of the TRISP spectrometer was assembled. Two types of experiments were conducted to test TRISP's analytical capabilities. The first followed the evolution of a gas phase reaction by simultaneously monitoring the time-dependent behavior of reactants and products. The other experiment used the TRISP spectrometer to measure the absolute gas phase reaction rate constants.

  19. Electron-transfer acceleration investigated by time resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vl?ek, Antonín; Kvapilová, Hana; Towrie, Michael; Záliš, Stanislav

    2015-03-17

    Ultrafast electron transfer (ET) processes are important primary steps in natural and artificial photosynthesis, as well as in molecular electronic/photonic devices. In biological systems, ET often occurs surprisingly fast over long distances of several tens of angströms. Laser-pulse irradiation is conveniently used to generate strongly oxidizing (or reducing) excited states whose reactions are then studied by time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. While photoluminescence decay and UV-vis absorption supply precise kinetics data, time-resolved infrared absorption (TRIR) and Raman-based spectroscopies have the advantage of providing additional structural information and monitoring vibrational energy flows and dissipation, as well as medium relaxation, that accompany ultrafast ET. We will discuss three cases of photoinduced ET involving the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) moiety (N,N = polypyridine) that occur much faster than would be expected from ET theories. [Re(4-N-methylpyridinium-pyridine)(CO)3(N,N)](2+) represents a case of excited-state picosecond ET between two different ligands that remains ultrafast even in slow-relaxing solvents, beating the adiabatic limit. This is caused by vibrational/solvational excitation of the precursor state and participation of high-frequency quantum modes in barrier crossing. The case of Re-tryptophan assemblies demonstrates that excited-state Trp ? *Re(II) ET is accelerated from nanoseconds to picoseconds when the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) chromophore is appended to a protein, close to a tryptophan residue. TRIR in combination with DFT calculations and structural studies reveals an interaction between the N,N ligand and the tryptophan indole. It results in partial electronic delocalization in the precursor excited state and likely contributes to the ultrafast ET rate. Long-lived vibrational/solvational excitation of the protein Re(I)(CO)3(N,N)···Trp moiety, documented by dynamic IR band shifts, could be another accelerating factor. The last discussed process, back-ET in a porphyrin-Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) dyad, demonstrates that formation of a hot product accelerates highly exergonic ET in the Marcus inverted region. Overall, it follows that ET can be accelerated by enhancing the electronic interaction and by vibrational excitation of the reacting system and its medium, stressing the importance of quantum nuclear dynamics in ET reactivity. These effects are experimentally accessible by time-resolved vibrational spectroscopies (IR, Raman) in combination with quantum chemical calculations. It is suggested that structural dynamics play different mechanistic roles in light-triggered ET involving electronically excited donors or acceptors than in ground-state processes. While TRIR spectroscopy is well suitable to elucidate ET processes on a molecular-level, transient 2D-IR techniques combining optical and two IR (or terahertz) laser pulses present future opportunities for investigating, driving, and controlling ET. PMID:25699661

  20. Planetary Surface Exploration Using Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy on Rovers and Landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, Erik; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; Rossman, George

    2013-04-01

    Planetary surface exploration using laser spectroscopy has become increasingly relevant as these techniques become a reality on Mars surface missions. The ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is currently using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on a mast-mounted platform to measure elemental composition of target rocks. The RLS Raman Spectrometer is included on the payload for the ExoMars mission to be launched in 2018 and will identify minerals and organics on the Martian surface. We present a next-generation instrument that builds on these widely used techniques to provide a means for performing both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS in conjunction with microscopic imaging. Microscopic Raman spectroscopy with a laser spot size smaller than the grains of interest can provide surface mapping of mineralogy while preserving morphology. A very small laser spot size (~ 1 µm) is often necessary to identify minor phases that are often of greater interest than the matrix phases. In addition to the difficulties that can be posed by fine-grained material, fluorescence interference from the very same material is often problematic. This is particularly true for many of the minerals of interest that form in environments of aqueous alteration and can be highly fluorescent. We use time-resolved laser spectroscopy to eliminate fluorescence interference that can often make it difficult or impossible to obtain Raman spectra. As an added benefit, we have found that with small changes in operating parameters we can include microscopic LIBS using the same hardware. This new technique relies on sub-ns, high rep-rate lasers with relatively low pulse energy and compact solid state detectors with sub-ns time resolution. The detector technology that makes this instrument possible is a newly developed Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The use of this solid state time-resolved detector offers a significant reduction in size, weight, power, and overall complexity - making time resolved detection feasible for planetary applications. We will discuss significant advances leading to the feasibility of a compact time-resolved spectrometer. We will present results on planetary analog minerals to demonstrate the instrument performance including fluorescence rejection and combined Raman-LIBS capability.

  1. Comparison of a Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Analysis of Atrazine

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Comparison of a Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of California, Davis, California 95616 Immunoassays for atrazine based on a time-resolved fluorescent label and an enzyme label were optimized and utilized to measure atrazine in water. The time-resolved fluorescent

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of fullerene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Alessandra; Nardo, Luca; Bondani, Maria; Zhao, Baozhong; Roberts, Joan E

    2013-06-20

    Fullerene (nano-C60) and its water-soluble derivatives have several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood-ocular and blood-brain barriers. However, in vitro and in vivo detection of these nanomaterials is limited by their very low fluorescence quantum yield. The accumulation of fullerene and its derivatives in cells is particularly difficult to measure using standard fluorescence microscopy because their fluorescence is barely detectable in aqueous media. We have developed a time-correlated single-photon counting apparatus with which we were not only able to detect the fluorescence of fullerene and its derivatives in water but could also measure fluorescence temporal decays and determine lifetimes in the range of tens of picoseconds. The compounds studied in this report are C60 (fullerene), the partially hydrogenated hydride C60H36, a monomeric cyclodextrin complexed fullerene [(?-CyD)2/C60], and C60(OH)24 (fullerol). In addition, we examined the effect of aggregation on photophysical properties and identified a very short lifetime component belonging to the fluorescence decay of monomeric fullerene, which is lost with increasing aggregation. These data will help to design nanoparticles that have the appropriate structural and photophysical properties to ultimately be of use in a clinical setting. PMID:23646878

  3. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications. PMID:24108625

  4. Monitoring tissue metabolism via time-resolved laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Buchholz, Rainer; Emmrich, Frank; Fink, Frank; Geddes, Clive L.; Pfeifer, Lutz; Raabe, Ferdinand; Marx, Uwe

    1999-05-01

    Most assays for drug screening are monitoring the metabolism of cells by detecting the NADH content, which symbolize its metabolic activity, indirectly. Nowadays, the performance of a LASER enables us to monitor the metabolic state of mammalian cells directly and on-line by using time-resolved autofluorescence detection. Therefore, we developed in combination with tissue engineering, an assay for monitoring minor toxic effects of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are accused of inducing Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Furthermore, we used the Laserfluoroscope (LF) for pharmacological studies on human bone marrow in vitro with special interest in chemotherapy simulation. In cancer research and therapy, the effect of chemostatica in vitro in the so-called oncobiogram is being tested; up to now without great success. However, it showed among other things that tissue structure plays a vital role. Consequently, we succeeded in simulating a chemotherapy in vitro on human bone marrow. Furthermore, after tumor ektomy we were able to distinguish between tumoric and its surrounding healthy tissue by using the LF. With its sensitive detection of metabolic changes in tissues the LF enables a wide range of applications in biotechnology, e.g. for quality control in artificial organ engineering or biocompatability testing.

  5. TIME-RESOLVED TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF DIELECTRICS

    E-print Network

    Ku?el, Petr

    on either photoconductive [8,9] or electro-optic [10,11] time-resolved sampling allow a phase sensitive-insulating GaAs:Cr. The electro- optic sampling technique [18] with a 1 mm thick ZnTe sensor crystal

  6. Light-harvesting ability of the fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding protein associated with photosystem II from the Diatom Chaetoceros gracilis as revealed by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Ryo; Yokono, Makio; Teshigahara, Ayaka; Akimoto, Seiji; Tomo, Tatsuya

    2014-05-15

    The fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding protein (FCP) is a unique antenna complex possessed by diatoms. Although FCP complexes have been isolated from various diatoms, there is no direct evidence for the existence of FCP associated with photosystem II (FCPII). Here, we report the isolation and spectroscopic characterization of FCPII complex from the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis. The FCPII complex was purified using sucrose centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Clear-native PAGE and SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that the FCPII complex was composed of FCP-A oligomer and FCP-B/C trimer. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of the FCPII complex were measured at 77 K. The characteristic lifetimes and fluorescence components were determined using global fitting analysis, followed by the construction of fluorescence decay-associated spectra (FDAS). FDAS exhibited fluorescence rises and decays, reflecting excitation energy transfer, with the time constants of 150 ps, 800 ps, and 2.9 ns. The long time constants are most likely attributed to the intercomplex excitation energy transfer between FCP-A oligomer and FCP-B/C trimer in the FCPII complex. The 5.6 ns FDAS likely originates from the final energy traps. In contrast, the FDAS exhibited no quenching component with any time constant. These results indicate that the FCPII complex is efficient in light harvesting and excitation energy transfer. PMID:24773012

  7. Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

    2009-01-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  8. Application of spectral unmixing in multi-wavelength time-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorvat, D., Jr.; Mateasik, A.; Kirchnerova, J.; Chorvatova, A.

    2007-09-01

    We present a new approach for analysis of multi-wavelength time-resolved spectroscopy data, based on sequential spectral unmixing. Principal component analysis was used to identify the number and spectral profiles of the main components of intrinsic flavin signal in multi-wavelength time-resolved fluorescence recordings from isolated living cardiac myocytes. To determine these components, natural variations in the cardiomyocyte autofluorescence spectra were induced by modulators of mitochondrial metabolism and respiration. Using aforementioned approach we have identified two main components of intrinsic flavin emission in cardiac myocytes. The first component show emission maximum at 486-504 nm and mean lifetime of 1.2 nanoseconds, the second component with peak at 522 nm has two-exponential decay with fluorescence lifetimes of 0.3 and 3.1 nanoseconds. Comparison of gathered new results to our previous studies of flavins in vitro and in cardiac cells clearly points to the fact that the estimated spectral components correspond to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) bound to enzyme(s) of mitochondrial metabolic chain, and to free FAD, respectively.

  9. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of lead halide perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idowu, Mopelola A.; Yau, Sung H.; Varnavski, Oleg; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    Recently, lead halide perovskites which are organic-inorganic hybrid structures, have been discovered to be highly efficient as light absorbers. Herein, we show the investigation of the excited state dynamics and emission properties of non-stoichiometric precursor formed lead halide perovskites grown by interdiffusion method using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements. The influence of the different ratios of the non-stoichiometric precursor solution was examined. The observed photoluminescence properties were correlated with the femtosecond transient absorption measurements.

  10. Time-resolved spectroscopy of InGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Pophristic, M.; Long, F.H.; Tran, C.; Ferguson, I.T.

    2000-07-01

    The authors have used time-resolved photoluminescence (PL), with 400 nm (3.1 eV) excitation, to examine In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) before the final stages of processing at room temperature. They have found dramatic differences in the time-resolved kinetics between dim, bright and super bright LED devices. The lifetime of the emission for dim LEDs is quite short, 110 {+-} 20 ps at photoluminescence (PL) maximum, and the kinetics are not dependent upon wavelength. This lifetime is short compared to bright and super bright LEDs, which the authors have examined under similar conditions. The kinetics of bright and super bright LEDs are clearly wavelength dependent, highly non-exponential, and are on the nanosecond time scale (lifetimes are in order of 1 ns for bright and 10 ns for super bright LED at the PL max). The nonexponential PL kinetics can be described by a stretched exponential function, indicating significant disorder in the material. Typical values for {beta}, the stretching coefficient, are 0.45--0.6 for bright LEDs, at the PL maxima at room temperature. The authors attribute this disorder to indium alloy fluctuations. From analysis of the stretched exponential kinetics they estimate the potential fluctuations to be approximately 75 meV in the super bright LED. Assuming a hopping mechanism, the average distance between indium quantum dots in the super bright LED is estimated to be 20 {angstrom}.

  11. Time-resolved phase-sensitive second harmonic generation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Pawe? J.; Woods, David A.; Bain, Colin D.; Verlet, Jan R. R.

    2015-02-01

    A methodology based on time-resolved, phase-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) for probing the excited state dynamics of species at interfaces is presented. It is based on an interference measurement between the SHG from the sample and a local oscillator generated at a reference together with a lock-in measurement to remove the large constant offset from the interference. The technique is characterized by measuring the phase and excited state dynamics of the dye malachite green at the water/air interface. The key attributes of the technique are that the observed signal is directly proportional to sample concentration, in contrast to the quadratic dependence from non-phase sensitive SHG, and that the real and imaginary parts of the 2nd order non-linear susceptibility can be determined independently. We show that the method is highly sensitive and can provide high quality excited state dynamics in short data acquisition times.

  12. Time-resolved phase-sensitive second harmonic generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Pawe? J; Woods, David A; Bain, Colin D; Verlet, Jan R R

    2015-02-28

    A methodology based on time-resolved, phase-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) for probing the excited state dynamics of species at interfaces is presented. It is based on an interference measurement between the SHG from the sample and a local oscillator generated at a reference together with a lock-in measurement to remove the large constant offset from the interference. The technique is characterized by measuring the phase and excited state dynamics of the dye malachite green at the water/air interface. The key attributes of the technique are that the observed signal is directly proportional to sample concentration, in contrast to the quadratic dependence from non-phase sensitive SHG, and that the real and imaginary parts of the 2nd order non-linear susceptibility can be determined independently. We show that the method is highly sensitive and can provide high quality excited state dynamics in short data acquisition times. PMID:25725724

  13. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis of the Photosystem II Antenna Proteins in Detergent Micelles and Liposomes

    E-print Network

    Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis of the Photosystem II Antenna Proteins in Detergent Micelles LHCII, CP29, CP26, and CP24 in detergent solution is mostly determined by two lifetime components of 1 in lipid membranes or thylakoids with respect to detergent solution. By increasing the protein density

  14. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS XIV)

    E-print Network

    Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2011-08-31

    Abstracts of presentations made at the Fourteenth International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS XIV) held May 9-14, 2009 in Meredith, New Hampshire. TRVS is a series of biennial conferences ...

  15. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Fuciman, Marcel; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Frank, Harry A.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2011-10-08

    The light-harvesting complex 2 from the thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption and fluorescence, sub-nanosecond-time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The measurements were performed at room temperature and at 10 K. The combination of both ultrafast and steady-state optical spectroscopy methods at ambient and cryogenic temperatures allowed the detailed study of carotenoid (Car)-to-bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) as well BChl-to-BChl excitation energy transfer in the complex. The studies show that the dominant Cars rhodopin (N = 11) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13) do not play a significant role as supportive energy donors for BChl a. This is related with their photophysical properties regulated by long ?-electron conjugation. On the other hand, such properties favor some of the Cars, particularly spirilloxanthin (N = 13) to play the role of the direct quencher of the excited singlet state of BChl.

  16. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein. PMID:26132136

  17. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, M. Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein. PMID:26132136

  18. Halide (Cl(super -)) Quenching of Quinine Sulfate Fluorescence: A Time-Resolved Fluorescence Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence experiment investigating the halide quenching of fluorescence from quinine sulfate in water is described. The objectives of the experiment include reinforcing student understanding of the kinetics of competing pathways, making connections with microscopic theories of kinetics through comparison of experimental and…

  19. Motion of aromatic side chains, picosecond fluorescence, and internal energy transfer in Escherichia coli thioredoxin studied by site-directed mutagenesis, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, A; Rigler, R; Nilsson, L; Roslund, J; Krause, G; Holmgren, A

    1991-10-01

    We have determined the picosecond fluorescence of the four aromatic amino acid residues (W28, W31, Y49, and Y70) in wild-type Escherichia coli thioredoxin (wt Trx) and a mutant Trx with W31 replaced by phenylalanine, Trx-W28-W31F. The internal motions of the four aromatic side chains were also analyzed. We examined the possibility of using internal energy transfer from tyrosine to tryptophan as a measure of long-range distances. The major features of the lifetime distribution of tryptophan fluorescence were unchanged in the W31F mutation, indicating that the environment of W28 is similar in both wt Trx and Trx-W28-W31F. However, the mutation of W31F changed the mobility of W28, situated close to the active-site disulfide/dithiol, but not the mobility of two tyrosines, Y49 and Y70, situated on the other side of the molecule. The mobility of the two tyrosine residues increased upon reduction of the active-site disulfide, indicating a looser structure with reduction. This increased motion could also be seen from molecular dynamics simulations. The change in energy transfer rates, as judged by tyrosine fluorescence lifetimes, was in agreement with energy transfer rates calculated from the molecular dynamics simulations. The anisotropy of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence could be separated in three parts: (I) overall rotation of the protein (10(-9)s), (II) internal mobility of side chains (10(-10)s), and (III) a very fast relaxation (10(-12)s). We can only experimentally detect this very fast relaxation when the internal motion is not present. PMID:1911751

  20. Locating and classifying fluorescent tags behind turbid layers using time-resolved inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satat, Guy; Heshmat, Barmak; Barsi, Christopher; Raviv, Dan; Chen, Ou; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    The use of fluorescent probes and the recovery of their lifetimes allow for significant advances in many imaging systems, in particular, medical imaging systems. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate reconstructing the locations and lifetimes of fluorescent markers hidden behind a turbid layer. This opens the door to various applications for non-invasive diagnosis, analysis, flowmetry and inspection. The method is based on a time-resolved measurement that captures information about both fluorescence lifetime and spatial position of the probes. To reconstruct the scene, the method relies on a sparse optimization framework to invert time-resolved measurements. This wide-angle technique does not rely on coherence, and does not require the probes to be directly in line of sight of the camera, making it potentially suitable for long-range imaging.

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence line-narrowing of Eu3+ in biocompatible eutectic glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sola, D; Balda, R; Al-Saleh, M; Peña, J I; Fernández, J

    2013-03-11

    The spectroscopic properties of Eu(3+) in biocompatible glass and glass-ceramic eutectic rods of composition 0.8CaSiO(3)-0.2Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) doped with 0.5 wt% of Eu(2)O(3) are investigated to explore their potential applications as optical probes. The samples were obtained by the laser floating zone technique. Depending on the growth rate, they exhibit three (two crystalline and one amorphous) or two (one crystalline and one amorphous) phases. The crystalline phases correspond to Ca(2)SiO(4) and apatite-like structures. At high growth rates the system presents an amorphous arrangement which gives a glass phase. The results of time-resolved fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy obtained under excitation within the inhomogeneous broadened (7)F(0)?(5)D(0) absorption band allow to isolate the emission from Eu(3+) ions in the crystalline and amorphous environments and to accurately correlate the spectroscopic properties with the microstructure of these eutectics. PMID:23482227

  2. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Nan; Cheung, Ka Wai; Wong, Hiu Tung; Ho, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art. PMID:25365460

  3. Optical characterization of Pseudomonas fluorescens on meat surfaces using time-resolved fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Alain; Frechette, Julie; Vernon, Marcia L.; Cormier, Jean-François; Beaulieu, Rene M.; Vallée, Réal; Mafu, Akier A.

    2006-01-01

    A scanning optical system for the detection of bacteria on meat surfaces based on fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements is described. The system detects autofluorescent light emitted by naturally occurring fluorophores in bacteria. The technique only requires minimal sample preparation and handling, thus the chemical properties of the specimen are preserved. This work presents the preliminary results obtained from a time-resolved fluorescence imaging system for the characterization of a nonpathogenic gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Initial results indicate that the combination of fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements provides a means for characterizing biological media and for detecting microorganisms on surfaces.

  4. Feasibility analysis of an epidermal glucose sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katika, Kamal M.; Pilon, Laurent

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of using an embedded time-resolved fluorescence sensor for monitoring glucose concentration. Skin is modeled as a multilayer medium with each layer having its own optical properties and fluorophore absorption coefficients, lifetimes, and quantum yields obtained from the literature. It is assumed that the two main fluorophores contributing to the fluorescence at these excitation and emission wavelengths are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)H and collagen. The intensity distributions of excitation and fluorescent light in skin are determined by solving the transient radiative transfer equation by using the modified method of characteristics. The fluorophore lifetimes are then recovered from the simulated fluorescence decays and compared with the actual lifetimes used in the simulations. Furthermore, the effect of adding Poissonian noise to the simulated decays on recovering the lifetimes was studied. For all cases, it was found that the fluorescence lifetime of NADH could not be recovered because of its negligible contribution to the overall fluorescence signal. The other lifetimes could be recovered to within 1.3% of input values. Finally, the glucose concentrations within the skin were recovered to within 13.5% of their actual values, indicating a possibility of measuring glucose concentrations by using a time-resolved fluorescence sensor.

  5. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down to <1 s, in principle), but also higher optical throughput, thus resulting in a substantial increase in measurement SNR.

  6. A review of the analysis of complex time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor A.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2015-06-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements (TRAMs) are widely used to probe the dynamics of the various processes that can lead to the depolarisation of emission following photoselection by polarised excitation. The most commonly investigated of these emission depolarising phenomena is molecular rotational motion, but TRAMs are very useful for determining the kinetics of a host of other processes. In this paper we review several examples for which we have observed in our laboratories initially unexpectedly complex temporal behaviour of the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy signal from relatively ‘simple’ chemical systems. In certain circumstances the anisotropy (i) decays on timescales when superficially it might be thought it should remain constant, (ii) shows marked ‘dip and rise’ behaviour in its intensity, or (iii) can change sign as the anisotropy evolves in time. Fundamentally simple processes, including molecular rotational motion, energy migration and excited state photophysics, can cause such behaviour.

  7. Modeling of ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence applied to a weakly coupled chromophore pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balevi?ius, V.; Valkunas, L.; Abramavicius, D.

    2015-08-01

    We present theory for calculating the third-order non-linear response function of a molecular aggregate in the weak inter-chromophore coupling regime. This approach is based on the perturbative expansion of the system evolution with respect to the resonance coupling, while the system-bath interaction is treated non-perturbatively by means of cumulant expansion. An explicit expression for the time-resolved fluorescence signal is then obtained. This allows us to investigate the ultrafast time-dependent Stokes shift, signatures of coherent dynamics, and the excitonic polaron formation in the excited state of the aggregate. Numerical simulations of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of a pair of coupled molecules demonstrate these effects.

  8. Identifying Fossil Biosignatures and Minerals in Mars Analog Materials Using Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolyar, S.; Farmer, J.; Alerstam, E.; Maruyama, Y.; Blacksberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mars sample return has been identified as a top priority in the planetary science decadal survey. A Mars sample selection and caching mission would be the likely first step in this endeavor. Such a mission would aim to select and prioritize for return to Earth aqueously formed geological samples present at a selected site on Mars, based upon their potential for biosignature capture and preservation. If evidence of past life exists and is found, it is likely to come via the identification of fossilized carbonaceous matter of biological origin (kerogen) found in the selected samples analyzed in laboratories after return to Earth. Raman spectroscopy is considered one of the primary techniques for analyzing materials in situ and selecting the most promising samples for Earth return. We have previously performed a pilot study to better understand the complexities of identifying kerogen using Raman spectroscopy. For the study, we examined a variety of Mars analog materials representing a broad range of mineral compositions and kerogen maturities. The study revealed that kerogen identification in many of the most promising lithologies is often impeded by background fluorescence that originates from long (>10 ns to ms) and short (<1 ns) lifetime fluorophores in both the mineral matrixes and preserved organic matter in the samples. This work explores the potential for time-gated Raman spectroscopy to enable clear kerogen and mineral identifications in such samples. The JPL time-resolved Raman system uses time gating to reduce background fluorescence. It uses a custom-built SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector, featuring a 1-ns time-gate, and electronically variable gate delay. Results for a range of fluorescent samples show that the JPL system reduces fluorescence, allowing the identification of both kerogen and mineral components more successfully than with conventional Raman systems. In some of the most challenging samples, the detection of organic matter is hindered by a combination of short lifetime fluorescence and weak Raman scattering coming from preserved kerogen grains. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) measurements were also performed to characterize the lifetimes of both components in the samples and to inform future system improvements such as shorter time gating. Here, we will discuss the results, along with identified challenges to the consistent and reliable in situ identification of kerogen in samples on Mars.

  9. Molecular diffusivity measurement through an alumina membrane using time-resolved fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennard, Raymond; DeSisto, William J.; Mason, Michael D.

    2010-11-01

    We present a simple fluorescence imaging method for measuring the time-resolved concentration of a fluorescent molecule diffusing through an anodic alumina membrane with a pore diameter of 20 nm. From the concentration breakthrough curve, the molecular diffusivity of the fluorophore was extracted. The experimentally determined diffusivity was three orders of magnitude lower than reported bulk values. Due to the relative simplicity and ease of use, this method can be applied to provide fundamental information for biomolecular separations applications. One feature of this method is the high sensitivity at intercellular volumes broadening its application to drug delivery and controlled cell growth.

  10. Time-resolved fluorescence monitoring of cholesterol in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinakova, Z.; Horilova, J.; Lajdova, I.; Marcek Chorvatova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Precise evaluation of intracellular cholesterol distribution is crucial for improving diagnostics of diseased states associated with cholesterol alteration. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques are tested for non-invasive investigation of cholesterol in living cells. Fluorescent probe NBD attached to cholesterol was employed to evaluate cholesterol distribution in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the human blood. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was successfully applied to simultaneously monitor the spatial distribution and the timeresolved characteristics of the NBD-cholesterol fluorescence in PBMC. Gathered data are the first step in the development of a new perspective non-invasive diagnostic method for evaluation of cholesterol modifications in diseases associated with disorders of lipid metabolism.

  11. Standoff Time-Resolved Laser-Based Spectroscopy Tools for Sample Characterization and Biosignature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, P. J.; Acosta-Maeda, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Misra, A. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Taylor, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Mars2020 rover will be searching for signs of past habitability and past life on Mars. Additionally, the rover mission will prepare a cache of highly significant samples for a future sample return mission. NASA requires these samples to be well characterized; the instruments on the rover must be capable of fine-scale in situ mineralogical or elemental analysis with emphasis on biosignature detection or characterization. We have been developing multiple standoff laser-based instruments at the University of Hawaii, Manoa that are capable of fine-scale in situ chemical analysis and biosignatures detection. By employing a time-resolved spectroscopy, we can perform elemental analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), mineral and organic analysis with Raman spectroscopy, and biosignature detection with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Each of these techniques share the same optics and detection equipment, allowing us to integrate them into a single, compact instrument. High time-resolution (~100 ns/pulse) is the key to this instrument; with it, the detector only records data when the signal is the brightest. Spectra can be taken during the day, LIBS can be measured without a plasma light background, and the Raman signal can be separated from the mineral fluorescence signal. Since bio-organics have very short fluorescence lifetimes, the new instrument can be used to unambiguously detect bio-organics. The prototype uses a low power (0.5 mJ/pulse) 532 nm laser with a detection limit of < 30 ppm of organics in a sample of Antarctica Dry Valley soil measured from 8 m. Another LIF instrument under development in our lab, called the Biofinder, takes advantage of the extremely intense fluorescence signal produced by organics by using a wide laser spot and a camera to produce LIF images of wide area (25 cm area from 2 m distance with 2 mm/pixel resolution). The Biofinder can quickly assess the area around the rover (at 10 frames/s) by imaging sample cores, drill holes, or outcrops, and then allow the slower but more precise instruments on the rover to characterize the regions of interest. Either of these prototypes would be ideally suited for future NASA missions, including human exploration missions. The next iterations of the instruments will be designed specifically for future astronaut explorers.

  12. Solving the structure of reaction intermediates by time-resolved synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Hanson, Jonathan C; Frenkel, Anatoly I

    2008-12-21

    We present a robust data analysis method of time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments suitable for chemical speciation and structure determination of reaction intermediates. Chemical speciation is done by principal component analysis (PCA) of the time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge structure data. Structural analysis of intermediate phases is done by theoretical modeling of their extended x-ray absorption fine-structure data isolated by PCA. The method is demonstrated using reduction and reoxidation of Cu-doped ceria catalysts where we detected reaction intermediates and measured fine details of the reaction kinetics. This approach can be directly adapted to many time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy experiments where new rapid throughput data collection and analysis methods are needed. PMID:19102533

  13. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of HIV-1 protease inhibitor complexes correlates with inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kungl, A J; Visser, N V; van Hoek, A; Visser, A J; Billich, A; Schilk, A; Gstach, H; Auer, M

    1998-03-01

    The tryptophan time-resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy of the HIV-1 protease dimer is shown to be a quick and efficient method for the conformational characterization of protease inhibitor complexes. Four fluorescence lifetimes were needed to adequately describe the fluorescence decay of the two tryptophan residues, W6 and W42, per protease monomer. As a result of the wavelength dependence of the respective amplitudes, the 2.06 ns and the 4.46 ns decay constants were suggested to be the intrinsic fluorescence lifetimes of the more solvent-exposed W6 and the less exposed W42 residues, respectively. Analysis of the fluorescence anisotropy decay yielded a short correlation time of 250 ps corresponding to local chromophore motions, and a long correlation time of 12.96 ns resulting from overall rotation of the protease enzyme. Fluorescence lifetimes and rotational correlation times changed when inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease were added. The effects of 11 different inhibitors including statine-derived, hydroxyethylamine-derived, and 2 symmetrical inhibitors on the protease fluorescence dynamics were investigated. Inhibitor binding is shown to induce an increase of the mean fluorescence lifetime taumean, an increase of the short rotational correlation time phi1, as well as a decrease of the long rotational correlation time phi2. The mean rotational correlation time phimean was identified as the global dynamic parameter for a given molecular complex, which correlates with the inhibitor dissociation constant Ki, and therefore with the activity of the inhibitor. PMID:9485428

  14. Time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godik, V. I.; Blankenship, R. E.; Causgrove, T. P.; Woodbury, N.

    1993-01-01

    Tryptophan fluorescence of reaction centers isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, both stationary and time-resolved, was studied. Fluorescence kinetics were found to fit best a sum of four discrete exponential components. Half of the initial amplitude was due to a component with a lifetime of congruent to 60 ps, belonging to Trp residues, capable of efficient transfer of excitation energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules of the reaction center. The three other components seem to be emitted by Trp ground-state conformers, unable to participate in such a transfer. Under the influence of intense actinic light, photooxidizing the reaction centers, the yield of stationary fluorescence diminished by congruent to 1.5 times, while the number of the kinetic components and their life times remained practically unchanged. Possible implications of the observed effects for the primary photosynthesis events are considered.

  15. Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Heinz, Tony F.

    resonances and intraband transitions in low-dimensional systems. Moreover, using a pump-probe schemeCarrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy Ronald Ulbricht Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM) - Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science

  16. Time-resolved x-ray Raman spectroscopy of photoexcited polydiacetylene oligomer: A simulation study

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Time-resolved x-ray Raman spectroscopy of photoexcited polydiacetylene oligomer: A simulation study York 14627 Received 6 May 2002; accepted 6 November 2002 Off-resonant x-ray diffraction provides of the x-ray Raman peaks on the scattering wave vector k and energy . The electronic excitation energies

  17. Time-Resolved Areal-Density Measurements with Proton Spectroscopy in Spherical Implosions

    E-print Network

    Time-Resolved Areal-Density Measurements with Proton Spectroscopy in Spherical Implosions V. A the target and achieve high gain [1­3]. Areal densities measured so far in cryogenic im- plosions [4 compromising its outcome. Areal-density evolution measurements in cryogenic D2 or DT implosions are complicated

  18. Time-resolved imaging of fluorescent inclusions in optically turbid medium — phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, M.; Liebert, A.; Sawosz, P.; ?o?ek, N.; Milej, D.; Maniewski, R.

    2010-03-01

    We present results of application of a time-resolved optical system for imaging of fluorescence excited in an inclusion containing indocyanine green (ICG), and located in optically turbid medium. The developed imaging system enabled simultaneous acquisition of fluorescence and diffusive reflectance. Eight independent time-resolved measurement channels based on time-correlated single photon counting technique were applied. In four of these channels, used for the fluorescence detection, sets of filters were applied in order to block the excitation light. Fast optomechanical switches allowed us to illuminate sequentially nine different spots on the surface of the studied object and finally 4×4 pixels maps at excitation and emission wavelengths were obtained. A liquid phantom used in this study consists of the fish tank filed with a solution ofmilk and water with black ink added to obtain optical properties in the range of the optical properties typical for the living tissue. A gel ball of a diameter of 5 mm with precisely controlled concentration of ICG was immersed in the liquid. The measurements were performed for inclusion located at different depths and for various ICG concentrations in the gel ball and in the surrounding liquid. The recorded distributions of times of arrival (DTA) of fluorescence photons and times of flight (DTOF) of diffusely reflected photons were analyzed by calculation of their statistical moments. We observed specific changes in moments of the measured DTAs as a function of depth of immersion of the fluorescent inclusion in the medium. We noted also that the changes of moments depend significantly on concentration of the dye in the fluorescence inclusion as well as in the surrounding liquid.

  19. Advanced Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy Techniques for the Investigation of Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Neil R.

    The ubiquitous cross beta sheet peptide motif is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases while at the same time offers remarkable potential for constructing isomorphic high-performance bionanomaterials. Despite an emerging understanding of the complex folding landscape of cross beta structures in determining disease etiology and final structure, we lack knowledge of the critical initial stages of nucleation and growth. In this dissertation, I advance our understanding of these key stages in the cross-beta nucleation and growth pathways using cutting-edge microscopy techniques. In addition, I present a new combined time-resolved fluorescence analysis technique with the potential to advance our current understanding of subtle molecular level interactions that play a pivotal role in peptide self-assembly. Using the central nucleating core of Alzheimer's Amyloid-beta protein, Abeta(16 22), as a model system, utilizing electron, time-resolved, and non-linear microscopy, I capture the initial and transient nucleation stages of peptide assembly into the cross beta motif. In addition, I have characterized the nucleation pathway, from monomer to paracrystalline nanotubes in terms of morphology and fluorescence lifetime, corroborating the predicted desolvation process that occurs prior to cross-beta nucleation. Concurrently, I have identified unique heterogeneous cross beta domains contained within individual nanotube structures, which have potential bionanomaterials applications. Finally, I describe a combined fluorescence theory and analysis technique that dramatically increases the sensitivity of current time-resolved techniques. Together these studies demonstrate the potential for advanced microscopy techniques in the identification and characterization of the cross-beta folding pathway, which will further our understanding of both amyloidogenesis and bionanomaterials.

  20. Fluorescence time-resolved imaging system embedded in an ultrasound prostate probe

    PubMed Central

    Laidevant, Aurélie; Hervé, Lionel; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Boutet, Jérôme; Grenier, Nicolas; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging (US) of the prostate has a low specificity to distinguish tumors from the surrounding tissues. This limitation leads to systematic biopsies. Fluorescent diffuse optical imaging may represent an innovative approach to guide biopsies to tumors marked with high specificity contrast agents and therefore enable an early detection of prostate cancer. This article describes a time-resolved optical system embedded in a transrectal US probe, as well as the fluorescence reconstruction method and its performance. Optical measurements were performed using a pulsed laser, optical fibers and a time-resolved detection system. A novel fast reconstruction method was derived and used to locate a 45 µL ICG fluorescent inclusion at a concentration of 10 µM, in a liquid prostate phantom. Very high location accuracy (0.15 cm) was achieved after reconstruction, for different positions of the inclusion, in the three directions of space. The repeatability, tested with ten sequential measurements, was of the same order of magnitude. Influence of the input parameters (optical properties and lifetime) is presented. These results confirm the feasibility of using optical imaging for prostate guided biopsies. PMID:21326649

  1. The Investigation of DNA-Methyltransferase Interactions in the Adenine Methyltransferases using the Time-resolved Fluorescence of 2-Aminopurine 

    E-print Network

    Bonnist, Eleanor Y M

    2008-01-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence of 2-aminopurine (2AP) has been used to investigate DNA base flipping by the adenine methyltransferases and to study aspects of the DNA-enzyme interaction. 2AP is an excellent fluorophore ...

  2. Spectral reconstruction analysis for enhancing signal-to-noise in time-resolved spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Smith, Jonathan M.; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a new spectral analysis for the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in time-resolved spectroscopies. Unlike the simple linear average which produces a single representative spectrum with enhanced SNR, this Spectral Reconstruction analysis (SRa) improves the SNR (by a factor of ca. 0 . 6 ?{ n } ) for all n experimentally recorded time-resolved spectra. SRa operates by eliminating noise in the temporal domain, thereby attenuating noise in the spectral domain, as follows: Temporal profiles at each measured frequency are fit to a generic mathematical function that best represents the temporal evolution; spectra at each time are then reconstructed with data points from the fitted profiles. The SRa method is validated with simulated control spectral data sets. Finally, we apply SRa to two distinct experimentally measured sets of time-resolved IR emission spectra: (1) UV photolysis of carbonyl cyanide and (2) UV photolysis of vinyl cyanide.

  3. Development of Time Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based Assay for FXR Antagonist Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Taosheng; Forman, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor, NRIH4), a nuclear receptor, plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. FXR ligands have been investigated in preclinical studies for targeted therapy against metabolic diseases, but have shown limitations. Therefore, there is a need for new agonist or antagonist ligands of FXR, both for potential clinical applications, as well as to further elucidate its biological functions. Here we describe the use of the X-ray crystal structure of FXR complexed with the potent small molecule agonist GW4064 to design and synthesize a novel fluorescent, high-affinity probe (DY246) for time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. We then used the TR-FRET assay for high throughput screening of a library of over 5,000 bioactive compounds. From this library, we identified 13 compounds that act as putative FXR transcriptional antagonists. PMID:23688559

  4. A Novel Europium Chelate Coated Nanosphere for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifeng; Xu, Shaohan; He, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    A novel europium ligand 2,2',2'',2'''-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-diyl) bis (methylene) bis (azanetriyl) tetra acetic acid (BC-EDTA) was synthesized and characterized. It shows an emission spectrum peak at 610 nm when it is excited at 360 nm, with a large Stock shift (250 nm). It is covalently coated on the surface of a bare silica nanosphere containi free amino groups, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. We also observed an interesting phenomenon that when BC-EDTA is labeled with a silica nanosphere, the chelate shows different excitation spectrum peaks of about 295 nm. We speculate that the carboxyl has a significant influence on its excitation spectrum. The BC-EDTA/Eu3+coated nanosphere could be used as a fluorescent probe for time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. We labeled the antibody with the fluorescent nanosphere to develop a nanosphere based hepatitis B surface antigen as a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay reagent, which is very easy to operate and eliminates potential contamination of Eu3+ contained in the environment. The analytical and functional sensitivities are 0.0037 ?g/L and 0.08 ?g/L (S/N?2.0) respectively. The detection range is 0.08-166.67 ?g/L, which is much wider than that of ELISA (0.2-5 ?g/L). It is comparable to the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoro-immunoassay system (DELFIA) reagents (0.2-145 ?g/L). We propose that it can fulfill clinical applications. PMID:26056826

  5. A Novel Europium Chelate Coated Nanosphere for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifeng; Xu, Shaohan; He, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    A novel europium ligand 2, 2’, 2’’, 2’’’-(4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline-2, 9-diyl) bis (methylene) bis (azanetriyl) tetra acetic acid (BC-EDTA) was synthesized and characterized. It shows an emission spectrum peak at 610 nm when it is excited at 360 nm, with a large Stock shift (250 nm). It is covalently coated on the surface of a bare silica nanosphere containi free amino groups, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. We also observed an interesting phenomenon that when BC-EDTA is labeled with a silica nanosphere, the chelate shows different excitation spectrum peaks of about 295 nm. We speculate that the carboxyl has a significant influence on its excitation spectrum. The BC-EDTA/Eu3+coated nanosphere could be used as a fluorescent probe for time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. We labeled the antibody with the fluorescent nanosphere to develop a nanosphere based hepatitis B surface antigen as a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay reagent, which is very easy to operate and eliminates potential contamination of Eu3+ contained in the environment. The analytical and functional sensitivities are 0.0037 ?g/L and 0.08 ?g/L (S/N?2.0) respectively. The detection range is 0.08-166.67 ?g/L, which is much wider than that of ELISA (0.2-5?g/L). It is comparable to the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoro-immunoassay system (DELFIA) reagents (0.2-145?g/L). We propose that it can fulfill clinical applications. PMID:26056826

  6. Energy transfer in Anabaena variabilis filaments under nitrogen depletion, studied by time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Aya; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Some filamentous cyanobacteria (including Anabaena) differentiate into heterocysts under nitrogen-depleted conditions. During differentiation, the phycobiliproteins and photosystem II in the heterocysts are gradually degraded. Nitrogen depletion induces changes in the pigment composition of both vegetative cells and heterocysts, which affect the excitation energy transfer processes. To investigate the changes in excitation energy transfer processes of Anabaena variabilis filaments grown in standard medium (BG11) and a nitrogen-free medium (BG110), we measured their steady-state absorption spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) at 77 K. TRFS were measured with a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting system. The pigment compositions of the filaments grown in BG110 changed throughout the growth period; the relative phycocyanin levels monotonically decreased, whereas the relative carotenoid (Car) levels decreased and then recovered to their initial value (at day 0), with formation of lower-energy Cars. Nitrogen starvation also altered the fluorescence kinetics of PSI; the fluorescence maximum of TRFS immediately after excitation occurred at 735, 740, and 730 nm after 4, 8, and 15 days growth in BG110, respectively. Based on these results, we discuss the excitation energy transfer dynamics of A. variabilis filaments under the nitrogen-depleted condition throughout the growth period. PMID:25596847

  7. Time-resolved magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy of photolyzed carbonmonoxy cytochrome c oxidase (cytochrome aa3).

    PubMed Central

    Goldbeck, R A; Dawes, T D; Einarsdóttir, O; Woodruff, W H; Kliger, D S

    1991-01-01

    Nanosecond time-resolved magnetic circular dichroism (TRMCD) and time-resolved natural circular dichroism (TRCD) measurements of photolysis products of the CO complex of eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (CcO-CO) are presented. TRMCD spectra obtained at 100 ns and 10 microseconds after photolysis are diagnostic of pentacoordinate cytochrome a3Fe2+, as would be expected for simple photodissociation. Other time-resolved spectroscopies (UV-visible and resonance Raman), however, show evidence for unusual Fea3(2+) coordination after CO photolysis (Woodruff, W. H., O. Einarsdóttir, R. B. Dyer, K. A. Bagley, G. Palmer, S. J. Atherton, R. A. Goldbeck, T. D. Dawes, and D. S. Kliger. 1991. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:2588-2592). Furthermore, time-resolved IR experiments have shown that photodissociated CO binds to CuB+ prior to recombining with Fea3(2+) (Dyer, R. B., O. Einarsdóttir, P. M. Killough, J. J. López-Garriga, and W. H. Woodruff. 1989. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:7657-7659). A model of the CcO-CO photolysis cycle which is consistent with all of the spectroscopic results is presented. A novel feature of this model is the coordination of a ligand endogenous to the protein to the Fe axial site vacated by the photolyzed CO and the simultaneous breaking of the Fe-imidazole(histidine) bond. PMID:1653049

  8. Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Debreczeny, M.P.

    1994-05-01

    We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

  9. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Bruce R.; Muir, Keith R.; Gong, Zheng; McKendry, Jonathan; Girkin, John M.; Gu, Erdan; Renshaw, David; Dawson, Martin D.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 ?m high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 ?m CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented. PMID:22291564

  10. Serological responses to experimental Norwalk virus infection measured using a quantitative duplex time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Owen; Estes, Mary K; Reeck, Amanda; Raju, Ravikiran M; Opekun, Antone R; Gilger, Mark A; Graham, David Y; Atmar, Robert L

    2011-07-01

    A quantitative duplex time-resolved fluorescence assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA), was developed to measure Norwalk virus (NV)-specific IgA and IgG antibodies simultaneously. The duplex assay showed superior performance by detecting seroconversion following experimental NV infection at an earlier time point than a reference total immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:21593238

  11. Non-contact characterization of bacteria by time-resolved fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Alain; Frechette, Julie; Long, William F.; Vernon, Marcia; Cormier, Jean-Francois; Vallee, Real; Mafu, Akier A.; Lemay, Marie-Josee

    2004-07-01

    Accurate real-time methods for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in the agri-food industry would represent an improvement over standard methods of analysis. We are currently developing a non-contact, scanning optical system for the detection of bacteria on meat surfaces based on fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements. The system detects autofluorescent light emitted by the naturally occurring fluorophores in bacteria. Potential expected advantages of this system include accurate and efficient 2D real-time mapping of bacterial contamination of surfaces, and elimination of sample-to-sample cross-contamination. Furthermore, as the technique only requires minimal sample preparation and handling, the chemical properties of the specimen are preserved. This article presents the preliminary results obtained from a time-resolved fluorescence imaging system for the characterization of a non-pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Additionally we present a particular application of the system of interest to the agri-food industry, demonstrating its potential as a real-time macroscopic imaging system for mapping bacterial contamination on meat surfaces. Initial results indicate that the combination of fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements provides a means for characterizing biological media and for detecting microorganisms on surfaces.

  12. Broadband and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with light emitting diodes: Application to etching plasma monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Cunge, G.; Vempaire, D.; Touzeau, M.; Sadeghi, N.

    2007-12-03

    Broad band absorption spectroscopy is widely used to measure the concentration of radicals, which is important to understand the physical chemistry of many plasmas. It is possible to increase the sensitivity of this technique and to perform time-resolved measurement by using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. The method is applied to detect CF{sub 2} radicals and Cl{sub 2} molecules in high density plasmas. The detection limit over 10 ms integration time is as low as 3 mTorr of Cl{sub 2}. We conclude that the absorption spectroscopy with LEDs opens possibilities for precise process control and fundamental analysis of reactive media.

  13. Noninvasive assessment of breast cancer risk using time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Abbate, Francesca; Villa, Anna; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2010-11-01

    Breast density is a recognized strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. We propose the use of time-resolved transmittance spectroscopy to estimate breast tissue density and potentially provide even more direct information on breast cancer risk. Time-resolved optical mammography at seven wavelengths (635 to 1060 nm) is performed on 49 subjects. Average information on breast tissue of each subject is obtained on oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen content, as well as scattering amplitude and power. All parameters, except for blood volume and oxygenation, correlate with mammographic breast density, even if not to the same extent. A synthetic optical index proves to be quite effective in separating different breast density categories. Finally, the estimate of collagen content as a more direct means for the assessment of breast cancer risk is discussed.

  14. Capturing molecular structural dynamics by 100?ps time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tokushi; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Ichiyanagi, Kohei; Tomita, Ayana; Chollet, Matthieu; Ichikawa, Hirohiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-01-01

    An experimental set-up for time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 100?ps time resolution at beamline NW14A at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring is presented. The X-ray positional active feedback to crystals in a monochromator combined with a figure-of-merit scan of the laser beam position has been utilized as an essential tool to stabilize the spatial overlap of the X-ray and laser beams at the sample position. As a typical example, a time-resolved XAFS measurement of a photo-induced spin crossover reaction of the tris(1,10-phenanthrorine)iron(II) complex in water is presented. PMID:19096182

  15. New time-resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy of natural and synthetic analogue minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczer, G.; Ollier, N.; Champagnon, B.; Gaft, M.

    2003-04-01

    Minerals as well as geomaterials often present light emissions under UV or visible excitations. This property called photoluminescence is due to low concentration impurities such as the rare earths, the transition elements and the lanthanides. The induced color is used for ore prospection but only spectroscopic analyses indicate the nature of the emitted centers. However natural samples contained numerous luminescent centers simultaneously and with regular steady-state measurements (such as in cathodoluminescence) all the emissions are often over lapping. In order to record the contributions of each separate center, it is possible to use time-resolved measurements based on the decay time of the emissions and using pulsed laser excitation. Some characteristic examples will be presented on apatites, zircons as well as gemstones. Geomaterials present as well micro scale heterogeneities (growth zoning, inclusions, devitrification, microphases...). Precise identification and optical effects of such heterogeneities have to be taken into account. To reach the microscale using photo luminescence studies, a microscope has be modified to allowed pulsed laser injection (from UV to visible), beam focus with micro scale resolution on the sample (<10 ?m), as well as time resolved collection of micro fluorescence. Such equipment allows now undertaking time-resolved measurements of microphases. Applications on geomaterials will be presented.

  16. Coherence-imaging approach to time-resolved charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy in high-temperature plasma

    E-print Network

    Howard, John

    Coherence-imaging approach to time-resolved charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy in high of interest using an interference filter and subsequently imaging the spectral scene using a field, thereby opening the possibility for time-resolved two-dimensional spectral imaging. When unwanted spectral

  17. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2015-01-01

    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a "fast" electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a "fast" mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas.

  18. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E; Boffard, John B; Lin, Chun C

    2015-01-01

    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a "fast" electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a "fast" mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas. PMID:25638076

  19. Fluorescence dynamics of poly (N-vinylcarbazole) in fluid solution. Multivariate analysis of time-resolved fluorescence spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Hisashi; Itaya, Akira; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiji; Kawata, Satoshi

    1993-06-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) in solution were analyzed by using a principal multicomponent spectral estimation method. It was clearly indicated that the spectra were composed of only three component fluorescence (monomer, partial overlap excimer, and sandwich excimer). Rise as well as decay curves of this component fluorscence were nonexponential and depended upon tacticity of the polymer. The partial overlap is formed not only by ultrafast trapping in the pre-existing site but also through dynamic processes such as energy migration. In tens of ns time range the excited monomer as well as the partial overlap excimer are produced via dissociation and re-activation of the sandwich excimer

  20. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy to study biologically related applications using sol-gel derived and cellular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toury, Marion; Chandler, Lin; Allison, Archie; Campbell, David; McLoskey, David; Holmes-Smith, A. Sheila; Hungerford, Graham

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy provides a non-invasive means for visualising dynamic protein interactions. As well as allowing the calculation of kinetic processes via the use of time-resolved fluorescence, localisation of the protein within cells or model systems can be monitored. These fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) have become the preferred technique for elucidating protein dynamics due to the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, in the main independent of fluorophore concentration and intensity fluctuations caused by factors such as photobleaching. In this work we demonstrate the use of a time-resolved fluorescence microscopy, employing a high repetition rate laser excitation source applied to study the influence of a metal surface on fluorescence tagged protein and to elucidate viscosity using the fluorescence lifetime probe DASPMI. These were studied in a cellular environment (yeast) and in a model system based on a sol-gel derived material, in which silver nanostructures were formed in situ using irradiation from a semiconductor laser in CW mode incorporated on a compact time-resolved fluorescence microscope (HORIBA Scientific DeltaDiode and DynaMyc).

  1. Nonlinear Raman Techniques in Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy for the Analysis and Control of Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Materny, Arnulf; Konradi, Jakow; Namboodiri, Vinu; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Scaria, Abraham

    2008-11-14

    The use of four-wave mixing techniques in femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy has considerable advantages. Due to the many degrees of freedom offered e.g. by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the dynamics even of complex systems can be analyzed in detail. Using pulse shaping techniques in combination with a self-learning loop approach, molecular mode excitation can be controlled very efficiently in a multi-photon excitation process. Results obtained from the optimal control of CARS on {beta}-carotene are discussed.

  2. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the Mercury 6 3P1 state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, J. A.; Reeves, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence was observed from the Hg 6 3P1 state under the influence of the earth's magnetic field and with applied fields of up to 14 G. Modulation of the fluorescence decay signal was observed as a function of both time and space and can be interpreted in terms of a classical precession of the excited atom about the magnetic field or as quantum beats resulting from interference between coherently populated Zeeman sublevels. This modulation was studied for each of the five resolvable components of the hyperfine structure separately. The fluorescence from the even isotopes was determined to be almost completely modulated while the fluorescence from the odd isotopes was only partially modulated. The frequency of modulation of the fluorescence from the mercury-202 isotope was observed as a function of the applied magnetic field and a value for the Lande factor of 1.46 + or - 0.03 was obtained. This is within experimental error of the accepted value of 1.486. In addition, the frequency of modulation as a function of applied magnetic field was determined for each of the three resolvable components with more than one contributing isotopic hyperfine line. An investigation of the effect of radiation trapping on the degree modulation was also made.

  3. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging: New Approaches to the Analysis of Cultural Heritage and Its Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Austin; Cesaratto, Anna; Bellei, Sara; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Toniolo, Lucia; Valentini, Gianluca; Comelli, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Applications of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (TRPL) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to the analysis of cultural heritage are presented. Examples range from historic wall paintings and stone sculptures to 20th century iconic design objects. A detailed description of the instrumentation developed and employed for analysis in the laboratory or in situ is given. Both instruments rely on a pulsed laser source coupled to a gated detection system, but differ in the type of information they provide. Applications of FLIM to the analysis of model samples and for the in-situ monitoring of works of art range from the analysis of organic materials and pigments in wall paintings, the detection of trace organic substances on stone sculptures, to the mapping of luminescence in late 19th century paintings. TRPL and FLIM are employed as sensors for the detection of the degradation of design objects made in plastic. Applications and avenues for future research are suggested. PMID:24699285

  4. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence detection for Salmonella enteriditis in liquid eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gehring, Andrew; Paoli, George

    2008-04-01

    An immuno sandwich method was evaluated for the detection of Salmonella in liquid eggs. Liquid eggs spiked with different out-break strains of Salmonella were mixed with proper enrichment media and incubated at 37 C for 4 to 20 h. After enrichment, immunomagnetic beads (IMB) coated with anti Salmonella antibodies were used to capture the bacteria. Samarium (Sm) labeled anti Salmonella antibodies were then used to form sandwiched complexes with IMB captured bacteria. Sandwiched Salmonella were then treated with Sm-chelator to allow the measurement of the released Sm by time-resolved fluorescence (TRF). The processes ranging from IMB capture to Sm chelation were performed using an automated KingFisher apparatus. With this approach, the presence of ~ 1 CFU of outbreak strains of Salmonella Enteritidis per egg (~50 g of liquid eggs) could be detected after enrichment for 20 h at 37 C. For higher levels of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination, e.g., 10 CFU per 50 g of liquid eggs, the enrichment time could be reduced to 5 h at 37 C. The results demonstrated that a combination of IMB capture and TRF measurement could be a rapid and sensitive method for Salmonella Enteritidis detection in liquid eggs.

  5. Measuring human beta-secretase (BACE1) activity using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Matthew E; Wang, Wenyan; Song, Lixin; Lee, Julie; Zhang, Lili; Wong, Gwen; Wang, Liyang; Parker, Eric

    2003-08-01

    The human beta-secretase enzyme, BACE1, mediates a critical step in the production of A beta(40) and A beta(42) peptides which are responsible for the severe neuronal cell death and insoluble amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of evidence suggest that potent BACE1 inhibitors represent an attractive A beta-lowering strategy for AD. We designed a simple homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assay which utilizes the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair europium and allophycocyanin for measuring BACE1 enzymatic activity in a high-throughput manner. Robust FRET was observed when an 18-amino-acid APP Swedish-synthetic peptide that was N-terminally labeled with europium cryptate and C-terminally biotinylated was incubated with streptavidin-coupled cross-linked allophycocyanin (SA-XL665). Purified BACE1 enzyme caused a time- and concentration-dependent linear change in FRET at low nanomolar enzyme concentrations. This assay was used to compare the autoprocessed "mature" BACE1 enzyme (sautoBACe1) and the soluble proBACE1 for activity and inhibition by selected peptidic BACE inhibitors. sautoBACE1 displayed only a modest increase in activity compared to sproBACE1 and this activity was uninhibited by the BACE1 prodomain peptide. Interestingly, the BACE1 prodomain peptide was able to partially inhibit sproBACE1 activity. IC(50s) for a P10-P4' statine BACE1 inhibitor, OM99-2, and OM-003 determined using the HTRF assay were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The primary advantages of the HTRF-formatted BACE1 protease assay include appropriate reflection of native BACE1 activity, high sensitivity, low variability, and intrinsic quench correction afforded by ratiometric measurements made between EuK and SA-XL665 fluorophores. PMID:12842106

  6. ULTRAFAST CHEMISTRY: Using Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy for Interrogation of Structural Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibbering, Erik T. J.; Fidder, Henk; Pines, Ehud

    2005-05-01

    Time-resolved infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy elucidates molecular structure evolution during ultrafast chemical reactions. Following vibrational marker modes in real time provides direct insight into the structural dynamics, as is evidenced in studies on intramolecular hydrogen transfer, bimolecular proton transfer, electron transfer, hydrogen bonding during solvation dynamics, bond fission in organometallic compounds and heme proteins, cis-trans isomerization in retinal proteins, and transformations in photochromic switch pairs. Femtosecond IR spectroscopy monitors the site-specific interactions in hydrogen bonds. Conversion between excited electronic states can be followed for intramolecular electron transfer by inspection of the fingerprint IR- or Raman-active vibrations in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. Excess internal vibrational energy, generated either by optical excitation or by internal conversion from the electronic excited state to the ground state, is observable through transient frequency shifts of IR-active vibrations and through nonequilibrium populations as deduced by Raman resonances.

  7. Highly sensitive detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA using time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue F.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Wodnicki, Pawel; Siadat-Pajouh, M.; Herman, Brian

    1995-04-01

    We have been interested in the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and its diagnosis; to that end we have been developing microscopic imaging and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to genotype and quantitate the amount of HPV present at a single cell level in cervical PAP smears. However, we have found that low levels of HPV DNA are difficult to detect accurately because theoretically obtainable sensitivity is never achieved due to nonspecific autofluorescence, fixative induced fluorescence of cells and tissues, and autofluorescence of the optical components in the microscopic system. In addition, the absorption stains used for PAP smears are intensely autofluorescent. Autofluorescence is a rapidly decaying process with lifetimes in the range of 1-100 nsec, whereas phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence have lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) ec-10 msec. The ability to discriminate between specific fluorescence and autofluorescence in the time-domain has improved the sensitivity of diagnostic test such that they perform comparably to, or even more sensitive than radioisotopic assays. We have developed a novel time-resolved fluorescence microscope to improve the sensitivity of detection of specific molecules of interest in slide based specimens. This time-resolved fluorescence microscope is based on our recently developed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FILM) in conjunction with the use of long lifetime fluorescent labels. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the long lifetime probe (europium), we have demonstrated the utility of this technique for detection of HPV DNA in cervicovaginal cells. Our results indicate that the use of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes increases the sensitivity of detection by removing autofluorescence and will thus lead to improved early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Since the highly sensitive detection of DNA in clinical samples using fluorescence in situ hybridization image is useful for the diagnosis of many other type of diseases, the system we have developed should find numerous applications for the diagnosis of disease states.

  8. Ultrafast time-resolved broadband fluorescence studies of the benzene-tetracyanoethylene complex: solvation, vibrational relaxation, and charge recombination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Chung; Hung, Chih-Chang; Chen, Chien-Lin; Cheng, Po-Yuan

    2013-08-22

    The charge-transfer (CT) state relaxation dynamics of the benzene-tetracyanoethylene (BZ-TCNE) complex was studied with broadband ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy implemented by optical Kerr gating in three solvents of different polarities. The CT state of the BZ-TCNE complex is reached via femtosecond laser excitation, and the subsequent temporal evolutions of the fluorescence spectra were measured. Analyses of various time-dependent spectral properties revealed rapid relaxations along solvent and vibrational coordinates in competition with charge recombination (CR). By comparing the results in solvents of different polarities, we partially separated solvation and vibrational relaxation dynamics and explored the solvent-dependent CR dynamics. Time-dependent dynamic fluorescence Stokes shift (TDFSS) measurements unveiled the solvation and vibrational relaxation contributions to the observed spectral relaxation. The biphasic and slow time scales of the vibrational contributions identified in TDFSS suggested nonstatistical and hindered intramolecular vibrational-energy redistribution that can be attributed to the unique structural properties of EDA complexes. The slowest spectral relaxation of 10-15 ps identified in TDFSS was ascribed to relaxation of the BZ(+)-TCNE(-) intermolecular vibrations, which is equivalent to a structural relaxation from the initial Franck-Condon configuration to the equilibrium CT-state structure. The time scales of vibrational relaxation indicate that a fraction of the CT-state population undergoes CR reactions before complete vibrational/structural equilibrium is achieved. In carbon tetrachloride, a nonexponential temporal profile was observed and attributed to vibrational nonequilibrium CR. In dichloromethane, polar solvation greatly accelerates CR reactions, and a slower reaction-field-induced structural relaxation gives rise to a pronounced biexponential decay. The equilibrium CR time constants of the BZ-TCNE CT state are 29 ps, 150 ps, and 68 ps in dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and cyclohexane, respectively. PMID:23865400

  9. Hyperspectral time-resolved wide-field fluorescence molecular tomography based on structured light and single-pixel detection.

    PubMed

    Pian, Qi; Yao, Ruoyang; Zhao, Lingling; Intes, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    We present a time-resolved fluorescence diffuse optical tomography platform that is based on wide-field structured illumination, single-pixel detection, and hyperspectral acquisition. Two spatial light modulators (digital micro-mirror devices) are employed to generate independently wide-field illumination and detection patterns, coupled with a 16-channel spectrophotometer detection module to capture hyperspectral time-resolved tomographic data sets. The main system characteristics are reported, and we demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring dense 4D tomographic data sets (space, time, spectra) for time domain 3D quantitative multiplexed fluorophore concentration mapping in turbid media. PMID:25680065

  10. Hyperspectral time-resolved wide-field fluorescence molecular tomography based on structured light and single-pixel detection

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Qi; Yao, Ruoyang; Zhao, Lingling; Intes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We present a time-resolved fluorescence diffuse optical tomography platform that is based on wide-field structured illumination, single-pixel detection, and hyperspectral acquisition. Two spatial light modulators (digital micro-mirror devices) are employed to generate independently wide-field illumination and detection patterns, coupled with a 16-channel spectrophotometer detection module to capture hyperspectral time-resolved tomographic data sets. The main system characteristics are reported, and we demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring dense 4D tomographic data sets (space, time, spectra) for time domain 3D quantitative multiplexed fluorophore concentration mapping in turbid media. PMID:25680065

  11. Discovery of novel aromatase inhibitors using a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin-zi; Lao, Ke-jing; Hu, Jie; Pang, Tao; Jiang, Zhen-zhou; Yuan, Hao-liang; Miao, Jing-shan; Chen, Xin; Ning, Shan-shan; Xiang, Hua; Guo, Yu-meng; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Lu-yong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Aromatase is an important target for drugs to treat hormone-dependent diseases, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) aromatase assay suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS). Methods: A 384-well aromatase HTRF assay was established, and used to screen about 7000 compounds from a compound library. Anti-proliferation activity of the hit was evaluated using alamarBlue(R) assay in a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line T47D. Molecular docking was conducted to elucidate the binding mode of the hit using the Discovery Studio program. Results: The Z? value and signal to background (S/B) ratio were 0.74 and 5.4, respectively. Among the 7000 compounds, 4 hits (XHN22, XHN26, XHN27 and triptoquinone A) were found to inhibit aromatase with IC50 values of 1.60±0.07, 2.76±0.24, 0.81±0.08 and 45.8±11.3 ?mol /L, respectively. The hits XHN22, XHN26 and XHN27 shared the same chemical scaffold of 4-imidazolyl quinoline. Moreover, the most potent hit XHN27 at 10 and 50 ?mol/L inhibited the proliferation of T47D cells by 45.3% and 35.2%, respectively. The docking study revealed that XHN27 docked within the active site of aromatase and might form a hydrogen bond and had a ?-cation interaction with amino acid residues of the protein. Conclusion: XHN27, an imidazolyl quinoline derivative of flavonoid, is a potent aromatase inhibitor with anti-proliferation activity against breast cancer in vitro. The established assay can be used in HTS for discovering novel aromatase inhibitor. PMID:25047514

  12. Modelling Time-Resolved Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of the Primary Photoisomerization Event in Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra (ES) tracking the evolution of the excited state manifolds of the retinal chromophore have been simulated along the photoisomerization pathway in bovine rhodopsin, using a state-of-the-art hybrid QM/MM approach based on multiconfigurational methods. Simulations of broadband 2D spectra provide a useful picture of the overall detectable 2D signals from the near-infrared (NIR) to the near-ultraviolet (UV). Evolution of the stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) 2D signals indicates that the S1 ? SN (with N ? 2) ESAs feature a substantial blue-shift only after bond inversion and partial rotation along the cis ? trans isomerization angle, while the SE rapidly red-shifts during the photoinduced skeletal relaxation of the polyene chain. Different combinations of pulse frequencies are proposed in order to follow the evolution of specific ESA signals. These include a two-color 2DVis/NIR setup especially suited for tracking the evolution of the S1 ? S2 transitions that can be used to discriminate between different photochemical mechanisms of retinal photoisomerization as a function of the environment. The reported results are consistent with the available time-resolved pump–probe experimental data, and may be used for the design of more elaborate transient 2D electronic spectroscopy techniques. PMID:24794143

  13. Characterization of energetic and thermalized sputtered atoms in pulsed plasma using time-resolved tunable diode-laser induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Desecures, M.; Poucques, L. de; Easwarakhanthan, T.; Bougdira, J.

    2014-11-03

    In this work, a time-resolved tunable diode-laser (DL) induced fluorescence (TR-TDLIF) method calibrated by absorption spectroscopy has been developed in order to determine atom and flux velocity distribution functions (AVDF and FVDF) of the energetic and the thermalized atoms in pulsed plasmas. The experimental set-up includes a low-frequency (?3?Hz) and high spectral-resolution DL (?0.005?pm), a fast rise-time pulse generator, and a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) system. The induced TR-TDLIF signal is recorded every 0.5??s with a digital oscilloscope of a second-long trace. The technique is illustrated with determining the AVDF and the FVDF of a metastable state of the sputtered neutral tungsten atoms in the HiPIMS post-discharge. Gaussian functions describing the population of the four W isotopes were used to fit the measured TR-TDLIF signal. These distribution functions provide insight into transition from the energetic to thermalized regimes from the discharge onset. This technique may be extended with appropriate DLs to probe any species with rapidly changing AVDF and FVDF in pulsed and strongly oscillating plasmas.

  14. Time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for chemical kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheps, Leonid; Chandler, David W.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental measurements of elementary reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios are essential to our understanding of many fundamentally important processes in Combustion Chemistry. However, such measurements are often impossible because of a lack of adequate detection techniques. Some of the largest gaps in our knowledge concern some of the most important radical species, because their short lifetimes and low steady-state concentrations make them particularly difficult to detect. To address this challenge, we propose a novel general detection method for gas-phase chemical kinetics: time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (TR-BB-CEAS). This all-optical, non-intrusive, multiplexed method enables sensitive direct probing of transient reaction intermediates in a simple, inexpensive, and robust experimental package.

  15. Label-Free Toxin Detection by Means of Time-Resolved Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Changhoon; Takhistov, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The real-time detection of trace concentrations of biological toxins requires significant improvement of the detection methods from those reported in the literature. To develop a highly sensitive and selective detection device it is necessary to determine the optimal measuring conditions for the electrochemical sensor in three domains: time, frequency and polarization potential. In this work we utilized a time-resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of trace concentrations of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB). An anti-SEB antibody has been attached to the nano-porous aluminum surface using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane/glutaraldehyde coupling system. This immobilization method allows fabrication of a highly reproducible and stable sensing device. Using developed immobilization procedure and optimized detection regime, it is possible to determine the presence of SEB at the levels as low as 10 pg/mL in 15 minutes. PMID:22315560

  16. Time-resolved picosecond spectroscopy of the resonant secondary radiation of F centers in KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, N.; Nakahara, F.; Ohkura, H.

    1995-12-01

    The linear polarization (P HL) of hot luminescence (HL) composing of the resonant secondary radiation of the F centers has been measured using a time-resolved picosecond spectroscopy over the whole Stokes wavenumber ? range. The P HL holds constant value of about 40% until the onset of ordinary luminescence (OL), from where it decreases to vanishingly small with decrease of ? This implies that the optically excited F center relaxes down along the 2p-like adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) trough, and transits to the 2s-like APES trough to form the relaxed excited state (RES). The lattice relaxation time and the dynamical transition time are ultra fast estimated to be less than 15 psec.

  17. Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of BN and BxCyNz nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Han, Wei-Qiang; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Shan, W.; Haller,E.E.; Zettl, A.

    2004-01-21

    We report Raman and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopic studies of multiwalled BN and B{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z} nanotubes. The Raman spectroscopy shows that the as-grown B{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z} charge recombination, respectively. Comparison of the photoluminescence of BN nanotubes to that decay process is characterized by two time constants that are attributed to intra- and inter-BN sheet nanotubes as predicted by theory. nanotubes are radially phase separated into BN shells and carbon shells. The photoluminescence of hexagonal BN is consistent with the existence of a spatially indirect band gap in multi-walled BN.

  18. Mechanism Behind the Apparent Large Stokes Shift in LSSmOrange Investigated by Time-Resolved Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fron, Eduard; De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Rocha, Susana; Baeten, Yannick; Lu, Gang; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2015-11-25

    LSSmOrange is a fluorescent protein with a large energy gap between the absorption and emission bands (5275 cm(-1)). The electronic structure of the LSSmOrange chromophore, 2-[(5-)-2-hydroxy-dihydrooxazole]-4-(p-hydroxybenzylidene)-5-imidazolinone, is affected by deprotonation of the p-hydroxybenzylidene group. We investigated LSSmOrange by time-resolved spectroscopy in the femtosecond and nanosecond range. The ground state chromophore was almost exclusively in the neutral form, which had a main absorption band at 437 nm with a small shoulder at 475 nm. The absorption at a wavelength within the former band promoted the protein to the excited state where excited state proton transfer (ESPT) could lead to deprotonation in 0.8 ps. Following ESPT, the chromophore emitted fluorescence with a maximum at 573 nm and a decay time of 3500 ps. Although deprotonation by ESPT occurs, we unexpectedly found a slow accumulation of the anionic form in the ground state upon repeated high intensity excitation. This accumulation of the anionic form was accompanied by a shift of the absorption band to 553 nm without changing the emission band. MALDI-MS revealed that this shift is accompanied by decarboxylation of E222, which is interacting with the imidazolinone ring of the chromophore. We concluded that the photoinduced decarboxylation induced a conformational change that affected local environment around the hydroxyl group, resulting in a stable deprotonated form of the chromophore. PMID:26529379

  19. A field programmable gate array-based time-resolved scaler for collinear laser spectroscopy with bunched radioactive potassium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, D. M. Davis, M.; Ringle, R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Ryder, C. A.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Zhao, S.; Minamisono, K. Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Hughes, M.; Strum, R.; Tarazona, D.; Cooper, K.; Hammerton, K.; Mantica, P. F.; Morrissey, D. J.

    2014-09-15

    A new data acquisition system including a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based time-resolved scaler was developed for laser-induced fluorescence and beam bunch coincidence measurements. The FPGA scaler was tested in a collinear laser-spectroscopy experiment on radioactive {sup 37}K at the BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. A 1.29 ?s bunch width from the buncher and a bunch repetition rate of 2.5 Hz led to a background suppression factor of 3.1 × 10{sup 5} in resonant photon detection measurements. The hyperfine structure of {sup 37}K and its isotope shift relative to the stable {sup 39}K were determined using 5 × 10{sup 4} s{sup ?1} {sup 37}K ions injected into the BECOLA beam line. The obtained hyperfine coupling constants A({sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) = 120.3(1.4) MHz, A({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) = 15.2(1.1) MHz, and A({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) = 1.4(8) MHz, and the isotope shift ??{sup 39,} {sup 37} = ?264(3) MHz are consistent with the previously determined values, where available.

  20. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 ?m FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore »data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  1. Cyclohexene Photo-oxidation over Vanadia Catalyst Analyzed by Time Resolved ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, Heinz; Mul, Guido; Wasylenko, Walter; Hamdy, M. Sameh; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-04

    Vanadia was incorporated in the 3-dimensional mesoporous material TUD-1 with a loading of 2percent w/w vanadia. The performance in the selective photo-oxidation of liquid cyclohexene was investigated using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Under continuous illumination at 458 nm a significant amount of product, i.e. cyclohexenone, was identified. This demonstrates for the first time that hydroxylated vanadia centers in mesoporous materials can be activated by visible light to induce oxidation reactions. Using the rapid scan method, a strong perturbation of the vanadyl environment could be observed in the selective oxidation process induced by a 458 nm laser pulse of 480 ms duration. This is proposed to be caused by interaction of the catalytic centre with a cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide intermediate. The restoration of the vanadyl environment could be kinetically correlated to the rate of formation of cyclohexenone, and is explained by molecular rearrangement and dissociation of the peroxide to ketone and water. The ketone diffuses away from the active center and ATR infrared probing zone, resulting in a decreasing ketone signal on the tens of seconds time scale after initiation of the photoreaction. This study demonstrates the high potential of time resolved ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for mechanistic studies of liquid phase reactions by monitoring not only intermediates and products, but by correlating the temporal behavior of these species to molecular changes of the vanadyl catalytic site.

  2. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 ?m FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  3. Time-Resolved Emission Reveals Ensemble of Emissive States as the Origin of Multicolor Fluorescence in Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Khan, Syamantak; Gupta, Abhishek; Verma, Navneet C; Nandi, Chayan K

    2015-12-01

    The origin of photoluminescence in carbon dots has baffled scientists since its discovery. We show that the photoluminescence spectra of carbon dots are inhomogeneously broadened due to the slower relaxation of the solvent molecules around it. This gives rise to excitation-dependent fluorescence that violates the Kasha-Vavilov rule. The time-resolved experiment shows significant energy redistribution, relaxation among the emitting states, and spectral migration of fluorescence spectra in the nanosecond time scale. The excitation-dependent multicolor emission in time-integrated spectra is typically governed by the relative population of these emitting states. PMID:26566016

  4. Probing Kinetic Mechanisms of Protein Function and Folding with Time-Resolved Natural and Magnetic Chiroptical Spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Kliger, David S.; Chen, Eefei; Goldbeck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent and ongoing developments in time-resolved spectroscopy have made it possible to monitor circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, optical rotatory dispersion, and magnetic optical rotatory dispersion with nanosecond time resolution. These techniques have been applied to determine structural changes associated with the function of several proteins as well as to determine the nature of early events in protein folding. These studies have required new approaches in triggering protein reactions as well as the development of time-resolved techniques for polarization spectroscopies with sufficient time resolution and sensitivity to probe protein structural changes. PMID:22312279

  5. Persistent luminescence nanoprobe for biosensing and lifetime imaging of cell apoptosis via time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lei, Jianping; Liu, Jintong; Ma, Fengjiao; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-10-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence technique can reduce the short-lived background luminescence and auto-fluorescence interference from cells and tissues by exerting the delay time between pulsed excitation light and signal acquisition. Here, we prepared persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) to design a universal time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) platform for biosensing, lifetime imaging of cell apoptosis and in situ lifetime quantification of intracellular caspase-3. Three kinds of PLNPs-based nanoprobes are assembled by covalently binding dye-labeled peptides or DNA to carboxyl-functionalized PLNPs for the efficient detection of caspase-3, microRNA and protein. The peptides-functionalized nanoprobe is also employed for fluorescence lifetime imaging to monitor cell apoptosis, which shows a dependence of cellular fluorescence lifetime on caspase-3 activity and thus leads to an in situ quantification method. This work provides a proof-of-concept for PLNPs-based TR-FRET analysis and demonstrates its potential in exploring dynamical information of life process. PMID:26232881

  6. Time-resolved stimulated emission spectroscopy in the ultrashort domain through pump probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Paladini, A.; Guidoni, L.; Santagata, A.; Parisi, G. P.; Villani, P.; Teghil, R.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Giardini, A.

    2007-12-01

    The photoemission properties of fluorescent chromophores have a widespread application in many fields ranging from chemical-physics and biology to organic light emitting devices. These systems usually display high fluorescence conversion efficiency, which makes them suitable for transient/gain experiments also in liquid solutions, thin films and eventually in protein environments. Pump and probe methods have been widely employed for wavelength-resolved spectroscopy in the subpicosecond time scale. In our group, we have recently assembled a new experimental setup for pump and probe spectroscopy: preliminary tests on the Rhodamine B dye in ethanol have been performed in order to optimize the setup . The dynamic response of photoinduced changes of the chromophore dispersed into a suitable solvent has been studied with a subpicosecond time resolution. The optically prepared initial state of the Rhodamine B in ethanol solution appears to evolve on a timescale of few picoseconds into a successive state, which could be attributed to an intramolecular charge transfer state.

  7. Probing Folded and Unfolded States of Outer Membrane Protein A using Steady-State and Time-Resolved Tryptophan Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Judy E.; Arjara, Gitrada; Richards, John H.; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements on each of five native tryptophan residues in full-length and truncated variants of E. coli outer-membrane protein A (OmpA) have been made in folded and denatured states. Tryptophan singlet excited-state lifetimes are multiexponential and vary among the residues. In addition, substantial increases in excited-state lifetimes accompany OmpA folding, with longer lifetimes in micelles than in phospholipid bilayers. This finding suggests that the Trp environments of OmpA folded in micelles and phospholipid bilayers are different. Measurements of Trp fluorescence decay kinetics with full-length OmpA folded in brominated lipid vesicles reveal that W102 is the most distant fluorophore from the hydrocarbon core, while W7 is the closest. Steady-state and time-resolved polarized fluorescence measurements indicate reduced Trp mobility when OmpA is folded in a micelle, and even lower mobility when the protein is folded in a bilayer. The fluorescence properties of truncated OmpA, in which the soluble periplasmic domain is removed, only modestly differ from those of the full-length form, suggesting similar folded structures for the two forms under these conditions. PMID:16942111

  8. Effects of Nonequilibrium Dynamical Screening on Femtosecond Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setlur, G. S.; Chang, Y. C.

    1996-03-01

    We present here the theory of ultrafast carrier-carrier scattering in semiconductors and apply it to study the thermalization of carriers and to understand femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. The main feature of our approach is the theoretically sound treatment of collisions. We abandon Fermi's Golden rule in favor of the Schwinger-Bakshi-Mahantappa-Keldysh (nonequilibrium field theoretical) formalism as the former is applicable only in the long-time regime. Explicit formulas are derived for the screened coulomb interaction in terms of the external time-varying classical electromagnetic fields that are assumed to be present. The formulas are contrasted with the traditional random phase approximation. The polarization dephasing rates are computed as a function of the excited carrier density and it is found that the dephasing rate for carrier-carrier scattering is proportional to the carrier density at low densities, which enables a comparison with experiment. We also demonstrate the dramatic effects of carrier-carrier scattering on the momentum-density distribution of carriers. For resonant pumping we find an overall broadening of the probability distribution. For pump frequencies above the band gap we find a pronounced depletion of carriers at the pump wavevector and a corresponding enhancement at lower momenta. Work supported by ONR N00014-90-J-1267 and NSF/DMR-89-20539.

  9. Evidence for bandgap opening in buckled epitaxial graphene from ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihnev, Momchil T.; Wang, Feng; Liu, Gang; Rothwell, Sara; Cohen, Philip I.; Feldman, Leonard C.; Conrad, Edward H.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2015-10-01

    We utilize ultrafast time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy as a direct, sensitive, and non-contact all-optical probe to investigate the hot-carrier relaxation and cooling dynamics of buckled epitaxial graphene. This special form of graphene is grown epitaxially on nitrogen-seeded single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC( 000 1 ¯ )) substrates by thermal decomposition of Si atoms. The pre-deposited interfacial nitrogen atoms pin the first graphene layer to the SiC substrate, and cause it and subsequent graphene layers to buckle into nanoscale folds, which opens an energy gap of up to ˜0.7 eV. We observe a remarkable increase of up to two orders of magnitude in the relaxation rate of the THz carrier dynamics of this semiconducting form of epitaxial graphene relative to pristine epitaxial graphene, which we attribute to a large enhancement of the optical-phonon-mediated carrier cooling and recombination over a wide range of electron temperatures due to the finite bandgap. Our results suggest that the introduced bandgap is spatially non-homogenous, with local values close to the optical phonon energy of ˜200 meV, which allows the conduction and the valence band to be bridged by optical phonon emission. We also demonstrate that carrier relaxation times can be modified by orders of magnitude by careful bandgap engineering, which could find application in novel graphene-based devices that incorporate both metallic and semiconducting forms of graphene.

  10. Infrared and X-ray simultaneous spectroscopy: a novel conceptual beamline design for time resolved experiments.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Augusto; Xu, Wei; Hampai, Dariush; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio; Schade, Ulrich; Wu, Ziyu

    2010-07-01

    Many physical/chemical processes such as metal-insulator transitions or self-assembly phenomena involve correlated changes of electronic and atomic structure in a wide time range from microseconds to minutes. To investigate these dynamic processes we not only need a highly brilliant photon source in order to achieve high spatial and time resolution but new experimental methods have to be implemented. Here we present a new optical layout for performing simultaneous or concurrent infrared and X-ray measurements. This approach may indeed return unique information for example the interplay between structural changes and chemical processes occurring in the investigated sample. A beamline combining two X-ray and IR beams may really take advantage of the unique synchrotron radiation properties: the high brilliance and the broad spectrum. In this contribution we will describe the conceptual layout and the expected performance of a complex system designed to collect IR and X-ray radiation from the same bending magnet on a third-generation synchrotron radiation ring. If realized, this beamline will enable time-resolved spectroscopy experiments offering new scientific opportunities at the frontiers of science. PMID:20461504

  11. Time Resolved Optical Spectroscopy Experiments on the 500 kA XP Pulsed-Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. S.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; McBride, R. D.; Blesener, I. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Maron, Y.

    2008-11-01

    Recent experiments on the 500 kA XP pulsed-power generator at Cornell University have explored the properties of optical spectra emitted by single exploding wires and wire-arrays carrying less than 13 kA and 50 kA per wire, respectively. We are studying the wire's time resolved visible spectra in order to identify the levels of current per wire that visible spectroscopy might provide a means to measure magnetic field strength[1]. We have also investigated the dependence of single wire visible spectra on the current, which was measured using a calibrated non-integrating Rogowski coil. PCDs and XRDs were employed to gather information about the temporal structure of the wire radiation. 1. E. Stambulchik, K. Tsigutkin, and Y. Maron. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 225001 (2007). This research was supported by DOE grant DE-FG03-98ER54496, Sandia National Laboratories contract AO258, and the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliances program under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  12. Optical analysis of cirrhotic liver by near infrared time resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Toshihiro; Kitai, Toshiyuki; Miwa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Rei; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    1999-10-01

    The severity of liver cirrhosis was related with the optical properties of liver tissue. Various grades of liver cirrhosis were produced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) for different periods: 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 16 weeks. Optical properties of the liver, absorption, coefficient ((mu) a) and scattering coefficient (microsecond(s) '), were measured by near-infrared time- resolved spectroscopy. Histological examination confirmed cirrhotic changes in the liver, which were more severe in rats with TAA administration for longer periods. The (mu) a increased in 4- and 8-week rats, and then decreased in 12- and 16-week rats. The (mu) a of blood-free liver decreased as liver cirrhosis progressed. The hemoglobin content in the liver calculated from the (mu) a values increased in 4- and 8-week rats and decreased in 12- and 16-week rats. The microsecond(s) ' decreased in the cirrhotic liver, probably reflecting the decrease in the mitochondria content. It was shown that (mu) a and microsecond(s) ' determination is useful to assess the severity of liver cirrhosis.

  13. Monitoring brain temperature by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsheshi, Mohammad Fazel; Diop, Mamadou; St. Lawrence, Keith; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2014-05-01

    Mild hypothermia (HT) is an effective neuroprotective strategy for a variety of acute brain injuries. However, the wide clinical adaptation of HT has been hampered by the lack of a reliable noninvasive method for measuring brain temperature, since core measurements have been shown to not always reflect brain temperature. The goal of this work was to develop a noninvasive optical technique for measuring brain temperature that exploits both the temperature dependency of water absorption and the high concentration of water in brain (80%-90%). Specifically, we demonstrate the potential of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS) to measure temperature in tissue-mimicking phantoms (in vitro) and deep brain tissue (in vivo) during heating and cooling, respectively. For deep brain tissue temperature monitoring, experiments were conducted on newborn piglets wherein hypothermia was induced by gradual whole body cooling. Brain temperature was concomitantly measured by TR-NIRS and a thermocouple probe implanted in the brain. Our proposed TR-NIRS method was able to measure the temperature of tissue-mimicking phantoms and brain tissues with a correlation of 0.82 and 0.66 to temperature measured with a thermometer, respectively. The mean difference between the TR-NIRS and thermometer measurements was 0.15°C±1.1°C for the in vitro experiments and 0.5°C±1.6°C for the in vivo measurements.

  14. Nanosecond Time-Resolved Polarization Spectroscopies: Tools for Probing Protein Reaction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eefei; Goldbeck, Robert A.; Kliger, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Polarization methods, introduced in the 1800’s, offered one of the earliest ways to examine protein structure. Since then, many other structure-sensitive probes have been developed, but circular dichroism (CD) remains a powerful technique because of its versatility and the specificity of protein structural information that can be explored. With improvements in time-resolution, from millisecond to picosecond CD measurements, it has proven to be an important tool for studying the mechanism of folding and function in many biomolecules. For example, nanosecond time-resolved CD (TRCD) studies of the sub-microsecond events of reduced cytochrome c folding have provided direct experimental evidence of kinetic heterogeneity, which is an inherent property of the diffusional nature of early folding dynamics on the energy landscape. In addition, TRCD has been applied to the study of many biochemical processes, such as ligand rebinding in hemoglobin and myoglobin and signaling state formation in photoactive yellow protein and prototropin 1 LOV2. The basic approach to TRCD has also been extended to include a repertoire of nanosecond polarization spectroscopies: optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), magnetic CD and ORD, and linear dichroism. This article will discuss the details of the polarization methods used in this laboratory, as well as the coupling of timeresolved ORD with the temperature-jump trigger so that protein folding can be studied in a larger number of proteins. PMID:20438842

  15. Time-resolved products observed from high pressure deflagrating energetic materials using femtosecond IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, J. M.; Glascoe, E. A.; Crowhurst, J. C.; Fried, L. E.; Armstrong, M. R.; Grant, C. D.

    2007-06-01

    What transient chemical species occur on the nanosecond to microsecond time-scale after an energetic material begins to deflagrate under Chapman-Jouguet conditions? What are the molecular lifetimes of transient species under similar conditions? Using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy to study the transient chemical phenomena of materials encapsulated in high-pressure diamond anvils cells (DACs), these and related questions can be addressed. Here we present a broadband time-resolved IR (TRIR) absorption technique applied to high-pressure deflagrating energetic materials. A 10 nanosecond laser pulse is introduced onto the surface of a high-pressure energetic material. After an induction period of approximately one microsecond the energetic material begins to deflagrate (1500+K) at subsonic velocities radially away from the laser ignited region. A mid-IR femtosecond laser pulse (pulse-gated, 2-10 micron tunable range) is transmitted through the deflagration front. The single-shot mid-IR absorbance is used to detect transient species. Our measurements provide a rigorous test of computational chemistry models.

  16. Probing Reaction Dynamics of Transition-Metal Complexes in Solution via Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, Nils; Kim, Tae Kyu; Khalil, Munira; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2010-05-02

    We report the first time-resolved soft x-ray measurements of solvated transition-metal complexes. L-edge spectroscopy directly probes dynamic changes in ligand-field splitting of 3d orbitals associated with the spin transition, and mediated by changes in ligand-bonding.

  17. Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies: Nonlinear response functions and Liouville-space pathways Satoshi Tanaka,1,2

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies: Nonlinear response functions and Liouville-space pathways Received 14 December 2000; published 8 May 2001 A systematic description of coherent ultrafast x-ray number s : 42.50.Hz I. INTRODUCTION With the advent of intense femtosecond coherent x-ray sources

  18. Time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nucleotide-binding Domain from the ATP-binding

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    Time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nucleotide-binding Domain from the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter MsbA ATP HYDROLYSIS IS THE RATE-LIMITING STEP IN THE CATALYTIC CYCLE*S Received, D-44780 Bochum, Germany Background: The dynamics of coupling of ATP hydrolysis with transport in ATP

  19. Global and Time-Resolved Monitoring of Crop Photosynthesis with Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.

  20. Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50–75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle. PMID:24706867

  1. Site-Specific Measurement of Water Dynamics in the Substrate Pocket of Ketosteroid Isomerase Using Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Santosh Kumar; Ji, Minbiao; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the reorganization capacity of water molecules at the active sites of enzymes and how this couples to the catalytic reaction. Here, we study the dynamics of water molecules at the active site of a highly proficient enzyme, ?5-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), during a light-activated mimic of its catalytic cycle. Photo-excitation of a nitrile containing photo-acid, coumarin183 (C183), mimics the change in charge density that occurs at the active site of KSI during the first step of the catalytic reaction. The nitrile of C183 is exposed to water when bound to the KSI active site, and we used time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy as a site-specific probe to study the solvation dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of the nitrile. We observed that water molecules at the active site of KSI are highly rigid, during the light-activated catalytic cycle, compared to the solvation dynamics observed in bulk water. Based upon this result we hypothesize that rigid water dipoles at the active site might help in the maintenance of the pre-organized electrostatic environment required for efficient catalysis. The results also demonstrate the utility of nitrile probes in measuring the dynamics of local (H-bonded) water molecules in contrast to the commonly used fluorescence methods which measure the average behavior of primary and subsequent spheres of solvation. PMID:22931297

  2. Excitation energy relaxation of oxacyanine in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer films: Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Neoto; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Tomoko

    1992-08-06

    This paper discusses picosecond time-resolved fluorescence studies of oxacyanine in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers (which is different dynamically and structurally from rhodamine B LB monolayers) in dye concentrations of 0.02 to 17.3 mol % reveal that as dye concentration increases, dimers form, become excited, and undergo quenching. Ground-state oxacyanine forms a face-to-face dimer where the long axis is parallel and the short axis is perpendicular to the monolayer surface. 24 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Spectrally- and time-resolved fluorescence emission of indole during solvent relaxation: a quantitative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toptygin, Dmitri; Brand, Ludwig

    2000-06-01

    Relaxation of polar solvents around excited fluorescent solutes results in a continuous time-dependent red shift in the fluorescence spectrum. Static heterogeneous broadening can also produce time-variant fluorescence spectra. The two effects can be distinguished by a quantitative model of fluorescence during homogeneous electrostatic relaxation. The model describes the evolution of the instantaneous spectrum and the time variation of the intensity observed at any fixed wavelength. The model is in good agreement with the experimental data obtained using a solution of indole in anhydrous glycerol at 4 nm spectral and 65 ps temporal resolution.

  4. Cyclodextrin supramolecular inclusion-enhanced pyrene excimer switching for time-resolved fluorescence detection of biothiols in serum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qier; Deng, Ting; Li, Jishan; Xu, Weijian; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2015-06-15

    We report here an efficient pyrene excimer signaling-based time-resolved fluorescent sensor for the measurement of biothiols (cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), glutathione (GSH)) in human serum based on thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry and the inclusion interaction of cyclodextrin. The sensing mechanism of the approach is based on the competitive ligation of Hg(2+) ions by Hcy/Cys/GSH and T-T mismatches in a bis-pyrene-labeled DNA strand with the self-complementary 5' and 3' ends. The introduction of ?-cyclodextrin can provide cooperation for the molecular level space proximity of the two labeled pyrene molecules, moreover the hydrophobic cavity of ?-cyclodextrin can also offer protection for the pyrene dimer's emission from the quenching effect of environmental conditions and enhance the fluorescence intensity of the pyrene excimer. When the biothiols are not presented, the sensing ensemble is in the "off" state due to the long distance between the two labeled pyrene molecules resulted from the formation of a more stable T-Hg(2+)-T structure. While in the presence of biothiols, Hg(2+) interacts very strongly with thiol groups and the T-Hg(2+)-T structure is dehybridized, and then the pyrene excimer will be formed due to the self-complementary 5' and 3' ends of the DNA probe and the cooperation interaction of ?-cyclodextrin to pyrene dimer, thus resulting in switching the sensing ensemble to the "on" state. In the optimum conditions described, the linear concentration range of 1.0-100 ?M with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.36 ?M for GSH was obtained. Moreover, due to the much longer lifetime of the pyrene excimer fluorescence than those of the ubiquitous endogenous fluorescent components, the time-resolved fluorescence technique has been successfully used for application in complicated biological samples. PMID:25590970

  5. Time-resolved multicolor two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy of cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Multilabeling which maps the distribution of different targets is an indispensable technique in many biochemical and biophysical studies. Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy of endogenous fluorophores combining with conventional fluorescence labeling techniques such as genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) and fluorescent dyes staining could be a powerful tool for imaging living cells. However, the challenge is that the excitation and emission wavelength of these endogenous fluorophores and fluorescent labels are very different. A multi-color ultrafast source is required for the excitation of multiple fluorescence molecules. In this study, we developed a two-photon imaging system with excitations from the pump femtosecond laser and the selected supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Multiple endogenous fluorophores, fluorescent proteins and fluorescent dyes were excited in their optimal wavelengths simultaneously. A time- and spectral-resolved detection system was used to record the TPEF signals. This detection technique separated the TPEF signals from multiple sources in time and wavelength domains. Cellular organelles such as nucleus, mitochondria, microtubule and endoplasmic reticulum, were clearly revealed in the TPEF images. The simultaneous imaging of multiple fluorophores of cells will greatly aid the study of sub-cellular compartments and protein localization.

  6. Proton uptake mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin as determined by time-resolved stroboscopic-FTIR-spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Souvignier, Georg; Gerwert, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin's proton uptake reaction mechanism in the M to BR reaction pathway was investigated by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy under physiological conditions (293 K, pH 6.5, 1 M KCl). The time resolution of a conventional fast-scan FTIR spectrometer was improved from 10 ms to 100 ?s, using the stroboscopic FTIR technique. Simultaneously, absorbance changes at 11 wavelengths in the visible between 410 and 680 nm were recorded. Global fit analysis with sums of exponentials of both the infrared and visible absorbance changes yields four apparent rate constants, k7 = 0.3 ms, k4 = 2.3 ms, k3 = 6.9 ms, k6 = 30 ms, for the M to BR reaction pathway. Although the rise of the N and O intermediates is dominated by the same apparent rate constant (k4), protein reactions can be attributed to either the N or the O intermediate by comparison of data sets taken at 273 and 293 K. Conceptionally, the Schiff base has to be oriented in its deprotonated state from the proton donor (asp 85) to the proton acceptor (asp 96) in the M1 to M2 transition. However, experimentally two different M intermediates are not resolved, and M2 and N are merged. From the results the following conclusions are drawn: (a) the main structural change of the protein backbone, indicated by amide I, amide II difference bands, takes place in the M to N (conceptionally M2) transition. This reaction is proposed to be involved in the “reset switch” of the pump, (b) In the M to N (conceptionally M2) transition, most likely, asp-85's carbonyl frequency shifts from 1,762 to 1,753 cm-1 and persists in O. Protonation of asp-85 explains the red-shift of the absorbance maximum in O. (c) The catalytic proton uptake binding site asp-96 is deprotonated in the M to N transition and is reprotonated in O. PMID:19431858

  7. Ultrafast dynamics in transparent fluids investigated via time-resolved third-order spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jian

    The ultrafast dynamics of near critical fluids and other transparent materials are investigated with time-resolved optical heterodyne detected (OHD) third-order spectroscopy. Among the main results of this dissertation are: supercritical fluctuations on a picosecond timescale are revealed by H2 rotational coherence decay; a giant acoustic response due to enhanced near critical compressibility is optically generated and characterized; a new pulse reconstruction algorithm is developed. The decay of J-specific Raman coherence birefringence of H2 rotors in supercritical CO2 (0.8 rhoc) are measured in order to understand the ˜picosecond timescale solvent fluctuations around the critical point. The H2 anisotropic Raman time correlation functions possess long-time exponential tails attributed to motional narrowing. Nonexponential early-time behavior indicates the inhomogeneities in anisotropic local potential interactions. Mixed classical nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics simulations are performed. The excellent agreement between experiment and the theoretical treatment supports the use of this methodology. Multiregional studies are conducted for mixtures ranging from gas-like to liquid-like densities. A non-monotonic dependence of the Raman coherence decay times and transition frequencies are observed. A novel third-order polarization due to accumulated acoustic grating is characterized in near critical CHF3 and CO2. The electrostrictively generated acoustic response is pi out of phase with the normal OKE birefringence. Repetition rate dependence identifies the accumulated origin of the phenomenon with an acoustic relaxation timescale of ˜100 ns. The combined effect of efficient coherence coupling excitation and accumulation results in a birefringent signal strength inversely dependent on the sound velocity to the fifth power. In contrast a single-pulse coherence coupling effect routinely observed in transparent media can be shown to originate from nuclear responses. Its impact on frequency selected dichroic Raman spectral density recovery is demonstrated for CCl4. For linearly-chirped pulses, the antisymmetric coherent coupling trace dominates the frequency integrated dichroism. Its absolute sign indicates the sign of the chirp. An assumption-free amplitude-phase reconstruction algorithm combining the coherent coupling dichroism, the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum is developed.

  8. Femtosecond Ti:sapphire ring laser with a 2-GHz repetition rate and its application in time-resolved spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bartels, A; Dekorsy, T; Kurz, H

    1999-07-15

    A Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at a repetition rate of 2 GHz is demonstrated. A mirror-dispersion-controlled unidirectional ring cavity delivers nearly bandwidth-limited pulses of 23-fs length. Mode locking is self-starting without a hard aperture in the cavity. The advantages of this high-repetition-rate oscillator in optical time-resolved spectroscopy are demonstrated. PMID:18073921

  9. Time-resolved Ultrafast Spectroscopy Experiments on High Temperature Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianqiao; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Riseborough, Peter S.; Gu, Genda; Gilbertson, Steve M.; Rodriguez, George; Qi, Jingbo; Taylor, Antoinette; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-03-01

    Time-resolved ultrafast spectroscopy experiments have been carried out on various dopings of high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8In this talk, we will report our observation and analysis of ultrafast dynamics in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, with special emphasis on the quasiparticle dynamics in the pseudogap and SC gap regimes.

  10. Quantification of joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy and tracer kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioussoufovitch, Seva; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation, which can cause progressive joint damage and disability. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and imaging have the potential to become potent monitoring tools for RA. We devised a method that combined time-resolved DOS and tracer kinetics modeling to rapidly and reliably quantify blood flow in the joint. Preliminary results obtained from two animals show that the technique can detect joint inflammation as early as 5 days after onset.

  11. Improving SNR in Time-Resolved Spectroscopies Without Sacrificing Temporal-Resolution Application to the UV Photolysis of Methyl Cyanoformate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Smith, Jonathan M.; Dai, HAI-LUNG

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a new analysis for the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in time-resolved spectroscopies, termed spectral reconstruction analysis (SRA). As distinct from a simple linear average which produces only a single} representative spectrum with enhanced SNR, SRA produces a comparable enhancement, but fully preserves the measured time-dependence. Specifically, given a series of (n) time-resolved spectra, SRA yields an approximate sqrt(n)} SNR enhancement for each of the original n-spectra. SRA operates by eliminating noise in the temporal domain, thereby significantly attenuating noise in the spectral domain, as follows (see Figure): Temporal profiles of each measured frequency are fit to capture the representative temporal evolutions, then time-resolved spectra are reconstructed by replacing the measured profiles with the fit profiles. In addition to simulated control data sets, we demonstrate SRA with experimentally measured time-resolved IR emission spectra, collected following the 193 nm photolysis of methyl cyanoformate (CH_3OC(O)CN). Of significance, we now show the appearance of resonances assignable to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), which were previously obscured in the noise of the measured spectra. The presence of HCN suggests the occurrence of a previously uncharacterized dissociation channel, likely involving a cyclic 5-center transition state.

  12. High-pressure-low-temperature cryostat designed for use with fourier transform infrared spectrometers and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calladine, James A; Love, Ashley; Fields, Peter A; Wilson, Richard G M; George, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The design for a new high-pressure-low-temperature infrared (IR) cell for performing experiments using conventional Fourier transform infrared or fast laser-based time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, in a range of solvents, is described. The design builds upon a commercially available compressor and cold end (Polycold PCC(®) and CryoTiger(®)), which enables almost vibration-free operation, ideal for use with sensitive instrumentation. The design of our cell and cryostat allows for the study of systems at temperatures from 77 to 310 K and at pressures up to 250 bar. The CaF2 windows pass light from the mid-IR to the ultraviolet (UV), enabling a number of experiments to be performed, such as Raman, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and time-resolved techniques where sample excitation/probing using continuous wave or pulsed lasers is required. We demonstrate the capabilities of this cell by detailing two different applications: (i) the reactivity of a range of Group V-VII organometallic alkane complexes using time-resolved spectroscopy on the millisecond timescale and (ii) the gas-to-liquid phase transition of CO2 at low temperature, which is applicable to measurements associated with transportation issues related to carbon capture and storage. PMID:24666949

  13. Europium chelate labels in time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays and DNA hybridization assays

    SciTech Connect

    Diamandis, E.P.; Christopoulos, T.K. Univ. of Toronto, Ontario )

    1990-11-15

    Like many analytical methodologies, immunoassays and nucleic acid hybridization assays rely on the reaction between an analyte of interest and a specific reagent. The analyte concentration is then deduced by measuring either the amount of analyte-reagent complex formed (product) or the amount of residual reagent. The authors describe the application of fluorescent rare-earth chelates to immunoassay and DNA probing.

  14. Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic brain injury; consequently, continuous bedside monitoring to detect ischemia before irreversible damage occurs would improve patient outcome. In addition to monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF), assessing the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) would be beneficial considering that metabolic thresholds can be used to evaluate tissue viability. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that changes in absolute CMRO2 could be measured by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) with time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS). Absolute CBF was determined using bolus-tracking TR-NIRS to calibrate the DCS measurements. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation (SvO2) was determined by multiwavelength TR-NIRS measurements, the accuracy of which was assessed by directly measuring the oxygenation of sagittal sinus blood. In eight newborn piglets, CMRO2 was manipulated by varying the anesthetics and by injecting sodium cyanide. No significant differences were found between the two sets of SvO2 measurements obtained by TR-NIRS or sagittal sinus blood samples and the corresponding CMRO2 measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean CMRO2 difference of 0.0268±0.8340 mL O2/100 g/min between the two techniques over a range from 0.3 to 4 mL O2/100 g/min.

  15. Application of time-resolved fluorescence to the determination of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Murillo Pulgarín, J A; Alañón Molina, A; Martínez Ferreras, F

    2014-07-15

    A simple fluorescent methodology for the simultaneous determination of two major metabolites of acetylsalicylic acid--salicylic and gentisic acids--in pharmaceutical preparations and human urine is proposed. Due to the overlapping between the fluorescence spectra of both analytes, the use of the more selective fluorescence decay curves is proposed. Values of dependent instrumental variables affecting the signal-to-noise ratio were fixed with a simplex optimization procedure. A calibration matrix of thirteen standards plus two blank samples was processed using a partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. To assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of nine synthetic samples was analyzed, obtaining recovery percentages between 95% and 106%. Limits of detection, calculated by means of a new criterion, were 3.49 ?g L(-1) and 1.66 ?g L(-1) for salicylic and gentisic acids, respectively. The method was also tested in three pharmaceutical preparations containing salicylic acid, obtaining recovery percentages close to 100%. Finally, the simultaneous determination of both analytes in human urine samples was successfully carried out by the PLS-analysis of a matrix of thirteen standards plus five analyte blanks. Although spectra of analytes and urine overlap strongly, no extraction method neither prior separation of the analytes were needed. PMID:24662756

  16. Application of time-resolved fluorescence to the determination of metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Martínez Ferreras, F.

    2014-07-01

    A simple fluorescent methodology for the simultaneous determination of two major metabolites of acetylsalicylic acid - salicylic and gentisic acids - in pharmaceutical preparations and human urine is proposed. Due to the overlapping between the fluorescence spectra of both analytes, the use of the more selective fluorescence decay curves is proposed. Values of dependent instrumental variables affecting the signal-to-noise ratio were fixed with a simplex optimization procedure. A calibration matrix of thirteen standards plus two blank samples was processed using a partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. To assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of nine synthetic samples was analyzed, obtaining recovery percentages between 95% and 106%. Limits of detection, calculated by means of a new criterion, were 3.49 ?g L-1 and 1.66 ?g L-1 for salicylic and gentisic acids, respectively. The method was also tested in three pharmaceutical preparations containing salicylic acid, obtaining recovery percentages close to 100%. Finally, the simultaneous determination of both analytes in human urine samples was successfully carried out by the PLS-analysis of a matrix of thirteen standards plus five analyte blanks. Although spectra of analytes and urine overlap strongly, no extraction method neither prior separation of the analytes were needed.

  17. Using time-resolved fluorescence to measure serum venom-specific IgE and IgG.

    PubMed

    van Eeden, Pauline E; Wiese, Michael D; Aulfrey, Susan; Hales, Belinda J; Stone, Shelley F; Brown, Simon G A

    2011-01-01

    We adapted DELFIA™ (dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay), a time resolved fluorescence method, to quantitate whole venom specific and allergenic peptide-specific IgE (sIgE), sIgG(1) and sIgG(4) in serum from people clinically allergic to Australian native ant venoms, of which the predominant cause of allergy is jack jumper ant venom (JJAV). Intra-assay CV was 6.3% and inter-assay CV was 13.7% for JJAV sIgE. DELFIA and Phadia CAP JJAV sIgE results correlated well and had similar sensitivity and specificity for the detection of JJAV sIgE against intradermal skin testing as the gold standard. DELFIA was easily adapted for detecting sIgE to a panel of other native ant venoms. PMID:21304970

  18. Measurement of oxygen tension in tumours by time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Young, W. K.; Vojnovic, B.; Wardman, P.

    1996-01-01

    Tumour oxygenation is important in clinical radiotherapy because hypoxic cells are radioresistant. Knowledge of the state of tumour oxygenation would be advantageous for maximising effectiveness of treatment. A prototype fibre optic fluorosensor for measuring low (radiobiologically relevant) levels of oxygen is described. Based on oxygen quenching of the fluorescence of an excited fluorophor immobilised in a polymer at the end of an optical fibre, the sensor shows promise in overcoming some of the limitations of existing oxygen sensor systems. The prototype fibre optic sensor operates most effectively in the 0-2% oxygen range with fast response and settling times. Preliminary results from measurements in tumours are presented. PMID:8763892

  19. Full Genotyping of a Highly Polymorphic Human Gene Trait by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Totè, Edoardo; Lamperti, Marco; Bondani, Maria; Salerno, Domenico; Cassina, Valeria; Nardo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The ability of detecting the subtle variations occurring, among different individuals, within specific DNA sequences encompassed in highly polymorphic genes discloses new applications in genomics and diagnostics. DQB1 is a gene of the HLA-II DQ locus of the Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) system. The polymorphisms of the trait of the DQB1 gene including codons 52–57 modulate the susceptibility to a number of severe pathologies. Moreover, the donor-receiver tissue compatibility in bone marrow transplantations is routinely assessed through crossed genotyping of DQB and DQA. For the above reasons, the development of rapid, reliable and cost-effective typing technologies of DQB1 in general, and more specifically of the codons 52–57, is a relevant although challenging task. Quantitative assessment of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between chromophores labelling the opposite ends of gene-specific oligonucleotide probes has proven to be a powerful tool to type DNA polymorphisms with single-nucleotide resolution. The FRET efficiency can be most conveniently quantified by applying a time-resolved fluorescence analysis methodology, i.e. time-correlated single-photon counting, which allows working on very diluted template specimens and in the presence of fluorescent contaminants. Here we present a full in-vitro characterization of the fluorescence responses of two probes when hybridized to oligonucleotide mixtures mimicking all the possible genotypes of the codons 52–57 trait of DQB1 (8 homozygous and 28 heterozygous). We show that each genotype can be effectively tagged by the combination of the fluorescence decay constants extrapolated from the data obtained with such probes. PMID:25215592

  20. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the singlet excited state of betanin in aqueous and alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Monika; Nizinski, Stanislaw; Tuwalska, Dorota; Starzak, Karolina; Szot, Dominika; Prukala, Dorota; Sikorski, Marek; Wybraniec, Slawomir; Burdzinski, Gotard

    2015-07-21

    The photophysical properties of betanin in aqueous and alcoholic solutions were determined at room temperature using ultrafast UV-vis-NIR transient absorption spectroscopy (?exc = 535 nm). Its S1 ? Sn (n > 1) absorption bands appear with maxima at about ? ? 450 and 1220 nm. The short betanin S1 state lifetime (6.4 ps in water) is mainly determined by the efficient S1 ? S0 radiationless relaxation, probably requiring a strong change in geometry, since the S1 lifetime grows to 27 ps in the more viscous ethylene glycol. The fluorescence quantum yield is very low (?f ? 0.0007 in water), therefore this deactivation path is of minor importance. Other processes, such as S1 ? T1 intersystem crossing or photoproduct formation, are virtually absent, since full S0 ? S1 ground state recovery is observed within tens of picoseconds after photoexcitation. The observed fast light-to-heat conversion in the absence of triplet excited state formation supports the idea that betanin is a photoprotector in vivo. PMID:26102081

  1. Cellular Oxygen and Nutrient Sensing in Microgravity Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmacinski, Henryk

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen and nutrient sensing is fundamental to the understanding of cell growth and metabolism. This requires identification of optical probes and suitable detection technology without complex calibration procedures. Under this project Microcosm developed an experimental technique that allows for simultaneous imaging of intra- and inter-cellular events. The technique consists of frequency-domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), a set of identified oxygen and pH probes, and methods for fabrication of microsensors. Specifications for electronic and optical components of FLIM instrumentation are provided. Hardware and software were developed for data acquisition and analysis. Principles, procedures, and representative images are demonstrated. Suitable lifetime sensitive oxygen, pH, and glucose probes for intra- and extra-cellular measurements of analyte concentrations have been identified and tested. Lifetime sensing and imaging have been performed using PBS buffer, culture media, and yeast cells as a model systems. Spectral specifications, calibration curves, and probes availability are also provided in the report.

  2. Picosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy as a means of gaining insight into mechanisms of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Katharine L.

    We consider the information that can be obtained from time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy studies of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) in excited states of molecules, focusing on picosecond time-resolved studies of IVR in the intermediate regime. We show that time-resolved measurements may tell us as much about the experimental conditions as they do about the dynamics under examination. We show that carefully controlled picosecond time-resolved photoelectron studies are becoming feasible and that these, combined with robust calculations of Franck-Condon factors, may point the way forward in the quest to understand excited state IVR.

  3. Ferryl intermediates of catalase captured by time-resolved Weissenberg crystallography and UV-VIS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gouet, P; Jouve, H M; Williams, P A; Andersson, I; Andreoletti, P; Nussaume, L; Hajdu, J

    1996-11-01

    Various enzymes use semi-stable ferryl intermediates and free radicals during their catalytic cycle, amongst them haem catalases. Structures for two transient intermediates (compounds I and II) of the NADPH-dependent catalase from Proteus mirabilis (PMC) have been determined by time-resolved X-ray crystallography and single crystal microspectrophotometry. The results show the formation and transformation of the ferryl group in the haem, and the unexpected binding of an anion during this reaction at a site distant from the haem. PMID:8901874

  4. Discrimination of molecular thin films by surface-sensitive time-resolved optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Simone; Nembrini, Nicola; Damin, Francesco; Chiari, Marcella; Giannetti, Claudio; Banfi, Francesco; Ferrini, Gabriele

    2015-10-01

    An optical discrimination technique, tailored to nanometric-sized, low optical absorbance molecular complexes adhering to thin metal films, is proposed and demonstrated. It is based on a time-resolved evanescent-wave detection scheme in conjunction with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal value decomposition. The present approach aims to differentiate among molecular films based on statistical methods, without using previous detailed knowledge of the physical mechanisms responsible for the detected signal. The technique is open to integration in lab-on-a-chip architectures and nanoscopy platforms for applications ranging from medical screening to material diagnostics.

  5. Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of The M-Dwarf GJ 876 Exoplanetary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Tian, Feng; Froning, Cynthia S.; Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar planets orbiting M-stars may represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet spectrum incident upon both Earth-like and Jovian planets is critically important for proper modeling of their atmospheric heating and chemistry. In order to provide more realistic inputs for atmospheric models of planets orbiting low-mass stars, we present new near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) spectroscopy of the M-dwarf exoplanet host GJ 876 (M4V). Using the COS and STIS spectrographs on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured the 1150-3140 A spectrum of GJ 876. We have reconstructed the stellar H1 Ly alpha emission line profile, and find that the integrated Ly alpha flux is roughly equal to the rest of the integrated flux (1150-1210 A + 1220-3140 A) in the entire ultraviolet bandpass (F(Ly alpha)/F(FUV+NUV) equals approximately 0.7). This ratio is approximately 2500x greater than the solar value. We describe the ultraviolet line spectrum and report surprisingly strong fluorescent emission from hot H2 (T(H2) greater than 2000 K). We show the light curve of a chromospheric + transition region flare observed in several far-UV emission lines, with flare/quiescent flux ratios greater than or equal to 10. The strong FUV radiation field of an M-star (and specifically Ly alpha) is important for determining the abundance of O2--and the formation of biomarkers-in the lower atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars.

  6. TIME-RESOLVED ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE M-DWARF GJ 876 EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Tian, Feng; Roberge, Aki

    2012-05-10

    Extrasolar planets orbiting M-stars may represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet spectrum incident upon both Earth-like and Jovian planets is critically important for proper modeling of their atmospheric heating and chemistry. In order to provide more realistic inputs for atmospheric models of planets orbiting low-mass stars, we present new near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) spectroscopy of the M-dwarf exoplanet host GJ 876 (M4V). Using the COS and STIS spectrographs on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured the 1150-3140 A spectrum of GJ 876. We have reconstructed the stellar H I Ly{alpha} emission line profile, and find that the integrated Ly{alpha} flux is roughly equal to the rest of the integrated flux (1150-1210 A + 1220-3140 A) in the entire ultraviolet bandpass (F(Ly{alpha})/F(FUV+NUV) Almost-Equal-To 0.7). This ratio is {approx}2500 Multiplication-Sign greater than the solar value. We describe the ultraviolet line spectrum and report surprisingly strong fluorescent emission from hot H{sub 2} (T(H{sub 2}) > 2000 K). We show the light curve of a chromospheric + transition region flare observed in several far-UV emission lines, with flare/quiescent flux ratios {>=}10. The strong FUV radiation field of an M-star (and specifically Ly{alpha}) is important for determining the abundance of O{sub 2}-and the formation of biomarkers-in the lower atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars.

  7. Time-resolved spectroscopy of self-assembly of CCMV protein capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jelyn; Aronzon, Dina; Manoharan, V. N.

    2008-10-01

    In order to gain a deeper understanding of the process a virus undergoes to assemble; the purpose of this study to time resolve the self-assembly of a virus. Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle virus (CCMV), an icosahedral type virus, can assemble without its genetic code (RNA) depending on its chemical and physical surroundings. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of colloidal gold particles is known to display a shift when the gold interacts with the proteins of a virus. Surface plasmon resonance is the free electron oscillation occurring at the surface of the gold particle resulting in a characteristic peak location at maximal absorbance and peak width. The shift results from the change in the refractive index of the particles as induced by the presence of the proteins. We hope to detect this shift through total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM). The accomplishments of this research are the completion of the TIR setup and the purification of the virus and its proteins.

  8. Twenty-Five Millisecond Resolution Time-Resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy in Dispersive Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Oyanagi, Hiroyuki; Saigo, Satoshi; Kaminaga, Ukyo; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kihara, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noboru; Fujimoto, Masatoshi

    1986-07-01

    The capability of an energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectrometer for time-resolved experiment was demonstrated by measuring X-ray absorption spectra with a time-resolution of 25 ms from two reacting solutions (0.3 M ferric nitrate (Fe(NO3)3) and 0.3 M hydroquinone (C6H4(OH)2)) mixed by the stopped-flow method. A real time observation of the energy shift of the Fe K-absorption edge was successfully made after mixing the two solutions. The result suggests that the method is most suitable for the study of irreversible structural and chemical changes in various kinds of materials.

  9. Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy of the Massive Binary delta Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Naze, Y.; Corcoran, M. F.; Pollock, A.; Moffat, A. F.; Ignace, R.; Waldron, W. L.; Evans, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained 500 ks of Chandra HETG observations of the massive binary delta Ori (O9.5II+unseen companion), one of the fundamental calibrators of the mass-luminosity-radius relation in the upper HR diagram. The program is intended to map the emission line parameters as the secondary moves through the wind of the primary star. Custom extraction techniques have been developed to create 12 time-resolved 40 ks spectra from these observations, each of which is properly calibrated for time and temperature effects. Emission line fluxes for these time slice spectra are presented, as well as phase analysis of the variability of the fluxes. We discuss the interpretation of the resulting data, such as colliding winds and occultation of various temperature regimes of the primary wind by the secondary.

  10. Rotational and Translational Dynamics of Rhodamine 6G in a Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid: A Combined Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay and NMR Study

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianchang; Han, Kee Sung; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Baker, Gary A; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Dai, Sheng; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Shaw, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay (TRFAD) are two of the most commonly used methods to study solute-solvent interactions. However, only a few studies have been reported to date using a combined NMR and TRFAD approach to systematically investigate the overall picture of diffusional and rotational dynamics of both the solute and solvent. In this paper, we combined NMR and TRFAD to probe fluorescent rhodamine dyes in a pyrrolidinium-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), an emergent environmentally-friendly solvent type used in several energy-related applications. A specific interaction of the R6G cation and [Tf2N]- anion was identified, resulting in near-stick boundary condition rotation of R6G in this RTIL. The diffusional rates of the R6G solute and [C4mpyr][Tf2N] solvent derived from 1H NMR suggest the rates are proportional to their corresponding hydrodynamic radii. The 1H and 13C NMR studies of self-rotational dynamics of [C4mpyr][Tf2N] showed that the self-rotational correlation time of [C4mpyr]+ is 47 2 ps at 300 K. At the same temperature, we find that the correlation time for N-CH3 rotation in [C4mpyr]+ is 77 2 ps, comparable to overall molecular reorientation. This slow motion is attributed to properties of the cation structure.

  11. Time Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Thioflavin T Photoisomerization; A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hao; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    The excited state isomerization of thioflavin T (ThT) is responsible for the quenching of its fluorescence in a non-restricted environment. The fluorescence quantum yield increases substantially upon binding to amyloid fibers. Simulations reveal that the variation of the twisting angle between benzothiazole and benzene groups (?1) is responsible for the sub-picosecond fluorescence quenching. The evolution of the twisting process can be directly probed by photoelectron emission with energies ? ? 1.0 eV before the molecule reaches the ?1-twisted configuration (~300 fs). PMID:23517370

  12. Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of photoreduced base-off Cob(II)alamin compared to the Co(II) species in Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuing, E.M.; Clavin, W.; Wirt, M.D.; and others.

    1996-02-29

    We have made significant improvements in pump-probe time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy that enable us to structurally describe chemical intermediates with short lifetimes. We demonstrate that X-ray pre-edge data for a 1 mM compound can be acquired with a high signal-to-noise ratio by time-resolved discrimination of fluorescent signals from a 13-element germanium detector. With the utilization of this novel time-multiplexed laser photolysis system coupled to a flow cell, we characterized the structure of the initial photoproduct of five-coordinate base-off Co(III) methylcobalamin. The X-ray pre-edge spectra of five- and six-coordinate species have a strong 1s-3d transition at about 10 eV below the edge. In four-coordinate, square-planar species the 1s-3d intensity is significantly reduced, but they show a 1s-4p peak at about 6 eV below the edge. We used this `fingerprint` to monitor the structural change upon photolysis. Since the quantum yield of the base-off species is 0.48, the observed spectrum upon photolysis is a mixture of photoproduct and initial states. The photoproduct of the base-off methylcobalamin shows a substantial decrease in the 1s-3d peak and significant increase in the 1s-4p peak. This indicates the formation of a four-coordinate species. The four-coordinate species in the free cobalamin is very unstable and can only be detected by time-resolved methods. This indicates a special role for the protein in maintaining an unusual four-coordinate Co(II) corrinoid. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Probing reaction dynamics of transition-metal complexes in solution via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, N.; Kim, T.-K.; Khalil, M.; Jamula, L.; McCusker, J.K.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2008-08-01

    We report the first time-resolved soft x-ray measurements of solvated transition-metal complexes. L-edge spectroscopy directly probes dynamic changes in ligand-field splitting of 3d orbitals associated with the spin transition, and mediated by changes in ligand-bonding. We report the first time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy of solution-phase molecular dynamics. Changes in ligand-field splitting and spin-state populations in 3d orbitals of the Fe{sup II} complex are directly probed via transient absorption changes of the Fe L{sub 2} and L{sub 3} edges following photo-induced metal-to-ligand charge transfer. With the emergence of high-flux ultrafast soft x-ray sources, details on interplay between atomic structure, electronic states, and spin contributions will be revealed. Our experimental approach opens the door to femtosecond soft x-ray investigations of liquid phase chemistry that have previously been inaccessible.

  14. Europium Nanospheres-Based Time-Resolved Fluorescence for Rapid and Ultrasensitive Determination of Total Aflatoxin in Feed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2015-12-01

    Immunochromatographic (IC) assays are considered suitable diagnostic tools for the determination of mycotoxins. A europium nanospheres-based time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (Eu-Nano-TRFIA), based on a monoclonal antibody and a portable TRFIA reader, was developed to determine total aflatoxin (including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) levels in feed samples. Under optimized conditions, the Eu-Nano-TRFIA method detected total aflatoxin within 12 min. It showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.985), LOD of 0.16 ?g/kg, a wide dynamic range of 0.48-30.0 ?g/kg, recovery rates of 83.9-113.9%, and coefficients of variation (CVs) of 3.5-8.8%. In the 397 samples from company and livestock farms throughout China, the detection rate was 78.3%, concentrations were 0.50-145.30 ?g/kg, the highest total aflatoxin content was found in cottonseed meal, and corn was found to be the most commonly contaminated feed. This method could be a powerful alternative for the rapid and ultrasensitive determination of total aflatoxin in quality control and meet the required Chinese maximum residue limits. PMID:26565941

  15. A multicolor time-resolved fluorescence aptasensor for the simultaneous detection of multiplex Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in the milk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yukun; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xiujuan; Wang, Xiaole; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xu, Baocai; Wang, Zhouping

    2015-12-15

    Food safety is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. Foodborne illnesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (SEs) commonly occur, affecting both developing and developed countries. In this study, multicolor lanthanide-doped time-resolved fluorescence nanoparticles labeled with aptamers were used as bioprobes, and graphene oxide (GO) was employed as a resonance energy acceptor. Based on the "turn down" strategy, the simultaneous detection of multiplex SEs was realized in a homogeneous solution. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity to three serological types of enterotoxins, including type A, B, C1, with limits of detection below 1 ng mL(-1). The application of this bioassay in milk analysis with no sample dilution was also investigated, and the results of recovery rates covered from 92.76% to 114.58%, revealing that the developed method was accurate. Therefore, this detection aptasnesor can be a good candidate for multiplex analysis and screening with simple and effective operations. PMID:26141103

  16. Diffusion optical spectroscopy of cancerous and normal prostate tissues in time-resolved and frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Pu, Yang; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    It is well-known that light transport can be well described using Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In biological tissue, the scattering particles cause the interaction of scattered waves from neighboring particles. Since such interaction cannot be ignored, multiple scattering occurs. The theoretical solution of multiple scattering is complicated. A suitable description is that the wavelike behavior of light is ignored and the transport of an individual photon is considered to be absorbed or scattered. This is known as the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) theory. Analytical solutions to the RTE that explicitly describes photon migration can be obtained by introducing some proper approximations. One of the most popular models used in the field of tissue optics is the Diffusion Approximation (DA). In this study, we report on the results of our initial study of optical properties of ex vivo normal and cancerous prostate tissues and how tissue parameters affect the near infrared light transporting in the two types of tissues. The time-resolved transport of light is simulated as an impulse isotropic point source of energy within a homogeneous unbounded medium with different absorption and scattering properties of cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Light source is also modulated sinusoidally to yield a varied fluence rate in frequency domain at a distant observation point within the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Due to difference of the absorption and scattering coefficients between cancerous and normal tissues, the expansion of light pulse, intensity, phase are found to be different.

  17. Determination of Iron in Water Solution by Time-Resolved Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergey, S. Golik; Alexey, A. Ilyin; Michael, Yu. Babiy; Yulia, S. Biryukova; Vladimir, V. Lisitsa; Oleg, A. Bukin

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the energy of femtosecond laser pulses on the intensity of Fe I (371.99 nm) emission line and the continuous spectrum of the plasma generated on the surface of Fe3+ water solution by a Ti: sapphire laser radiation with pulse duration < 45 fs and energies up to 7 mJ is determined. A calibration curve was obtained for Fe3+ concentration range from 0.5 g/L to the limit of detection in water solution, and its saturation was detected for concentrations above 0.25 g/L, which is ascribed to self-absorption. The 3?- limit of detection obtained for Fe in water solution is 2.6 mg/L in the case of 7 mJ laser pulse energy. It is found that an increase of laser pulse energy insignificantly affects on LOD in the time-resolved LIBS and leads to a slight improvement of the limit of detection. supported by the Russian Science Foundation (agreement #14-50-00034) (measurements of limit of detection), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (NK 15-32-20878/15) obtained in the frame of “Organization of Scientific Research” in the Far Eastern Federal University supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation

  18. Time-resolved spectroscopy and photometry of the eclipsing AM Herculis binary EXO 033319 - 2554. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.G.; Berriman, G.; Smith, P.S.; Schmidt, G.D. )

    1989-12-01

    Time-resolved optical observations of the eclipsing AM Herculis binary EXO 033319 - 2554.2 are presented. High-speed photometry of an eclipse is presented and used to derive a new ephemeris for the system and to estimate the size of the region responsible for the cyclotron emission. Optical spectra that span the orbital cycle are presented, the cyclotron emission in these spectra is discussed, and the flux and radial velocity variations of H-beta, H-gamma, and He II 4686 A are examined. Models of the flux and radial velocity variations of the emission lines indicate that about half the line emission comes from low-velocity material that is about 1.4 x 10 to the 10th cm from the white dwarf. The rest comes from high-velocity material that is about 10 to the 10th cm from the white dwarf and is moving toward it at about 600 km/s. 13 refs.

  19. Time-Resolved HST Spectroscopy of Four Eclipsing Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    E-print Network

    Gary D. Schmidt; H. S. Stockman

    2000-10-01

    Time-resolved HST UV eclipse spectrophotometry is presented for the magnetic CVs V1309 Ori, MN Hya, V2301 Oph, and V1432 Aql. Separation of the light curves into wavebands allows the multiple emission components to be distinguished. Photospheric hot spots are detected in V1309 Ori and V2301 Oph. The emission- line spectra of V1309 Ori and MN Hya are unusual, with the strength of N V 1240 and N IV 1718 suggesting an overabundance of nitrogen. Three epochs of observation of the asynchronous V1432 Aql cover ~1/3 of a 50-day lap cycle between the white dwarf spin and binary orbit. The light curves vary from epoch to epoch and as a function of waveband. The dereddened UV spectrum is extremely bright and the spectral energy distribution coupled with the duration of eclipse ingress indicate that the dominant source of energy is a hot (T~35,000K) white dwarf. Undiminished line emission through eclipse indicates that the eclipse is caused by the accretion stream, not the secondary star. The hot white dwarf, combined with its current asynchronous nature and rapid timescale for relocking, suggests that V1432 Aql underwent a nova eruption in the past 75-150 yr. The reversed sense of asynchronism, with the primary star currently spinning up toward synchronism, is not necessarily at odds with this scenario, if the rotation of the magnetic white dwarf can couple to the ejecta during the wind phase of the eruption.

  20. Structural recovery in plastic crystals by time-resolved non-linear dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Birte; Samwer, Konrad; Richert, Ranko

    2015-04-01

    The dielectric relaxation of several different plastic crystals has been examined at high amplitudes of the ac electric fields, with the aim of exploring possible differences with respect to supercooled liquids. In all cases, the steady state high field loss spectrum appears to be widened, compared with its low field limit counterpart, whereas peak position and peak amplitude remain almost unchanged. This field induced change in the loss profile is explained on the basis of two distinct effects: an increased relaxation time due to reduced configurational entropy at high fields which affects the low frequency part of the spectrum, and accelerated dynamics at frequencies above the loss peak position resulting from the added energy that the sample absorbs from the external electric field. From the time-resolved assessment of the field induced changes in fictive temperatures at relatively high frequencies, we find that this structural recovery is slaved to the average rather than mode specific structural relaxation time. In other words, the very fast relaxation modes in the plastic crystal cannot adjust their fictive temperatures faster than the slower modes, the equivalent of time aging-time superposition. As a result, an explanation for this single fictive temperature must be consistent with positional order, i.e., translational motion or local density fluctuations do not govern the persistence time of local time constants.

  1. A Novel Apparatus for Laser-Excited Time-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolicelli, G.; Fondacaro, A.; Ruocco, A.; Attili, A.; Stefani, G.; Ferrini, G.; Peloi, M.; Parmigiani, F.; Banfi, G.; Cautero, G.; Tommasini, R.; Comelli, G.; Rosei, R.

    A novel apparatus devoted to time-resolved photoemission experiments in the sub-picosecond regime will be presented. The system is composed of a Ti:sapphire laser source and a time of flight (TOF) electron energy analyzer mounted in a UHV experimental chamber. The laser source is characterized by a pulse duration of 150 fs at a wavelength of 790 nm (1.57 eV) and operates at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. To perform photoemission measurements, UV radiation up to 6.28 eV is produced with sequential steps of frequency conversion by employing crystals with a second order nonlinearity. Photoelectrons are collected by a TOF spectrometer designed to analyze electrons from tenths of eV up to 5 eV. It can be operated in two different angular resolution modes switching on and off an electrostatic collection optics: the high angular resolution mode (?? = +/-2.7°) and the low angular resolution mode (?? = +/-5.6°). Single photon photoemission spectra from the Ag(100) clean surface have been recorded at room temperature using the fourth harmonic light (? = 200 nm and h? = 6.28 eV). The Fermi edge profile convoluted with a Gaussian-shaped energy transmission function of the TOF spectrometer sets an upper limit for the energy resolution which is about 65 meV (FWHM) at 2 eV of electron energy.

  2. Time-resolved photoionization spectroscopy of mixed Rydberg-valence states: indole case study.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Magdalena M; Thompson, James O F; Burgess, Emma A; Paterson, Martin J; Townsend, Dave

    2015-10-28

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to study non-adiabatic relaxation dynamics in gas-phase indole following photo-excitation at 267 nm and 258 nm. Our data analysis was supported by various ab initio calculations using both coupled cluster and density functional methods. The highly differential energy- and angle-resolved information provided by our experimental approach provides extremely subtle details of the complex interactions occurring between several low-lying electronically excited states. In particular, new insight into the role and fate of the mixed Rydberg-valence 3s/??* state is revealed. This includes population residing on the excited state surface at large N-H separations for a relatively long period of time (?1 ps) prior to dissociation and/or internal conversion. Our findings may, in part, be rationalized by considering the rapid evolution of this state's electronic character as the N-H stretching coordinate is extended - as extensively demonstrated in the supporting theory. Overall, our findings highlight a number of important general caveats regarding the nature of mixed Rydberg-valence excited states, their spectral signatures and detection sensitivity in photoionization measurements, and the evaluation of their overall importance in mediating electronic relaxation in a wide range of small model-chromophore systems providing bio-molecular analogues - a topic of considerable interest within the chemical dynamics community over the last decade. PMID:26394263

  3. Multiplexed measurements by time resolved spectroscopy using colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, U.; Jimenez de Aberasturi, D.; Malinowski, R.; Amin, F.; Parak, W. J.; Heimbrodt, W.

    2014-01-27

    Multiplexed measurements of analytes in parallel is a topical demand in bioanalysis and bioimaging. An interesting alternative to commonly performed spectral multiplexing is lifetime multiplexing. In this Letter, we present a proof of principle of single-color lifetime multiplexing by coupling the same fluorophore to different nanoparticles. The effective lifetime of the fluorophores can be tuned by more than one order of magnitude due to resonance energy transfer from donor states. Measurements have been done on a model systems consisting of ATTO-590 dye molecules linked to either gold particles or to CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots. Both systems show the same luminescence spectrum of ATTO-590 dye emission in continuous wave excitation, but can be distinguished by means of time resolved measurements. The dye molecules bound to gold particles exhibit a mono-exponential decay with a lifetime of 4.5 ns, whereas the dye molecules bound to CdSe/ZnS dots show a nonexponential decay with a slow component of about 135 ns due to the energy transfer from the quantum dots. We demonstrate the fundamental possibility to determine the mixing ratio for dyes with equal luminescence spectra but very different transients. This opens up a pathway independent of the standard optical multiplexing with many different fluorophores emitting from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared spectral region.

  4. Volume 215, number 6 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 17 December 1993 Time-resolved fluorescence of NO2 in a magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    -level approxlmatlon 2. Experimental The expenment was carried out m a cylmdncal stainless-steel gas cell (d= 40 mm, I in a magnetic field S.A. Ntzkorodov `, V.I. Makarov 2, I.V. Khmelinskit Instttute of Chemrcal Kmetrcs The influence of a magnetic field on the fluorescence of NO2 has been studied by time-resolved expenments It has

  5. SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN FOODS USING IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE AND LANTHANIDE TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-resolved fluorescence procedure was developed to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in ground meats. After a 4.5 hour enrichment period, streptavidin coated magnetic beads conjugated with biotin-labeled specific anti-bacteria antibodies were used to capture targeted ...

  6. SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN FOODS USING IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE AND LANTHANIDE TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A procedure, based on immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence, was developed to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in ground meats and fresh sprouts. After a brief enrichment period, streptavidin coated magnetic beads conjugated with biotin-labeled specific ant...

  7. Theoretical and experimental study on the difference of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum between the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhao; Xu, Tao

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the difference of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum between the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue. The time-resolved spectrum of the s-180 sarcoma tumor and adjacent normal tissue mediated by the Palladium-porphyrin photosensilizer (Pd-TCPP) is detected by a homemade instrumentation. An improved Monte Carlo algorithm, taking into account the depth of the upper layer tissue (z I) and the delay of the fluorescence photon emission for the time (?) Pd-TCPP electrons spend in the excited state, is developed to study the reason of the spectrum difference formation. It is found from the experiment that the decay constant T decay of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum of the tumor is obviously larger than that of the adjacent normal tissue. And T decay increased with the tumor growth, from 554?s in the first day to 634?s in the eighth day while it keeps steady for normal tissue. The simulated spectrum at different z I and different ? reveal that both the increase of z I and ? can delay the spectrum decay. It is believed that T decay of the tumor tissue should be larger than that of adjacent normal tissue because of the hypoxia. The changes of tumor size and oxygen status cause the difference of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum between the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue and this fact can be made use of in the tumor diagnoses.

  8. DNA binding induces dissociation of the multimeric form of HIV-1 integrase: A time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy study

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Eric; Tauc, Patrick; Leh, Hervé; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Auclair, Christian; Hawkins, Mary E.; Brochon, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Self-assembly of HIV-1 integrase (IN) in solution has been studied previously by time-resolved fluorescence, using tryptophan anisotropy decay. This approach provides information on the size of macromolecules via the determination of rotational correlation times (?). We have shown that, at submicromolar concentration, IN is characterized by a long rotational correlation time (?20°C = 90–100 ns) corresponding to a high-order oligomeric form, likely a tetramer. In the present work, we investigated the self-assembly properties of the DNA-bound IN by using three independent fluorophores. Under enzymatic assay conditions (10?7 M IN, 2 × 10?8 M DNA), using either fluorescein-labeled or fluorescent guanosine analog-containing oligonucleotides that mimic a viral end long terminal repeat sequence, we found that the DNA–IN complex was characterized by shorter ?20°C values of 15.5–19.5 and 23–27 ns, calculated from experiments performed at 25°C and 37°C, respectively. These results were confirmed by monitoring the Trp anisotropy decay as a function of the DNA substrate concentration: the ? of IN shifted from 90–100 ns to lower values (<30 ns) upon increasing the DNA concentration. Again, the normalized ?20°C values were significantly higher when monitored at 37°C as compared with 25°C. These results indicate that upon binding the viral DNA end, the multimeric enzyme undergoes a dissociation, most likely into a homogenous monomeric form at 25°C and into a monomer–dimer equilibrium at 37°C. PMID:11504911

  9. Developments in time-resolved ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies

    E-print Network

    Teo, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the advent of high energy pulsed femtosecond lasers, the field of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was stagnated by the lack of both high power THz sources and sensitive THz detectors. Over the past few years, it has ...

  10. Time-resolved in situ measurement of mitochondrial malfunction by energy transfer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneckenburger, Herbert; Sailer, Reinhard; Strauss, Wolfgang S.; Lyttek, Marco; Stock, Karl; Zipfl, Peter

    2000-10-01

    To establish optical in situ detection of mitochondrial malfunction, nonradiative energy transfer from the coenzyme NADH to the mitochondrial marker rhodamine 123 (R123) was examined. Dual excitation of R123 via energy transfer from excited NADH molecules as well as by direct absorption of light results in two fluorescence signals whose ratio is a measure of mitochondrial NADH. A screening system was developed in which these signals are detected simultaneously using a time-gated (nanosecond) technique for energy transfer measurements and a frequency selective technique for direct excitation and fluorescence monitoring of R123. Optical and electronic components of the apparatus are described, and results obtained from cultivated endothelial cells are reported. The ratio of fluorescence intensities excited in the near ultraviolet and blue-green spectral ranges increased by a factor 1.5 or 1.35 after inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by rotenone at cytotoxic or noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. Concomitantly the amount of mitochondrial NADH increased. Excellent linearity between the number of cells incubated with R123 and fluorescence intensity was found in suspension.

  11. TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE POLAR EU CANCRI IN THE OPEN CLUSTER MESSIER 67

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Howell, Steve B.; Bellini, Andrea; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Bolte, Michael E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov E-mail: psmith@as.arizona.edu E-mail: rubin@mpia.de

    2013-05-15

    We present time-resolved spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the AM Her system EU Cnc. EU Cnc is located near the core of the old open cluster Messier 67; new proper motion measurements indicate that EU Cnc is indeed a member of the star cluster, and this system therefore is useful to constrain the formation and evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. The spectra exhibit two-component emission features with independent radial velocity variations as well as time-variable cyclotron emission indicating a magnetic field strength of 41 MG. The period of the radial velocity and cyclotron hump variations are consistent with the previously known photometric period, and the spectroscopic flux variations are consistent in amplitude with previous photometric amplitude measurements. The secondary star is also detected in the spectrum. We also present polarimetric imaging measurements of EU Cnc that show a clear detection of polarization, and the degree of polarization drops below our detection threshold at phases when the cyclotron emission features are fading or not evident. The combined data are all consistent with the interpretation that EU Cnc is a low-state polar in the cluster Messier 67. The mass function of the system gives an estimate of the accretor mass of M{sub WD} {>=} 0.68 M{sub Sun} with M{sub WD} Almost-Equal-To 0.83 M{sub Sun} for an average inclination. We are thus able to place a lower limit on the progenitor mass of the accreting white dwarf of {>=}1.43 M{sub Sun }.

  12. Time-resolved spectroscopy of charge transfer phenomena in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Marina; Arndt, Andreas; Quintilla, Aina; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Lemmer, Uli; Koch, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Geminate recombination of photo-generated excitons represents a considerable loss mechanism in polymer solar cells. We apply time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) to study the radiative recombination which accompanies the process of charge generation. A streak camera is used, which is sensitive for both the photoluminescence (PL) from the initially excited singlet excitons and the weaker emission from charge transfer (CT) states. The latter are formed at internal interfaces when the polymer is blended with a fullerene acceptor. We draw a comparison between our results for two polymers, P3HT and PTB7, respectively, which were studied in blends with the fullerene derivative PCBM. In addition, pristine films were investigated, allowing for the identification of interfacial features in the blends. For both polymers, the PL of the singlet states was rapidly quenched in blends with PCBM. In P3HT, time constants of about 40 ps were recorded for the singlet exciton decay and related to exciton diffusion, whereas the PL of PTB7 was almost completely quenched within the first 3 ps. The decay rates of the emissive CT excitons were 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than those of the singlet state. Yet, due to their slower dynamics (~ 500 ps), they could be separated from the superimposed singlet emission. The CT decay times in blends with P3HT exhibited no significant temperature dependence, indicating that thermally driven dissociation of emissive excitons is unlikely. For blends with PTB7, however, a faster decay of the CT emission was obtained at room temperature.

  13. A comparative study on bulk and nanoconfined water by time-resolved optical Kerr effect spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Andrea Taschin; Paolo Bartolini; Agnese Marcelli; Roberto Righini; Renato Torre

    2013-04-30

    The low frequency vibrational spectra of hydrated porous silica are specifically sensitive to the hydrogen bond interactions and provides a wealth of information on the structural and dynamical properties of the water contained in the pores of the matrix. We investigate systematically this spectral region of Vycor porous silica (pore size about 4 nm) for a series of samples at different levels of hydration, from the dry matrix to completely filled pores. The spectra are obtained as the Fourier transforms of time-resolved heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect (HD- OKE) measurements. The comparison of these spectra with that of bulk water allows us to extract and analyze separately the spectral contributions of the first and second hydration layers, as well as that of bulk-like inner water. We conclude that the extra water entering the pores above 10 % water/silica weight ratio behaves very similarly to bulk water. At lower levels of hydration, corresponding to two complete superficial water layers or less, the H-bond bending and stretching bands, characteristic of the tetrahedral coordination of water in the bulk phase, progressively disappear: clearly in these conditions the H-bond connectivity is very different from that of liquid water. A similar behavior is observed for the structural relaxation times, measured from the decay of the time-dependent HD-OKE signal. The value for the inner water is very similar to that of the bulk liquid; that of the first two water layers is definitely longer by about a factor 4. These findings should be carefully taken into account when employing pore confinement to extend towards lower temperatures the accessible temperature range of supercooled water.

  14. Time resolved inner-shell spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas using a HOPG crystal in Von Hamos geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. L.; Freeman, R. R.; van Woerkom, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Macphee, A. G.; Dickson, R.; Hey, D.; Khattak, F.; Garcia Saiz, E.; Riley, D.; Chen, S. N.; Beg, F.; Stephens, R. B.; Notley, M.; Neely, D.; Gregori, G.

    2006-10-01

    Time resolved heat transport in warm dense matter, an essential component of the Fast Ignition concept, has been studied using inner-shell spectra from Ti and Al/Ti/Al foils. Thermal emission is generated by irradiation with either 527 nm and 1ns or 1053 nm and 5 ps pulses using the Vulcan laser at RAL. Fluorescence emission was recorded with a ZYA grade HOPG crystal used in mosaic focusing mode and Von Hamos geometry. The crystal was coupled with a Kentech Low Magnification Streak Camera, fitted with a fluffy CsI photocathode, providing a temporal resolution of about 50 ps. Although the small dynamic range of the streak camera restricts measurement of the full duration of He-alpha emission, our data indicates that the FWHM duration of the resonance line is approximately 1.5 ns when the Ti foil is irradiated with 1 ns pulses.

  15. The H + OCS hot atom reaction - CO state distributions and translational energy from time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Cartland, Harry E.

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy has been used to probe CO internal and translational excitation from the reaction of hot H atoms with OCS. Product distributions should be strongly biased toward the maximum 1.4 eV collision energy obtained from 278 nm pulsed photolysis of HI. Rotations and vibrations are both colder than predicted by statistical density of states theory, as evidenced by large positive surprisal parameters. The bias against rotation is stronger than that against vibration, with measurable population as high as v = 4. The average CO internal excitation is 1920/cm, accounting for only 13 percent of the available energy. Of the energy balance, time-resolved sub-Doppler line shape measurements show that more than 38 percent appears as relative translation of the separating CO and SH fragments. Studies of the relaxation kinetics indicate that some rotational energy transfer occurs on the time scale of our measurements, but the distributions do not relax sufficiently to alter our conclusions. Vibrational distributions are nascent, though vibrational relaxation of excited CO is unusually fast in the OCS bath, with rates approaching 3 percent of gas kinetic for v = 1.

  16. A facile synthesis of highly stable and luminescent Ag clusters: a steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Pal, Nabin Kumar; Kryschi, Carola

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we reported a very simple and environmentally friendly procedure for the synthesis of bright luminescent and nearly monodisperse Ag nanoclusters stabilized by a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) homopolymer. In this synthesis route acetonitrile or N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) acts as both solvent and a reducing agent at their respective reflux temperatures. The as-prepared Ag clusters were found to be highly stable in various solvents as well as show nearly no changes in their emission intensity in solutions with different pH values and ionic strengths. Remarkably, the acetonitrile method predominantly produces blue emitting Ag clusters with a photoluminescence (PL) emission maximum at 424 nm (quantum yield 3.5%), whereas mainly blue-green emitting Ag clusters with the PL emission maximum at 450 nm (quantum yield 2.7%) were formed using the DMF method. The photo-physical, electronic, structural and morphological properties of the Ag clusters were investigated by performing UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, stationary and time-resolved PL spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy experiments. PMID:25475027

  17. ?-Helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time-resolved IR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bredenbeck, Jens; Helbing, Jan; Kumita, Janet R.; Woolley, G. Andrew; Hamm, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photo-triggered ?-helix formation of a 16-residue peptide featuring a built-in conformational photoswitch is monitored by time-resolved IR spectroscopy. An experimental approach with 2-ps time resolution and a scanning range up to 30 ?s is used to cover all time scales of the peptide dynamics. Experiments are carried out at different temperatures between 281 and 322 K. We observe single-exponential kinetics of the amide I? band at 322 K on a time scale comparable to a recent temperature-jump folding experiment. When lowering the temperature, the kinetics become slower and nonexponential. The transition is strongly activated. Spectrally dispersed IR measurements provide multiple spectroscopic probes simultaneously in one experiment by resolving the amide I? band, isotope-labeled amino acid residues, and side chains. We find differing relaxation dynamics at different spectral positions. PMID:15699340

  18. Time Resolved Spectroscopy, High Sensitivity Power Spectrum & a Search for the X-Ray QPO in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir

    1999-09-01

    Controversy surrounds the EXOSAT discovery of a QPO (period ~500 s) in NGC 5548 due to the data being plagued by high background and instrumental systematics. If the NGC 5548 QPO is real, the implications for the physics of the X-ray emission mechanism and inner-most disk/black-hole system are enormous. AXAF provides the first opportunity to settle the issue, capable of yielding power spectra with unprecedented sensitivity, pushing the limit on finding new features. Using HETG/ACIS we will also perform time-resolved spectroscopy of the ionized absorption features and Fe-K emission line, search for energy-dependent time lags in the continuum, between the continuum and spectral features, and between the spectral features. These data will provide powerful constraints on models of AGN.

  19. Excited-state dynamics of guanosine in aqueous solution revealed by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Franziska; Heggen, Berit; Ritze, Hans-Hermann; Thiel, Walter; Lübcke, Andrea

    2015-11-25

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is performed on aqueous guanosine solution to study its excited-state relaxation dynamics. Experimental results are complemented by surface hopping dynamic simulations and evaluation of the excited-state ionization energy by Koopmans' theorem. Two alternative models for the relaxation dynamics are discussed. The experimentally observed excited-state lifetime is about 2.5 ps if the molecule is excited at 266 nm and about 1.1 ps if the molecule is excited at 238 nm. The experimental probe photon energy dependence of the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution suggests that the probe step is not vertical and involves a doubly-excited autoionizing state. PMID:26569639

  20. Hybridization gap formation in the Kondo insulator YbB12 observed using time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, M.; Ishida, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Shimada, T.; Iga, F.; Takabatake, T.; Saitoh, T.; Shin, S.

    2015-10-01

    A detailed low-energy electronic structure of a Kondo insulator YbB12 was revealed by a synergetic combination of ultra-high-resolution laser photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and time-resolved PES. The former confirmed a 25-meV pseudogap corresponding to the Kondo temperature of this material, and more importantly, it revealed that a 15-meV gap and a Kondo-peak feature developed below a crossover temperature of T*˜110 K . In harmony with this, the latter discovered a very long recombination time exceeding 100 ps below ˜T* . This is a clear manifestation of photoexcited carriers due to the bottleneck in the recovery dynamics, which is interpreted as a developing hybridization gap of a hard gap.

  1. Fiber-based cryogenic and time-resolved spectroscopy of PbS quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Matthew T. Rakher; Ranojoy Bose; Chee Wei Wong; Kartik Srinivasan

    2010-12-01

    PbS quantum dots are promising active emitters for use with high-quality Si nanophotonic devices in the telecommunications-band. Measurements of low quantum dot densities are limited both because of low fluorescence levels and the challenges of single photon detection at these wavelengths. Here, we report on methods using a fiber taper waveguide to efficiently extract PbS quantum dot photoluminescence. Temperature dependent ensemble measurements reveal an increase in emitted photons concomitant with an increase in excited-state lifetime from 58.9 ns at 293 K to 657 ns at 40 K. Measurements are also performed on quantum dots on high-$Q$ ($>10^5$) microdisks using cavity-resonant, pulsed excitation.

  2. Photosynthetic Dioxygen Formation Monitored by Time-Resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2007-02-02

    Photosynthetic water oxidation provides the dioxygen of the atmosphere. Its partial reactions proceed at a Mn4Ca complex bound to photosystem II of plants and cyanobacteria. Understanding the mechanism of this biological oxidation of water molecules to O2 is one of the major challenges in life sciences. We have developed and employed X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) techniques facilitating measurements on metalloenzymes at room temperature. By these techniques, we were able to resolve structural changes at the Mn ions, to follow oxidation-state changes in the microseconds time domain, and to detect a novel and likely crucial intermediate in the oxygen-evolving step of the catalytic cycle of the Mn complex. Based on the obtained results, we replace the classic S-state model of the catalytic cycle by a more elaborated reaction scheme which solves apparent inconsistencies of earlier models, explains a large body of experimental results, and provides a fresh twist in photosynthesis research.

  3. Charge-carrier dynamics in benzoporphyrin films investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kaoru; Hiraoka, Sho; Tamura, Yuto; Yamada, Hiroko; Tominaga, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated charge-carrier dynamics in benzoporphyrin (BP) and BP-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films with optical pump-broadband terahertz (THz) probe spectroscopy. In both samples, we observed instantaneous appearance of transient THz signals, which are attributed to mobile charge carriers that are much lower in transition energy than excitons. These carriers recombine and/or trap at defect sites within a few ps. In the BP-based BHJ films, the decay dynamics of transient THz signals was faster relative to that in the BP films. In contrast to the BP films, approximately 10% of the transient signal does not decay within 35 ps, indicating survival of free charge carriers.

  4. Near gap excitation of a CDW amplitude mode by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Dominik; Yang, Shuolong; Sobota, Jonathan; Giraldo, Paula; Kirchmann, Patrick; Fisher, Ian; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2014-03-01

    We present time-, angle- and energy-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy data from the light rear-earth tritelluride compound CeTe3. An in-plane Peierls distortion in the tellurium slabs leads to the formation of an incommensurate Charge Density Wave (CDW), accompanied by a CDW gap at the Fermi level. Ultrafast optical laser excitation and subsequent relaxation by means of electron-phonon coupling can coherently excite a periodic modulation of the CDW band position and the gap size in rear-earth tritellurides. In this work, the use of tuneable near infrared laser pulses allows for optical excitation slightly above and below the measured gap value of 570 meV. The smaller excitation phase space not only leads to cleaner amplitude mode signal but also helps to pin down the optical transitions, which are the driving mechanisms for the transient CDW phase transition. Financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation is duly acknowledged.

  5. Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of hydrogen-alpha, -beta, and -gamma emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Parigger, Christian G.; Dackman, Matthew; Hornkohl, James O

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogen emission spectroscopy results are reported following laser-induced optical breakdown with infrared Nd:YAG laser radiation focused into a pulsed methane flow. Measurements of Stark-broadened atomic hydrogen-alpha, -beta, and -gamma lines show electron number densities of 0.3 to 4x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} for time delays of 2.1 to 0.4 {mu}s after laser-induced optical breakdown. In methane flow, recombination molecular spectra of the {delta}{nu}=+2 progression of the C2 Swan system are discernable in the H{beta} and H{gamma} plasma emissions within the first few microseconds. The recorded atomic spectra indicate the occurrence of hydrogen self-absorption for pulsed CH4 flow pressures of 2.7x10{sup 5} Pa (25 psig) and 6.5x10{sup 5} Pa (80 psig)

  6. Rotational Raman spectroscopy of ethylene using a femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe technique.

    PubMed

    Rouzée, A; Boudon, V; Lavorel, B; Faucher, O; Raballand, W

    2005-10-15

    Femtosecond Raman-induced polarization spectroscopy (RIPS) was conducted at low pressure (250 mb at 295 K and 400 mb at 373 K) in ethylene. The temporal signal, resulting from the beating between pure rotational coherences, was measured with a heterodyne detection. The temporal traces were converted to the frequency domain using a Fourier transformation and then analyzed thanks to the D2hTDS software (http://www.u-bourgogne.fr/LPUB/shTDS.html) dedicated to X2Y4 molecules with D2h symmetry. The effective Hamiltonian was expanded up to order 2, allowing the determination of five parameters with an rms of 0.017 cm(-1). Special care was taken in the precise modeling of intensities, taking into account all instrumental effects. Relative intensities were fitted (with an rms of 7.2%) and two polarizability operators were determined. PMID:16252950

  7. Study of fluorescence interaction and conformational changes of bovine serum albumin with histamine H1 -receptor-drug epinastine hydrochloride by spectroscopic and time-resolved fluorescence methods.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Girish G; Naik, Praveen N; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2015-11-01

    The fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV) absorption, time resolved techniques, circular dichroism (CD), and infrared spectral methods were explored as tools to investigate the interaction between histamine H1 drug, epinastine hydrochloride (EPN), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulated physiological conditions. The experimental results showed that the quenching of the BSA by EPN was static quenching mechanism and also confirmed by lifetime measurements. The value of n close to unity indicated that one molecule of EPN was bound to protein molecule. The binding constants (K) at three different temperatures were calculated (7.1?×?10(4) , 5.5?×?10(4) , and 3.9?×?10(4) M(-1) ). Based on the thermodynamic parameters (?H(0) , ?G(0) , and ?S(0) ), the nature of binding forces operating between drug and protein was proposed. The site of binding of EPN in the protein was proposed to be Sudlow's site I based on displacement experiments using site markers viz, warfarin, ibuprofen, and digitoxin. Based on the Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (EPN) was evaluated and found to be 4.48?nm. The UV-visible, synchronous fluorescence, CD, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results revealed the changes in secondary structure of the protein upon its interaction with EPN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 103: 646-657, 2015. PMID:26215421

  8. Time-Resolved Twisting Dynamics in a Porphyrin Dimer Characterized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Franco V A; Anderson, Harry L; Meech, Stephen R; Heisler, Ismael A

    2015-11-19

    Molecular conformational changes in electronic excited states play a key role in numerous light-activated processes. In the case of porphyrin oligomers intramolecular twisting influences energy and charge transport dynamics. Here we address the twisting reaction in both ground and excited states in a model porphyrin dimer, employing two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES). By spreading the information over excitation and detection frequencies, cross-peaks reveal the twisting reaction in both the ground and excited states unambiguously and distinctly from other dynamics. A quasi-barrierless planarization reaction is observed in the excited state on a tens of picoseconds time scale. This is accompanied by a spectral narrowing, indicative of a reduction in conformational disorder. The reverse reaction is suppressed in the excited state due to a steep activation energy barrier. However, in the ground state the barrier is within the thermal energy distribution, and therefore contributions from reverse and forward reactions could be observed on the subnanosecond time scale. Crucially 2D ES enables simultaneous assessment of ground and excited state reactions through analysis of different spectral regions on the 2D spectral maps. PMID:26496469

  9. Time resolved spectroscopy of GRB 021004 reveals a clumpy extended wind

    E-print Network

    D. Lazzati; R. Perna; J. Flasher; V. Dwarkadas; F. Fiore

    2006-08-21

    High resolution spectroscopy of GRB 021004 revealed a wealth of absorption lines from several intermediate ionization species. The velocity structure of the absorber is complex and material with velocity up to >3000 km/s is observed. Since only the blueshifted component is observed, the absorber is very likely to be material closely surrounding the gamma-ray burst. We use a time-dependent photoionization code to track the abundance of the ions over time. Thanks to the presence of absorption from intermediate ionization states at long times, we can estimate the location and mass of the components of the absorber. We interpret those constraints within the hypernova scenario showing that the mass loss rate of the progenitor must have been ~10^{-4} solar masses per year, suggestive of a very massive star. In addition, the wind termination shock must lie at a distance of at least 100 pc, implying a low density environment. The velocity structure of the absorber also requires clumping of the wind at those large distances.

  10. A new angle into time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy: A layered prism cell increases experimental flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, T.; Foster, N.S.; Klepzig, K.; Amonette, J.E.; Daschbach, J.L.

    1998-06-01

    A new pulsed photoacoustic calorimetry cell that uses transmission of light through a pair of dovetail prisms is discussed. The layered prism cell (LPC) combines the enhanced time-resolution capabilities of the {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} front-face irradiation geometry with the zero-background and broadband flexibility of the classical cuvette geometry. This work provides a phenomenological description of photoinduced pressure changes to yield an analytical expression to calculate the magnitude of the photoinduced acoustic pressure wave in a series of solvents. The mechanical to electrical conversion efficiency for an ultrasonic transducer coupled to the LPC is presented to provide a comparison of the experimentally observed photoinduced acoustic signal amplitudes to the empirically calculated acoustic signal amplitudes. An analysis of the background signals due to absorption and electrostriction of the media provides insight into the issues of sensitivity and limitations of pulsed photoacoustic experiments. The LPC provides several benefits to increase the flexibility of the photoacoustic spectroscopy: (1) greater sensitivity, (2) enhanced time resolution, and (3) the ability to obtain kinetic data in complex solvent mixtures. Under optically dilute conditions in the layered cell geometry, the acoustic transient time, {tau}a, approaches zero because the photoinduced acoustic wave homogeneously expands against the walls of the photoacoustic cell. To demonstrate the unique capabilities of the LPC, rates of hydrogen abstraction by {ital tert}-butoxyl radical from solvent mixtures containing ethyl and methyl alcohol are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.} thinsp

  11. Time-resolved site-selective spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, S. P.; Garro, N.; Phillips, R. T.

    2001-09-01

    We report the dynamics of emission from the conjugated polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene) after ultrafast optical excitation with a range of photon energies. Subpicosecond temporal resolution of the emission allows us to distinguish between photoluminescence and intense resonant scattering that decays within a few picoseconds but dominates the time-integrated spectra. As the excitation energy is decreased the redshift of the photoluminescence over time is reduced, indicating a decreasing mobility of the excitons. The ratio between the intensities of the two highest-energy peaks in the spectrum increases for lower excitation energies and with increasing times after excitation. We deduce that the configurational energy change between ground and excited electronic states increases for excitons located on chain segments with shorter conjugation lengths. A Stokes shift of 20 meV between the excitation energy and the highest peak in emission is observed even when predominantly immobile excitons are generated. We attribute this shift to the preferential excitation into the higher levels of low-energy vibrational modes of states with electronic energy such that they are not in resonance with the excitation. This is supported by calculations that reproduce the experimental results only if these low-energy modes are considered. We show that when the low-energy phonon modes are important, site-selective spectroscopy excites a distribution of states that is broader than the spectral width of the excitation source.

  12. Nanosecond time-resolved microscopic spectroscopy for diagnostics of an atmospheric-pressure discharge plasma formed in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, Motohiro; Kanno, Kenta; Someya, Yuu; Yui, Hiroharu

    2015-06-01

    Glow discharge plasma formed in solution under atmospheric pressure has been expected to provide reaction fields with characteristic physical and chemical properties owing to the frequent collisions and reactions of reactive particles inside and the rapid quenching of the products by the surrounding cold solutions. In particular, when an aqueous solution is utilized as the surrounding solution, the atmospheric-pressure in-solution glow (ASG) plasma contains hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals showing large activities for reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, because the ASG plasma is formed under atmospheric pressure, the collision frequencies between the particles contained in the plasma are higher than those in other plasmas ordinarily formed under low pressure. This feature should result in rapid energy redistribution among particles contained in the plasma. In the present study, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy with nanosecond time resolution was applied for the diagnostics of the ASG plasma with chemical species selectivity. The time-resolved measurements revealed that the temporal evolutions of the temperatures of blackbody, hydrogen radical, and hydroxyl radical contained in the ASG plasma consist of two stages: initial rise within 0.15 µs (rising stage) and fluctuation around certain values for about 1 µs (fluctuating stage). In the time region corresponding to the rising stage, the electron number density is about ten times larger than the value temporally averaged during the plasma emission. The initial rise should result from frequent collisions between charged particles accelerated by the applied voltage and unexcited particles. In the fluctuating stage, the electron number density strongly correlates with the increase in the radical temperatures. It is concluded that the electron number density, rather than the electron temperature, is a key parameter determining the temperatures of reactive species in the ASG plasma.

  13. Valence tautomerism in co-dioxolene complexes: static and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Azzaroli, Nicolò; Lapini, Andrea; Di Donato, Mariangela; Dei, Andrea; Righini, Roberto

    2013-12-12

    In this work, we studied the valence tautomerism process on two different Co-dioxolene complexes by means of transient infrared spectroscopy (TRIR). The molecules investigated are ls-Co(III)(Cat-N-BQ)(Cat-N-SQ) (DQ2) and [ls-Co(III)(tpy)(Cat-N-SQ)]PF6 (tpy), where Cat-NBQ = 2-(2-hydroxy-3,5-ditert-butylphenyl-imino)-4,6-ditert-butylcyclohexa-3,5-dienone, Cat-N-SQ is the dianionic radical analogue, and tpy = 2,2'-6-2?-terpyridine. DFT calculations of the harmonic frequencies for the two complexes allow us to pinpoint the normal modes to be used as markers of the semiquinonate and benzoquinonate isomers. The photoinduced one-electron charge transfer process from the radical semiquinonate ligand to the metal center leads to a ls-Co(II)(x)(Cat-N-BQ) electronic state (where x is the other ligand). Following this first step, an ultrafast ISC process (? < 200 fs) takes places, yielding the benzoquinonate isomer (hs-Co(II)(x)(Cat-N-BQ)). In the experiments, we employed different excitation wavelengths on resonance with different absorption bands of the two samples. Excitation in the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) band at ?520 nm and in the semiquinonate band at ?1000 nm induces the valence tautomerism (VT) in both samples. From the time evolution of the TRIR spectra, we determine the time constants of the vibrational cooling in the tautomeric state (7-14 ps) and the ground state recovery times (?350 ps for tpy and ?450 ps for DQ2). In contrast, when the pump frequency is set at 712 nm, on resonance with the benzoquinonate absorption band of the second active ligand of the DQ2, no electron transfer takes place: the TRIR spectra basically show only ground state bleaching bands and no marker band of the tautomeric conversion shows up. PMID:23888870

  14. Synthesis and characterization of time-resolved fluorescence probes for evaluation of competitive binding to melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Alleti, Ramesh; Vagner, Josef; Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika; Moberg, Valerie E; Elshan, N G R D; Tafreshi, Narges K; Brabez, Nabila; Weber, Craig S; Lynch, Ronald M; Hruby, Victor J; Gillies, Robert J; Morse, David L; Mash, Eugene A

    2013-09-01

    Probes for use in time-resolved fluorescence competitive binding assays at melanocortin receptors based on the parental ligands MSH(4), MSH(7), and NDP-?-MSH were prepared by solid phase synthesis methods, purified, and characterized. The saturation binding of these probes was studied using HEK-293 cells engineered to overexpress the human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R) as well as the human cholecystokinin 2 receptor (hCCK2R). The ratios of non-specific binding to total binding approached unity at high concentrations for each probe. At low probe concentrations, receptor-mediated binding and uptake was discernable, and so probe concentrations were kept as low as possible in determining Kd values. The Eu-DTPA-PEGO-MSH(4) probe exhibited low specific binding relative to non-specific binding, even at low nanomolar concentrations, and was deemed unsuitable for use in competition binding assays. The Eu-DTPA-PEGO probes based on MSH(7) and NDP-?-MSH exhibited Kd values of 27±3.9nM and 4.2±0.48nM, respectively, for binding with hMC4R. These probes were employed in competitive binding assays to characterize the interactions of hMC4R with monovalent and divalent MSH(4), MSH(7), and NDP-?-MSH constructs derived from squalene. Results from assays with both probes reflected only statistical enhancements, suggesting improper ligand spacing on the squalene scaffold for the divalent constructs. The Ki values from competitive binding assays that employed the MSH(7)-based probe were generally lower than the Ki values obtained when the probe based on NDP-?-MSH was employed, which is consistent with the greater potency of the latter probe. The probe based on MSH(7) was also competed with monovalent, divalent, and trivalent MSH(4) constructs that previously demonstrated multivalent binding in competitive binding assays against a variant of the probe based on NDP-?-MSH. Results from these assays confirm multivalent binding, but suggest a more modest increase in avidity for these MSH(4) constructs than was previously reported. PMID:23890524

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Time-resolved Fluorescence Probes for Evaluation of Competitive Binding to Melanocortin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alleti, Ramesh; Vagner, Josef; Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika; Moberg, Valerie E.; Elshan, N. G. R. D.; Tafreshi, Narges K.; Brabez, Nabila; Weber, Craig S.; Lynch, Ronald M.; Hruby, Victor J.; Gillies, Robert J.; Morse, David L.; Mash, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    Probes for use in time-resolved fluorescence competitive binding assays at melanocortin receptors based on the parental ligands MSH(4), MSH(7), and NDP-?-MSH were prepared by solid phase synthesis methods, purified, and characterized. The saturation binding of these probes was studied using HEK-293 cells engineered to overexpress the human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R) as well as the human cholecystokinin 2 receptor (hCCK2R). The ratios of non-specific binding to total binding approached unity at high concentrations for each probe. At low probe concentrations, receptor-mediated binding and uptake was discernable, and so probe concentrations were kept as low as possible in determining Kd values. The Eu-DTPA-PEGO-MSH(4) probe exhibited low specific binding relative to non-specific binding, even at low nanomolar concentrations, and was deemed unsuitable for use in competition binding assays. The Eu-DTPA-PEGO probes based on MSH(7) and NDP-?-MSH exhibited Kd values of 27±3.9 nM and 4.2±0.48 nM, respectively, for binding with hMC4R. These probes were employed in competitive binding assays to characterize the interactions of hMC4R with monovalent and divalent MSH(4), MSH(7), and NDP-?-MSH constructs derived from squalene. Results from assays with both probes reflected only statistical enhancements, suggesting improper ligand spacing on the squalene scaffold for the divalent constructs. The Ki values from competitive binding assays that employed the MSH(7)-based probe were generally lower than the Ki values obtained when the probe based on NDP-?-MSH was employed, which is consistent with the greater potency of the latter probe. The probe based on MSH(7) was also competed with monovalent, divalent, and trivalent MSH(4) constructs that previously demonstrated multivalent binding in competitive binding assays against a variant of the probe based on NDP-?-MSH. Results from these assays confirm multivalent binding, but suggest a more modest increase in avidity for these MSH(4) constructs than was previously reported. PMID:23890524

  16. Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2009-04-24

    We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

  17. Micro-systems for time-resolved fluorescence analysis using CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes and micro-LEDs 

    E-print Network

    Rae, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence based analysis is a fundamental research technique used in the life sciences. However, conventional fluorescence intensity measurements are prone to misinterpretation due to illumination and fluorophore ...

  18. Communication: Ultrafast time-resolved ion photofragmentation spectroscopy of photoionization-induced proton transfer in phenol-ammonia complex

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ching-Chi; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Ho, Jr-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Po-Yuan

    2014-11-07

    Photoionization-induced proton transfer (PT) in phenol-ammonia (PhOH-NH{sub 3}) complex has been studied using ultrafast time-resolved ion photofragmentation spectroscopy. Neutral PhOH-NH{sub 3} complexes prepared in a free jet are photoionized by femtosecond [1+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization via the S{sub 1} state, and the subsequent dynamics occurring in the cations is probed by delayed pulses that result in ion fragmentation. The observed temporal evolutions of the photofragmentation spectra are consistent with an intracomplex PT reaction. The experiments revealed that PT in [PhOH-NH{sub 3}]{sup +} cation proceeds in two distinct steps: an initial impulsive wave-packet motion in ?70 fs followed by a slower relaxation of about 1 ps that stabilizes the system into the final PT configuration. These results indicate that for a barrierless PT system, even though the initial PT motions are impulsive and ultrafast, the reaction may take a much longer time scale to complete.

  19. Picosecond Dynamics of G-Protein Coupled Receptor Activation in Rhodopsin from Time-Resolved UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Judy E.; Pan, Duohai; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The protein response to retinal chromophore isomerization in the visual pigment rhodopsin is studied using picosecond time-resolved UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. High signal-to-noise Raman spectra are obtained using a 1 kHz Ti:Sapphire laser apparatus that provides <3 ps visible (466 nm) pump and UV (233 nm) probe pulses. When there is no time delay between the pump and probe events, tryptophan modes W18, W16, and W3 exhibit decreased Raman scattering intensity. At longer pump-probe time delays of +5 and +20 ps, both tryptophan (W18, W16, W3, and W1) and tyrosine (Y1 + 2xY16a, Y7a, Y8a) peak intensities drop by up to 3%. These intensity changes are attributed to decreased hydrophobicity in the microenvironment near at least one tryptophan and one tyrosine residue that likely arise from weakened interaction with the ?-ionone ring of the chromophore following cis-to-trans isomerization. Examination of the crystal structure suggests that W265 and Y268 are responsible for these signals. These UV Raman spectral changes are nearly identical to those observed for the rhodopsinto-Meta I transition, implying that impulsively driven protein motion by the isomerizing chromophore during the 200 fs primary transition drives key structural changes that lead to protein activation. PMID:12731857

  20. Sub-100ps single photoelectron time resolution of a strip silicon photomultiplier for time-resolved optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenyuan; Liu, Rongdan; Liang, Kun; Yang, Ru; Han, Dejun

    2015-10-01

    SiPM with epitaxial quenching resistors developed at NDL (Novel Device Laboratory, Beijing) could alleviate the conflict between large dynamic range and high photon detection efficiency (PDE). It can be used as low light level detector in various applications with excellent single photoelectron time resolution (SPTR) and photon counting capacity. SPTR is mainly determined by the intrinsic structure parameters of the SiPM. However, it is also limited to measurement setup, electronics readout and the ultra-small signal of single photoelectron level. In this work, we designed and fabricated a 1 mm × 1 mm strip SiPM array for possible applications in time-resolved optical spectroscopy. The SiPM array consists of sixteen 50 ?m × 1 mm strip SiPM elements. Each element contains five hundred 6.5 ?m × 6.5 ?m micro avalanche photodiode (APD) cells with 10?m pitch. The strip SiPM demonstrated SPTR of 68 ps (FWHM), peak PDE of 17% around 450 nm and high photon number resolving and photon counting capability.

  1. Elucidating low-frequency vibrational dynamics in calcite and water with time-resolved third-harmonic generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Weimin; Fang, Chong

    2015-07-14

    Low-frequency vibrations are foundational for material properties including thermal conductivity and chemical reactivity. To resolve the intrinsic molecular conformational dynamics in condensed phase, we implement time-resolved third-harmonic generation (TRTHG) spectroscopy to unravel collective skeletal motions in calcite, water, and aqueous salt solution in situ. The lifetime of three Raman-active modes in polycrystalline calcite at 155, 282 and 703 cm(-1) is found to be ca. 1.6 ps, 1.3 ps and 250 fs, respectively. The lifetime difference is due to crystallographic defects and anharmonic effects. By incorporating a home-built wire-guided liquid jet, we apply TRTHG to investigate pure water and ZnCl2 aqueous solution, revealing ultrafast dynamics of water intermolecular stretching and librational bands below 500 cm(-1) and a characteristic 280 cm(-1) vibrational mode in the ZnCl4(H2O)2(2-) complex. TRTHG proves to be a compact and versatile technique that directly uses the 800 nm fundamental laser pulse output to capture ultrafast low-frequency vibrational motion snapshots in condensed-phase materials including the omnipresent water, which provides the important time dimension to spectral characterization of molecular structure-function relationships. PMID:26062639

  2. Single water solvation dynamics in the 4-aminobenzonitrile-water cluster cation revealed by picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Wohlgemuth, Matthias; Mitri?, Roland; Dopfer, Otto; Fujii, Masaaki

    2015-11-28

    The dynamics of a solvent is important for many chemical and biological processes. Here, the migration dynamics of a single water molecule is triggered by the photoionization of the 4-aminobenzonitrile-water (4ABN-W) cluster and monitored in real time by picosecond time-resolved IR (ps TRIR) spectroscopy. In the neutral cluster, water is hydrogen-bonded to the CN group. When this CN-bound cluster is selectively ionized with an excess energy of 1238 cm(-1), water migrates with a lifetime of ? = 17 ps from the CN to the NH2 group, forming a more stable 4ABN(+)-W(NH) isomer with a yield of unity. By decreasing the ionization excess energy, the yield of the CN ? NH2 reaction is reduced. The relatively slow migration in comparison to the ionization-induced solvent dynamics in the related acetanilide-water cluster cation (? = 5 ps) is discussed in terms of the internal excess energy after photoionization and the shape of the potential energy surface. PMID:26490096

  3. Photodissociation of gaseous propionyl chloride at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Tsang; Liu, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chia-Yun; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen

    2010-11-01

    In one-photon dissociation of propionyl chloride at 248 nm, time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy is used to detect the fragments of HCl and CO in the presence of Ar. The inert gas Ar plays a role to enhance the internal conversion. The time-dependence of high-resolution HCl spectra yields a bimodal rotational distribution in the early stage. The total rotational and vibrational energy partitioned in HCl are evaluated to be 1.7 ± 0.3 and 8.8 ± 1.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The CO appearance indicates that HCl may be eliminated through a five-center mechanism accompanied with three-body dissociation of C 2H 2, HCl, and CO. A four-center mechanism forming HCl and CH 3CH dbnd CO also contributes to the HCl fragment with a feature of rotational bimodality. However, the probability for the HCl contribution from the hot Cl reaction is negligible. The reaction with CH 4 is carried out to evaluate the HCl and Cl elimination rate constants.

  4. Single-shot Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved reflectivity of a shocked TATB-based explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Philippe; Saint-Amans, Charles; Doucet, Michel; de Resseguier, Thibaut

    2015-06-01

    Single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiments under shockwave loading were performed in order to get information on the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a TATB-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects on the H-bonding network present in TATB. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Time-resolved reflectivity measurements under shock compression seem to indicate that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  5. Two Types of Water at the Water-Surfactant Interface Revealed by Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Ruth A; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H G

    2015-12-01

    The surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as a detergent for both domestic and industrial applications. It forms a self-assembled monolayer on the surface of water. We report a microscopic model for the interaction between the surfactant and water and between water molecules at the interface, revealed using static and time-resolved two-dimensional sum frequency generation spectroscopy. Two distinct subensembles of water in the presence of this negatively charged SDS surfactant have been identified: those close to the SDS headgroup having fairly isolated O-H groups, i.e., localized O-H stretch vibrations, and those whose O-H stretch vibrations are delocalized, i.e., shared between multiple O-H bonds. The two subensembles are coupled, with subpicosecond energy transfer occurring between them. This is markedly different from O-H bonds at the air-water interface, which are less heterogeneous, and indicates that the water molecules that interact with the surfactant headgroups have hydrogen-bonding properties different from those of water molecules interacting with the other water molecules. PMID:26544087

  6. Time-resolved energy-momentum spectroscopy of electric and magnetic dipole transitions in Cr3+:MgO.

    PubMed

    Karaveli, Sinan; Wang, Shutong; Xiao, Gang; Zia, Rashid

    2013-08-27

    Due to the recent interest in magnetic light-matter interactions, the magnetic dipole (MD) transitions in lanthanide ions have been studied for potential applications in nano-optics. Similar to lanthanide ions, transition-metal ions also exhibit strong MD emission at room temperature, but their prominent MD zero-phonon lines are often accompanied by significant electric dipole (ED) sideband emission. Here, we extend energy-momentum spectroscopy to time-resolved measurements, and use this technique to quantify the ED and MD contributions to light emission from trivalent chromium doped magnesium oxide (Cr(3+):MgO). This allows us to differentiate the MD (2)E ? (4)A2 zero-phonon line from phonon-assisted (2)E ? (4)A2 and (4)T2 ? (4)A2 ED sidebands. We also demonstrate how the relative intensities of the sharp MD zero-phonon line and the broad ED sidebands can be used as a qualitative measure of the MD and ED local density of optical states. PMID:23879390

  7. Charge transport and localization in nanocrystalline CdS films: A time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mics, Z.; N?mec, H.; Rychetský, I.; Kužel, P.; Formánek, P.; Malý, P.; N?mec, P.

    2011-04-01

    Assessment of characteristic length and time scales of the charge localization in nanostructured semiconductors is a key point for understanding the initial stage of carrier transport after photoexcitation. A concerted use of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulations of the motion of confined electrons allow us to obtain this information and develop a quantitative microscopic model of the electron transport in a nanocrystalline CdS film. A weak localization is observed inside individual nanocrystals while much stronger localization stems from the existence of nanocrystal clusters partially surrounded by voids. The efficiency of the short-range transport is controlled by the excess energy of electrons: Its increase enhances the conductive coupling between adjacent nanocrystals and clusters. Relaxation of electrons with high excess energy then leads to a decrease of their mobility on a subpicosecond time scale. Filling of conduction-band states by increasing the optical pump fluence allows us to maintain a high level of conductive coupling even at later times.

  8. Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy for monitoring protein dynamics exemplified by functional studies of Ras protein bound to a lipid bilayer

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    of Ras protein bound to a lipid bilayer Carsten Kötting , Jörn Güldenhaupt, Klaus Gerwert Lehrstuhl fürTime-resolved FTIR spectroscopy for monitoring protein dynamics exemplified by functional studies GTPases GTP Caged-substances Ras Isotopic labeling Band assignment Global fit Attenuated total reflection

  9. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks doped with redox active species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberding, Brian G.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2015-09-01

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are three-dimensional coordination polymers that are well known for large pore surface area and their ability to adsorb molecules from both the gaseous and solution phases. In general, MOFs are electrically insulating, but promising opportunities for tuning the electronic structure exist because MOFs possess synthetic versatility; the metal and organic ligand subunits can be exchanged or dopant molecules can be introduced into the pore space. Two such MOFs with demonstrated electrical conductivity are Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2, a.k.a HKUST-1, and Cu[Ni(pyrazine-2,3-dithiolate)2]. Herein, these two MOFs have been infiltrated with the redox active species 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and iodine under solution phase conditions and shown to produce redox products within the MOF pore space. Vibrational bands assignable to TCNQ anion and triiodide anion have been observed in the Mid-IR and Terahertz ranges using FTIR Spectroscopy. The MOF samples have been further investigated by Time-Resolved Terehertz Spectroscopy (TRTS). Using this technique, the charge mobility, separation, and recombination dynamics have been followed on the picosecond time scale following photoexcitation with visible radiation. The preliminary results show that the MOF samples have small inherent photoconductivity with charge separation lifetimes on the order of a few picoseconds. In the case of HKUST-1, the MOF can also be supported by a TiO2 film and initial results show that charge injection into the TiO2 layer occurs with a comparable efficiency to the dye sensitizer N3, [cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato ruthenium(II)], and therefore this MOF has potential as a new light absorbing and charge conducting material in photovoltaic devices.

  10. Light-induced activation of bacterial phytochrome Agp1 monitored by static and time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Piwowarski, Patrick; Ritter, Eglof; Hofmann, Klaus-Peter; Hildebrandt, Peter; von Stetten, David; Scheerer, Patrick; Michael, Norbert; Lamparter, Tilman; Bartl, Franz

    2010-04-26

    Phytochromes, which regulate many biological processes in plants, bacteria, and fungi, can exist in two stable states, Pr and Pfr, that can be interconverted by light, via a number of intermediates such as meta-Rc. Herein we employ FTIR spectroscopy to study the Pr-to-Pfr conversion of the bacteriophytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Static FTIR Pfr/Pr and meta-Rc/Pr difference spectra are disentangled in terms of cofactor and protein structural changes. Guided by DFT calculations on cofactor models, the chromophore conformational changes can be grouped into structural adjustments of the cofactor-protein interactions localized in the C-D dipyrrole moiety, that is, the photoisomerisation site, and in the A-B dipyrrole moiety including the protein attachment site. Whereas changes at the C and D rings appear to be largely completed in the meta-Rc state, the structural changes in the A-B unit occur during the transition from meta-Rc to Pfr, concomitant with the main protein structural changes, as demonstrated by static and time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy. We employ this technique to monitor, for the first time, the dynamics of the photocycle of phytochrome on the millisecond timescale. By extending the studies to genetically engineered protein variants of Agp1, we further demonstrate that H250 and D197 as well as the PHY domain are essential for formation of the Pfr state. Based on the IR spectroscopic and available crystallographic data we discuss the role of critical amino acid residues for the protein-cofactor interactions during the photoinduced reaction cycle. PMID:20333618

  11. A general approach for detecting folding intermediates from steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence of single-tryptophan-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Laptenok, Sergey P; Visser, Nina V; Engel, Ruchira; Westphal, Adrie H; van Hoek, Arie; van Mierlo, Carlo P M; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Amerongen, Herbert; Visser, Antonie J W G

    2011-05-01

    During denaturant-induced equilibrium (un)folding of wild-type apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii, a molten globule-like folding intermediate is formed. This wild-type protein contains three tryptophans. In this study, we use a general approach to analyze time-resolved fluorescence and steady-state fluorescence data that are obtained upon denaturant-induced unfolding of a single-tryptophan-containing variant of apoflavodoxin [i.e., W74/F128/F167 (WFF) apoflavodoxin]. The experimental data are assembled in matrices, and subsequent singular-value decomposition of these matrices (i.e., based on either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence data) shows the presence of three significant, and independent, components. Consequently, to further analyze the denaturation trajectories, we use a three-state protein folding model in which a folding intermediate and native and unfolded protein molecules take part. Using a global analysis procedure, we determine the relative concentrations of the species involved and show that the stability of WFF apoflavodoxin against global unfolding is ?4.1 kcal/mol. Analysis of time-resolved anisotropy data of WFF apoflavodoxin unfolding reveals the remarkable observation that W74 is equally well fixed within both the native protein and the molten globule-like folding intermediate. Slight differences between the direct environments of W74 in the folding intermediate and native protein cause different rotameric populations of the indole in both folding species as fluorescence lifetime analysis reveals. Importantly, thermodynamic analyses of the spectral denaturation trajectories of the double-tryptophan-containing protein variants WWF apoflavodoxin and WFW apoflavodoxin show that these variants are significantly more stable (5.9 kcal/mol and 6.8 kcal/mol, respectively) than WFF apoflavodoxin (4.1 kcal/mol) Hence, tryptophan residues contribute considerably to the 10.5 kcal/mol thermodynamic stability of native wild-type apoflavodoxin. PMID:21425856

  12. Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, R.; Yamamoto, S.; Ogawa, M.; Yamamoto, Sh.; Fujikawa, K.; Hobara, R.; Matsuda, I.; Ozawa, K.; Emori, M.; Sakama, H.; Kitagawa, S.; Daimon, H.

    2014-10-13

    Time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments were performed with time scales from picoseconds to nanoseconds to trace relaxation of surface photovoltage on the ZnO(0001) single crystal surface in real time. The band diagram of the surface has been obtained numerically using PES data, showing a depletion layer which extends to 1??m. Temporal evolution of the photovoltage effect is well explained by a recombination process of a thermionic model, giving the photoexcited carrier lifetime of about 1 ps at the surface under the flat band condition. This lifetime agrees with a temporal range reported by the previous time-resolved optical experiments.

  13. Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy for monitoring protein dynamics exemplified by functional studies of Ras protein bound to a lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötting, Carsten; Güldenhaupt, Jörn; Gerwert, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy is a valuable tool for monitoring the dynamics of protein reactions and interactions. Absorbance changes can be monitored with time resolutions down to nanoseconds and followed for time periods that range over nine orders of magnitude. Membrane proteins bound to solid supported lipid bilayers can be investigated in near physiological conditions with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. Here, we review the basics of time-resolved FTIR with a focus on Ras, a GTPase that is mutated in 25% of human tumors. We show the first time-resolved measurements of membrane anchored Ras and observed the switching between its activated and its inactivated state. We compared those measurements with measurements of the truncated Ras in solution. We found that both the kinetics and the functional groups involved were very similar. This suggested that the membrane did not have a major influence on the hydrolysis reaction.

  14. Reduction of O2 slow component by priming exercise: novel mechanistic insights from time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiwaki, Masato; Okushima, Dai; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-01-01

    Novel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS), with adipose tissue thickness correction, was used to test the hypotheses that heavy priming exercise reduces the V?O2 slow component (V?O2SC) (1) by elevating microvascular [Hb] volume at multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris (2) rather than reducing the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics. Twelve subjects completed two 6-min bouts of heavy work rate exercise, separated by 6 min of unloaded cycling. Priming exercise induced faster overall V?O2 kinetics consequent to a substantial reduction in the V?O2SC (0.27 ± 0.12 vs. 0.11 ± 0.09 L·min?1, P < 0.05) with an unchanged primary V?O2 time constant. An increased baseline for the primed bout [total (Hb + Mb)] (197.5 ± 21.6 vs. 210.7 ± 22.5 ?mol L?1, P < 0.01), reflecting increased microvascular [Hb] volume, correlated significantly with the V?O2SC reduction. At multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris, priming exercise reduced the baseline and slowed the increase in [deoxy (Hb + Mb)]. Changes in the intersite coefficient of variation in the time delay and time constant of [deoxy (Hb + Mb)] during the second bout were not correlated with the V?O2SC reduction. These results support a mechanistic link between priming exercise-induced increase in muscle [Hb] volume and the reduced V?O2SC that serves to speed overall V?O2 kinetics. However, reduction in the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics does not appear to be an obligatory feature of the priming response. PMID:26109190

  15. Development and demonstration of table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system by single-shot scan photo detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Atsushi; Kao, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast dynamics is generally studied by pump-probe method with laser pulse, which scans optical delay by motorized stage step by step. Using ultrashort laser pulse shorter than typical molecular vibration periods, the pump-probe measurement can study both of electronic dynamics and vibration dynamics simultaneously. The probe wavelength dependence of the ultrafast electronic and vibration dynamics (UEVD) helps us to distinguish the signal contributions from the dynamics of the electronic ground state and that of the electronic excited states, which elucidates primary reaction mechanism after photoexcitation. Meanwhile, the measurement time of UEVD spectroscopy takes too long time to be used in realistic application. In our previous work, we have developed multi-channel lock-in amplifying (MLA) detectors to study UEVD at all probe wavelengths simultaneously, and synchronized it with laser and fast-scan delay stage to scan the data in five seconds. It enabled us to study UEVD spectroscopy even for photo-fragile materials. However, the home-made MLA detectors required for the measurement is expensive and massive in size and weight, thus not suitable for general researchers in the field of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. In the present work, we have developed a table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system using single shot scan line CCD. This system measures time-resolved trace at all probe wavelengths simultaneously in five seconds. The CCD-based fast-scan time-resolved spectroscopy system enables us to study ultrafast dynamics of various materials even biomaterials, which have been thought to be hard or even impossible to be studied in previous methods.

  16. Time resolved spectroscopy of SGR J1550–5418 bursts detected with Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Collazzi, A.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Watts, A. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Van Putten, T.; Baring, M. G.; Granot, J.; Bhat, P. N.; Gorgone, N.; Gehrels, N.; Mcenery, J.; Gö?ü?, E.; Kaneko, Y.; Lin, L.; Gruber, D.; Von Kienlin, A.; Grunblatt, S.; and others

    2014-04-10

    We report on a time-resolved spectroscopy of the 63 brightest bursts of SGR J1550–5418, detected with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its 2008-2009 intense bursting episode. We performed spectral analysis down to 4 ms timescales to characterize the spectral evolution of the bursts. Using a Comptonized model, we find that the peak energy, E {sub peak}, anti-correlates with flux, while the low-energy photon index remains constant at ? – 0.8 up to a flux limit F ? 10{sup –5} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Above this flux value, the E {sub peak}–flux correlation changes sign, and the index positively correlates with the flux reaching ?1 at the highest fluxes. Using a two blackbody model, we find that the areas and fluxes of the two emitting regions correlate positively. Further, we study here for the first time the evolution of the temperatures and areas as a function of flux. We find that the area–kT relation follows the lines of constant luminosity at the lowest fluxes, R {sup 2}?kT {sup –4}, with a break at the higher fluxes (F > 10{sup –5.5} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}). The area of the high-kT component increases with the flux while its temperature decreases, which we interpret as being due to an adiabatic cooling process. The area of the low-kT component, on the other hand, appears to saturate at the highest fluxes, toward R {sub max} ? 30 km. Assuming that crust quakes are responsible for soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts and considering R {sub max} as the maximum radius of the emitting photon-pair plasma fireball, we relate this saturation radius to a minimum excitation radius of the magnetosphere, and we put a lower limit on the internal magnetic field of SGR J1550–5418, B {sub int} ? 4.5 × 10{sup 15} G.

  17. Excitation relaxation dynamics and energy transfer in fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c-protein complexes, probed by time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Seiji; Teshigahara, Ayaka; Yokono, Makio; Mimuro, Mamoru; Nagao, Ryo; Tomo, Tatsuya

    2014-09-01

    In algae, light-harvesting complexes contain specific chlorophylls (Chls) and keto-carotenoids; Chl a, Chl c, and fucoxanthin (Fx) in diatoms and brown algae; Chl a, Chl c, and peridinin in photosynthetic dinoflagellates; and Chl a, Chl b, and siphonaxanthin in green algae. The Fx-Chl a/c-protein (FCP) complex from the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis contains Chl c1, Chl c2, and the keto-carotenoid, Fx, as antenna pigments, in addition to Chl a. In the present study, we investigated energy transfer in the FCP complex associated with photosystem II (FCPII) of C. gracilis. For these investigations, we analyzed time-resolved fluorescence spectra, fluorescence rise and decay curves, and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy data. Chl a exhibited different energy forms with fluorescence peaks ranging from 677 nm to 688 nm. Fx transferred excitation energy to lower-energy Chl a with a time constant of 300fs. Chl c transferred excitation energy to Chl a with time constants of 500-600fs (intra-complex transfer), 600-700fs (intra-complex transfer), and 4-6ps (inter-complex transfer). The latter process made a greater contribution to total Chl c-to-Chl a transfer in intact cells of C. gracilis than in the isolated FCPII complexes. The lower-energy Chl a received excitation energy from Fx and transferred the energy to higher-energy Chl a. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. PMID:24530875

  18. Time-Resolved Down-Conversion of 2-Aminopurine in a DNA Hairpin: Fluorescence Anisotropy and Solvent Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourón Touceda, Patricia; Gelot, Thomas; Crégut, Olivier; Léonard, Jérémie; Haacke, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Femtosecond fluorescence anisotropy decay measured by type II difference frequency generation provides new insight into the local structural dynamics of ?P(-)PBS fragments of the HIV- 1 DNA primary binding sequence, labeled with 2-aminopurine.

  19. In-situ analysis of fruit anthocyanins by means of total internal reflectance, continuous wave and time-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zude, Manuela; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Dosche, Carsten; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2009-08-01

    In sweet cherry (Prunus avium), the red pigmentation is correlated with the fruit maturity stage and can be measured by non-invasive spectroscopy. In the present study, the influence of varying fruit scattering coefficients on the fruit remittance spectrum (cw) were corrected with the effective pathlength and refractive index in the fruit tissue obtained with distribution of time-of-flight (DTOF) readings and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) analysis, respectively. The approach was validated on fruits providing variation in the scattering coefficient outside the calibration sample set. In the validation, the measuring uncertainty when non-invasively analyzing fruits with cw method in comparison with combined application of cw, DTOF, and TIRF measurements showed an increase in r2 up to 22.7 % with, however, high errors in all approaches.

  20. Inhibition of NADH oxidation by chloramphenicol in the freely moving rat measured by picosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mottin, Stéphane; Laporte, Pierre; Cespuglio, Raymond

    2003-02-01

    Owing to the lack of methods capable to monitor the energetic processes taking place within small brain regions (i.e. nucleus raphe dorsalis, nRD), the neurotoxicity of various categories of substances, including antibiotics and psycho-active drugs, still remains difficult to evaluate. Using an in vivo picosecond optical spectroscopy imaging method, we report that chloramphenicol (CAP), besides its well-known ability to inhibit the mitochondria protein synthesis, also influences the NADH/NAD+ redox processes of the respiratory chain. At a 200-mg/kg dose, CAP indeed produces a marked increase in the fluorescent signal of the nRD which, according to clear evidence, is likely to be related to the NADH concentration. This effect also implies an efficient inhibition of complex I of the respiratory chain by CAP. It refers to the mechanism through which the adverse effects of the antibiotic may take place. It could explain why paradoxical sleep, a state needing aerobic energy to occur, is suppressed after CAP administration. The present approach constitutes the first attempt to determine by fluorescence methods the effects of substances on deep brain structures of the freely moving animal. It points out that in vivo ultrafast optical methods are innovative and adequate tools for combined neurochemical and behavioural approaches. PMID:12562508

  1. Silver nanoparticles-enhanced time-resolved fluorescence sensor for VEGF(165) based on Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Li, Wei; Wen, Hong-Mei; Yu, Sheng; Miao, Zhao-Yi; Kang, An; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-12-15

    A silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-enhanced time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FL) sensor based on long-lived fluorescent Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is developed for the sensitive detection of vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165), a predominant cancer biomarker in cancer angiogenesis. The aptamers bond with the Mn-doped ZnS QDs and the BHQ-2 quencher-labelling strands hybridized in duplex are coupled with streptavidin (SA)-functionalized AgNPs to form the AgNPs-enhanced TR-FL sensor, showing lower fluorescence intensity in the duplex state due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the Mn-doped ZnS QDs and quenchers. Upon the addition of VEGF165, the BHQ-2 quencher-labelling strands of the duplex are displaced, leading to the disruption of the FRET. As a result, the fluorescence of the Mn-doped QDs within the proximity of the AgNPs is recovered. The FL signal can be measured free of the interference of short-lived background by setting appropriate delay time and gate time, which offers a signal with high signal-to-noise ratio in photoluminescent biodetection. Compared with the bare TR-FL sensor, the AgNPs-based TR-FL sensor showed a huge improvement in fluorescence based on metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effect, and the sensitivity increased 11-fold with the detection limit of 0.08 nM. In addition, the sensor provided a wide range of linear detection from 0.1 nM to 16 nM. PMID:26276542

  2. Homodimerization of amyloid precursor protein at the plasma membrane: a homoFRET study by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging.

    PubMed

    Devauges, Viviane; Marquer, Catherine; Lécart, Sandrine; Cossec, Jack-Christophe; Potier, Marie-Claude; Fort, Emmanuel; Suhling, Klaus; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Classical FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) using two fluorescent labels (one for the donor and another one for the acceptor) is not efficient for studying the homodimerization of a protein as only half of the homodimers formed can be identified by this technique. We thus resorted to homoFRET detected by time-resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy IMaging (tr-FAIM). To specifically image the plasma membrane of living cells, an original combination of tr-FAIM and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscope (TIRFLIM) was implemented. The correcting factor accounting for the depolarization due to the high numerical aperture (NA) objective, mandatory for TIRF microscopy, was quantified on fluorescein solutions and on HEK293 cells expressing enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (eGFP). Homodimerization of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), a key mechanism in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, was measured on this original set-up. We showed, both in epifluorescence and under TIRF excitation, different energy transfer rates associated with the homodimerization of wild type APP-eGFP or of a mutated APP-eGFP, which forms constitutive dimers. This original set-up thus offers promising prospects for future studies of protein homodimerization in living cells in control and pathological conditions. PMID:22973448

  3. Time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas originating at the parylene layer of microballon targets

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, H.R.; Moreno, J.

    1991-03-01

    In experiments this past year at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics we obtained time-integrated and time-resolved spectra from the ultraviolet to the x-ray region. We have investigated various phenomena in laser-produced plasmas including spectral line broadening, plasma expansion velocities, ionization and recombination of low-Z materials in spherical targets, and the formation of satellites near some resonance lines. In addition we have improved our spectroscopic instrumentation.

  4. Study of the laser-induced decomposition of energetic materials at static high-pressure by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Philippe; Saint-Amans, Charles

    2013-06-01

    A detailed description of the reaction rates and mechanisms occurring in shock-induced decomposition of condensed explosives is very important to improve the predictive capabilities of shock-to-detonation transition models. However, direct measurements of such experimental data are difficult to perform during detonation experiments. By coupling pulsed laser ignition of an explosive in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) with time-resolved streak camera recording of transmitted light, it is possible to make direct observations of deflagration phenomena at detonation pressure. We have developed an experimental set-up that allows combustion front propagation rates and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy measurements. The decomposition reactions are initiated using a nanosecond YAG laser and their kinetics is followed by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained for two explosives, nitromethane (NM) and HMX are presented in this paper. For NM, a change in reactivity is clearly seen around 25 GPa. Below this pressure, the reaction products are essentially carbon residues whereas at higher pressure, a transient absorption feature is first observed and is followed by the formation of a white amorphous product. For HMX, the evolution of the absorption as a function of time indicates a multi-step reaction mechanism which is found to depend on both the initial pressure and the laser fluence.

  5. Photocarrier dynamics in undoped and Na-doped Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals revealed by ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Phuong, Le; Okano, Makoto; Yamashita, Genki; Nagai, Masaya; Ashida, Masaaki; Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of sodium doping on the photocarrier dynamics in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) single crystals using optical pump-THz probe transient reflectivity (THz-TR) and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The THz-TR and PL decay dynamics are influenced by sodium doping, and their sodium-induced changes are consistent with each other. These time-resolved measurements revealed that the lifetime of photocarriers increases with sodium doping. This result indicates that a part of defects is suppressed by doping sodium into CZTS and implies that sodium doping improves the charge transport properties of CZTS, leading to an improvement in the performance of CZTS-based solar cells.

  6. Time-resolved K ? spectroscopy measurements of hot-electron equilibration dynamics in thin-foil solid targets: collisional and collective effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Davies, J. R.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-11-01

    Time-resolved K ? spectroscopy measurements from high-intensity laser interactions with thin-foil solid targets are reviewed. Thin Cu foils were irradiated with 1-10 J, 1 ps pulses at focused intensities from 1018 to 1019 W cm-2. The experimental data show K ? -emission pulse widths from 3 to 6 ps, increasing with laser intensity. The time-resolved K ? -emission data are compared to a hot-electron transport and K ? -production model that includes collisional electron-energy coupling, resistive heating, and electromagnetic field effects. The experimental data show good agreement with the model when a reduced ponderomotive scaling is used to describe the initial mean hot-electron energy over the relevant intensity range.

  7. Time-resolved K? spectroscopy measurements of hot-electron equilibration dynamics in thin-foil solid targets: Collisional and collective effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Davies, J. R.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-09-25

    Time-resolved K? spectroscopy measurements from high-intensity laser interactions with thin-foil solid targets are reviewed. Thin Cu foils were irradiated with 1- to 10-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities from 1018 to 1019 W/cm2. The experimental data show K?-emission pulse widths from 3 to 6 ps, increasing with laser intensity. The time-resolved K?-emission data are compared to a hot-electron transport and K?-production model that includes collisional electron-energy coupling, resistive heating, and electromagnetic field effects. The experimental data show good agreement with the model when a reduced ponderomotive scaling is used to describe the initial mean hot-electron energy over the relevant intensity range.

  8. Time-resolved K? spectroscopy measurements of hot-electron equilibration dynamics in thin-foil solid targets: Collisional and collective effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Davies, J. R.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; et al

    2015-09-25

    Time-resolved K? spectroscopy measurements from high-intensity laser interactions with thin-foil solid targets are reviewed. Thin Cu foils were irradiated with 1- to 10-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities from 1018 to 1019 W/cm2. The experimental data show K?-emission pulse widths from 3 to 6 ps, increasing with laser intensity. The time-resolved K?-emission data are compared to a hot-electron transport and K?-production model that includes collisional electron-energy coupling, resistive heating, and electromagnetic field effects. The experimental data show good agreement with the model when a reduced ponderomotive scaling is used to describe the initial mean hot-electron energy over the relevant intensitymore »range.« less

  9. Employing time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to analyze carrier dynamics in thin-film Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} absorber layers

    SciTech Connect

    Guglietta, Glenn W.; Baxter, Jason B.; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Caspar, Jonathan V.

    2014-06-23

    We report the application of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) to measure photoexcited carrier lifetimes and mobility, and to determine recombination mechanisms in Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) thin films fabricated from nanocrystal inks. Ultrafast time resolution permits tracking the evolution of carrier density to determine recombination rates and mechanisms. The carrier generation profile was manipulated by varying the photoexcitation wavelength and fluence to distinguish between surface, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), radiative, and Auger recombination mechanisms and determine rate constants. Surface and SRH recombination are the dominant mechanisms for the air/CZTSSe/SiO{sub 2}/Si film stack. Diffusion to, and then recombination at, the air-CZTSSe interface occurred on the order of 100 picoseconds, while SRH recombination lifetimes were 1–2 nanoseconds. TRTS measurements can provide information that is complementary to conventional time-resolved photoluminescence measurements and can direct the design of efficient thin film photovoltaics.

  10. Time-resolved spectroscopic study of photofragment fluorescence in methane/air mixtures and its diagnostic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Malin; Borggren, Jesper; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    In this work 80-picosecond laser pulses of 266-nm wavelength with intensities up to (2.0 ± 0.5) × 1011 W/cm2 were used for fragmentation of methane/air gas mixtures at ambient pressure and temperature. Emission spectra are, for the first time, studied with ultrahigh temporal resolution using a streak camera. Fluorescence spectra from CH(A2?-X2?, B2?--X2?, C2?+-X2?), CN(B2?+-X2?+, ? v = 0 and ? v = ±1), NH(A3?--X3?-), OH(A2?+-X2?) and N2 +(B2?u + X2?g + were recorded and analyzed. By fitting simulated spectra to high-resolution experimental spectra, rotational and vibrational temperatures are estimated, showing that CH(C), CN(B), NH(A), and OH(A) are formed in highly excited vibrational and rotational states. The fluorescence signal dependencies on laser intensity and CH4/air equivalence ratio were investigated as well as the fluorescence lifetimes. All fragments observed are formed within 200 ps after the arrival of the laser pulse and their fluorescence lifetimes are shorter than 1 ns, except for CN(B-X) ? v = 0 whose lifetime is 2.0 ns. The CN(B-X) ? v = 0 fluorescence was studied temporally under high spectral resolution, and it was found that the vibrational levels are not populated simultaneously, but with a rate that decreases with increasing vibrational quantum number. This observation indicates that the rate of the chemical reaction that forms the CN(B) fragments is decreasing with increasing vibrational state of the product. The results provide vital information for the application of laser diagnostic techniques based on strong UV excitation, as they show that such methods might not be entirely non-intrusive and suffering from spectral interferences, unless the laser intensity is kept sufficiently low. Finally, equivalence ratios were determined from "unknown" spectra using multivariate analysis, showing a good agreement with theoretical compositions with an error of 4 %. The method is expected to be a useful diagnostic tool for measurements of local equivalence ratios in for example combustion environments.

  11. Time-resolved fluorescence sensing of pesticides chlorpyrifos, crotoxyphos and endosulfan by the luminescent Eu(III)-8-allyl-3-carboxycoumarin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Khairy, Gasser M.; Kamel, Rasha M.

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the application of time resolved fluorescence in microtiter plates for investigating the interactions of europium-allyl-3-carboxycoumarin with pesticides chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and crotoxyphos. Stern-Volmer studies at different temperatures for chlorpyrifos and crotoxyphos shows dynamic and static quenching mechanisms respectively. Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence variations of the probe in solution. The detection limits are 6.53, 0.004, 3.72 ?mol/L for chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and crotoxyphos, respectively. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters of the pesticides with probe were evaluated. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction is spontaneous with negative ?G. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different types of water samples (tap, mineral, and waste water).

  12. Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Red Fluorescent Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konold, Patrick Eugene

    Red-emitting homologues (RFPs) of the native Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with emission wavelengths beyond 650 nm are desirable probes for in vivo imaging experiments. They offer the potential for deeper tissue penetration and lower background scatter given a cleaner spectral window. However, bioimaging applications are hindered by poor photophysics ( e.g. low fluorescence quantum yield, high photobleaching), which limits experimental resolution and represents a significant obstacle towards utilization for low copy-number, long-duration imaging applications. In this thesis, a variety of femtosecond nonlinear electronic spectroscopies were employed jointly with site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the photophysical properties of RFPs. In one study, the molecular mechanism of red emission was pursued in two notable RFPs, mPlum and TagRFP675. Solvation dynamics observed with time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy were interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations to indicate that their red-emission is correlated with the ability of specific chromophore-sidechain hydrogen-bonding interactions to interconvert between direct and water-mediated states. In a second set of studies, two-dimensional double quantum coherence spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic transitions of mPlum. It was discovered that it displayed a response distinctly different from an organic dye in bulk solvent. Modeling indicate of these spectra indicate the spectral features may be attributed to the existence of multiple high-lying (n>1) excited states. The results provide new insight into the electronic structure of these widely used fluorescent probes.

  13. Effect of Ca2+ on the Steady-State and Time-Resolved Emission Properties of the Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor CatchER

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We previously designed a calcium sensor CatchER (a GFP-based Calcium sensor for detecting high concentrations in the high calcium concentration environment such as ER) with a capability for monitoring calcium ion responses in various types of cells. Calcium binding to CatchER induces the ratiometric changes in the absorption spectra, as well as an increase in fluorescence emission at 510 nm upon excitation at both 395 and 488 nm. Here, we have applied the combination of the steady-state and time-resolved optical methods and Hydrogen/Deuterium isotope exchange to understand the origin of such calcium-induced optical property changes of CatchER. We first demonstrated that calcium binding results in a 44% mean fluorescence lifetime increase of the indirectly excited anionic chromophore. Thus, CatchER is the first protein-based calcium indicator with the single fluorescent moiety to show the direct correlation between the lifetime and calcium binding. Calcium exhibits a strong inhibition on the excited-state proton transfer nonadiabatic geminate recombination in protic (vs deuteric) medium. Analysis of CatchER crystal structures and the MD simulations reveal the proton transfer mechanism in which the disrupted proton migration path in CatchER is rescued by calcium binding. Our finding provides important insights for a strategy to design calcium sensors and suggests that CatchER could be a useful probe for FLIM imaging of calcium in situ. PMID:24836743

  14. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G.; Sharples, Steve D.

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  15. Probing organometallic reactions by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Calladine, James A; Horvath, Raphael; Davies, Andrew J; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Sun, Xue-Zhong; George, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    The photochemistry and photophysics of metal carbonyl compounds (W(CO)6, Cp*Rh(CO)2 (Cp* = ?(5)-C5Me5), and fac-[Re(CO)3(4,4'-bpy)2Br] [bpy = bipyridine]) have been examined on the nanosecond timescale using a time-resolved infrared spectrometer with an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as the infrared source. We show the photochemistry of W(CO)6 in alkane solution is easily monitored, and very sensitive measurements are possible with this approach, meaning it can monitor small transients with absorbance changes less than 10(-6) ?OD. The C-H activation of Cp*Rh(CO)(C6H12) to form Cp*Rh(CO)(C6H11)H occurs within the first few tens of nanoseconds following photolysis, and we demonstrate that kinetics obtained following deconvolution are in excellent agreement with those measured using an ultrafast laser-based spectrometer. We also show that the high flux and tunability of QCLs makes them suited for solid-state and time-resolved measurements. PMID:25811673

  16. Development of a Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy System for Near Real-Time Clinical Diagnostic Applications 

    E-print Network

    Trivedi, Chintan A.

    2010-07-14

    pulsed laser source that is delivered through an optical fiber connected to an endoscope. A photodiode and en electrical delay unit is used to synchronize the acquisition of the signal with each laser pulse. Pitts et al14 have attempted a similar study...

  17. Spectroscopic Properties of a Self-Assembled Zinc Porphyrin Tetramer II. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    molecular electronic devices.13-16 This work focuses on porphyrin tetramers as models for plant pigments photosynthetic pigment complexes, in porphyrin tetramers, these processes can be studied in isolated units counting (TCSPC) as well as streak camera detection.20 The latter method has some distinct advantages, i

  18. Automation of the Laguerre Expansion Technique for Analysis of Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Data 

    E-print Network

    Dabir, Aditi Sandeep

    2010-07-14

    Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee: Javier A. Jo Committee Members: Kristen Maitland Sebastian Hoyos...

  19. Probing Electronic and Vibrational Dynamics in Molecules by Time-Resolved Photoelectron, Auger-Electron, and X-ray Photon Scattering Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified description for time-resolved electron and photon scattering spectroscopies from molecules prepared in nonstationary states. Signals are expressed in terms of superoperator Green’s functions and a systematic procedure for treating various degrees of freedom consistently at different levels of theory is developed. The standard Fermi Golden Rule expressions for photelectron spectra, which are limited to broad, slowly-varying signals, are obtained as a limiting case of our more general theory that applies to broader parameter regimes. PMID:25730500

  20. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  1. Charge separation in subcells of triple-junction solar cells revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tex, David M; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-11-30

    We measure the excitation-wavelength and power dependence of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) from the top InGaP subcell in a InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell. The wavelength-dependent data reveals that the PL decays are governed by charge separation. A fast single-exponential PL decay is observed at low excitation power densities, which is the charge separation under short-circuit condition. Under strong excitation a bi-exponential PL decay is observed. Its slow component appears at early times, followed by a faster component at late times. The slow decay is the carrier recombination of the subcell. The following fast component is the charge separation process under reduced built-in potential near the operating point. The subcells electrical conversion efficiency close to the operating point is evaluated using this decay time constant. PMID:26698814

  2. Time-resolved spectroscopy on GaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfdir, P.; Lefebvre, P.; Risti?, J.; Valvin, P.; Calleja, E.; Trampert, A.; Ganière, J.-D.; Deveaud-Plédran, B.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed study of excitons in unstrained GaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates is presented. The time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra do not depend significantly on the (111) or (001) Si surface used. However, an unusually high relative intensity of the two-electron satellite peak of the dominant donor-bound exciton line is systematically observed. We correlate this observation with the nanocolumn morphology determined by scanning electron microscopy, and therefore propose an interpretation based on the alteration of wave functions of excitonic complexes and of donor states by the proximity of the semiconductor surface. This explanation is supported by a model that qualitatively accounts for both relative intensities and time decays of the photoluminescence lines.

  3. Time Resolved Detection of Native Molecular Emissions and Recombination using Femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy from Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Jorge; Akpovo, Charlemagne; Bullock, Nathan; Allen, Susan; Johnson, Lewis

    2011-05-01

    Laser induced breakdown plasmas are ``dirty'' events yielding a mixture of ionized species, electrons, and non-ionized matter of various size. Molecular emissions have been detected in excited nanosecond plasmas microseconds after the ablation event. However, with these molecular signatures it is difficult to distinguish between native emissions and atmospheric recombination with respect to the sample probed. A time resolved study during and after the continuum of the plasma event produced from specific organic materials can yield a possible insight in identifying native molecular emission and recombination. In this study, a plasma was formed by interacting a femtosecond beam with Nitrobenzoic acid, Ammonium Nitrate, Benzylacetonitrile, Nitrophenol, and Phthalimide. Molecular spectral signatures of NO, OH+, CN, C2, and NH were monitored as a function of plasma lifetime, with a 50 nanosecond gate window, delineating a trend of growth and decay. Use of a buffer gas, Argon, has been observed suppressing the impact of atmospheric oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen on plasma assisted recombination.

  4. Determination of NADH in the rat brain during sleep-wake states with an optic fibre sensor and time-resolved fluorescence procedures.

    PubMed

    Mottin, S; Laporte, P; Jouvet, M; Cespuglio, R

    1997-08-01

    The present paper reports a nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence derived from the cortex and the area of the periaqueductal gray including the nucleus raphe dorsalis (PAG-nRD) in unanaesthetized freely moving rats. The measurements were acquired through a single optic fibre transmitting a subnanosecond nitrogen laser pulse (337 nm, 15 Hz) and collecting the brain fluorescence occurring at 460 nm which might depend on mitochondrial NADH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). The fluorometric method was combined with polygraphic recordings, and this procedure allowed us to define, for the first time, variations of the 460 nm signal occurring throughout the sleep-wake cycle. In the PAG-nRD, the signal exhibited moderate heterogeneous variation in amplitude during slow-wave as compared to the waking state. Constant increases were observed during paradoxical sleep as compared to the waking state. For this state of sleep the magnitude of the variations depended on the optic fibre location. In the cortex and during either slow-wave sleep or paradoxical sleep, the signal presented moderate increases which were significant during paradoxical sleep. The magnitude of the redox variations observed either in the PAG-nRD or in the cortex might be ascribed to the oxidative energy balance which is related to sleep states. PMID:9219933

  5. Evaluation of the time resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) for the detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies following vaccination of healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S L R; Maple, P A C; Andrews, N; Brown, K E; Ayres, K L; Scott, F T; Al Bassam, M; Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Breuer, J

    2011-03-01

    Determination of varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunity in healthcare workers without a history of chickenpox is important for identifying those in need of vOka vaccination. Post immunisation, healthcare workers in the UK who work with high risk patients are tested for seroconversion. To assess the performance of the time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) for the detection of antibody in vaccinated as well as unvaccinated individuals, a cut-off was first calculated. VZV-IgG specific avidity and titres six weeks after the first dose of vaccine were used to identify subjects with pre-existing immunity among a cohort of 110 healthcare workers. Those with high avidity (? 60%) were considered to have previous immunity to VZV and those with low or equivocal avidity (<60%) were considered naive. The former had antibody levels ? 400 mIU/mL and latter had levels < 400 mIU/mL. Comparison of the baseline values of the naive and immune groups allowed the estimation of a TRFIA cut-off value of > 130 mIU/mL which best discriminated between the two groups and this was confirmed by ROC analysis. Using this value, the sensitivity and specificity of TRFIA cut-off were 90% (95% CI 79-96), and 78% (95% CI 61-90) respectively in this population. A subset of samples tested by the gold standard Fluorescence Antibody to Membrane Antigen (FAMA) test showed 84% (54/64) agreement with TRFIA. PMID:21192976

  6. Investigation of verbal and visual working memory by multi-channel time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.

  7. Characterization of a hybrid diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for real-time monitoring of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, K.; Diop, M.; Lee, A.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) offers the ability to provide real-time monitoring of cerebral oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. However, measuring these parameters accurately requires depth-sensitive techniques that can remove the effects of signal contamination from extracerebral tissues. Towards this goal, we developed and characterized a hybrid DCS/time-resolved (TR)-NIRS system. Both systems acquire data at three source-detector distances (SDD: 7, 20 and 30 mm) to provide depth sensitivity. The TR-NIRS system uses three pulsed lasers (760, 810, and 830 nm) to quantify tissue optical properties, and DCS uses one continuous-wave, long coherence length (>5 m) laser (785 nm) for blood flow monitoring. The stability of the TR-NIRS system was characterized by continuously measuring the instrument response function (IRF) for four hours, and a warmup period of two hours was required to reduce the coefficient of variation of the extracted optical properties to < 2%. The errors in the measured optical properties were <10% at SDDs of 20 and 30 mm; however, the error at 7 mm was greater due to the effects of the IRF. The number of DCS detectors at each SDD and the minimum count-rate (20 kHz per detector resulting in <10% uncertainty in the extracted blood flow index) were optimized using a homogenous phantom. The depth sensitivity was assessed using a two-layer phantom, with the flow rate in the bottom layer altered to mimic cerebral blood flow.

  8. High-Pressure Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Akihiro; Akasaka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The combination of fluorescence and pressure perturbation is a widely used technique to study the effect of pressure on a protein system to obtain thermodynamic, structural and kinetic information on proteins. However, we often encounter the situation where the available pressure range up to 400 MPa of most commercial high-pressure fluorescence spectrometers is insufficient for studying highly pressure-stable proteins like inhibitors and allergenic proteins. To overcome the difficulty, we have recently developed a new high-pressure fluorescence system that allows fluorescence measurements up to 700 MPa. Here we describe the basic design of the apparatus and its application to study structural and thermodynamic properties of a couple of highly stable allergenic proteins, hen lysozyme and ovomucoid, using Tryptophan and Tyrosine/Tyrosinate fluorescence, respectively. Finally, we discuss the utility and the limitation of Trp and Tyr fluorescence. We discuss pitfalls of fluorescence technique and importance of simultaneous use of other high-pressure spectroscopy, particularly high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26174405

  9. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 ?m as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm(-1) as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10(-4) ?OD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10(-4) ?OD for spectral detection in amide I' region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser. PMID:26026512

  10. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 ?m as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm-1 as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10-4 ?OD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10-4 ?OD for spectral detection in amide I' region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  11. Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy of CO Hydrogenation overSupported Ru Catalyst at 700K

    SciTech Connect

    Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2006-02-13

    Time-resolved FT-IR spectra of carbon monoxide hydrogenation over alumina-supported ruthenium were recorded on the millisecond timescale at 703 K using various H{sub 2} concentrations (1 atm total pressure). Adsorbed carbon monoxide was detected along with gas phase products methane (3016 and 1306 cm{sup -1}), water (sharp bands from 1900 - 1300 cm{sup -1}), and carbon dioxide (2348 cm{sup -1}). No other surface species were detected other than adsorbed carbon monoxide. The rate of formation of methane (2.5 {+-} 0.4 s{sup -1}) coincides with the rate of formation of carbon dioxide (3.4 {+-} 0.6 s{sup -1}), and bands due to water are observed to grow in over time. These results establish that methane and carbon dioxide originate from the same intermediate. The adsorbed carbon monoxide band is broad and unsymmetrical with a maximum at 2010 cm{sup -1} in spectra observed at 36 ms that shifts over 3000 ms to 1960 cm{sup -1} due to decreasing amounts of adsorbed carbon monoxide. Kinetic analysis of the adsorbed carbon monoxide band reveals that only a portion of the band can be temporally linked to gas phase products that we observe over the first 1000 ms of catalysis. This result suggests that we are observing dispersive kinetics, which is most likely due to heterogeneity of the surface environment.

  12. Time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals differences between early and late M intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Rödig, C; Chizhov, I; Weidlich, O; Siebert, F

    1999-01-01

    In this report, from time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared investigations from 15 ns to 160 ms, we provide evidence for the subsequent rise of three different M states that differ in their structures. The first state rises with approximately 3 microseconds to only a small percentage. Its structure as judged from amide I/II bands differs in small but well-defined aspects from the L state. The next M state, which appears in approximately 40 microseconds, has almost all of the characteristics of the "late" M state, i.e., it differs considerably from the first one. Here, the L left arrow over right arrow M equilibrium is shifted toward M, although some percentage of L still persists. In the last M state (rise time approximately 130 microseconds), the equilibrium is shifted toward full deprotonation of the Schiff base, and only small additional structural changes take place. In addition to these results obtained for unbuffered conditions or at pH 7, experiments performed at lower and higher pH are presented. These results are discussed in terms of the molecular changes postulated to occur in the M intermediate to allow the shift of the L/M equilibrium toward M and possibly to regulate the change of the accessibility of the Schiff base necessary for effective proton pumping. PMID:10233083

  13. Top-hat cw-laser-induced time-resolved mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of low-absorption materials.

    PubMed

    Astrath, Nelson G C; Astrath, Francine B G; Shen, Jun; Zhou, Jianqin; Pedreira, Paulo R B; Malacarne, Luis C; Bento, Antonio C; Baesso, Mauro L

    2008-07-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy is a highly sensitive and versatile photothermal technique for material analysis, providing optical and thermal properties. To use less expensive multimode non-Gaussian lasers for quantitative analysis of low-absorption materials, this Letter presents a theoretical model for time-resolved mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy induced by a cw laser with a top-hat profile. The temperature profile in a sample was calculated, and the intensity of the probe beam center at the detector plane was also derived using the Fresnel diffraction theory. Experimental validation was performed with glass samples, and the results were found well consistent with literature values of the thermo-optical properties of the samples. PMID:18594666

  14. Fast measurement of serum amyloid A in different specimens from swine by using a new one-step time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laura; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Cerón, Jose J

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a one-step, fast, competitive time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay to determine porcine serum amyloid A (SAA) by using species-specific reagents. The assay consisted of an all-in-one format involving only 55 min of incubation that was adapted and validated for use in 3 different specimens: serum, saliva, and meat juice. The method had overall within- and between-run coefficients of variation under 8% and 12%, respectively, and coefficients of determination higher than 0.93 for linearity under dilution analysis for all specimens. The limits of detection were 0.32 mg/l, 0.28 mg/l, and 1.74 mg/l for serum, saliva, and meat juice measurements, respectively. Upper and lower limits of quantification were determined for each sample type and resulted in wide assay ranges that allowed a precise SAA measurement in all the fluids investigated. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0004 for serum and P < 0.0001 for the saliva and meat juice samples) in SAA levels were found when healthy (n = 20) and diseased (n = 20) pigs were compared. The obtained results indicate that this fast, sensitive, and robust assay for SAA measurement could be of use to determine health and welfare status in swine by employing alternative samples to serum. PMID:21908345

  15. Steric control of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in 3-hydroxyquinolones: steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Yushchenko, Dmytro A; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Duportail, Guy; Pivovarenko, Vasyl G; Mély, Yves

    2007-09-20

    3-Hydroxyquinolones (3HQs), similarly to their 3-hydroxychromone analogs, undergo excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) resulting in dual emission. In the ground state, 2-phenyl-3HQ derivatives are not flat due to a steric hindrance between the 2-phenyl group and the 3-OH group that participates in the ESIPT reaction. To study the effect of this steric hindrance on the ESIPT reaction, a number of 3HQ derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in different organic solvents by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. According to our results, 2-phenyl-3HQ derivatives undergo much faster ESIPT (by nearly 1 order of magnitude) than their 2-methyl-3HQ analogs. Moreover, 1-methyl-2-phenyl-3HQ having a strongly twisted 2-phenyl group undergoes a two- to three-fold slower ESIPT compared to 2-phenyl-3HQ. These results suggest that the flatter conformation of 2-phenyl-3HQ, which allows a close proximity of the 2-phenyl and 3-OH groups, favors a fast ESIPT reaction. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the 3HQ derivatives additionally confirm that the steric rather than the electronic effect of the 2-phenyl group is responsible for the faster ESIPT reaction. Based on the spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical calculations, we suggest that the 2-phenyl group decreases the rotational freedom of its proximal 3-OH group in the more planar conformation of 2-phenyl-3HQ. As a result, the conformations of 3HQ, where the 3-OH group orients to form an intramolecular H-bond with the 4-carbonyl group, are favored over those with a disrupted intramolecular H-bond. Therefore, the 2-phenyl group sterically favors the intramolecular H-bond and thus accelerates the ESIPT reaction. This conclusion provides a new understanding of the ESIPT process in 3-hydroxyquinolones and related systems and suggests new possibilities for the design of ESIPT based molecular sensors and switchers. PMID:17718453

  16. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  17. Validation of a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system for measurement of superficial and deep muscle deoxygenation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Koga, Shunsaku; Barstow, Thomas J; Okushima, Dai; Rossiter, Harry B; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Poole, David C

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared assessment of skeletal muscle is restricted to superficial tissues due to power limitations of spectroscopic systems. We reasoned that understanding of muscle deoxygenation may be improved by simultaneously interrogating deeper tissues. To achieve this, we modified a high-power (?8 mW), time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system to increase depth penetration. Precision was first validated using a homogenous optical phantom over a range of inter-optode spacings (OS). Coefficients of variation from 10 measurements were minimal (0.5-1.9%) for absorption (?a), reduced scattering, simulated total hemoglobin, and simulated O2 saturation. Second, a dual-layer phantom was constructed to assess depth sensitivity, and the thickness of the superficial layer was varied. With a superficial layer thickness of 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm (?a = 0.149 cm(-1)), the proportional contribution of the deep layer (?a = 0.250 cm(-1)) to total ?a was 80.1, 26.9, 3.7, and 0.0%, respectively (at 6-cm OS), validating penetration to ?3 cm. Implementation of an additional superficial phantom to simulate adipose tissue further reduced depth sensitivity. Finally, superficial and deep muscle spectroscopy was performed in six participants during heavy-intensity cycle exercise. Compared with the superficial rectus femoris, peak deoxygenation of the deep rectus femoris (including the superficial intermedius in some) was not significantly different (deoxyhemoglobin and deoxymyoglobin concentration: 81.3 ± 20.8 vs. 78.3 ± 13.6 ?M, P > 0.05), but deoxygenation kinetics were significantly slower (mean response time: 37 ± 10 vs. 65 ± 9 s, P ? 0.05). These data validate a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system with large OS for measuring the deoxygenation of deep tissues and reveal temporal and spatial disparities in muscle deoxygenation responses to exercise. PMID:25840439

  18. FLIMX: A Software Package to Determine and Analyze the Fluorescence Lifetime in Time-Resolved Fluorescence Data from the Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Matthias; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Peters, Sven; Sauer, Lydia; Hammer, Martin; Haueisen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) is a new technique for measuring the in vivo autofluorescence intensity decays generated by endogenous fluorophores in the ocular fundus. Here, we present a software package called FLIM eXplorer (FLIMX) for analyzing FLIO data. Specifically, we introduce a new adaptive binning approach as an optimal tradeoff between the spatial resolution and the number of photons required per pixel. We also expand existing decay models (multi-exponential, stretched exponential, spectral global analysis, incomplete decay) to account for the layered structure of the eye and present a method to correct for the influence of the crystalline lens fluorescence on the retina fluorescence. Subsequently, the Holm-Bonferroni method is applied to FLIO measurements to allow for group comparisons between patients and controls on the basis of fluorescence lifetime parameters. The performance of the new approaches was evaluated in five experiments. Specifically, we evaluated static and adaptive binning in a diabetes mellitus patient, we compared the different decay models in a healthy volunteer and performed a group comparison between diabetes patients and controls. An overview of the visualization capabilities and a comparison of static and adaptive binning is shown for a patient with macular hole. FLIMX’s applicability to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy is shown in the ganglion cell layer of a porcine retina sample, obtained by a laser scanning microscope using two-photon excitation. PMID:26192624

  19. Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone and triethylamine in an ionic liquid: time-resolved EPR and transient absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanglai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Haiying; Xu, Xinsheng; Cui, Zhifeng; Ji, Xuehan; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-02-25

    Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone (MeAQ) and triethylamine (TEA) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]), was investigated by comparing the time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TR-EPR) spectroscopy and the transient absorption spectroscopy. The results of TR-EPR spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 8 mmol L(-1) and TEA was 150 mmol L(-1), indicated that the transient radical would exist longer time in [bmim][PF6] than in acetonitrile. At the delay time of 8 ?s after laser excitation, the TR-EPR signal transformed from an emissive peak into an absorptive peak when the experiment was performed in [bmim][PF6]. The results of the transient absorption spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 0.1 mmol L(-1) and TEA was 2.2 mmol L(-1), showed that the efficiency and the rate of the photoinduced electron transfer reaction in [bmim][PF6] were obviously lower than that in acetonitrile. It was concluded that various factors, such as concentration, viscosity and local structural transformation of the solution, have an influence on the process of photoinduced electron transfer in [bmim][PF6]. PMID:25218223

  20. Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone and triethylamine in an ionic liquid: Time-resolved EPR and transient absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guanglai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Haiying; Xu, Xinsheng; Cui, Zhifeng; Ji, Xuehan; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-02-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone (MeAQ) and triethylamine (TEA) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]), was investigated by comparing the time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TR-EPR) spectroscopy and the transient absorption spectroscopy. The results of TR-EPR spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 8 mmol L-1 and TEA was 150 mmol L-1, indicated that the transient radical would exist longer time in [bmim][PF6] than in acetonitrile. At the delay time of 8 ?s after laser excitation, the TR-EPR signal transformed from an emissive peak into an absorptive peak when the experiment was performed in [bmim][PF6]. The results of the transient absorption spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 0.1 mmol L-1 and TEA was 2.2 mmol L-1, showed that the efficiency and the rate of the photoinduced electron transfer reaction in [bmim][PF6] were obviously lower than that in acetonitrile. It was concluded that various factors, such as concentration, viscosity and local structural transformation of the solution, have an influence on the process of photoinduced electron transfer in [bmim][PF6].

  1. Time-resolved characterization of a filamentary argon discharge at atmospheric pressure in a capillary using emission and absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Sandra; Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Awakowicz, Peter; Bibinov, Nikita; Böke, Marc; Niermann, Benedikt; Winter, Jörg

    2013-11-01

    An argon/nitrogen (0.999/0.001) filamentary pulsed discharge operated at atmospheric pressure in a quartz tube is characterized using voltage-current measurements, microphotography, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and absorption spectroscopy. Nitrogen is applied as a sensor gas for the purpose of OES diagnostic. The density of argon metastable atoms Ar(3P2) is determined using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Using a plasma chemical model the measured OES data are applied for the characterization of the plasma conditions. Between intense positive pulses the discharge current oscillates with a damped amplitude. It is established that an electric current flows in this discharge not only through a thin plasma filament that is observed in the discharge image but also through the whole cross section of the quartz tube. A diffuse plasma fills the quartz tube during a time between intense current pulses. Ionization waves are propagating in this plasma between the spike and the grounded area of the tube producing thin plasma channels. The diameter of these channels increases during the pause between the propagation of ionization waves probably because of thermal expansion and diffusion. Inside the channels electron densities of ˜2 × 1013 cm-3, argon metastable densities ˜1014 cm-3 and a reduced electric field about 10 Td are determined.

  2. Duration of bubble rearrangements in a coarsening foam probed by time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy: Impact of interfacial rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Merrer, Marie; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Höhler, Reinhard

    2013-08-01

    In aqueous foams, the diffusive gas transfer among neighboring bubbles drives a coarsening process which is accompanied by intermittent rearrangements of the structure. Using time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy, we probe the dynamics of these events as a function of the rigidity of the gas-liquid interfaces, liquid viscosity, bubble size, and confinement pressure. We present in detail two independent techniques for analyzing the light scattering data, from which we extract the rearrangement duration. Our results show that interfacial rheology has a major impact on this duration. In the case of low interfacial rigidity, the rearrangements strongly slow down as the pressure is decreased close to the value zero where the bubble packing unjams. In contrast, if the interfaces are rigid, rearrangement durations are independent of the confinement pressure in the same investigated range. Using scaling arguments, we discuss dissipation mechanisms that may explain the observed dependency of the rearrangement dynamics on foam structure, pressure, and physicochemical solution properties.

  3. Atomic resolution mapping of the excited-state electronic structure of Cu2O with time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hillyard, P. W.; Kuchibhatla, S. V. N. T.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Huse, Nils; Nachimuthu, P.; Saraf, L. V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gaffney, K. J.

    2010-05-02

    We have used time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of optically excited cuprous oxide at the O K-edge and the Cu L3-edge. The 400 nm optical excitation shifts the Cu and O absorptions to lower energy, but does not change the integrated x-ray absorption significantly for either edge. The constant integrated x-ray absorption cross-section indicates that the conduction-band and valence-band edges have very similar Cu 3d and O 2p orbital contributions. The 2.1 eV optical band gap of Cu2O significantly exceeds the one eV shift in the Cu L3- and O K-edges absorption edges induced by optical excitation, demonstrating the importance of core-hole excitonic effects and valence electron screening in the x-ray absorption process.

  4. Femtosecond time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy at kilohertz-scan-rates over nanosecond-time-delays without mechanical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, A.; Hudert, F.; Janke, C.; Dekorsy, T.; Köhler, K.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for femtosecond time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy that allows to scan over a nanosecond time delay at a kilohertz scan rate without mechanical delay line. Two mode-locked femtosecond lasers with approximately 1 GHz repetition rate are linked at a fixed difference frequency of ?fR=11kHz. One laser delivers the pump pulses, the other provides the probe pulses. The relative time delay is linearly ramped between zero and the inverse laser repetition frequency at a rate ?fR, enabling high-speed scanning over a 1 ns time delay. The advantages of this method for all-optical pump-probe experiments become evident in an observation of coherent acoustic phonons in a semiconductor superlattice via transient reflectivity changes. A detection shot-noise limited signal resolution of 7×10-8 is obtained with a total measurement time of 250 s. The time resolution is 230 fs.

  5. OH density measurement by time-resolved broad band absorption spectroscopy in an Ar-H2O dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilecce, G.; Ambrico, P. F.; Simek, M.; De Benedictis, S.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of a novel time-resolved broad-band absorption spectroscopy experiment for OH density measurement applied to a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in Ar/H2O mixtures. The measurement is aimed at the calibration of our previous OH LIF measurements in the same discharge. The apparatus is simple and cheap, being based on a UV LED light source and a non-intensified, non-cooled, gateable linear CCD array as a detector. The set-up is capable of ruling out both medium/long-term drifts of the UV source and of the discharge, and discharge emission from the measurement. Performances of the set-up are discussed, together with possible improvements for its use as a standalone technique.

  6. Photodissociation of CH3CHO at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy: Verification of roaming and triple fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kai-Chan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Li, Hou-Kuan; Lin, King-Chuen

    2014-02-01

    By using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy, the HCO fragment dissociated from acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 248 nm is found to partially decompose to H and CO. The fragment yields are enhanced by the Ar addition that facilitates the collision-induced internal conversion. The channels to CH2CO + H2 and CH3CO + H are not detected significantly. The rotational population distribution of CO, after removing the Ar collision effect, shows a bimodal feature comprising both low- and high-rotational (J) components, sharing a fraction of 19% and 81%, respectively, for the vibrational state v = 1. The low-J component is ascribed to both roaming pathway and triple fragmentation. They are determined to have a branching ratio of <0.13 and >0.06, respectively, relative to the whole v = 1 population. The CO roaming is accompanied by a highly vibrational population of CH4 that yields a vibrational bimodality.

  7. Nonequilibrium electronic and phonon dynamics of Cu0.17Bi2Se3 investigated by core-level and valence-band time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Okawa, M.; Okazaki, K.; Kanai, T.; Kikkawa, A.; Taguchi, Y.; Kiss, T.; Ishizaka, K.; Ishii, N.; Itatani, J.; Watanabe, S.; Tokura, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Shin, S.

    2015-09-01

    We have performed time-resolved (TR) core-level and valence-band angle-resolved (AR) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) to investigate ultrafast dynamics of an electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.17Bi2Se3 . The Bi 5 d5 /2 line was composed of a single peak and exhibited broadening upon both heating and pumping, which we interpreted as a change of phonon temperature (Tp), in the surface region. The electronic dynamics and electron temperature (Te), on the other hand, were determined with near-EF TRARPES. The transient temperature deduced from core-level TRPES shows a similar behavior with Te deduced from near-EF TRARPES. This similar behavior of Tp and Te can be reproduced not by a simple two-temperature model but by a modified one, although we cannot exclude a possibility that core-level broadening also reflects Te.

  8. Time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy of a magnetic octupole transition in nickel-like xenon, cesium, and barium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A

    2005-11-11

    A microcalorimeter with event mode capability for time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy, and a high-resolution flat-field EUV spectrometer have been employed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap for observations and wavelength measurements of M1, E2, and M3 decays of long-lived levels in the Ni-like ions Xe{sup 26+}, Cs{sup 27+}, and Ba{sup 28+}. Of particular interest is the lowest excited level, 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3}, which can only decay via a magnetic octupole (M3) transition. For this level in Xe an excitation energy of (590.40 {+-} 0.03eV) and a level lifetime of (11.5 {+-} 0.5 ms) have been determined.

  9. Photoinduced insulator-metal phase transition and the metallic phase propagation in VO2 films investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xin; Jiang, Meng; Li, Gaofang; Lin, Xian; Ma, Guohong; Jin, Ping

    2013-11-01

    The particle size and film thickness dependence of the photoinduced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 films has been studied systematically by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy at room temperature. It is found that the dynamical photoinduced phase transition from insulator to metal consists of two processes: a 1.7 ps fast process and a slow process with a typical time constant of 40 ps. Both of the two processes show particle size independence. The 40 ps slow process is revealed to arise from the longitudinal propagation of the metallic phase from the photoexcited surface to the interior of the VO2 film. A phase boundary propagation speed with a magnitude of ˜2400 m/s is obtained, which is close to the velocity of sound in solid materials and coincides with the prediction of diffusionless phase transformation. Our experimental results clearly establish the entire procedure of photoinduced phase change in the VO2 film.

  10. Atomic Resolution Mapping of the Excited-State Electronic Structure of Cu2O with Time-Resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hillyard, Patrick B.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Huse, N.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gaffney, Kelly J.

    2009-09-29

    We have used time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of optically excited cuprous oxide at the O K-edge and the Cu L3-edge. The 400 nm optical excitation shifts the Cu and O absorptions to lower energy, but does not change the integrated x-ray absorption significantly for either edge. The constant integrated x-ray absorption cross-section indicates that that the conduction band and valence band edges have very similar Cu 3d and O 2p orbital contributions. The 2.1 eV optical band gap of Cu2O significantly exceeds the one eV shift in the Cu L3- and O K-edges absorption edges induced by optical excitation, demonstrating the importance of core-hole excitonic effects and valence electron screening in the x-ray absorption process.

  11. Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.

    2010-06-01

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.

  12. Determination of quenching coefficients of rare-gases in a hydrogen RF discharge by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Döbele, H. F.

    2000-10-01

    Small amounts of rare-gases admixed to hydrogen plasmas can be used to reveal by their emission details on the excitation mechanisms. At pressures exceeding 50 Pa collisional quenching influences some emission lines. A novel ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz allows us to measure even faint lines with time resolution. CCRF hydrogen plasmas exhibit a field reversal during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation for 10-15 ns in the sheath region. After this excitation there are no longer electrons inside the sheath for the rest of the RF-cycle. It is therefore possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures (30-400 Pa). The result for the Ar 2p1 line agrees very well with the result reported in connection with laser excitation of the corresponding level. All other observed Ar-lines are influenced by cascade contributions from higher states. The influence of cascades and results for emission lines of various rare-gases are presented.

  13. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy of Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane/Tolane-Based Molecular Rods Included in Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene (TPP)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We examine the fluorescence anisotropy of rod-shaped guests held inside the channels of tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene (TPP) host nanocrystals, characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR spectroscopy. We address two issues: (i) are light polarization measurements on an aqueous colloidal solution of TPP nanocrystals meaningful, or is depolarization by scattering excessive? (ii) Can measurements of the rotational mobility of the included guests be performed at low enough loading levels to suppress depolarization by intercrystallite energy transfer? We find that meaningful measurements are possible and demonstrate that the long axis of molecular rods included in TPP channels performs negligible vibrational motion. PMID:25937858

  14. Transient Electrochemical Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: A Millisecond Time-Resolved Study of an Electrochemical Redox Process.

    PubMed

    Zong, Cheng; Chen, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Meng; Wu, De-Yin; Ren, Bin

    2015-09-16

    The pursuit of techniques with a high time resolution together with molecular signature information at the electrochemical interfaces has never stopped in order to explicitly monitor and understand the dynamic electrochemical processes. Here, we developed a transient electrochemical surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TEC-SERS) to monitor the structural evolution of surface species at a time resolution that equals the transient electrochemical methods (e.g., cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry), so that the Raman signal with the molecular signature information and the electrochemical current signal can be precisely correlated. The technique was employed to study the redox process of nile blue on Ag surfaces. We revealed an interesting two-rate constant process and a peculiar increase of the absolute intensity during the reduction of nile blue on the Ag surface, which both related to the dissociation of nile blue aggregates and the follow-up reduction. Therefore, we were able to uncover the processes that are impossible to observe by conventional steady state SERS methods. The ability to provide a time resolution shorter than the charging time of the double layer capacitance with molecular fingerprint information has unprecedented significance for investigation of both reversible and irreversible electrochemical processes. PMID:26325244

  15. Time-resolved spectroscopy of a homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge for soft ionization driven by square wave high voltage.

    PubMed

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Michels, Antje; Ahlmann, Norman; Jestel, Günter; Veza, Damir; Vadla, Cedomil; Franzke, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Helium capillary dielectric barrier discharge driven by the square wave-shaped high voltage was investigated spatially and temporally by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The finding of the previous investigation conducted with the sinusoidal-like high voltage was confirmed, i.e., the plasma in the jet and the plasma in the capillary constitute two temporally separated events. The plasma in the jet occurs prior to the discharge in the capillary and exists only during the positive half period of the applied high voltage. The time delay of the capillary discharge with respect to the discharge in the jet depended on the high voltage, and it was between 2.4 and 8.4 ?s for the voltage amplitude change in the range from 1.96 to 2.31 kV, respectively. It was found that, compared to sinusoidal-like voltage, application of the square wave high voltage results with stronger (~6 times) He line emission in the jet, which makes the latter more favorable for efficient soft ionization. The use of the square wave high voltage enabled comparison of the currents (~1 mA) flowing in the capillary during the positive and negative high voltage periods, which yielded the estimation for the charge dissipated in the atmosphere ((4?±?20 %)?×?10(-11) C) through the plasma jet. PMID:26297466

  16. CHICKEN DISEASE CHARACTERIZATION BY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize chicken carcass spectra. Spectral signatures of three different disease categories of poultry carcasses (airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia) were obtained from fluorescence emission measurements in the wavelength range of 360 to 600 nm with 330 ...

  17. Spatial density profile of electrons near the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yasuhiro Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Sato, Hiroki K.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2014-04-14

    The depth profile of the electron density near the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface has been studied by means of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. A broad blue PL band is observed at 2.9?eV, originating from the two-carrier radiative recombination of interface-induced electrons and photoexcited holes. The PL lifetime of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface is dominated by the three-carrier Auger recombination of electrons and holes and is sensitive to electron density. We tuned the probing depth by changing the excitation photon energy and evaluated the carrier-density profile using the relation between the carrier density and the PL lifetime. Our non-contact probe method based on PL spectroscopy indicates that the carriers are confined within several nanometers in depth near the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures.

  18. Diffusion and molecular interactions in a methanol/polyimide system probed by coupling time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy with gravimetric measurements.

    PubMed

    Musto, Pellegrino; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Pannico, Marianna; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution the diffusion of methanol in a commercial polyimide (PMDA-ODA) is studied by coupling gravimetric measurements with in-situ, time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data have been treated with two complementary techniques, i.e., difference spectroscopy (DS) and least-squares curve fitting (LSCF). These approaches provided information about the overall diffusivity, the nature of the molecular interactions among the system components and the dynamics of the various molecular species. Additional spectroscopic measurements on thin film samples (about 2 ?m) allowed us to identify the interaction site on the polymer backbone and to propose likely structures for the H-bonding aggregates. Molar absorptivity values from a previous literature report allowed us to estimate the population of first-shell and second-shell layers of methanol in the polymer matrix. In terms of diffusion kinetics, the gravimetric and spectroscopic estimates of the diffusion coefficients were found to be in good agreement with each other and with previous literature reports. A Fickian behavior was observed throughout, with diffusivity values markedly affected by the total concentration of sorbed methanol. PMID:24809042

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy of excitation transfer in Photosystem 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, I.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis centers on the study of excitation transfer in a photosynthetic antenna array. The spectroscopic properties of two pigment-protein complexes were investigated. These complexes, isolated from higher plants, display an unusual temperature dependent fluorescence behavior. The author have chosen to study this fluorescence behavior with respect to energy transfer to the reaction center and in an isolated intact antenna preparation. A Photosystem 1 complex, PSI-200, was isolated from spinach. We have characterized this system by both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence polarization measurements indicate that this emission arises from pigments which absorb in the long wavelength region of the spectrum and comprise a relatively small portion of the antenna population. Comparison of spectral characteristics were made with a PSI complex isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus, sp. To address the role of Chl b in stimulating long wavelength fluorescence and the temperature dependence of the system, we have studied the energy transfer dynamics in an antenna complex, LHC-I isolated from PSI-200. Kinetic measurements indicate that initially absorbed excitation is rapidly redistributed to longer wavelength emitting pigments within 40 ps. The temperature dependence of F685 results from increased back transfer from long wavelength emitters to F685. We suggest that changes in excitation transfer between the various emitting species and a non-radiative fluorescence quenching mechanism account for the temperature dependence of the system. 144 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Time-resolved UV-IR pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopy to probe collisional relaxation of $8p\\,^2P_{3/2}$ Cs I

    E-print Network

    Salahuddin, Mohammed; McFarland, Jacob; Bayram, S Burcin

    2015-01-01

    We describe and use a time-resolved pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopic technique to measure collisional relaxation in a high-lying energy level of atomic cesium. Aligned $8p\\,^2P_{3/2}$ cesium atoms were produced by a pump laser. A second laser, the stimulated emission pump, promoted the population exclusively to the $5d\\,^2D_{5/2}$ level. The intensity of the $5d\\,^2D_{5/2}\\rightarrow6s\\,^2S_{1/2}$ cascade fluorescence at 852.12 nm was monitored. The linear polarization dependence of the $6s\\,^2S_{1/2}\\rightarrow8p\\,^2P_{3/2}\\rightarrow5d\\,^2S_{5/2}$ transition was measured in the presence of argon gas at various pressures. From the measurement, we obtained the disalignment cross section value for the $8p\\,^2P_{3/2}$ level due to collisions with ground-level argon atoms.

  1. Element-Specific Characterization of Transient Electronic Structure of Solvated Fe(II) Complexes with Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kiryong; Cho, Hana; Schoenlein, Robert W; Kim, Tae Kyu; Huse, Nils

    2015-11-17

    Polypyridyl transition-metal complexes are an intriguing class of compounds due to the relatively facile chemical designs and variations in ligand-field strengths that allow for spin-state changes and hence electronic configurations in response to external perturbations such as pressure and light. Light-activated spin-conversion complexes have possible applications in a variety of molecular-based devices, and ultrafast excited-state evolution in these complexes is of fundamental interest for understanding of the origins of spin-state conversion in metal complexes. Knowledge of the interplay of structure and valence charge distributions is important to understand which degrees of freedom drive spin-conversion and which respond in a favorable (or unfavorable) manner. To track the response of the constituent components, various types of time-resolved X-ray probe methods have been utilized for a broad range of chemical and biological systems relevant to catalysis, solar energy conversions, and functional molecular devices. In particular, transient soft X-ray spectroscopy of solvated molecules can offer complementary information on the detailed electronic structures and valence charge distributions of photoinduced intermediate species: First-row transition-metal L-edges consist of 2p-3d transitions, which directly probe the unoccupied valence density of states and feature lifetime broadening in the range of 100 meV, making them sensitive spectral probes of metal-ligand interactions. In this Account, we present some of our recent progress in employing picosecond and femtosecond soft X-ray pulses from synchrotron sources to investigate element specific valence charge distributions and spin-state evolutions in Fe(II) polypyridyl complexes via core-level transitions. Our results on transient L-edge spectroscopy of Fe(II) complexes clearly show that the reduction in ?-donation is compensated by significant attenuation of ?-backbonding upon spin-crossover. This underscores the important information contained in transient metal L-edge spectroscopy on changes in the 3d orbitals including oxidation states, orbital symmetries, and covalency, which largely define the chemistry of these complexes. In addition, ligand K-edge spectroscopy reveals the "ligand view" of the valence charge density by probing 1s-2p core-level transitions at the K-edge of light elements such as nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. In the case of Fe(II) spin-conversion complexes, additional details of the metal-ligand interactions can be obtained by this type of X-ray spectroscopy. With new initiatives in and construction of X-ray free-electron laser sources, we expect time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy to pave a new way to study electronic and molecular dynamics of functional materials, thereby answering many interesting scientific questions in inorganic chemistry and material science. PMID:26488127

  2. Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Mamadou; Verdecchia, Kyle; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is the prevention of secondary brain injury, mainly caused by ischemia. A noninvasive bedside technique for continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) could improve patient management by detecting ischemia before brain injury occurs. A promising technique for this purpose is diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) since it can continuously monitor relative perfusion changes in deep tissue. In this study, DCS was combined with a time-resolved near-infrared technique (TR-NIR) that can directly measure CBF using indocyanine green as a flow tracer. With this combination, the TR-NIR technique can be used to convert DCS data into absolute CBF measurements. The agreement between the two techniques was assessed by concurrent measurements of CBF changes in piglets. A strong correlation between CBF changes measured by TR-NIR and changes in the scaled diffusion coefficient measured by DCS was observed (R2 = 0.93) with a slope of 1.05 ± 0.06 and an intercept of 6.4 ± 4.3% (mean ± standard error). PMID:21750781

  3. Duration of bubble rearrangements in a coarsening foam probed by time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy: impact of interfacial rigidity.

    PubMed

    Le Merrer, Marie; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Höhler, Reinhard

    2013-08-01

    In aqueous foams, the diffusive gas transfer among neighboring bubbles drives a coarsening process which is accompanied by intermittent rearrangements of the structure. Using time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy, we probe the dynamics of these events as a function of the rigidity of the gas-liquid interfaces, liquid viscosity, bubble size, and confinement pressure. We present in detail two independent techniques for analyzing the light scattering data, from which we extract the rearrangement duration. Our results show that interfacial rheology has a major impact on this duration. In the case of low interfacial rigidity, the rearrangements strongly slow down as the pressure is decreased close to the value zero where the bubble packing unjams. In contrast, if the interfaces are rigid, rearrangement durations are independent of the confinement pressure in the same investigated range. Using scaling arguments, we discuss dissipation mechanisms that may explain the observed dependency of the rearrangement dynamics on foam structure, pressure, and physicochemical solution properties. PMID:24032829

  4. Study on vibrational relaxation dynamics of phenol-water complex by picosecond time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy in a supersonic molecular beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki; Petkovi?, Milena

    2013-06-01

    A comparative study of vibrational energy relaxation (VER) between the monohydrated complexes of phenol-d0 and phenol-d1 is investigated in a supersonic molecular beam. The direct time-resolved measurement of energy redistribution from the phenolic OH/OD stretching mode of the phenol-d0-H2O/phenol-d1-D2O is performed by picosecond IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy. Two complexes follow the same relaxation process that begins with the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and the intermolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR), which is followed by the vibrational predissociation (VP). The difference in the relaxation lifetimes between them is discussed by anharmonic force field and RRKM calculations. Anharmonic analysis implies that intra- (IVR) and intermolecular (IVR) relaxations occur in parallel in the complexes. The RRKM-predicted dissociation (VP) lifetimes show qualitative agreement with the observed results, suggesting that VP takes place after the statistical energy distribution in the complexes.

  5. Probing Photoexcited Carriers in a Few-Layer MoS2 Laminate by Time-Resolved Optical Pump-Terahertz Probe Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kar, Srabani; Su, Y; Nair, R R; Sood, A K

    2015-12-22

    We report the dynamics of photoinduced carriers in a free-standing MoS2 laminate consisting of a few layers (1-6 layers) using time-resolved optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation with the 800 nm pump pulse, the terahertz conductivity increases due to absorption by the photoinduced charge carriers. The relaxation of the non-equilibrium carriers shows fast as well as slow decay channels, analyzed using a rate equation model incorporating defect-assisted Auger scattering of photoexcited electrons, holes, and excitons. The fast relaxation time occurs due to the capture of electrons and holes by defects via Auger processes, resulting in nonradiative recombination. The slower relaxation arises since the excitons are bound to the defects, preventing the defect-assisted Auger recombination of the electrons and the holes. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the non-equilibrium carrier kinetics in a system of unscreened Coulomb interactions, where defect-assisted Auger processes dominate and should be applicable to other 2D systems. PMID:26516987

  6. Statistical Time-resolved Spectroscopy: A Higher Fraction of Short-period Binaries for Metal-rich F-type Dwarfs in SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, T.; Badenes, C.; Strader, J.; Bickerton, S. J.; Beers, T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Stellar multiplicity lies at the heart of many problems in modern astrophysics, including the physics of star formation, the observational properties of unresolved stellar populations, and the rates of interacting binaries such as cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, and SNe Ia. However, little is known about the stellar multiplicity of field stars in the Milky Way (MW), in particular about the differences in the multiplicity characteristics between metal-rich disk stars and metal-poor halo stars. In this study we perform a statistical analysis of ?14,000 F-type dwarf stars in the MW through time-resolved spectroscopy with the sub-exposures archived in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain absolute radial velocity (RV) measurements through template cross-correlation of individual sub-exposures with temporal baselines varying from minutes to years. These sparsely sampled RV curves are analyzed using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to constrain the very short-period binary fraction for field F-type stars in the MW. Metal-rich disk stars were found to be 30% more likely to have companions with periods shorter than 12 days than metal-poor halo stars.

  7. Statistical Time-Resolved Spectroscopy: A higher fraction of short-period binaries for metal-rich F-type dwarfs in SDSS

    E-print Network

    Hettinger, T; Strader, J; Bickerton, S J; Beers, T C

    2015-01-01

    Stellar multiplicity lies at the heart of many problems in modern astrophysics, including the physics of star formation, the observational properties of unresolved stellar populations, and the rates of interacting binaries such as cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, and Type Ia supernovae. However, little is known about the stellar multiplicity of field stars in the Milky Way, in particular about the differences in the multiplicity characteristics between metal-rich disk stars and metal-poor halo stars. In this study we perform a statistical analysis of ~15,000 F-type dwarf stars in the Milky Way through time-resolved spectroscopy with the sub-exposures archived in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain absolute radial velocity measurements through template cross-correlation of individual sub-exposures with temporal baselines varying from minutes to years. These sparsely sampled radial velocity curves are analyzed using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to constrain the very short-period binary fraction...

  8. Photo-Induced Spin-State Conversion in Solvated Transition Metal Complexes Probed via Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, Nils; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2010-04-30

    Solution-phase photoinduced low-spin to high-spin conversion in the FeII polypyridyl complex [Fe(tren(py)3)]2+ (where tren(py)3 is tris(2-pyridylmethyliminoethyl)amine) has been studied via picosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy. Following 1A1 --> 1MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation at 560 nm, changes in the iron L2- and L3-edges were observed concomitant with formation of the transient high-spin 5T2 state. Charge-transfer multiplet calculations coupled with data acquired on low-spin and high-spin model complexes revealed a reduction in ligand field splitting of 1 eV in the high-spin state relative to the singlet ground state. A significant reduction in orbital overlap between the central Fe-3d and the ligand N-2p orbitals was directly observed, consistent with the expected ca. 0.2 Angstrom increase in Fe-N bond length upon formation of the high-spin state. The overall occupancy of the Fe-3d orbitals remains constant upon spin crossover, suggesting that the reduction in sigma-donation is compensated by significant attenuation of pi-back-bonding in the metal-ligand interactions. These results demonstrate the feasibility and unique potential of time-resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study ultrafast reactions in the liquid phase by directly probing the valence orbitals of first-row metals as well as lighter elements during the course of photochemical transformations.

  9. Soft X-ray Laser Microscopy of Lipid Rafts towards GPCR-Based Drug Discovery Using Time-Resolved FRET Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Motoyoshi; Kozasa, Tohru; Hamakubo, Takao; Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Yoneya, Shin; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Many signaling molecules involved in G protein-mediated signal transduction, which are present in the lipid rafts and believed to be controlled spatially and temporally, influence the potency and efficacy of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. This has focus interest on lipid rafts and the notion that these microdomains acts as a kind of signaling platform and thus have an important role in the expression of membrane receptor-mediated signal transduction, cancer, immune responses, neurotransmission, viral infections and various other phenomena due to specific and efficient signaling according to extracellular stimuli. However, the real structure of lipid rafts has not been observed so far due to its small size and a lack of sufficiently sophisticated observation systems. A soft X-ray microscope using a coherent soft X-ray laser in the water window region (2.3–4.4 nm) should prove to be a most powerful tool to observe the dynamic structure of lipid rafts of several tens of nanometers in size in living cells. We have developed for the X-ray microscope a new compact soft X-ray laser using strongly induced plasma high harmonic resonance. We have also developed a time-resolved highly sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system and confirmed protein-protein interactions coupled with ligands. The simultaneous use of these new tools for observation of localization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in rafts has become an important and optimum tool system to analyze the dynamics of signal transduction through rafts as signaling platform. New technology to visualize rafts is expected to lead to the understanding of those dynamics and innovative development of drug discovery that targets GPCRs localized in lipid rafts.

  10. Vibrational energy relaxation of benzene dimer and trimer in the CH stretching region studied by picosecond time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki

    2012-01-28

    Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of the Fermi polyads in the CH stretching vibration of the benzene dimer (Bz(2)) and trimer (Bz(3)) has been investigated by picosecond (ps) time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy in a supersonic beam. The vibrational bands in the 3000-3100 cm(-1) region were excited by a ps IR pulse and the time evolutions at the pumped and redistributed (bath) levels were probed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization with a ps UV pulse. For Bz(2), a site-selective excitation in the T-shaped structure was achieved by using the isotope-substituted heterodimer hd, where h = C(6)H(6) and d = C(6)D(6), and its result was compared with that of hh homodimer. In the hd heterodimer, the two isomers, h(stem)d(top) and h(top)d(stem), show remarkable site-dependence of the lifetime of intracluster vibrational energy redistribution (IVR); the lifetime of the Stem site [h(stem)d(top), 140-170 ps] is ~2.5 times shorter than that of the Top site [h(top)d(stem), 370-400 ps]. In the transient UV spectra, a broad electronic transition due to the bath modes emerges and gradually decays with a nanosecond time scale. The broad transition shows different time profile depending on UV frequency monitored. These time profiles are described by a three-step VER model involving IVR and vibrational predissociation: initial ? bath1(intramolecular) ? bath2(intermolecular) ? fragments. This model also describes well the observed time profile of the Bz fragment. The hh homodimer shows the stepwise VER process with time constants similar to those of the hd dimer, suggesting that the excitation-exchange coupling of the vibrations between the two sites is very weak. Bz(3) also exhibited the stepwise VER process, though each step is faster than Bz(2). PMID:22299868

  11. Vibrational energy relaxation of benzene dimer and trimer in the CH stretching region studied by picosecond time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of the Fermi polyads in the CH stretching vibration of the benzene dimer (Bz2) and trimer (Bz3) has been investigated by picosecond (ps) time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy in a supersonic beam. The vibrational bands in the 3000-3100 cm-1 region were excited by a ps IR pulse and the time evolutions at the pumped and redistributed (bath) levels were probed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization with a ps UV pulse. For Bz2, a site-selective excitation in the T-shaped structure was achieved by using the isotope-substituted heterodimer hd, where h = C6H6 and d = C6D6, and its result was compared with that of hh homodimer. In the hd heterodimer, the two isomers, h(stem)d(top) and h(top)d(stem), show remarkable site-dependence of the lifetime of intracluster vibrational energy redistribution (IVR); the lifetime of the Stem site [h(stem)d(top), 140-170 ps] is ˜2.5 times shorter than that of the Top site [h(top)d(stem), 370-400 ps]. In the transient UV spectra, a broad electronic transition due to the bath modes emerges and gradually decays with a nanosecond time scale. The broad transition shows different time profile depending on UV frequency monitored. These time profiles are described by a three-step VER model involving IVR and vibrational predissociation: initial ? bath1(intramolecular) ? bath2(intermolecular) ? fragments. This model also describes well the observed time profile of the Bz fragment. The hh homodimer shows the stepwise VER process with time constants similar to those of the hd dimer, suggesting that the excitation-exchange coupling of the vibrations between the two sites is very weak. Bz3 also exhibited the stepwise VER process, though each step is faster than Bz2.

  12. Time-resolved visible and infrared difference spectroscopy for the study of photosystem I with different quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Zhao, Nan; Hastings, Gary

    2015-03-01

    Room (298 K) and low (77K) temperature time-resolved visible and infrared difference spectroscopy has been used to study photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and plastoquinone 9 (2,3-dimethyl-5-prenyl-l,4-benzoquinone), incorporated into the A1 binding site. Concentrated samples in short path-length (~5 ?m) sample cells are typically used in FTIR experiments. Measurements were undertaken using standard "dilute" samples at 298 K, and concentrated (~5×) samples at both 298 and 77K. No concentration induced alterations in the flash-induced absorption changes were observed. Concentrated samples in short path-length cells form a transparent film at 77K, and could therefore be studied spectroscopically at 77K without addition of a cryoprotectant. At 298 K, for photosystem I with plastoquinone 9/menadione/phylloquinone incorporated, P700+FA/B- radical pair recombination is characterized by a time constant of 3/14/80 ms, and forward electron transfer from A1A- to Fx by a time constant of 211/3.1/0.309 ?s, respectively. At 77K, for concentrated photosystem I with menadione/phylloquinone incorporated, P700+A1- radical pair recombination is characterized by a time constant of 240/340 ?s, with this process occurring in 58/39% of the PSI particles, respectively. The origin of these differences is discussed. Marcus electron transfer theory in combination with kinetic modeling is used to simulate the observed electron transfer time constants at 298 K. This simulation allows an estimate of the redox potential for the different quinones in the A1 binding site. PMID:25534606

  13. Influence of heterogeneity of confined water on photophysical behavior of acridine with amines: a time-resolved fluorescence and laser flash photolysis study.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Basu, Samita

    2011-01-20

    The photophysical behavior of acridine (Acr) shows facilitated water-assisted protonation equilibrium between its deprotonted (Acr* ? 10 ns) and protonated forms (AcrH(+*) ? 28 ns) within confined region of ordered water molecules inside AOT/H(2)O/n-heptane reverse micelles (RMs). The time-resolved-area-normalized-emission spectra confirm both Acr* and AcrH(+*), while time-resolved-emission spectra depict time evolution between them. Quenching of AcrH(+*) with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) is a purely diffusion-controlled bimolecular quenching with linear Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot, while nonlinearity arises with triethylamine (TEA) that forms ground state complex with AcrH(+) (AcrH(+)··H(2)O··TEA) indicating both static and dynamic quenching. Transient intermediates, DMA(•+) and AcrH(•) infer photoinduced electron transfer from DMA to Acr, while those from AcrH(+)··H(2)O··TEA complex suggest water mediated excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) between AcrH(+) and TEA. The ESPT becomes faster in larger RMs due to enhanced mobility of hydronium ions in AcrH(+)··H(2)O··TEA, which reduces in smaller RMs as water becomes much more constrained owing to stronger complexation by excess confinement. PMID:21155585

  14. Folding dynamics of the Trp-cage miniprotein: evidence for a native-like intermediate from combined time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Marino, Kristen A; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Panman, Matthijs R; Smeenk, Linde E J; Kettelarij, Albert J; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Timmerman, Peter; Bolhuis, Peter G; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-10-01

    Trp-cage is a synthetic 20-residue miniprotein which folds rapidly and spontaneously to a well-defined globular structure more typical of larger proteins. Due to its small size and fast folding, it is an ideal model system for experimental and theoretical investigations of protein folding mechanisms. However, Trp-cage's exact folding mechanism is still a matter of debate. Here we investigate Trp-cage's relaxation dynamics in the amide I' spectral region (1530-1700 cm(-1)) using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Residue-specific information was obtained by incorporating an isotopic label ((13)C?(18)O) into the amide carbonyl group of residue Gly11, thereby spectrally isolating an individual 310-helical residue. The folding-unfolding equilibrium is perturbed using a nanosecond temperature-jump (T-jump), and the subsequent re-equilibration is probed by observing the time-dependent vibrational response in the amide I' region. We observe bimodal relaxation kinetics with time constants of 100 ± 10 and 770 ± 40 ns at 322 K, suggesting that the folding involves an intermediate state, the character of which can be determined from the time- and frequency-resolved data. We find that the relaxation dynamics close to the melting temperature involve fast fluctuations in the polyproline II region, whereas the slower process can be attributed to conformational rearrangements due to the global (un)folding transition of the protein. Combined analysis of our T-jump data and molecular dynamics simulations indicates that the formation of a well-defined ?-helix precedes the rapid formation of the hydrophobic cage structure, implying a native-like folding intermediate, that mainly differs from the folded conformation in the orientation of the C-terminal polyproline II helix relative to the N-terminal part of the backbone. We find that the main free-energy barrier is positioned between the folding intermediate and the unfolded state ensemble, and that it involves the formation of the ?-helix, the 310-helix, and the Asp9-Arg16 salt bridge. Our results suggest that at low temperature (T ? Tm) a folding path via formation of ?-helical contacts followed by hydrophobic clustering becomes more important. PMID:24050152

  15. Structural changes and thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO2 cathode materials studied by combined in situ time-resolved XRD and mass spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bak, Seong -Min; Hu, Enyuan; Zhou, Yongning; Yu, Xiqian; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Cho, Sung -Jin; Kim, Kwang -Bum; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2014-11-24

    Thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC, with x + y + z = 1, x:y:z = 4:3:3 (NMC433), 5:3:2 (NMC532), 6:2:2 (NMC622), and 8:1:1 (NMC811)) cathode materials is systematically studied using combined in situ time- resolved X-ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy (TR-XRD/MS) techniques upon heating up to 600 °C. The TR-XRD/MS results indicate that the content of Ni, Co, and Mn significantly affects both the structural changes and the oxygen release features during heating: the more Ni and less Co and Mn, the lower the onset temperature of the phase transition (i.e., thermal decomposition) and the larger amount of oxygenmore »release. Interestingly, the NMC532 seems to be the optimized composition to maintain a reasonably good thermal stability, comparable to the low-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC333 and NMC433), while having a high capacity close to the high-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC811 and NMC622). The origin of the thermal decomposition of NMC cathode materials was elucidated by the changes in the oxidation states of each transition metal (TM) cations (i.e., Ni, Co, and Mn) and their site preferences during thermal decomposition. It is revealed that Mn ions mainly occupy the 3a octahedral sites of a layered structure (R3?m) but Co ions prefer to migrate to the 8a tetrahedral sites of a spinel structure (Fd3¯m) during the thermal decomposition. Such element-dependent cation migration plays a very important role in the thermal stability of NMC cathode materials. The reasonably good thermal stability and high capacity characteristics of the NMC532 composition is originated from the well-balanced ratio of nickel content to manganese and cobalt contents. As a result, this systematic study provides insight into the rational design of NMC-based cathode materials with a desired balance between thermal stability and high energy density.« less

  16. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy setup for pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shavorskiy, Andrey; Slaughter, Daniel S.; Zegkinoglou, Ioannis; Rude, Bruce S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Neppl, Stefan; Cryan, James P.; Siefermann, Katrin R.; Weise, Fabian; Lin, Ming-Fu; Bacellar, Camila; Ziemkiewicz, Michael P.; Fraund, Matthew W.; Khurmi, Champak; Wright, Travis W.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Gessner, Oliver; Hertlein, Marcus P.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Huse, Nils; and others

    2014-09-15

    An apparatus for sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies with pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources is presented. A differentially pumped hemispherical electron analyzer is equipped with a delay-line detector that simultaneously records the position and arrival time of every single electron at the exit aperture of the hemisphere with ?0.1 mm spatial resolution and ?150 ps temporal accuracy. The kinetic energies of the photoelectrons are encoded in the hit positions along the dispersive axis of the two-dimensional detector. Pump-probe time-delays are provided by the electron arrival times relative to the pump pulse timing. An average time-resolution of (780 ± 20) ps (FWHM) is demonstrated for a hemisphere pass energy E{sub p} = 150 eV and an electron kinetic energy range KE = 503–508 eV. The time-resolution of the setup is limited by the electron time-of-flight (TOF) spread related to the electron trajectory distribution within the analyzer hemisphere and within the electrostatic lens system that images the interaction volume onto the hemisphere entrance slit. The TOF spread for electrons with KE = 430 eV varies between ?9 ns at a pass energy of 50 eV and ?1 ns at pass energies between 200 eV and 400 eV. The correlation between the retarding ratio and the TOF spread is evaluated by means of both analytical descriptions of the electron trajectories within the analyzer hemisphere and computer simulations of the entire trajectories including the electrostatic lens system. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the by far dominant contribution to the TOF spread is acquired within the hemisphere. However, both experiment and computer simulations show that the lens system indirectly affects the time resolution of the setup to a significant extent by inducing a strong dependence of the angular spread of electron trajectories entering the hemisphere on the retarding ratio. The scaling of the angular spread with the retarding ratio can be well approximated by applying Liouville's theorem of constant emittance to the electron trajectories inside the lens system. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by characterizing the laser fluence-dependent transient surface photovoltage response of a laser-excited Si(100) sample.

  17. Temperature Dependent Kinetics of the OH/HO2/O3 Chain Reaction by Time-Resolved IR Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Temperature Dependent Kinetics of the OH/HO2/O3 Chain Reaction by Time-Resolved IR Laser Absorption) in the mid-latitudes. Indeed, the HOx chain reaction is estimated to be responsible for nearly half-tube apparatus, with the HOx chain reaction monitored as a function of time (i.e., the distance for a well

  18. Time-resolved spectroscopy of plasma plumes: A versatile approach for optimization of high-order harmonic generation in laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Ozaki, T.

    2011-08-15

    The time-resolved studies of laser-produced Ag, In, Pt, V, Mn, and Ga plasmas are presented from the point of view of plasma application as the nonlinear optical medium for high-order harmonic generation of laser radiation. We show that optimization of plasma formation using this technique allows the enhancement of harmonic generation efficiency and extension of maximal harmonic order.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONICSTRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICALPROPERTIES: Steady State and Time-Resolved Fluorescence Dynamics of Triphenylamine Based Oligomers with Phenylene/Thiophene/Furan in Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qi; Liu, Ying-Liang; Meng, Kang; Zhao, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Shu-Feng; Gong, Qi-Huang

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the photo-physical properties of a series of triphenylamine-based oligomers by steady-state and picosecond transient fluorescence measurements in solvents. The oligomers are composed alternatively with triphenylamine and phenylene/thiophene/furan group, bridged by vinyl group (PNB/PNT/PNF). Their fluorescence spectra show bathochromic phenomenon with solvent polarity and viscosity increasing. The fluorescence decays are bi-exponential for PNB and PNT, and tri-exponential for PNF in THF and aniline. The strong viscosity dependence suggests conformational relaxation along the PNF chain after photo excitation.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodopsins: Insights and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Farrens, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has become an established tool at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics because of its exquisite sensitivity and recent technical advancements. However, rhodopsin proteins present the fluorescence spectroscopist with a unique set of challenges and opportunities due to the presence of the light-sensitive retinal chromophore. This review briefly summarizes some approaches that have successfully met these challenges and the novel insights they have yielded about rhodopsin structure and function. We start with a brief overview of fluorescence fundamentals and experimental methodologies, followed by more specific discussions of technical challenges rhodopsin proteins present to fluorescence studies. Finally, we end by discussing some of the unique insights that have been gained specifically about visual rhodopsin and its interactions with affiliate proteins through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24183695

  1. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence as a direct experimental approach to the study of excitation and ionization processes in different atom reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, N.; Matveev, O. I.

    1994-12-01

    Several examples of laser-excited, time-resolved fluoresence waveforms are discussed to show how the essential parameters describing the interaction between the radiation and the atomic system can be directly evaluated. The results reported here have been experimentally obtained, with relatively fast detection electronics, in different atom reservoirs operated at atmospheric pressure, that is, an air-acetylene flame, an inductively coupled argon plasma and a graphite furnace. It is shown that the study of the complete temporal evolution (i.e., during and after excitation) of the population density of selected atomic levels, directly pumped by the laser or collisionally coupled to the laser-excited level, can provide important information about the dyamics of the interaction and the saturation behaviour of the transition as a function of the different atomization environments. In simple cases, collisional mixing and ionization rate coefficients can also be evaluated. The measurements discussed here have been obtained with the following elements: Au, Hg, Mg, Na, Pb, Sr and Tl. It is shown that the analytical relevance of the information gained from the waveforms is particularly significant when two or more lasers (i.e., excitation steps) are used in the techniques of Laser Induced Fluoresence (LIF) and Laser Enhanced Ionization (LEI) in flames and electrothermal atomizers.

  3. Development of soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system with a two-dimensional angle-resolved time-of-flight analyzer at SPring-8 BL07LSU

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Manami; Yamamoto, Susumu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Yukawa, Ryu; Fukushima, Akiko; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kakizaki, Akito; Matsuda, Iwao; Kousa, Yuka; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshihito

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system using synchrotron radiation (SR) at SPring-8 BL07LSU and an ultrashort pulse laser system. Two-dimensional angle-resolved measurements were performed with a time-of-flight-type analyzer. The photoemission spectroscopy system is synchronized to light pulses of SR and laser using a time control unit. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by mapping the band structure of a Si(111) crystal over the surface Brillouin zones and observing relaxation of the surface photo-voltage effect using the pump (laser) and probe (SR) method.

  4. Time resolved single photon imaging in Nanometer Scale CMOS technology 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Justin Andrew

    2010-06-28

    Time resolved imaging is concerned with the measurement of photon arrival time. It has a wealth of emerging applications including biomedical uses such as fluorescence lifetime microscopy and positron emission tomography, ...

  5. Effect of nanosize micelles of ionic and neutral surfactants on the photophysics of protonated 6-methoxyquinoline: Time-resolved fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tej Varma, Y.; Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.

    2015-03-01

    The excited state dynamic studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of micellar surface charge on the photophysics of protonated 6-methoxyquinoline (6MQ+) in anionic, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), cationic, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral, triton X-100 (TX100) surfactant at premicellar, micellar and postmicellar concentrations in aqueous phase at room temperature. At premicellar concentrations of SDS, there is a slight decrease in emission intensity and at micellar and postmicellar concentrations, increase in emission intensity and blue shift of spectrum has been observed. The blue shift in fluorescence spectrum and slight increase in quantum yield are attributed to incorporation of solute molecule to the micelles. Edge excitation red shift (EERS) in fluorescence maximum of 6MQ+ has been observed in all the surfactant solutions studied. The EERS has been ascribed in terms of solvent relaxation process. In SDS surfactant system, due to heterogeneous restricted motion of solvent molecules, the solvent viscosity increases which results in an increase in net magnitude of EERS. The fluorescence decay components of 6MQ+ fit with multi exponential functions in all the micellar systems studied. The location of the probe molecule in micellar systems is justified by a variety of spectral parameters such as refractive index, dielectric constant, ET (30), EERS, average fluorescence decay time, radiative and non radiative rate constants, and rotational relaxation time.

  6. Photodynamics of Red Fluorescent Proteins Studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Andreas; Ivanchenko, Sergey; Röcker, Carlheinz; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Red fluorescent proteins are important tools in fluorescence-based life science research. Recently, we have introduced eqFP611, a red fluorescent protein with advantageous properties from the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor. Here, we have studied the submillisecond light-driven intramolecular dynamics between bright and dark states of eqFP611 and, for comparison, drFP583 (DsRed) by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on protein solutions. A three-state model with one dark and two fluorescent states describes the power-dependence of the flickering dynamics of both proteins at different excitation wavelengths. It involves two light-driven conformational transitions. We have also studied the photodynamics of individual (monomeric) eqFP611 molecules immobilized on surfaces. The flickering rates and dark state fractions of eqFP611 bound to polyethylene glycol-covered glass surfaces were identical to those measured in solution, showing that the bound FPs behaved identically. A second, much slower flickering process was observed on the 10-ms timescale. Deposition of eqFP611 molecules on bare glass surfaces yielded bright fluorescence without any detectable flickering and a >10-fold decreased photobleaching yield. These observations underscore the intimate connection between protein motions and photophysical processes in fluorescent proteins. PMID:14695280

  7. Extraction of masked fluorescence peaks through synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Seema; Mozumder, Meghdoot; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Pradhan, Asima

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been demonstrated as a viable tool for noting subtle biochemical changes that occur during early-stage cervical cancer progression. Due to multiple fluorophore contributions, the individual fluorophore activities often get masked due to overlapping spectra of neighboring fluorophores. Recently synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has been demonstrated as an efficient technique for investigation of such non-dominant fluorophores. With synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy individual fluorophore responses are highlighted as sharp peaks by choosing appropriate offsets during signal acquisition. Such peaks may, however be missed due to absorption effects. By correcting the measured synchronous fluorescence spectrum with elastic scattering data, it was observed that the masked fluorophores are highlighted while the broader bands are sharpened. Interestingly, fluorophore activities of protoporphyrin, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin can now be studied using this technique, as compared to only collagen and NADH seen earlier. The results have been verified using tissue phantoms with known fluorophores and scatterers. Use of normalized synchronous spectra has led to enhancement of several fluorophore responses. It was also observed that among the different offsets, the lower ones show sharper features, whereas the larger offsets show a broadband response. Among the different offsets 120nm is found optimal for further investigation.

  8. A time-resolved laser induced fluorescence study on the ion velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster after a fast current disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouffre, S.; Gawron, D.; Sadeghi, N.

    2009-04-15

    The temporal characteristics of the Xe{sup +} ion axial velocity distribution function (VDF) were recorded in the course of low-frequency discharge current oscillations ({approx}14 kHz) of the 5 kW class PPS X000 Hall thruster. The evolution in time of the ion axial velocity component is monitored by means of a laser induced fluorescence diagnostic tool with a time resolution of 100 ns. As the number of fluorescence photons is very low during such a short time period, a homemade pulse-counting lock-in system was used to perform real-time discrimination between background photons and fluorescence photons. The evolution in time of the ion VDF was observed at three locations along the thruster channel axis after a fast shutdown of the thruster power. The anode discharge current is switched off at 2 kHz during 5 {mu}s without any synchronization with the current oscillation cycle. This approach allows to examine the temporal behavior of the ion VDF during decay and ignition of the discharge as well as during forced and natural plasma oscillations. Measurements show that the distribution function of the axial component of the Xe{sup +} ion does change periodically in time with a frequency close to the current oscillation frequency in both forced and natural cases. The ion density and the mean velocity are found to oscillate, whereas the velocity dispersion stays constant, which indicates that ionization and acceleration layers have identical dynamics. Finally, variations over time in the electric field are for the first time experimentally evidenced in a crossed-field discharge.

  9. Ultrafast Fluorescence Spectroscopy via Upconversion: Applications to Biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Knutson, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews basic concepts of nonlinear fluorescence upconversion, a technique whose temporal resolution is essentially limited only by the pulse width of the ultrafast laser. Design aspects for upconversion spectrophotofluorometers are discussed, and a recently developed system is described. We discuss applications in biophysics, particularly the measurement of time-resolved fluorescence spectra of proteins (with subpicosecond time resolution). Application of this technique to biophysical problems such as dynamics of tryptophan, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids is reviewed. PMID:19152860

  10. Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of narrow gap Hg1-xCdxTe/CdyHg1-yTe quantum well heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, S. V.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Kadykov, A. M.; Maremyanin, K. V.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Gavrilenko, V. I.

    2014-07-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and kinetics of narrow gap Hg1-xCdxTe/CdyHg1-yTe quantum well (QW) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique are studied. Interband PL spectra are observed from 18 K up to the room temperature. Time resolved studies reveal an additional PL line with slow kinetics (7 ?s at 18 K) related to deep defect states in barrier layers. These states act as traps counteracting carrier injection into QWs. The decay time of PL signal from QW layers is about 5 ?s showing that gain can be achieved at wavelengths 10-20 ?m by placing such QWs in HgCdTe structures with waveguides.

  11. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    PubMed

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-01

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

  12. Technique for real-time tissue characterization based on scanning multispectral fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy (ms-TRFS)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Gorpas, Dimitris; Yankelevich, Diego; Marcu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel technique for continuous acquisition, processing and display of fluorescence lifetimes enabling real-time tissue diagnosis through a single hand held or biopsy fiber-optic probe. A scanning multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (ms-TRFS) with self-adjustable photon detection range was developed to account for the dynamic changes of fluorescence intensity typically encountered in clinical application. A fast algorithm was implemented in the ms-TRFS software platform, providing up to 15 Hz continuous display of fluorescence lifetime values. Potential applications of this technique, including biopsy guidance, and surgical margins delineation were demonstrated in proof-of-concept experiments. Current results showed accurate display of fluorescence lifetimes values and discrimination of distinct fluorescence markers and tissue types in real-time (< 100 ms per data point). PMID:25798320

  13. A1 Reduction in Intact Cyanobacterial Photosystem I Particles Studied by Time-Resolved Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Difference Spectroscopy and

    E-print Network

    Hastings, Gary

    -Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Difference Spectroscopy and Isotope Labeling Velautham Sivakumar, Ruili Wang-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, with 5 µs time resolution, has been used the membrane via a series of protein-bound pigment cofactors. In PS I the pigments are bound to two membrane

  14. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  15. Chemically-specific time-resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy: Carrier dynamics at the interface of quantum dots attached to a metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ben F.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Graham, Darren M.; Hardman, Samantha J. O.; Seddon, Elaine A.; Syres, Karen L.; Thomas, Andrew G.; Sirotti, Fausto; Silly, Mathieu G.; Akhtar, Javeed; O'Brien, Paul; Fairclough, Simon M.; Smith, Jason M.; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Flavell, Wendy R.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a new experimental pump-probe methodology where a 2D delay-line detector enables fast (ns) monitoring of a narrow XPS spectrum in combination with a continuous pump laser. This has been developed at the TEMPO beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL to enable the study of systems with intrinsically slow electron dynamics, and to complement faster measurements that use a fs laser as the pump. We demonstrate its use in a time-resolved study of the surface photovoltage of the m-plane ZnO (10 1 bar 0) surface which shows persistent photoconductivity, requiring monitoring periods on ms timescales and longer. We make measurements from this surface in the presence and absence of chemically-linked quantum dots (QDs), using type I PbS and type II CdSe/ZnSe (core/shell) QDs as examples. We monitor signals from both the ZnO substrate and the bound QDs during photoexcitation, yielding evidence for charge injection from the QDs into the ZnO. The chemical specificity of the technique allows us to observe differences in the extent to which the QD systems are influenced by the field of the surface depletion layer at the ZnO surface, which we attribute to differences in the band structure at the interface.

  16. Ultrafast Photoreaction Dynamics of a Light-Driven Sodium-Ion-Pumping Retinal Protein from Krokinobacter eikastus Revealed by Femtosecond Time-Resolved Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Shinya; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Inoue, Keiichi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Kandori, Hideki; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-11-19

    We report the first femtosecond time-resolved absorption study on ultrafast photoreaction dynamics of a recently discovered retinal protein, KR2, which functions as a light-driven sodium-ion pump. The obtained data show that the excited-state absorption around 460 nm and the stimulated emission around 720 nm decay concomitantly with a time constant of 180 fs. This demonstrates that the deactivation of the S1 state of KR2, which involves isomerization of the retinal chromophore, takes place three times faster than that of bacteriorhodopsin. In accordance with this rapid electronic relaxation, the photoproduct band assignable to the J intermediate grows up at ?620 nm, indicating that the J intermediate is directly formed with the S1 ? S0 internal conversion. The photoproduct band subsequently exhibits a ?30 nm blue shift with a 500 fs time constant, corresponding to the conversion to the K intermediate. On the basis of the femtosecond absorption data obtained, we discuss the mechanism for the rapid photoreaction of KR2 and its relevance to the unique function of the sodium-ion pump. PMID:26582475

  17. Differentiating tissue by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, Stefan; Huen, Julien; Malthan, Dirk

    2004-03-01

    A common problem in several surgical applications is the lack of navigational information. Most often, the only source of information about the location of crucial structures, in relation to the surgical instrument, is the visible and tactile sensory input of the surgeon. In some cases, this leads to time-consuming procedures and a high risk for the patient. Therefore, we developed a spectroscopic sensor system for automatic differentiation between several tissue types. For example in milling processes, a sensor that is able to detect bone in contrast to nerve or vein tissue can be used to control the milling process. We showed exemplarily for the cochlea implant, a typical ENT-surgery, that with the help of our sensor system, the milling of bone can be accelerated without increasing the risk for the patient. It is also possible to use this type of sensor system in the area of medical robotics in soft-tissue applications. With real-time information, a continuous registration can take place, in contrast to a registration that is done using static preoperatively acquired images. We showed that our sensor system can be used to dynamically update the location of the patient in relation to CT or MR-images. In conclusion, we have been able to show that well-known spectroscopy sensors can be used to open new possibilities in medical treatment with and without the use of robotics.

  18. Dynamics of the reactions of O(1D) with CD3OH and CH3OD studied with time-resolved Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chong-Kai; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Nakajima, Masakazu; Nguyen, Hue M. T.; Lin, M. C.; Tsuchiya, Soji; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the reactivity of O(1D) towards two types of hydrogen atoms in CH3OH. The reaction was initiated on irradiation of a flowing mixture of O3 and CD3OH or CH3OD at 248 nm. Relative vibration-rotational populations of OH and OD (1 ? v ? 4) states were determined from their infrared emission recorded with a step-scan time-resolved Fourier-transform spectrometer. In O(1D) + CD3OH, the rotational distribution of OD is nearly Boltzmann, whereas that of OH is bimodal; the product ratio [OH]/[OD] is 1.56 ± 0.36. In O(1D) + CH3OD, the rotational distribution of OH is nearly Boltzmann, whereas that of OD is bimodal; the product ratio [OH]/[OD] is 0.59 ± 0.14. Quantum-chemical calculations of the potential energy and microcanonical rate coefficients of various channels indicate that the abstraction channels are unimportant and O(1D) inserts into the C-H and O-H bonds of CH3OH to form HOCH2OH and CH3OOH, respectively. The observed three channels of OH are consistent with those produced via decomposition of the newly formed OH or the original OH moiety in HOCH2OH or decomposition of CH3OOH. The former decomposition channel of HOCH2OH produces vibrationally more excited OH because of incomplete intramolecular vibrational relaxation, and decomposition of CH3COOH produces OH with greater rotational excitation, likely due to a large torque angle during dissociation. The predicted [OH]/[OD] ratios are 1.31 and 0.61 for O(1D) + CD3OH and CH3OD, respectively, at collision energy of 26 kJ mol-1, in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. These predicted product ratios vary weakly with collision energy.

  19. Direct Observation of the Kinetically Relevant Site of CO Hydrogenation on Supported Ru Catalyst at 700 K by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, Heinz; Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-04

    Time-resolved FT-IR spectra of carbon monoxide hydrogenation over alumina-supported ruthenium particles were recorded on themillisecond time scale at 700 K using pulsed release of CO and a continuous flow of H2/N2 (ratio 0.067 or 0.15, 1 atm total pressure). Adsorbed carbon monoxide was detected along with gas phase products methane (3016 and 1306 cm-1), water (1900 +- 1300 cm-1), and carbon dioxide (2348 cm-1). Aside from adsorbed CO, no other surface species were observed. The rate of formation of methane is 2.5 +- 0.4 s-1 and coincides with the rate of carbon dioxide growth (3.4 +- 0.6 s-1), thus indicating that CH4 and CO2 originate from a common intermediate. The broad band of adsorbed carbon monoxide has a maximum at 2010 cm-1 at early times (36 ms) that shifts gradually to 1960 cm-1 over a period of 3 s as a result of the decreasing surface concentration of CO. Kinetic analysis of the adsorbed carbon monoxide reveals that surface sites absorbing at the high frequency end of the infrared band are temporally linked to gas phase product growth. Specifically, a (linear) CO site at 2026 cm-1 decays with a rate constant of 2.9 +- 0.1 s-1, which coincides with the rise constant of CH4. This demonstrates that the linear CO site at 2026 cm-1 is the kinetically most relevant one for the rate-determining CO dissociation step under reaction conditions at 700 K.

  20. Time-resolved UV-IR pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopy to probe collisional relaxation of the 8p2P3/2 state of Cs I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, Mohammed; Arndt, Phill; McFarland, Jacob; Bayram, S. Burçin

    2015-12-01

    We describe and use a time-resolved pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopic technique to measure collisional relaxation in a high-lying energy level of atomic cesium. Aligned 8p2P3/2 cesium atoms were produced by a pump laser. A second laser, the stimulated emission pump, promoted the population exclusively to the 5d2D5/2 level. The intensity of the 5 d D5/22 ? 6 s S1/22 cascade fluorescence at 852.12 nm was monitored. The linear polarization dependence of the 6 s S1/22 ? 8 p P3/22 ? 5 d S5/22 transition was measured in the presence of argon gas at various pressures. From the measurement, we obtained the disalignment cross sectional value for the 8p2P3/2 level due to collisions with ground-level argon atoms.

  1. Time Resolved Fluorescence Of Substituted Indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauerte, Joseph A.; Gafni, Ari

    1989-05-01

    The sensitivity of the indole chromophore and it excited state properties to solvent perturbations is assessed through the use of substituted indole derivatives in solution and complexed within a fis-cyclodextrin cavity. This system is presumed to be a prototype to study the effect of static perturbations of the indole chromophore on its' excited state relaxation mechanisms. A hypothesis is presented relating the electronic resonance structures of the indole molecule to its exciplex forming capabilities. Two locations on the indole ring are proposed to provide the most stable exciplex forming sites. One location, C-3, has long been recognized as a location for exciplex formation. However, a second site on the benzyl component of indole, C-5, may also provide a site for exciplex formation due to a different resonance structure. We postulate that this site, C-5, gains a negative charge through a resonance structure making it capable of forming an exciplex with polar molecules. This resonance structure involves the indole nitrogen donating it lone pair electrons to form a double bond with the six member ring of indole. Substitutions of the indole molecule that facilitate this resonance structure either through induction or resonance effects will produce an excited state indole molecule that will have the largest Stokes shift and will have enhanced susceptibility to solvent induced radiationless decay processes.

  2. Multiple labeling and time-resolvable fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, E P

    1991-09-01

    A new time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay system involving use of the europium chelate of 4,7-bis(chlorosulfophenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid as label is reviewed. This stable chelate by itself is not very fluorescent but, used in multiple labeling strategies, improves the achievable detection limits. By using multiple labeling, streptavidin tailing, and Eu3+ activation, one can create a very stable, easy-to-use reagent that is suitable for devising highly sensitive immunoassays and other biotechnological assays. This reagent, a streptavidin-based macromolecular complex, is able to detect approximately 300,000 molecules (approximately 0.5 amol) of alpha-fetoprotein in a model noncompetitive immunoassay. PMID:1716533

  3. X-ray structure and conformational dynamics of the HIV-1 protease in complex with the inhibitor SDZ283-910: agreement of time-resolved spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ringhofer, S; Kallen, J; Dutzler, R; Billich, A; Visser, A J; Scholz, D; Steinhauser, O; Schreiber, H; Auer, M; Kungl, A J

    1999-03-01

    Based on the X-ray structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease in complex with the statine-derived inhibitor SDZ283-910, a 542 ps molecular dynamics trajectory was computed. For comparison with the 805 ps trajectory obtained for the uncomplexed enzyme, the theoretical fluorescence anisotropy decay of the unliganded protease and the inhibitor complex was calculated from the trajectories of the Trp6A/Trp6B and Trp42A/Trp42B transition dipole moments. This enabled us to directly compare the simulated data with the experimental picosecond time-resolved fluorescence data. Fitting both experimental and simulated data to the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function exp(-t/tauk)beta revealed a very good agreement for the uncomplexed protease as well as for the SDZ283-910 complex. Binding of the inhibitor induced a faster decay of both the experimental and the computed protease fluorescence anisotropy decay. By this integrative approach, the atomic detail of inhibitor-induced changes in the conformational dynamics of the HIV-1 protease was experimentally verified and will be used for further inhibitor optimisation. PMID:10047488

  4. Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal ...

  5. Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Biswas, Sanchita; Navin, Chelliah V.; Yamane, Dawit G.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures utilizing millifluidic devices for chemical synthesis and time-resolved mechanistic studies are described by taking three examples. In the first, synthesis of ultra-small copper nanoclusters is described. The second example provides their utility for investigating time resolved kinetics of chemical reactions by analyzing gold nanoparticle formation using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final example demonstrates continuous flow catalysis of reactions inside millifluidic channel coated with nanostructured catalyst. PMID:24327099

  6. Towards in situ fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy investigations of asphaltene precipitation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Franco, Juliana C; Gonçalves, Grasiele; Souza, Monique S; Rosa, Samantha B C; Thiegue, Larissa M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Rosa, Paulo T V; Nome, René A

    2013-12-16

    We perform a spectroscopic analysis of asphaltene in solution and in crude oil with the goal of designing an optical probe of asphaltene precipitation inside high-pressure cells. Quantitative analysis of steady-state spectroscopic data is employed to identify fluorescence and Raman contributions to the observed signals. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that fluorescence lifetime can be used as a spectroscopic probe of asphaltene in crude oil. Quantitative confocal laser-scanning microscopy studies of asphaltene in n-heptane are used to calculate particle-size distributions as a function of time, both at the sample surface and asphaltene interior. The resulting precipitation kinetics is well described by stochastic numerical simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation. Based on these results, we present the design and construction of an apparatus to optically probe the in situ precipitation of asphaltene suitable for studies inside high pressure cells. Design considerations include the use of a spatial light modulator for aberration correction in microscopy measurements, together with the design of epi-fluorescence spectrometer, both fiber-based and for remote sensing fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24514660

  7. A von Hamos x-ray spectrometer based on a segmented-type diffraction crystal for single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy and time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Szlachetko, J.; Nachtegaal, M.; Boni, E. de; Willimann, M.; Safonova, O.; Sa, J.; Smolentsev, G.; Szlachetko, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Schmitt, B.; David, C.; Luecke, A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Jagodzinski, P.

    2012-10-15

    We report on the design and performance of a wavelength-dispersive type spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry. The spectrometer is equipped with a segmented-type crystal for x-ray diffraction and provides an energy resolution in the order of 0.25 eV and 1 eV over an energy range of 8000 eV-9600 eV. The use of a segmented crystal results in a simple and straightforward crystal preparation that allows to preserve the spectrometer resolution and spectrometer efficiency. Application of the spectrometer for time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy is demonstrated.

  8. Time-resolved in situ detection of CO in a shock tube using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser near 4.6 µm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Wang, Shengkai; Sur, Ritobrata; Chao, Xing; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2014-10-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using a mid-infrared DFB quantum-cascade laser is reported for sensitive time-resolved (10 ?s) in situ CO measurements in a shock tube. Off-axis alignment and fast scanning of the laser wavelength were used to minimize coupling noise in a low-finesse cavity. An absorption gain factor of 91 was demonstrated, which enabled sub-ppm detection sensitivity for gas temperatures of 1000-2100K in a 15 cm diameter shock tube. This substantial improvement in detection sensitivity compared to conventional single-pass absorption measurements, shows great potential for the study of reaction pathways of high-temperature combustion kinetics mechanisms in shock tubes. PMID:25322031

  9. Time-resolved study of the symmetric SN2-reaction I Roland Wester,a)

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Time-resolved study of the symmetric SN2-reaction IÀ ¿CH3I Roland Wester,a) Arthur E. Bragg, Alison presented here, in which we attempt the first time- resolved investigation of a bimolecular SN2-reaction, California 94720 Received 2 May 2003; accepted 22 August 2003 Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

  10. Excitation Energy Transfer in Dimeric Light Harvesting Complex I: A Combined Streak-Camera/Fluorescence Upconversion Study

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    , was studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. A unique combination of two techniques, fluorescence emission may originate either from red-shifted Chla located in Lhca45 or from pigment-pigment interaction

  11. Time-resolved UV-IR pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopy to probe the collisional dynamics of highly excited cesium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md, Salah Uddin; Arndt, Phill; Bayram, Burcin

    2015-05-01

    We have used a pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopic technique to measure the collisional dynamics in the highly excited level of 133 Cs atomic vapor. Aligned 8 p2P3 / 2 cesium atoms were produced by a pump laser. A second laser, stimulated emission pump, promoted the population exclusively down to the 5 d2D5 / 2 level. The intensity of the 5 d2D5 / 2 --> 6 s2S1 / 2 cascade fluorescence at 852.12 nm was monitored. The linear polarization degree for the 6 s2S1 / 2 --> 8 p2P3 / 2 --> 5 d2S5 / 2 transition was measured in the presence of argon gas at various pressures. From the measurement, we obtained the collisional cross section (disalignment cross section) value in the 8 p2P3 / 2 level cesium. Financial support from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NSF-PHY-1309571) is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Two-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Fischer, David G.

    2002-01-01

    We will describe a two-photon microscope currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is composed of a Coherent Mira 900 tunable, pulsed Titanium:Sapphire laser system, an Olympus Fluoview 300 confocal scanning head, and a Leica DM IRE inverted microscope. It will be used in conjunction with a technique known as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study intracellular protein dynamics. We will briefly explain the advantages of the two-photon system over a conventional confocal microscope, and provide some preliminary experimental results.

  13. Fiber-based multispeckle detection for time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy: characterization and application to blood flow detection in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Dietsche, G; Ninck, M; Ortolf, C; Li, J; Jaillon, F; Gisler, T

    2007-12-10

    We present a technique for the measurement of temporal field autocorrelation functions of multiply scattered light with subsecond acquisition time. The setup is based on the parallel detection and autocorrelation of intensity fluctuations from statistically equivalent but independent speckles using a fiber bundle, an array of avalanche photodiodes, and a multichannel autocorrelator with variable integration times between 6.5 and 104 ms. Averaging the autocorrelation functions from the different speckles reduces the integration time in diffusing-wave spectroscopy experiments drastically, thus allowing us to resolve nonstationary scatterer dynamics with single-trial measurements. We present applications of the technique to the measurement of arterial and venous blood flow in deep tissue. We find strong deviations both of the shape and characteristic decay time of autocorrelation functions recorded at different phases of the pulsation cycle from time-averaged autocorrelation functions. PMID:18071383

  14. Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, Brent A. Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Nguyen, Nhan V.

    2014-05-15

    Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120?ms. At 190?°C and 240?°C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110?°C) and with long purge times (30?s)

  15. Ultrafast free-carrier dynamics in Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals studied using femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, L. Q.; Okano, M.; Yamada, Y.; Yamashita, G.; Morimoto, T.; Nagai, M.; Ashida, M.; Nagaoka, A.; Yoshino, K.; Kanemitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the dynamics of photogenerated carriers in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) single crystals using femtosecond transient reflectivity (TR) and optical pump-THz probe transient absorption (THz-TA) spectroscopy. The TR and THz-TA decay dynamics consistently showed that free carriers have long lifetimes of up to a few nanoseconds. The excitation-photon-energy-dependent TR measurements revealed a slow picosecond energy relaxation of free carriers to the band edge in CZTS. The relaxation and recombination dynamics of free carriers were affected by nonradiative recombinations at the surface. Our results revealed a global feature of energy relaxation and recombination processes of free carriers in CZTS single crystals.

  16. Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy up to 1700 nm using a time-gated InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargigia, I.; Tosi, A.; Bahgat Shehata, A.; Della Frera, A.; Farina, A.; Bassi, A.; Taroni, P.; Dalla Mora, A.; Zappa, F.; Pifferi, A.

    2011-07-01

    Time-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study highly scattering media, mainly in the fields of non-invasive medical diagnostics and quality assessment of food and pharmaceutical products. Up to now this technique has been exploited mostly up to 1100 nm: we extend the spectral range by means of a continuously tunable pulsed laser source at a high repetition rate and a custom InGaAs/InP Single-Photon Avalanche Diode operated in time-gated mode, working up to 1700 nm. The characterization of the system is presented. As a first example of application, we measured the absorption spectrum of collagen powder in the range 1100 - 1700 nm, which could prove useful for breast density assessment.

  17. Ultrafast free-carrier dynamics in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} single crystals studied using femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Phuong, L. Q.; Kanemitsu, Y.; Okano, M.; Yamada, Y.; Yamashita, G.; Morimoto, T.; Nagai, M.; Ashida, M.; Nagaoka, A.; Yoshino, K.

    2014-12-08

    We studied the dynamics of photogenerated carriers in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) single crystals using femtosecond transient reflectivity (TR) and optical pump-THz probe transient absorption (THz-TA) spectroscopy. The TR and THz-TA decay dynamics consistently showed that free carriers have long lifetimes of up to a few nanoseconds. The excitation-photon-energy-dependent TR measurements revealed a slow picosecond energy relaxation of free carriers to the band edge in CZTS. The relaxation and recombination dynamics of free carriers were affected by nonradiative recombinations at the surface. Our results revealed a global feature of energy relaxation and recombination processes of free carriers in CZTS single crystals.

  18. In situ determination of transient pKa changes of internal amino acids of bacteriorhodopsin by using time-resolved attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zscherp, Christian; Schlesinger, Ramona; Tittor, Jörg; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Heberle, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Active proton transfer through membrane proteins is accomplished by shifts in the acidity of internal amino acids, prosthetic groups, and water molecules. The recently introduced step-scan attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to determine transient pKa changes of single amino acid side chains of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. The high pKa of D96 (>12 in the ground state) drops to 7.1 ± 0.2 (in 1 M KCl) during the lifetime of the N intermediate, quantitating the role of D96 as the internal proton donor of the retinal Schiff base. We conclude from experiments on the pH dependence of the proton release reaction and on point mutants where each of the glutamates on the extracellular surface has been exchanged that besides D85 no other carboxylic group changes its protonation state during proton release. However, E194 and E204 interact with D85, the primary proton acceptor of the Schiff base proton. The C?O stretching vibration of D85 undergoes a characteristic pH-dependent shift in frequency during the M state of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin with a pKa of 5.2 (±0.3) which is abolished in the single-site mutants E194Q and E204Q and the quadruple mutant E9Q/E74Q/E194Q/E204Q. The double mutation E9Q/E74Q does not affect the lifetime of the intermediates, ruling out any participation of these residues in the proton transfer chain of bacteriorhodopsin. This study demonstrates that transient changes in acidity of single amino acid residues can be quantified in situ with infrared spectroscopy. PMID:10318912

  19. A Direct Interaction between the Sigma-1 Receptor and the hERG Voltage-gated K+ Channel Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy and Homogeneous Time-resolved Fluorescence (HTRF®)*

    PubMed Central

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; D'Sa, Lauren; Talker, Ronel; Dupuis, Elodie; Maurin, Fabrice; Martin, Patrick; Borgese, Franck; Soriani, Olivier; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues, which can translocate to the plasma membrane and modulate the function of various ion channels. The human ether-à-go-go-related gene encodes hERG, a cardiac voltage-gated K+ channel that is abnormally expressed in many human cancers and is known to interact functionally with the sigma-1 receptor. Our aim was to investigate the nature of the interaction between the sigma-1 receptor and hERG. We show that the two proteins can be co-isolated from a detergent extract of stably transfected HEK-293 cells, consistent with a direct interaction between them. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the isolated protein confirmed the direct binding of the sigma-1 receptor to hERG monomers, dimers, and tetramers. hERG dimers and tetramers became both singly and doubly decorated by sigma-1 receptors; however, hERG monomers were only singly decorated. The distribution of angles between pairs of sigma-1 receptors bound to hERG tetramers had two peaks, at ?90 and ?180° in a ratio of ?2:1, indicating that the sigma-1 receptor interacts with hERG with 4-fold symmetry. Homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF®) allowed the detection of the interaction between the sigma-1 receptor and hERG within the plane of the plasma membrane. This interaction was resistant to sigma ligands, but was decreased in response to cholesterol depletion of the membrane. We suggest that the sigma-1 receptor may bind to hERG in the endoplasmic reticulum, aiding its assembly and trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:25266722

  20. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for breast cancer margins assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Zhang, Yanhong; Bold, Richard; Marcu, Laura

    2015-03-01

    During breast conserving surgery (BCS), which is the preferred approach to treat most early stage breast cancers, the surgeon attempts to excise the tumor volume, surrounded by thin margin of normal tissue. The intra-operative assessment of cancerous areas is a challenging procedure, with the surgeon usually relying on visual or tactile guidance. This study evaluates whether time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) presents the potential to address this problem. Point TRFS measurements were obtained from 19 fresh tissue slices (7 patients) and parameters that characterize the transient signals were quantified via constrained least squares deconvolution scheme. Fibrotic tissue (FT, n=69), adipose tissue (AT, n=76), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, n=27) were identified in histology and univariate statistical analysis, followed by multi-comparison test, was applied to the corresponding lifetime data. Significant differentiation between the three tissue types exists at 390 nm and 500 nm bands. The average lifetime is 3.23+/-0.74 ns for AT, 4.21+/-0.83 ns for FT and 4.71+/-0.35 ns (p<0.05) for IDC at 390 nm. Due to the smaller contribution of collagen in AT the average lifetime value is different from FT and IDC. Additionally, although intensity measurements do not show difference between FT and IDC, lifetime can distinguish them. Similarly, in 500 nm these values are 7.01+/-1.08 ns, 5.43+/-1.05 ns and 4.39+/-0.88 ns correspondingly (p<0.05) and this contrast is due to differentiation in retinol or flavins relative concentration, mostly contributing to AT. Results demonstrate the potential of TRFS to intra-operatively characterize BCS breast excised tissue in real-time and assess tumor margins.

  1. Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy of deeply buried tracer layers as a density and temperature diagnostic for the fast ignitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitenko, A. I., Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

    1997-03-26

    The fast igniter concept for inertial confinement fusion relies on the generation of hot electrons, produced by a short-pulse ultra-high intensity laser, which propagate through high-density plasma to deposit their energy in the compressed fuel core and heat it to ignition. In preliminary experiments designed to investigate deep heating of high density matter, we used a 20 joule, 0.5-30 ps laser to heat solid targets, and used emission spectroscopy to measure plasma temperatures and densities achieved at large depths (2-20 microns) away from the initial target surface. The targets consisted of an Al tracer layer buried within a massive CH slab H-like and He-like line emission was then used to diagnose plasma conditions. We observe spectra from tracer layers buried up to 20 microns deep, measure emission durations of up to 200 ps, measure plasma temperatures up to T{sub c} = 650 eV, and measure electron densities near 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}. Analysis is in progress, but the data appear to be in reasonable agreement with simulations when space-charge induced inhibition is included in hot-electron transport.

  2. Measurement and theoretical modeling of quantum beats in picosecond time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy of OH in atmospheric pressure flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvernev, A. A.; Tadday, R.; Dreier, T.

    1998-11-01

    Using tunable ultraviolet picosecond laser pulses pump-probe degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and polarization spectroscopy experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure flames to investigate the temporal signal behavior in selected rotational transitions of the OH A 2?-X 2? (0,0) electronic band. The relaxation behavior of simultaneously excited main and satellite transitions in the Q and P branches was studied in premixed stoichiometric methane-air and hydrogen-oxygen flames. Experimental signal traces are compared with expressions from a detailed theoretical treatment of the signal generation process using perturbation calculations. The theoretical approach consists in calculating the energy density in the signal field mode taking into account the frequency spread of the pump and probe beam radiation, collisional relaxation effects, and the polarization configuration of the incident beams. Relaxation times for population and orientation deduced from the fitting algorithm are in good agreement with DFWM line-shape studies [S. Williams et al., J. Chem. Phys. 104, 3947 (1996)]. It is shown that quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained for different polarization configurations of pump, probe, and signal photons can be achieved when appropriate time correlated interactions of pump and probe photons are taken into account. In addition, it is shown that due to the frequency spread of the employed laser pulses the different frequency components in the signal beam contribute with different amplitude to the oscillating and nonoscillating parts in the temporal development of the signal intensity depending on the relative strength of the simultaneously excited transitions.

  3. In vivo swine myocardial tissue characterization and monitoring during open chest surgery by time-resolved diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ascari, Luca; Potì, Luca; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; L'Abbate, Antonio; Puzzuoli, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in industrialized countries. Worldwide, a large number of patients suffering from cardiac diseases are treated by surgery. Despite the advances achieved in the last decades with myocardial protection, surgical failure can still occur. This is due at least in part to the imperfect control of the metabolic status of the heart in the various phases of surgical intervention. At present, this is indirectly controlled by the electrocardiogram and the echographic monitoring of cardiac mechanics as direct measurements are lacking. Diffuse optical technologies have recently emerged as promising tools for the characterization of biological tissues like breast, muscles and bone, and for the monitoring of important metabolic parameters such as blood oxygenation, volume and flow. As a matter of fact, their utility has been demonstrated in a variety of applications for functional imaging of the brain, optical mammography and monitoring of muscle metabolism. However, due to technological and practical difficulties, their potential for cardiac monitoring has not yet been exploited. In this work we show the feasibility of the in-vivo determination of absorption and scattering spectra of the cardiac muscle in the 600-1100 nm range, and of monitoring myocardial tissue hemodynamics by time domain near-infrared spectroscopy at 690 nm and 830 nm. Both measurements have been performed on the exposed beating heart during open chest surgery in pigs, an experimental model closely mimicking the clinical cardio-surgical setting.

  4. Time-Resolved Quantitative Measurement of OH HO2 and CH2O in Fuel Oxidation Reactions by High Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haifeng; Rotavera, Brandon; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-08-01

    Combined with a Herriott-type multi-pass slow flow reactor, high-resolution differential direct absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe, in situ and quantitatively, hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) and formaldehyde (CH 2 O) molecules in fuel oxidation reactions in the reactor, with a time resolution of about 1 micro-second. While OH and CH 2 O are probed in the mid-infrared (MIR) region near 2870nm and 3574nm respectively, HO 2 can be probed in both regions: near-infrared (NIR) at 1509nm and MIR at 2870nm. Typical sensitivities are on the order of 10 10 - 10 11 molecule cm -3 for OH at 2870nm, 10 11 molecule cm -3 for HO 2 at 1509nm, and 10 11 molecule cm -3 for CH 2 O at 3574nm. Measurements of multiple important intermediates (OH and HO 2 ) and product (CH 2 O) facilitate to understand and further validate chemical mechanisms of fuel oxidation chemistry.

  5. Spectrally- and time-resolved vibrational surface spectroscopy: Ultrafast hydrogen-bonding dynamics at D2O/CaF2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordenyuk, Andrey N.; Benderskii, Alexander V.

    2005-04-01

    Time- and frequency-domain three-wave mixing spectroscopy (IR+visible sum frequency generation) is developed as the lowest-order nonlinear technique that is both surface selective and capable of measuring spectral evolution of vibrational coherences. Using 70 fs infrared and 40 fs visible pulses, we observe ultrafast spectral dynamics of the OD stretch of D2O at the CaF2 surface. Spectral shifts indicative of the hydrogen-bond network rearrangement occur on the 100 fs time scale, within the observation time window determined by the vibrational dephasing. By tuning the IR pulse wavelength to the blue or red side of the OD-stretch transition, we selectively monitor the dynamics of different subensembles in the distribution of the H-bond structures. The blue-side excitation (weaker H-bonding structures) shows monotonic decay and ?(OD) frequency shift to the red on a 100 fs time scale, which is better described by a Gaussian than an exponential frequency correlation function. In contrast, the red-side excitation (stronger H-bonding structures) results in a blue spectral shift and a recursion in the signal at 125±10fs, indicating the presence of an underdamped intermolecular mode of interfacial water.

  6. Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudelet, Matthieu; Guyon, Laurent; Yu, Jin; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Amodeo, Tanguy; Fréjafon, Emeric; Laloi, Patrick

    2006-04-01

    Bacterial samples (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using femtosecond pulses. We compare the obtained spectra with those resulting from the classical nanosecond LIBS. Specific features of femtosecond LIBS have been demonstrated, very attractive for analyzing biological sample: (i) a lower plasma temperature leading to negligible nitrogen and oxygen emissions from excited ambient air and a better contrast in detection of trace mineral species; and (ii) a specific ablation regime that favors intramolecular bonds emission with respect to atomic emission. A precise kinetic study of molecular band head intensities allows distinguishing the contribution of native CN bonds released by the sample from that due to carbon recombination with atmospheric nitrogen. Furthermore a sensitive detection of trace mineral elements provide specific spectral signature of different bacteria. An example is given for the Gram test provided by different magnesium emissions from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. An entire spectrum consists of hundred resolved lines belonging to 13 atomic or molecular species, which provides an ensemble of valuable data to identify different bacteria.

  7. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Past, Present, Future

    PubMed Central

    Elson, Elliot L.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has become a routine method for determining diffusion coefficients, chemical rate constants, molecular concentrations, fluorescence brightness, triplet state lifetimes, and other molecular parameters. FCS measures the spatial and temporal correlation of individual molecules with themselves and so provides a bridge between classical ensemble and contemporary single-molecule measurements. It also provides information on concentration and molecular number fluctuations for nonlinear reaction systems that complement single-molecule measurements. Typically implemented on a fluorescence microscope, FCS samples femtoliter volumes and so is especially useful for characterizing small dynamic systems such as biological cells. In addition to its practical utility, however, FCS provides a window on mesoscopic systems in which fluctuations from steady states not only provide the basis for the measurement but also can have important consequences for the behavior and evolution of the system. For example, a new and potentially interesting field for FCS studies could be the study of nonequilibrium steady states, especially in living cells. PMID:22208184

  8. Proton Transfer and Protein Conformation Dynamics in Photosensitive Proteins by Time-resolved Step-scan Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A.; Heberle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the dynamics of protonation and protein backbone conformation changes during the function of a protein is an essential step towards understanding its mechanism. Protonation and conformational changes affect the vibration pattern of amino acid side chains and of the peptide bond, respectively, both of which can be probed by infrared (IR) difference spectroscopy. For proteins whose function can be repetitively and reproducibly triggered by light, it is possible to obtain infrared difference spectra with (sub)microsecond resolution over a broad spectral range using the step-scan Fourier transform infrared technique. With ~102-103 repetitions of the photoreaction, the minimum number to complete a scan at reasonable spectral resolution and bandwidth, the noise level in the absorption difference spectra can be as low as ~10-4, sufficient to follow the kinetics of protonation changes from a single amino acid. Lower noise levels can be accomplished by more data averaging and/or mathematical processing. The amount of protein required for optimal results is between 5-100 µg, depending on the sampling technique used. Regarding additional requirements, the protein needs to be first concentrated in a low ionic strength buffer and then dried to form a film. The protein film is hydrated prior to the experiment, either with little droplets of water or under controlled atmospheric humidity. The attained hydration level (g of water / g of protein) is gauged from an IR absorption spectrum. To showcase the technique, we studied the photocycle of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin in its native purple membrane environment, and of the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 solubilized in detergent. PMID:24998200

  9. Role of local structure and dynamics of small ligand migration in proteins: a study of a mutated truncated hemoprotein from Thermobifida fusca by time resolved MIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Barbara; Lapini, Andrea; Di Donato, Mariangela; Marcelli, Agnese; Lima, Manuela; Righini, Roberto; Foggi, Paolo; Baiocco, Paola; Bonamore, Alessandra; Boffi, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Carbon monoxide recombination dynamics in a mutant of the truncated hemoglobin from Thermobida fusca (3F-Tf-trHb) has been analyzed by means of ultrafast Visible-pump/MidIR-probe spectroscopy and compared with that of the wild-type protein. In 3F-Tf-trHb, three topologically relevant amino acids, responsible for the ligand stabilization through the formation of a H-bond network (TyrB10 TyrCD1 and TrpG8), have been replaced by Phe residues. X-ray diffraction data show that Phe residues in positions B10 and G8 maintain the same rotameric arrangements as Tyr and Trp in the wild-type protein, while Phe in position CD1 displays significant rotameric heterogeneity. Photodissociation of the ligand has been induced by exciting the sample with 550 nm pump pulses and the CO rebinding has been monitored in two mid-IR regions respectively corresponding to the ?(CO) stretching vibration of the iron-bound CO (1880-1980 cm(-1)) and of the dissociated free CO (2050-2200 cm(-1)). In both the mutant and wild-type protein, a significant amount of geminate CO rebinding is observed on a subnanosecond time scale. Despite the absence of the distal pocket hydrogen-bonding network, the kinetics of geminate rebinding in 3F-Tf-trHb is very similar to the wild-type, showing how the reactivity of dissociated CO toward the heme is primarily regulated by the effective volume and flexibility of the distal pocket and by caging effects exerted on the free CO on the analyzed time scale. PMID:25019316

  10. APD detectors for biological fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazères, S.; Borrel, V.; Magenc, C.; Courrech, J. L.; Bazer-Bachi, R.

    2006-11-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a very convenient and widely used method for studying the molecular background of biological processes [L. Salomé, J.L. Cazeil, A. Lopez, J.F. Tocanne, Eur. Biophys. J. 27 (1998) 391-402]. Chromophores are included in the structure under study and a flash of laser light induces fluorescence (Fluorescence Recovery After Photo-bleaching), the decay of which yields information on the polarity, the speed of rotation, and the speed of diffusion as well as on the temporal and spatial evolution of interactions between molecular species. The method can even be used to study living cells [J.F. Tocanne, L. Cézanne, A. Lopez, Prog. Lipid Res. 33 (1994) 203-237, L. Cezanne, A. Lopez, F. Loste, G. Parnaud, O. Saurel, P. Demange, J.F. Tocanne, Biochemistry 38 (1999) 2779-2786]. This is classically performed with a PM-based system. For biological reasons a decrease of the excitation of the cells is highly desirable. Because the fluorescence response then becomes fainter a significant improvement in detector capability would be welcome. We present here results obtained with an Avalanche Photo Diode (APD)-based system. The small sensitive area of detection allows a very significant improvement in signal/noise ratio, improvement in gain, and the opening-up of a new parameter space. With these new detectors we can begin the study of information transmission between cells through morphine receptors. This work involves both electronics engineers and biophysicists, so results and techniques in both fields will be presented here.

  11. Photolysis of Adenosylcobalamin and Radical Pair Recombination in Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase Probed on the Micro- to Millisecond Time Scale by using Time-Resolved Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Wesley D.; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The quantum yield and kinetics of decay of cob(II)alamin formed by pulsed-laser photolysis of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) in coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl)-dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) from Salmonella typhimurium have been studied on the 10-7 - 10-1 s time scale at 295 K by using transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to probe the mechanism of formation and stabilization of the cob(II)alamin-5?-deoxyadenosyl radical pair, which is a key intermediate in EAL catalysis, and the influence of substrate binding on this process. Substrate binding is required for cobalt-carbon bond cleavage in the native system. Photolysis of AdoCbl in EAL leads to a quantum yield at 10-7 s for cob(II)alamin of 0.08 ±0.01, which is 3-fold less than for AdoCbl in aqueous solution (0.23 ±0.01). The protein binding site therefore suppresses photoproduct radical pair formation. Three photoproduct states, Pf, Ps, and Pc, are identified in holo-EAL by the different cob(II)alamin decay kinetics (subscripts denote fast, slow, and constant, respectively). These states have the following first-order decay rate constants and quantum yields: Pf (2.2×103 s-1; 0.02), Ps (4.2×102 s-1; 0.01), and Pc (constant amplitude, no recombination; 0.05). Binding of the substrate analog, (S)-1-amino-2-propanol, to EAL eliminates the Pf state, and lowers the quantum yield of Pc (0.03) relative to Ps (0.01), but does not significantly change the quantum yield or decay rate constant of Ps, relative to holo-EAL. The substrate analog thus influences the quantum yield at 10-7 s by changing the cage escape rate from the geminate cob(II)alamin-5?-deoxyadenosyl radical pair state. However, the predicted substrate analog binding-induced increase in the quantum yield is not observed. It is proposed that the substrate analog does not induce the radical pair stabilizing changes in the protein that are characteristic of true substrates. PMID:19072291

  12. Dual-Color Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy on a

    E-print Network

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    . Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, "Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in living cells," Nat for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 science Drive 4, Singapore 117557 3 fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCS) is a new method for imaging FCS in 3D samples, providing

  13. Glucose Recognition in Vitro Using Fluorescent Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Noronha, G; Heiss, A M; Reilly, J R; Vachon, Jr, D J; Cary, D R; Zaitseva, N P; Reibold, R A; Lane, S M; Peyser, T A; Satcher, J H

    2001-04-25

    Diabetes is a disease that affects over 16 million people in the USA at a cost of 100 billion dollars annually. The ability to regulate insulin delivery in people with Type 1 diabetes is imperative as is the need to manage glucose levels in all people with this disease. Our current method for monitoring glucose is a (FDA approved) minimally invasive enzymatic sensor that can measure glucose levels in vivo for three days. We are focused on developing a noninvasive implantable glucose sensor that will be interrogated by an external device. The material must be robust, easy to process, biocompatible and resistant to biofouling. In this Presentation we will discuss the development of a new polymeric matrix that can recognize physiological levels of glucose in vitro using fluorescent spectroscopy.

  14. Resolution and Characterization of Chemical Steps in Enzyme Catalytic Sequences by Using Low-Temperature and Time-Resolved, Full-Spectrum EPR Spectroscopy in Fluid Cryosolvent and Frozen Solution Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Zhu, Chen; Kohne, Meghan; Warncke, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to the resolution and characterization of individual chemical steps in enzyme catalytic sequences, by using temperatures in the cryogenic range of 190-250K, and kinetics measured by time-resolved, full-spectrum electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in fluid cryosolvent and frozen solution systems, are described. The preparation and performance of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium in the two systems exemplifies the biochemical and spectroscopic methods. General advantages of low-temperature studies are (1) slowing of reaction steps, so that measurements can be made by using straightforward T-step kinetic methods and commercial instrumentation, (2) resolution of individual reaction steps, so that first-order kinetic analysis can be applied, and (3) accumulation of intermediates that are not detectable at room temperatures. The broad temperature range from room temperature to 190K encompasses three regimes: (1) temperature-independent mean free energy surface (corresponding to native behavior); (2) the narrow temperature region of a glass-like transition in the protein, over which the free energy surface changes, revealing dependence of the native reaction on collective protein/solvent motions; and (3) the temperature range below the glass transition region, for which persistent reaction corresponds to nonnative, alternative reaction pathways, in the vicinity of the native configurational envelope. Representative outcomes of low-temperature kinetics studies are portrayed on Eyring and free energy surface (landscape) plots, and guidelines for interpretations are presented. PMID:26478482

  15. Electronic structure and luminescence of [(CH3)4N]2MnX4 (X=Cl,Br) crystals at high pressures by time-resolved spectroscopy: Pressure effects on the Mn-Mn exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Nataf, L.; Rodríguez, F.

    2009-08-01

    This work investigates the Mn2+ photoluminescence (PL) and electronic structure of [(CH3)4N]2MnX4 (X:Cl,Br) and their variation with pressure through time-resolved spectroscopy in the 0-15 GPa range. The crystal-field excitation and emission spectra are explained on the basis of the MnX42-(Td) tetrahedra. Their peaks experience large pressure redshifts, which are associated with the big crystal compressibility and the interaction between organic/inorganic ([CH3]4N-/MnX42-) tetrahedra. The variation in the Racah parameters and crystal-field splitting with pressure indicates that the excitation and emission redshifts of Mn2+ are mainly governed by the increase in the Mn-X bond covalency (70%) rather than the increase in the crystal-field splitting (30%). Above 6 GPa, pressure induces structural modifications, which are related to aggregation of the MnX42- tetrahedra with change in Mn2+ coordination from fourfold MnX42-(Td) to sixfold MnX64-(Oh) . This process involves a drastic change in the PL behavior yielding a simultaneous two-color PL emission: green emission at 520 nm and a red emission around 650 nm. Both emissions experience noticeable redshifts with pressure producing a marked piezo-PL effect. The large pressure range of phase coexistence makes these materials attractive for multiband PL, the wavelengths of which can be tuned through pressure and eventually stabilized at ambient conditions.

  16. The Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline ID24.

    PubMed

    Pascarelli, S; Mathon, O; Mairs, T; Kantor, I; Agostini, G; Strohm, C; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Berruyer, G; Chappelet, P; Clavel, C; Dominguez, M C

    2016-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has recently made available to the user community a facility totally dedicated to Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy - TEXAS. Based on an upgrade of the former energy-dispersive XAS beamline ID24, it provides a unique experimental tool combining unprecedented brilliance (up to 10(14)?photons?s(-1) on a 4?µm × 4?µm FWHM spot) and detection speed for a full EXAFS spectrum (100?ps per spectrum). The science mission includes studies of processes down to the nanosecond timescale, and investigations of matter at extreme pressure (500?GPa), temperature (10000?K) and magnetic field (30?T). The core activities of the beamline are centered on new experiments dedicated to the investigation of extreme states of matter that can be maintained only for very short periods of time. Here the infrastructure, optical scheme, detection systems and sample environments used to enable the mission-critical performance are described, and examples of first results on the investigation of the electronic and local structure in melts at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the Earth's interior and in laser-shocked matter are given. PMID:26698085

  17. Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the SW Sex Star DW UMa: Confirmation of a Hidden White Dwarf and the UV Counterpart to Phase 0.5 Absorption Events

    E-print Network

    Christian Knigge; Sofia Araujo-Betancor; Boris T. Gaensicke; Knox S. Long; Paula Szkody; D. W. Hoard; R. I. Hynes; V. S. Dhillon

    2004-10-12

    We present time-resolved, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy of the SW Sex star DW UMa in the high state. We confirm that, shortward of 1500 \\AA, the high-state, UV continuum level is lower than the white dwarf (WD)-dominated low-state level. We also do not see the WD contact phases in the high state eclipse light curves. These results confirm our earlier finding that the WD in this system is hidden from view in the high state. Based on this, we caution that eclipse mapping of high-inclination SW Sex stars in the high state may yield incorrect or misleading results. In the context of DW UMa, we demonstrate explicitly that distance estimates obtained by recent eclipse mapping studies cannot be reconciled with the WD-dominated low-state spectrum. We also show that the fluxes of the UV emission lines in the high state drop near orbital phase 0.5. This is the first detection of a UV counterpart to the class-defining phase 0.5 absorption seen in the optical emission lines of SW Sex stars.

  18. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide - Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong Min; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Zhang, Lulu; Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4 (LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25 °C-580 °C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250 °C. Formation of MnO with rock-salt structure started at 520 °C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiated LMO in air, in which a process of ?-MnO2 transforming to ?-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumption by the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.

  19. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide – Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong Min; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Zhang, Lulu; Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4(LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25°C-580°C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250°C. Formation of MnO with rocksalt structure started at 520°C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiate LMO in air, in which a process of ?-MnO2 transforming to ?-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumptionmore »by the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.« less

  20. Spectral decomposition of NAD(P)H fluorescence components recorded by multi-wavelength fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in living cardiac cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorvatova, Alzbeta; Mateasik, Anton; Chorvat, Dusan, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    We report a novel analytical approach to identify individual components of a cell’s endogenous fluorescence, recorded by spectrally-resolved time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). Time-resolved area-normalized emission spectroscopy (TRANES) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to estimate the number of spectral components after metabolic modulation of cardiac cells following excitation with a 375 nm picosecond laser. Linear unmixing of TCSPC data spectrally decomposed individual components in living cells, while using characteristics of endogenously fluorescing molecules in solvents as a reference spectral database. Our data demonstrate the presence of three individual components, corresponding to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) in organic and inorganic solvents and to the residual flavoprotein fluorescence. The presented analytical approach offers a new alternative for the spectral separation of multi-wavelength fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy data to the conventional analysis, and opens a new possibility for the use of pattern recognition for fast resolution of components in 2D fluorescence lifetime microscopy images.

  1. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  2. Photochemical kinetics and fluorescence spectroscopy in photonic crystal fibres 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Gareth Owen Scott

    2013-06-29

    This thesis describes work carried out to demonstrate the use of photonic crystal fibres for the study of photochemistry reaction kinetics and fluorescence spectroscopy. Photonic crystal fibre allows the guidance of ...

  3. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of thymus and fat tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gui C.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Reid, V.; Steinglass, K.; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Jacobowitz, Larry; Alfano, Robert R.

    1993-08-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of the human thymus gland and surrounding mediastinal fat were measured to evaluate this approach in distinguishing between thymus and fat tissues during therapeutic surgery for myasthenia gravis disease.

  4. Quantitative Determination of DNA-Ligand Binding Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eamonn F.

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of fluorescence spectroscopy for determining the binding of the intercalcating agent crhidium bromide to DNA is being described. The analysis used simple measurement techniques and hence can be easily adopted by the students for a better understanding.

  5. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24µgL(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. PMID:26653471

  6. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide – Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong Min; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Zhang, Lulu; Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4(LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25°C-580°C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250°C. Formation of MnO with rocksalt structure started at 520°C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiate LMO in air, in which a process of ?-MnO2 transforming to ?-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumption by the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.

  7. Time-domain laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus for clinical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Jo, Javier A.; Vaitha, Russel; Shastry, Kumar; Marcu, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We report the design and development of a compact optical fiber-based apparatus for in situ time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (tr-LIFS) of biological systems. The apparatus is modular, optically robust, and compatible with the clinical environment. It incorporates a dual output imaging spectrograph, a gated multichannel plate photomultiplier (MCP-PMT), an intensified charge-coupled-device (ICCD) camera, and a fast digitizer. It can accommodate various types of light sources and optical fiber probes for selective excitation and remote light delivery/collection as required by different applications. The apparatus allows direct recording of the entire fluorescence decay with high sensitivity (nM range fluorescein dye concentration with signal-to-noise ratio of 46) and with four decades dynamic range. It is capable of resolving a broad range of fluorescence lifetimes from hundreds of picoseconds (as low as 300 ps) using the MCP-PMT coupled to the digitizer to milliseconds using the ICCD. The data acquisition and analysis process is fully automated, enabling fast recording of fluorescence intensity decay across the entire emission spectrum (0.8 s per wavelength or ˜40 s for a 200 nm wavelength range at 5 nm increments). The spectral and temporal responses of the apparatus were calibrated and its performance was validated using fluorescence lifetime standard dyes (Rhodamin B, 9-cyanoanthracene, and rose Bengal) and tissue endogenous fluorophores (elastin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide). Fluorescence decay lifetimes and emission spectra of all tested compounds measured with the current tr-LIFS apparatus were found in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. The design and performance of tr-LIFS apparatus have enabled in vivo studies of atherosclerotic plaques and brain tumors.

  8. Development of a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at an X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    PubMed

    Oura, Masaki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Chainani, Ashish; Miyawaki, Jun; Sato, Hiromi; Matsunami, Masaharu; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Kiss, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nakatani, Yasuhiro; Togashi, Tadashi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Kanade; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Shin, Shik; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize high-brilliance photon sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), for advanced time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system combined with a high-resolution hemispherical electron energy analyzer has been developed. The system's design enables it to be controlled by an external trigger signal for single-shot pump-probe-type TR-PES. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated with an offline test, followed by online core-level photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy in 'single-shot image', 'shot-to-shot image (image-to-image storage or block storage)' and `shot-to-shot sweep' modes at soft X-ray undulator beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. In the offline test the typical repetition rate for image-to-image storage mode has been confirmed to be about 15?Hz using a conventional pulse-generator. The function for correcting the shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations of the exciting photon beam, an important requirement for the TR-PES experiments at FEL sources, has been successfully tested at BL17SU by measuring Au 4f photoelectrons with intentionally controlled photon flux. The system has also been applied to hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) in `ordinary sweep' mode as well as shot-to-shot image mode at the 27?m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and also at the SACLA XFEL facility. The XFEL-induced Ti 1s core-level spectrum of La-doped SrTiO3 is reported as a function of incident power density. The Ti 1s core-level spectrum obtained at low power density is consistent with the spectrum obtained using the synchrotron source. At high power densities the Ti 1s core-level spectra show space-charge effects which are analysed using a known mean-field model for ultrafast electron packet propagation. The results successfully confirm the capability of the present data acquisition system for carrying out the core-level HAXPES studies of condensed matter induced by the XFEL. PMID:24365935

  9. Multiphoton cascade absorption in single molecule fluorescence saturation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winckler, Pascale; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2013-05-01

    Saturation spectroscopy is a relevant method to investigate photophysical parameters of single fluorescent molecules. Nevertheless, the impact of a gradual increase, over a broad range, of the laser excitation on the intramolecular dynamics is not completely understood, particularly concerning their fluorescence emission (the so-called brightness). Thus, we propose a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study to interpret the unexpected evolution of the brightness with the laser power taking into account the cascade absorption of two and three photons. Furthermore, we highlight the key role played by the confocal observation volume in fluorescence saturation spectroscopy of single molecules in solution. PMID:23521543

  10. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: A Review of Biochemical and Microfluidic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Martinez, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the years fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has proven to be a useful technique that has been utilized in several fields of study. Although FCS initially suffered from poor signal to noise ratios, the incorporation of confocal microscopy has overcome this drawback and transformed FCS into a sensitive technique with high figures of merit. In addition, tandem methods have evolved to include dual-color cross-correlation, total internal reflection fluorescence correlation, and fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy combined with time-correlated single photon counting. In this review, we discuss several applications of FSC for biochemical, microfluidic, and cellular investigations. PMID:21396180

  11. Measurement of surface concentration of fluorophores by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Delon, A; Derouard, J; Delapierre, G; Jaffiol, R

    2006-04-15

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is applied to study molecules passing through a small observation volume, usually subjected to diffusive or convective motion in a liquid phase. We suggest that such a technique could be used to measure the areal absolute concentration of fluorophores deposited on a substrate or embedded in a thin film, with a resolution of a few micrometers. The principle is to translate the solid substrate in front of a confocal fluorescence microscope objective and to record the subsequent fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity. The validity of this concept is investigated on model substrates (fluorescent microspheres) and DNA biochips. PMID:16625930

  12. Using fluorescence lifetime for discriminating detector afterpulsing in fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Enderlein, Jörg

    , Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany Received 3 August 2004; accepted 21 December 2004; published online 15 February 2005 Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy FCS has become an important and widely used to see a renaissance in single molecule spectroscopy SMS after the development of new lasers with high

  13. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  14. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy on a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    A self-powered smartphone-based field-portable "dual" spectrometer has been developed for both absorption and fluorescence measurements. The smartphone's existing flash LED has sufficient optical irradiance to undertake absorption measurements within a 3D-printed case containing a low cost nano-imprinted polymer diffraction grating. A UV (?ex ~ 370 nm) and VIS (?ex ~ 450 nm) LED are wired into the circuit of the flash LED to provide an excitation source for fluorescence measurements. Using a customized app on the smartphone, measurements of absorption and fluorescence spectra are demonstrated using pH-sensitive and Zn2+-responsive probes. Detection over a 300 nm span with 0.42 nm/pixel spectral resolution is demonstrated. Despite the low cost and small size of the portable spectrometer, the results compare well with bench top instruments.

  15. NIR Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies diagnose cancer!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Das, Bidyut B.; Glassman, Wenling S.; Tang, Gui C.; Zhu, Han-Ru; Akins, Daniel L.; Lubicz, Stephanie; Cleary, Joseph; Prudente, R.; Celmer, Edward J.; Caron, E.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1993-08-01

    NIR Raman scattering and fluorescence were investigated from malignant and normal biomedical media. Raman spectra were obtained from human normal, benign and cancerous tissues of the gynecological (GYN) tracts. Comparing the differences in intensity for the different Raman modes as well as the difference between the number of Raman lines, the normal (GYN) tissues can be distinguished from the malignant tissues. The fluorescence spectra from human breast tissues that were obtained showed that the ratio of fluorescence intensities at 340 nm to 440 nm can be used to distinguish between malignant and non- malignant tissues. Separate studies from normal and malignant breast cell lines show spectral differences assigned to NADH and flavins. These studies show that various optical techniques have the potential to be useful in medical diagnostic applications.

  16. Pancreatic tissue assessment using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Malavika; Heidt, David; Simeone, Diane; McKenna, Barbara; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2007-07-01

    The ability of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to detect signals from pancreatic tissue was demonstrated by studying human pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice and freshly excised human pancreatic tumor tissue. Measured optical spectra and fluorescence decays were correlated with tissue morphological and biochemical properties. The measured spectral features and decay times correlated well with expected pathological differences in normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue states. The observed differences between the fluorescence and reflectance properties of normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue indicate a possible application of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to differentiating between the three tissue classifications.

  17. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin

    SciTech Connect

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I.H.; Grondelle, Rienkvan; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T.

    2004-12-13

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm{sup -1}. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  18. Nonlinear Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeev, Victor V.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.

    Principles of nonlinear laser fluorescence spectroscopy of complicated organic compounds and of the method capable of determining photophysical parameters are considered in this chapter. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the method connected with specific photophysical processes in natural organic compounds, especially in proteins, and to the major role of intramolecular energy transfer and presence of localized donor-acceptor pairs (LDAP) of fluorophores within single macromolecules. These facts stimulated the development of models based on the collective states formalism describing fluorescent response of LDAP to pulsed laser excitation. Unique features of the method are illustrated by the example of proteins (proteins with intrinsic fluorescence (HSA, BSA) and fluorescent protein mRFP1) that can be used as fluorescent tags of intracellular processes while their photophysical parameters can be used as the information channel.

  19. Time-resolved transillumination and optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haller, Emmanuel B.

    1996-01-01

    In response to an invitation by the editor-in-chief, I would like to present the current status of time-domain imaging. With exciting new photon diffusion techniques being developed in the frequency domain and promising optical coherence tomography, time-resolved transillumination is in constant evolution and the subject of passionate discussions during the numerous conferences dedicated to this subject. The purpose of time-resolved optical tomography is to provide noninvasive, high-resolution imaging of the interior of living bodies by the use of nonionizing radiation. Moreover, the use of visible to near-infrared wavelength yields metabolic information. Breast cancer screening is the primary potential application for time-resolved imaging. Neurology and tissue characterization are also possible fields of applications. Time- resolved transillumination and optical tomography should not only improve diagnoses, but the welfare of the patient. As no overview of this technique has yet been presented to my knowledge, this paper briefly describes the various methods enabling time-resolved transillumination and optical tomography. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as the clinical challenges they face are discussed. Although an analytic and computable model of light transport through tissues is essential for a meaningful interpretation of the transillumination process, this paper will not dwell on the mathematics of photon propagation.

  20. Complexation of Cm(III) with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS).

    PubMed

    Bauer, N; Smith, V C; MacGillivray, R T A; Panak, P J

    2015-01-28

    The complexation of Cm(III) with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin (hTf/2N) is investigated in the pH range from 4.0 to 11.0 using TRLFS. At pH ? 7.4 a Cm(III) hTf/2N species is formed with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site. The results are compared with Cm(III) transferrin interaction at the C-lobe and indicate the similarity of the coordination environment of the C- and N-terminal binding sites with four amino acid residues of the protein, two H2O molecules and three additional ligands (e.g. synergistic anions such as carbonate) in the first coordination sphere. Measurements at c(carbonate)tot = 0.23 mM (ambient carbonate concentration) and c(carbonate)tot = 25 mM (physiological carbonate concentration) show that an increase of the total carbonate concentration suppresses the formation of the Cm(III) hTf/2N species significantly. Additionally, the three Cm(III) carbonate species Cm(CO3)(+), Cm(CO3)2(-) and Cm(CO3)3(3-) are formed successively with increasing pH. In general, carbonate complexation is a competing reaction for both Cm(III) complexation with transferrin and hTf/2N but the effect is significantly higher for the half molecule. At c(carbonate)tot = 0.23 mM the complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin and hTf/2N starts at pH ? 7.4. At physiological carbonate concentration the Cm(III) transferrin species II forms at pH ? 7.0 whereas the Cm(III) hTf/2N species is not formed until pH > 10.0. Hence, our results reveal significant differences in the complexation behavior of the C-terminal site of transferrin and the recombinant N-lobe (hTf/2N) towards trivalent actinides. PMID:25483018

  1. Fluorescent probes for shock compression spectroscopy of microstructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, James; Banishev, Alexandr; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    We are developing fluorescent probes to obtain time-resolved two-dimensional pressure maps of microstructured materials under shock compression. We have fabricated dye-doped silica nano- or micro-spheres which may be dispersed throughout a microstructured sample. Alternatively we can grow a thin layer of dye-doped silica on the surface of a larger grain. The microspheres were embedded in PMMA and shocked to 3-8.4 GPa using laser-driven flyer plates. The shocked emission had both a redshift and an intensity loss. It is easier in two dimensions to measure intensity changes rather than spectral shifts. When fluorescent dye was dispersed freely in PMMA, the intensity loss was much slower than the spectral shift. But by encapsulating the dye in silica, the emission became not only brighter but the intensity loss occurred on the same timescale as the redshift. Current research focuses on studies of the photophysical mechanism of dye response to shock and using this technique in granular media such as sand under shock compression.

  2. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  3. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  4. Time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables

    E-print Network

    C. Papadaki; H. M. J. Boffin; J. Cuypers; V. Stanishev; Z. Kraicheva; V. Genkov

    2003-12-18

    We present time-resolved photometry of two cataclysmic variables whose CCD photometric observations were obtained with the 1m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory in October 2002 and August 2003 and with the 1m telescope at Hoher List in Germany. Concerning MCT 2347-3144 we detect for the first time a period of 6.65h. For V1193 Ori the 3.96 h periodicity has for the first time been confirmed through time-resolved photometry.

  5. Application of photoacoustic, photothermal and fluorescence spectroscopies in signal enhancement and the kinetics, chemistry and photophysics of several dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Isak, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Modified photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies are applied in analytical studies of liquid and solid systems. Quenching of benzophenone by potassium iodide is used to demonstrate application of time resolved photothermal spectroscopies in study of fast (submicrosecond) deexcitation processes. Inherently weak X-ray photoacoustic signals at a synchrotron are enhanced by the introduction of a volatile liquid into a gas-microphone photoacoustic cell. Traditionally, photoacoustic signals have been detected either by gas coupling with a microphone or with a piezoelectric detector. However, optically detected photoacoustic signals have been used in the determination of physical properties of a liquid sample system and are successfully applied to the study of deexcitation processes of a number of dye molecules. Photothermal beam deflection photoacoustic (PBDPA), fluorescence and absorbance measurements are utilized to study the chemistry and photophysics of cresyl violet in aqueous, aqueous micellar and methanolic solutions. A concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of cresyl violet is investigated. Aspects of chemistry and photophysics relating to potential use of several diazo dyes as photothermal sensitizing dyes in photodynamic therapy are explored experimentally and discussed. Photothermal beam deflection, fluorescence and absorbance measurements are again utilized. The dyes are found to have a number of interesting chemical and photophysical properties. They are also determined to be ideal photothermal sensitizing dye candidates.

  6. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. Graphical Abstract An image comparison between FLIm and Raman spectroscopy acquired with the bimodal probe onseveral tissue samples. PMID:26093843

  7. Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 1. Principle.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-10-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a unique tool for investigating microsecond molecular dynamics of complex molecules in equilibrium. However, application of FCS in the study of molecular dynamics has been limited, owing to the complexity in the extraction of physically meaningful information. In this work, we develop a new method that combines FCS and time-correlated single photon counting (TCPSC) to extract unambiguous information about equilibrium dynamics of complex molecular systems. In this method, which we name two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS), we analyze the correlation of the fluorescence photon pairs, referring to the fluorescence lifetime. We first obtain the correlations of the photon pairs with respect to the excitation-emission delay times in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) map. Then, the 2D map is converted to the correlations between different species that have distinct fluorescence lifetimes using inverse Laplace transformation. This 2D FLCS is capable of visualizing the equilibration dynamics of complex molecules with microsecond time resolution at the single-molecule level. We performed a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a TCPSC-FCS experiment as a proof-of-principle example. The result clearly shows the validity of the proposed method and its high potential in analyzing the photon data of dynamic systems. PMID:23977832

  8. Exploring the conformational equilibrium of E. coli thioredoxin reductase: Characterization of two catalytically important states by ultrafast flavin fluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Berg, Petra A.W.; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Gobets, Bas; Van Stokkum, Ivo H.M.; Van Hoek, Arie; Williams, Charles H.; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    The conformational dynamics of wild-type Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the mutant enzyme C138S were studied by ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence of the flavin cofactor in combination with circular dichroism (both in the flavin fingerprint and far-UV regions) and steady-state fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data show two conformational states of the enzyme (named FO and FR), of which the physical characteristics differ considerably. Ultrafast fluorescence lifetime measurements make it possible to distinguish between the two different populations: Dominant picosecond lifetimes of ?1 ps (contribution 75%) and 7 ps (8%) are associated with the FO species in TrxR C138S. Long-lived fluorescence with two time constants in the range of 0.2–1 ns (total contribution 17%) originates from enzyme molecules in the FR conformation. The near absence of fast lifetime components in oxidized wild-type TrxR supports the idea of this enzyme being predominantly in the FR conformation. The emission spectrum of the FO conformation is blue-shifted with respect to that of the FR conformation. Because of the large difference in fluorescence characteristics, fluorescence measurements on time scales longer than 100 ps are fully determined by the fraction of enzyme molecules in the FR conformation. Binding of the thiol reagent phenyl mercuric acetate to wild-type enzyme and TrxR C138S stabilizes the enzymes in the FR conformation. Specific binding of the NADPH-analog, AADP+, to the FR conformation resulted in dynamic fluorescence quenching in support of the multiple quenching sites model. Raising the temperature from 277K–323K resulted in a moderate shift to the FR conformation for TrxR C138S. High concentrations of the cosolvent glycerol triggered the domain rotation from the FO to the FR conformation. PMID:11567095

  9. A 3-dimensional time-resolved photothermal deflection ``Mirage'' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrath, N. G. C.; Malacarne, L. C.; Lukasievicz, G. V. B.; Bernabe, H. S.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Shen, J.; Bialkowski, S. E.

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional time-resolved theory and experiment for photothermal deflection spectroscopy is developed. The heat conduction equations for two semi-infinite media consisting of an opaque sample and a fluid are solved considering temperature and energy flux balance conditions for a Gaussian heat source. The time dependent perpendicular deflection signal is calculated and compared to experimental measurements on glassy carbon and copper samples. Excellent agreement with literature values for thermal diffusivity of the samples is found. The transient behavior is analyzed for different coupling fluids.

  10. Time-Resolved Conformational Dynamics in Hydrocarbon Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Minitti, Michael P.; Weber, Peter M.

    2007-06-22

    Internal rotation about carbon-carbon bonds allows N,N-dimethyl-2-butanamine (DM2BA) and N,N-dimethyl-3-hexanamine (DM3HA) to assume multiple conformeric structures. We explore the equilibrium composition and dynamics between such conformeric structures using Rydberg fingerprint spectroscopy. Time constants for conformeric interconversion of DM2BA (at 1.79 eV of internal energy) are 19 and 66 ps, and for DM3HA (1.78 eV) 23 and 41 ps. For the first time, a time-resolved and quantitative view of conformational dynamics of flexible hydrocarbon molecules at high temperatures is revealed.

  11. Time-resolved spectroscopic studies of the AppA blue-light receptor BLUF domain from Rb. sphaeroides†

    PubMed Central

    Dragnea, Vladimira; Waegele, Matthias; Balascuta, Septimiu; Bauer, Carl; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    AppA is a blue-light and redox responding regulator of photosynthesis gene expression in Rb. sphaeroides. Detailed time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and sub-picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy study of the BLUF domain is presented for wild type AppA (AppAwt) and a photo-inactive Y21F mutant of AppA. The main findings discussed here are: 1) Time-resolved laser excitation studies on dark-adapted protein shows that AppAwt and Y21F mutant protein exhibits a fluorescence decay with a lifetime of 0.6 ns. Dark-adapted AppAwt, but not Y21F, also exhibits slower fluorescence decay with a lifetime of 1.7 ns. Analysis of AppAwt that was light excited to a stable light-adapted form prior to data collection shows mono-exponential fluorescence decay with a lifetime of 1.0 ns. This component disappeared after 1 minute of data collection after which the original “dark-adapted” values were recovered demonstrating the presence of a ? 1 minute lifetime intermediate during return of AppA from light to dark-adapted form. 2) Transient absorption spectral analysis reveals a very fast rising of transient absorption (<1 ps) for AppAwt. This fast component is missing in the Y21F mutant, which lacks Tyr21, giving rise to a slower transient absorption at 4-6 ps. In the AppAwt transient spectra, most ground state recovers within ?30 ps, comparing to ?90-130 ps in the mutant Y21F. We propose that a temporary electron transfer occurs from Tyr21 to the N5 of flavin in AppAwt and is a triggering event for subsequent hydrogen bond rearrangements. Dynamics of the AppA photocycle is discussed in view of the currently solved crystallographic structure of AppA. PMID:16331957

  12. Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of narrow gap Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te/Cd{sub y}Hg{sub 1?y}Te quantum well heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, S. V.; Rumyantsev, V. V. Antonov, A. V.; Kadykov, A. M.; Maremyanin, K. V.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.

    2014-07-14

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and kinetics of narrow gap Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te/Cd{sub y}Hg{sub 1?y}Te quantum well (QW) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique are studied. Interband PL spectra are observed from 18?K up to the room temperature. Time resolved studies reveal an additional PL line with slow kinetics (7??s at 18?K) related to deep defect states in barrier layers. These states act as traps counteracting carrier injection into QWs. The decay time of PL signal from QW layers is about 5??s showing that gain can be achieved at wavelengths 10–20??m by placing such QWs in HgCdTe structures with waveguides.

  13. Time resolved astronomy with the SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; McPhate, J.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Potter, S. B.; O'Donoghue, D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Schellart, P.; Spark, M.; Welsh, B. Y.; Zietsman, E.

    2010-07-01

    While time resolved astronomical observations are not new, the extension of such studies to sub-second time resolution is and has resulted in the opening of a new observational frontier, High Time Resolution Astronomy (HTRA). HTRA studies are well suited to objects like compact binary stars (CVs and X-ray binaries) and pulsars, while asteroseismology of pulsating stars, occultations, transits and the study of transients, will all benefit from such HTRA studies. HTRA has been a SALT science driver from the outset and the first-light instruments, namely the UV-VIS imager, SALTICAM, and the multi-purpose Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), both have high time resolution modes. These are described, together with some observational examples. We also discuss the commissioning observations with the photon counting Berkeley Visible Image Tube camera (BVIT) on SALT. Finally we describe the software tools, developed in Python, to reduce SALT time resolved observations.

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 ?M and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  15. Steady-state and time-resolved investigations on pyrene-based chemosensors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Núñez, Cristina; de Castro, Catherine S; Bértolo, Emilia; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Two novel fluorescent probes bearing a single (P) and two (a podand-like structure, L) pyrene units derived from 1,5-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-3-oxopentane have been synthesized and investigated in dioxane using UV-vis absorption, and steady-state and time-resolved (in a picosecond time scale) emission spectroscopy; in the gas phase, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry was employed. In dioxane, the absorption and emission spectra of P present a unique band with maxima at 361 and 392 nm, which have been associated with the monomer absorption and emission bands, respectively. In dioxane, for compound L, an additional band with a maximum at ?525 nm is observed; upon the addition of water, an emissive band (with maxima varying from 405 to 490 nm) appears in both P and L spectra; this is discussed in terms of the emission of a species with charge character. Upon metal addition (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Ag(+)) to P, a gradual quenching effect of the monomer emission is observed and found to be more pronounced with Cu(2+). In the case of L, upon the addition of metal cations, the long emission band (?550 nm) decreases and the monomer emission band increases (with an isoemissive point at ?450 nm) and no evidence for the intermediate band (at ?405-490 nm) now exists. Time-resolved data in dioxane/water mixtures showed that for P and L these two fit double- and triple-exponential decay laws, respectively. With P, this has been attributed to a two-state system, which involves the monomer and a charged species, with its emission maxima varying with the polarity of the media (here mirrored by its dielectric constant), which can potentially be addressed to an exciplex-like species, whereas with L, it has been attributed to a three-state system involving, in addition to these two species, an excimer. From absorption and fluorescence excitation and time-resolved data, evidence is given for the presence of intramolecular dimer formation in the ground state. PMID:23231666

  16. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (??) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval ?? from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  17. Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy of dynamic processes by multifocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krmpot, Aleksandar J.; Nikoli?, Stanko N.; Vitali, Marco; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Oasa, Sho; Thyberg, Per; Tisa, Simone; Kinjo, Masataka; Nilsson, Lennart; Gehring, Walter J.; Terenius, Lars; Rigler, Rudolf; Vukojevic, Vladana

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging without scanning is developed for the study of fast dynamical processes. The method relies on the use of massively parallel Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mpFCS). Simultaneous excitation of fluorescent molecules across the specimen is achieved by passing a single laser beam through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to generate a quadratic illumination matrix of 32×32 light sources. Fluorescence from 1024 illuminated spots is detected in a confocal arrangement by a matching matrix detector consisting of the same number of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). Software was developed for data acquisition and fast autoand cross-correlation analysis by parallel signal processing using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). Instrumental performance was assessed using a conventional single-beam FCS instrument as a reference. Versatility of the approach for application in biomedical research was evaluated using ex vivo salivary glands from Drosophila third instar larvae expressing a fluorescently-tagged transcription factor Sex Combs Reduced (Scr) and live PC12 cells stably expressing the fluorescently tagged mu-opioid receptor (MOPeGFP). We show that quantitative mapping of local concentration and mobility of transcription factor molecules across the specimen can be achieved using this approach, which paves the way for future quantitative characterization of dynamical reaction-diffusion landscapes across live cells/tissue with a submillisecond temporal resolution (presently 21 ?s/frame) and single-molecule sensitivity.

  18. Supplementary Material: Dual-Color Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy on a Single Plane

    E-print Network

    Langowski, Jörg

    Supplementary Material: Dual-Color Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy on a Single Plane¨uller, W. Waldeck, P. Angel, and J. Langowski, "Two-hybrid fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. Liu, H. Yu, I. Maruyama, and T. Wohland, "Multifunctional fluorescence correlation microscope

  19. Time-resolved UPS: a new experimental technique for the study of surface chemical reactions

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Michael

    Time-resolved UPS: a new experimental technique for the study of surface chemical reactions the dynamics of surface chemical reactions using photoemission spectroscopy. In this paper we describe details. Keywords: Visible and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy; Surface chemical reaction; Oxygen; Platinum 1

  20. Electron transfer dynamics of dye-55026 J-aggregate to AgBr grains studied by ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaopeng; Fan, Guozhi; Cao, Ning; Li, Xiaowei; Fu, Guangsheng

    2006-02-01

    Direct detection of the dynamics of photo-induced electrons in AgBr photographic system sensitized by dye-55026 was performed using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The dependence of the electron transfer rate on different conditions and microcosmic mechanism of electron transfer were analyzed. The experiment setup in our work was a system of high-speed streak photography (Streak Cameras) with a time-resolution of 5 ps. With stead spectroscopy, the peak of absorption and fluorescence of J-aggregation on AgBr grains both have a red shift contrast to monomer. On the same time the absorption spectrum band of J-aggregation becomes narrow. The fluorescence decay curves of J-aggregation on both the cubic and tabular AgBr grains (T-grains) were gained with different dye concentrations. These curves are fitted well by a sum of double exponential functions, which includes a fast and a slow component. Because of large amplitudes (68-99% for T-grains and 68-80% for cubic grains) of the fast decay (2.4-12.1ps for T-grains and 4.1-5.8ps for cubic grains) and the estimated quantum yield of the electron injection, this fast decay should be mainly attributable to the electron transfer from excited J-aggregation to conduction band of AgBr. At low concentration (<4.51mmol/molAg), the fluorescence decay lifetime for T-grains is longer than that for cubic grains. As the increase of the concentration, it will become more rapidly for T-grains than that for cubic grains.

  1. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  2. Molecular reaction and solvation visualized by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering: Structure, dynamics, and their solvent dependence

    E-print Network

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    Molecular reaction and solvation visualized by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering: Structure by the American Crystallographic Association, Inc. #12;Molecular reaction and solvation visualized by time of the reactions and related dynamics processes. Over many decades, time-resolved optical spectroscopy has served

  3. Effects of sulfation level on the desulfation behavior of pre-sulfated Pt BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts: a combined H2 Temperature-Programmed Reaction, in-situ sulfur K-edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peden, Charles HF

    2009-04-03

    Desulfation by hydrogen of pre-sulfated Pt(2wt%) BaO(20wt%)/Al2O3 with various sulfur loading (S/Ba = 0.12, 0.31 and 0.62) were investigated by combining H2 temperature programmed reaction (TPRX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in-situ sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), and synchrotron time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) techniques. We find that the amount of H2S desorbed during the desulfation in the H2 TPRX experiments is not proportional to the amount of initial sulfur loading. The results of both in-situ sulfur K-edge XANES and TR-XRD show that at low sulfur loadings, sulfates were transformed to a BaS phase and remained in the catalyst, rather than being removed as H2S. On the other hand, when the deposited sulfur level exceeded a certain threshold (at least S/Ba = 0.31) sulfates were reduced to form H2S, and the relative amount of the residual sulfide species in the catalyst was much less than at low sulfur loading. Unlike samples with high sulfur loading (e.g., S/Ba = 0.62), H2O did not promote the desulfation for the sample with S/Ba of 0.12, implying that the formed BaS species originating from the reduction of sulfates at low sulfur loading are more stable to hydrolysis. The results of this combined spectroscopy investigation provide clear evidence to show that sulfates at low sulfur loadings are less likely to be removed as H2S and have a greater tendency to be transformed to BaS on the material, leading to the conclusion that desulfation behavior of Pt BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts is markedly dependent on the sulfation levels.

  4. An Analog Filter Approach to Frequency Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trainham, R; O'Neill, M; McKenna, I J

    2015-11-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modelled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as SPICE can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modelling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response. The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications. PMID:26429345

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  6. Time Resolved Carrier Distributions in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, Steve; Dakovski, Georgi; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Dani, Keshav; Mohite, Aditya; Dattelbaum, Andrew; Rodriguez, George

    2012-02-01

    Graphene, a recently discovered two-dimensional form of carbon, is a strong candidate for many future electronic devices. A question of central importance in optoelectronics, particularly high-speed applications, is how photoexcited carriers behave on ultrashort time scales. Even though time-resolved studies have provided a wealth of information, fundamental questions concerning the quantum descriptions of the transient electron-hole plasma remain. On one hand, conflicting views on the relaxation dynamics go as far as precluding the possibility of observing some predicted phenomena, such as THz lasing or tunable lasers while the observation of phenomena such as ultrafast photoluminescence and carrier multiplication are already established. Here, by employing the technique of time-resolved photoemission, we directly obtain the evolving Fermi-Dirac distributions of the electrons and holes: on an ultrashort 500 fs time scale the electron and hole populations can be described by two separate Fermi-Dirac distributions, while on longer time scales the populations coalesce to form a single Fermi-Dirac distribution at an elevated temperature. This unusual behavior is a consequence of graphene's unique band structure and has important implications for possible applications.

  7. Probing the ligand recognition and discrimination environment of the globin-coupled oxygen sensor protein YddV by FTIR and time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, Andrea; Martínková, Markéta; Shimizu, Toru; Kitanishi, Kenichi; Stranava, Martin; Loullis, Andreas; Pinakoulaki, Eftychia

    2015-07-14

    YddV is a newly discovered signal transducer heme protein that recognizes O2 and CO. Structural differences in the ligand-bound heme complex in YddV reflect variations in catalytic regulation by O2 and CO. Time-resolved step-scan (TRS(2)) FTIR studies of the wild type and of the important in oxygen recognition and stability of the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex L65M, L65T, Y43A, Y43F and Y43W mutants were performed to determine the site-specific protein dynamics following carbon monoxide (CO) photodissociation. These mutations were designed to perturb the electrostatic field near the iron-bound gaseous ligand (CO) and also to allow us to investigate the communication pathway between the distal residues of the protein and heme. TRS(2)-FTIR spectra of YddV-heme-CO show that the heme propionates are in protonated and deprotonated states. Moreover, the rate of decay of the vibrations of amide I is on a time scale that coincides with the rate of rebinding of CO, which suggests that there is coupling between ligation dynamics in the distal heme environment and (i) relaxation of the protein backbone and (ii) the environment sensed by the heme propionates. The fast recombination rates in L65M, L65T and Y43W imply a significant role of L65 and Y43 in controlling the ligand dynamics. The implications of these results with respect to the role of the heme propionates and the charged or proton-donating residues in the distal pocket, which are crucial for stabilizing bound gaseous ligands, are discussed. PMID:26063650

  8. Space and time resolved spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: A study of density-sensitive x-ray transitions in helium-like and neon-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Bruce Kai Fong

    1988-09-01

    The determination of level populations and detailed population mechanisms in dense plasmas has become an increasingly important problem in atomic physics. In this work, the density variation of line intensities and level populations in aluminum K-shell and molybdenum and silver L-shell emission spectra have been measured from high-powered, laser-produced plasmas. For each case, the density dependence of the observed line emission is due to the effect of high frequency electron-ion collisions on metastable levels. The density dependent line intensities vary greatly in laser-produced plasmas and can be used to extract detailed information concerning the population kinetics and level populations of the ions. The laser-plasmas had to be fully characterized in order to clearly compare the observed density dependence with atomic theory predictions. This has been achieved through the combined use of new diagnostic instruments and microdot targets which provided simultaneously space, time, and spectrally resolved data. The plasma temperatures were determined from the slope of the hydrogen-like recombination continuum. The time resolved electron density profiles were measured using multiple frame holographic interferometry. Thus, the density dependence of K-shell spectral lines could be clearly examined, independent of assumptions concerning the dynamics of the plasma. In aluminum, the electron density dependence of various helium-like line intensity ratios were measured. Standard collisional radiative equilibrium models fail to account for the observed density dependence measured for the ''He/sub ..cap alpha..//IC'' ratio. Instead, a quasi-steady state atomic model based on a purely recombining plasma is shown to accurately predict the measured density dependence. This same recombining plasma calculation successfully models the density dependence of the high-n ''He/sub ..gamma..//He/sub ..beta../'' and ''He/sub delta//He/sub ..beta../'' helium-like resonance line intensity ratios.

  9. The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Müller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian-Lorentzian PSF for two photon excitation, is explicitly treated. Measured photon counting distributions obtained with a two-photon excitation source agree, within experimental error with the theoretical PCHs calculated for the square of a Gaussian-Lorentzian beam profile. We demonstrate and discuss the influence of the average number of particles within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling interval upon the super-Poissonian character of the photon counting distribution. PMID:10388780

  10. Optical fiber fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting AFM1 in milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Cucci, C.; Ciaccheri, L.; Dall'Asta, C.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.; Marchelli, R.

    2008-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy carried out by means of optical fibers was used for the rapid screening of M1 aflatoxin in milk, enabling the detection of concentrations up to the legal limit, which is 50 ppt. A compact fluorometric device equipped with a LED source, a miniaturized spectrometer, and optical fibers for illumination/detection of the measuring micro-cell was tested for measuring threshold values of AFM1 in pre-treated milk samples. Multivariate processing of the spectral data made it possible to obtain a preliminary screening at the earlier stages of the industrial process, as well as to discard contaminated milk stocks before their inclusion in the production chain.

  11. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter ? of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  12. In vivo time-resolved autofluorescence measurements to test for glycation of human skin

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    In vivo time-resolved autofluorescence measurements to test for glycation of human skin Jennifer-resolved fluorescence measurements on human skin for screening type 2 diabetes. In vivo human skin is excited- rescent decays of 38 diabetic subjects and 37 nondiabetic subjects, with different skin complexions

  13. Examination of laser microbeam cell lysis in a PDMS microfluidic channel using time-resolved imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A.; Lai, Hsuan-Hong; Yoon, Helen H.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2008-01-01

    We use time-resolved imaging to examine the lysis dynamics of non-adherent BAF-3 cells within a microfluidic channel produced by the delivery of single highly-focused 540 ps duration laser pulses at ? = 532 nm. Time-resolved bright-field images reveal that the delivery of the pulsed laser microbeam results in the formation of a laser-induced plasma followed by shock wave emission and cavitation bubble formation. The confinement offered by the microfluidic channel constrains substantially the cavitation bubble expansion and results in significant deformation of the PDMS channel walls. To examine the cell lysis and dispersal of the cellular contents, we acquire time-resolved fluorescence images of the process in which the cells were loaded with a fluorescent dye. These fluorescence images reveal cell lysis to occur on the nanosecond to microsecond time scale by the plasma formation and cavitation bubble dynamics. Moreover, the time-resolved fluorescence images show that while the cellular contents are dispersed by the expansion of the laser-induced cavitation bubble, the flow associated with the bubble collapse subsequently re-localizes the cellular contents to a small region. This capacity of pulsed laser microbeam irradiation to achieve rapid cell lysis in microfluidic channels with minimal dilution of the cellular contents has important implications for their use in lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:18305858

  14. Detectors for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    MICHALET, X.; SIEGMUND, O.H.W.; VALLERGA, J.V.; JELINSKY, P.; MILLAUD, J.E.; WEISS, S.

    2010-01-01

    Single-molecule observation, characterization and manipulation techniques have recently come to the forefront of several research domains spanning chemistry, biology and physics. Due to the exquisite sensitivity, specificity, and unmasking of ensemble averaging, single-molecule fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy have become, in a short period of time, important tools in cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics. These methods led to new ways of thinking about biological processes such as viral infection, receptor diffusion and oligomerization, cellular signaling, protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions, and molecular machines. Such achievements require a combination of several factors to be met, among which detector sensitivity and bandwidth are crucial. We examine here the needed performance of photodetectors used in these types of experiments, the current state of the art for different categories of detectors, and actual and future developments of single-photon counting detectors for single-molecule imaging and spectroscopy. PMID:20157633

  15. Identification of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Carotid Artery by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Rick; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Silveira, Landulfo; Costa, Maricília Silva; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Brugnera, Aldo

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery using the Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The most important pathogeny in the cardiovascular disorders is the atherosclerosis, which may affect even younger individuals. With approximately 1.2 million heart attacks and 750,000 strokes afflicting an aging American population each year, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death. Carotid artery samples were obtained from the Autopsy Service at the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) taken from cadavers. After a histopathological analysis the 60 carotid artery samples were divided into two groups: normal (26) and atherosclerotic plaques (34). Samples were irradiated with the wavelength of 488 nm from an Argon laser. A 600 ?m core optical fiber, coupled to the Argon laser, was used for excitation of the sample, whereas another 600 optical fiber, coupled to the spectrograph entrance slit, was used for collecting the fluorescence from the sample. Measurements were taken at different points on each sample and then averaged. Fluorescence spectra showed a single broad line centered at 549 nm. The fluorescence intensity for each sample was calculated by subtracting the intensity at the peak (550 nm) and at the bottom (510 nm) and then data were statistically analyzed, looking for differences between both groups of samples. ANOVA statistical test showed a significant difference (p<0,05) between both types of tissues, with regard to the fluorescence peak intensities. Our results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the presence of the atherosclerotic in carotid tissue.

  16. Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    McGee, Sasha

    OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-phenylpropargyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Nakajima, Masakazu; Gibson, Bligh A.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Kable, Scott H.

    2009-04-01

    The D1(A2?)-D0(A2?) electronic transition of the resonance-stabilized 1-phenylpropargyl radicalooled discharge of 3-phenyl-1-propyne, has been investigated in detail by laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed single vibronic level fluorescence (SVLF) spectroscopy. The transition is dominated by the origin band at 21 007 cm-1, with weaker Franck-Condon activity observed in a' fundamentals and even overtones and combinations of a? symmetry. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations of the D0 and D1 geometries and frequencies were performed to support and guide the experimental assignments throughout. Analysis of SVLF spectra from 16 D1 vibronic levels has led to the assignment of 15 fundamental frequencies in the excited state and 19 fundamental frequencies in the ground state; assignments for many more normal modes not probed directly by fluorescence spectroscopy are also suggested. Duschinsky mixing, in which the excited state normal modes are rotated with respect to the ground state modes, is prevalent throughout, in vibrations of both a' and a? symmetry.

  18. Live-cell multiphoton fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with an improved large Stokes shift fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yinghua; Meurer, Matthias; Raghavan, Sarada; Rebane, Aleksander; Lindquist, Jake R.; Santos, Sofia; Kats, Ilia; Davidson, Michael W.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Hughes, Thomas E.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Knop, Michael; Shah, Jagesh V.

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved variant of mKeima, a monomeric long Stokes shift red fluorescent protein, hmKeima8.5. The increased intracellular brightness and large Stokes shift (?180 nm) make it an excellent partner with teal fluorescent protein (mTFP1) for multiphoton, multicolor applications. Excitation of this pair by a single multiphoton excitation wavelength (MPE, 850 nm) yields well-separable emission peaks (?120-nm separation). Using this pair, we measure homo- and hetero-oligomerization interactions in living cells via multiphoton excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (MPE-FCS). Using tandem dimer proteins and small-molecule inducible dimerization domains, we demonstrate robust and quantitative detection of intracellular protein–protein interactions. We also use MPE-FCCS to detect drug–protein interactions in the intracellular environment using a Coumarin 343 (C343)-conjugated drug and hmKeima8.5 as a fluorescence pair. The mTFP1/hmKeima8.5 and C343/hmKeima8.5 combinations, together with our calibration constructs, provide a practical and broadly applicable toolbox for the investigation of molecular interactions in the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:25877871

  19. Classification of plum spirit drinks by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sádecká, J; Jakubíková, M; Májek, P; Kleinová, A

    2016-04-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was used in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the differentiation of plum spirits according to their geographical origin. A total of 14 Czech, 12 Hungarian and 18 Slovak plum spirit samples were used. The samples were divided in two categories: colorless (22 samples) and colored (22 samples). Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) obtained at a wavelength difference of 60nm provided the best results. Considering the PCA-LDA applied to the SFS of all samples, Czech, Hungarian and Slovak colorless samples were properly classified in both the calibration and prediction sets. 100% of correct classification was also obtained for Czech and Hungarian colored samples. However, one group of Slovak colored samples was classified as belonging to the Hungarian group in the calibration set. Thus, the total correct classifications obtained were 94% and 100% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Applying PCA-LDA to NIR spectra (5500-6000cm(-1)), the total correct classifications were 91% and 92% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively, which were slightly lower than those obtained using SFS. PMID:26593555

  20. Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometric Modeling for Bioprocess Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Saskia M.; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables. PMID:25942644

  1. Measurement of Formaldehyde by Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cryer, D. R.; Ingham, T.; Whalley, L. K.; Heard, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gas phase formaldehyde (HCHO) is a key species in the troposphere. It is formed as an intermediate product during the removal of almost all volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by the hydroxyl radical (OH) and is a tracer of overall oxidising capacity. A new instrument has been developed for the measurement of [HCHO] by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and deployed in the field. Ultra-violet (UV) radiation from a tuneable fibre laser was used to excite HCHO in a low pressure cell (~130 Torr) at ca. 353 nm with fluorescence collected between 390 - 550 nm. The resulting fluorescence was detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and processed by photon counting techniques. The instrument performance will be described in detail in addition to a novel calibration method where a known quantity of HCHO was produced through photolysis of methanol (CH3OH) vapour in the presence of oxygen. The instrument was first deployed in June 2014 at a suburban site in York (UK). Data from this campaign and interpretation will be presented in addition to observations from more recent field measurements.

  2. Size determination of quantum dots with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D.; Ast, C.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Zulqurnain, A.; Parak, W.; Hildebrandt, N.

    2011-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are highly interesting fluorophores for a large variety of spectroscopic applications. Although their fluorescence properties are well investigated, accurate size determination of QDs is still a problem. TEM techniques can image the inorganic core/shell system of QDs, but size determination of polymer coated QDs is difficult. SEC (size exclusion chromatography) compares the QD size only with standard polymers and their sizes, and is therefore not easy to use on nanoparticles. As QDs are fluorescent, single molecule spectroscopy methods such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can be used to determine QDs diffusion coefficients and hence their hydrodynamic radii. Moreover, this method for size determination requires only very low QD concentrations, which is a mayor advantage compared to other techniques such as dynamic light scattering. Within our contribution we present the size determination of commercially available and self-modified QDs with FCS. The commercial QDs (QD525, QD565, QD605, QD655 and QD705 - purchased from Invitrogen Inc.) have a rather thick polymer shell and are functionalized with streptavidin, biotin or carboxylic groups. The self-modified QDs consist of the same commercial core/shell QDs and are modified with a polymer shell and several bio-functionalization groups. For all nanoparticles the diffusion coefficients were measured by FCS and the hydrodynamic radii were calculated according to the Stokes-Einstein equation. The obtained results are in good agreement with the size information provided by Invitrogen Inc., which demonstrates that FCS is an important technique for QD size determination at very low concentrations.

  3. Effects of Sulfation Level on the Desulfation Behavior of Presulfated Pt-BaO/Al2O3 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts: A Combined H2 Temperature-Programmed Reaction, in Situ Sulfur K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.H.; Hanson, J.; Szanyi, J.; Kwak, J.H.; Wang, X.; Hanson, J.C.; Engelhard, M.; and Peden, C.H.F.

    2009-04-30

    Desulfation by hydrogen of presulfated Pt (2 wt %)-BaO(20 wt %)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with various sulfur loading (S/Ba = 0.12, 0.31, and 0.62) were investigated by combining H{sub 2} temperature programmed reaction (TPRX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in situ sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), and synchrotron time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) techniques. We find that the amount of H{sub 2}S desorbed during the desulfation in the H{sub 2} TPRX experiments is not proportional to the amount of initial sulfur loading. The results of both in situ sulfur K-edge XANES and TR-XRD show that at low sulfur loadings, sulfates were transformed to a BaS phase and remained in the catalyst rather than being removed as H{sub 2}S. On the other hand, when the deposited sulfur level exceeded a certain threshold (at least S/Ba = 0.31) sulfates were reduced to form H{sub 2}S, and the relative amount of the residual sulfide species in the catalyst was much less than at low sulfur loading. Unlike samples with high sulfur loading (e.g., S/Ba = 0.62), H{sub 2}O did not promote the desulfation for the sample with S/Ba of 0.12, implying that the formed BaS species originating from the reduction of sulfates at low sulfur loading are more stable to hydrolysis. The results of this combined spectroscopy investigation provide clear evidence to show that sulfates at low sulfur loadings are less likely to be removed as H{sub 2}S and have a greater tendency to be transformed to BaS on the material, leading to the conclusion that desulfation behavior of Pt-BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lean NO{sub x} trap catalysts is markedly dependent on the sulfation levels.

  4. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  5. Fullerol in human lens and retinal pigment epithelial cells: time domain fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Paola; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Hu, Dan-Ning; Roberts, Joan E

    2011-06-01

    Fullerol is a fullerene derivative that is extensively hydroxylated [nano-C(60)(OH)(24)] and this makes it water-soluble. These fullerene derivatives have shown promise as drug carriers that bypass ocular barriers but fullerols are also potentially phototoxic to human lens and retinal tissues. Fluorescence imaging is a powerful and non-invasive means of probing nanoparticles in biological systems. However, fullerol nanoparticles have a very low level of fluorescence and have not as yet been imaged in vitro and in vivo. Using specialized measurements including time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), fullerol fluorescence was determined in aqueous solutions and detected in both human lens and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Time-resolved fluorescence of fullerol (5-200 ?M) was characterized in aqueous environment, where the fluorescence decay is best fitted with three lifetimes (3 ns, 0.7-0.9 ns and 0.2 ns). Time-resolved microspectrofluorimetry and time-gated fluorescence imaging were performed on both human lens and retinal pigment epithelial cells incubated with increasing fullerol doses (5-500 ?M and 5-50 ?M, respectively). Upon increasing concentration, we observe some shortening of the lifetimes, a reduction in the relative amplitude of the shortest-living component and a corresponding increase in the weight of the intermediate-living species. Time-gated imaging of fullerol fluorescence provided information on its intracellular distribution that correlates with progressive cell damage. Therefore time-gated imaging may potentially be used as a means to investigate fullerol distribution and toxicity in the human lens and retina in vivo. PMID:21298184

  6. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence based on black silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhida; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Yi; Gartia, Manas R.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate surface plasmon-induced enhancements in optical imaging and spectroscopy on silver coated silicon nanocones which we call black silver substrate. The black silver substrate with dense and homogeneous nanocone forest structure is fabricated on wafer level with a mass producible nanomanufacturing method. The black silver substrate is able to efficiently trap and convert incident photons into localized plasmons in a broad wavelength range, which permits the enhancement in optical absorption from UV to NIR range by 12 times, the visible fluorescence enhancement of ~30 times and the NIR Raman scattering enhancement factor up to ~108. We show a considerable potential of the black silver substrate in high sensitivity and broadband optical sensing and imaging of chemical and biological molecules.one)

  8. Afterpulsing and its correction in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Jin, Lei; Chen, Bo; Ding, Yao; Ma, Hui; Chen, Dieyan

    2003-07-01

    Afterpulsing arises from feedback in a photon detector. This means that each real signal pulse can be followed by an afterpulse at a later time. This effect is particularly troubling in photon correlation experiments. Few treatments of this effect have appeared in the literature, and few software programs to solve the problem have been written. We demonstrate the afterpulsing effect in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy by using different avalanche photodiodes. We prove theoretically that under simple and reasonable conditions afterpulsing in autocorrelation can be eliminated to the leading order; we have found it easy to program software for the correction. We compare our results with those from cross correlation. We also discuss some experimental parameters that may affect the afterpulsing.

  9. Fluorescence and UV-vis Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Marie J.; Stojilovic, Nenad; Kovacik, Mark W.

    2009-10-01

    Total joint arthroplasty involves replacing the worn cartilaginous surfaces of the joint with man-made materials that are designed to be biocompatible and to withstand mechanical stresses. Commonly these bearing materials consist of metallic alloys (TiAlV or CoCrMo) and UHMWPE. Following joint arthroplasty, the normal generation of micro-metallic wear debris particles that dislodge from the prosthesis has been shown to cause inflammatory aseptic osteolysis (bone loss) that ultimately results in the failure of the implant. Here we report our results on the novel use of Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the metallic content of synovial fluid specimens taken from postoperative total knee arthroplasties. Preliminary finding showed presence of alumina and chromium is some specimens. The ability to detect and monitor the wear rate of these implants could have far reaching implications in the prevention of metallic wear-debris induced osteolysis and impending implant failure.

  10. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy at Micromolar Concentrations without Optical Nanoconfinement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Laurence, Ted A.; Ly, Sonny; Bourguet, Feliza; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2014-08-14

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an important technique for studying biochemical interactions dynamically that may be used in vitro and in cell-based studies. It is generally claimed that FCS may only be used at nM concentrations. We show that this general consensus is incorrect and that the limitation to nM concentrations is not fundamental but due to detector limits as well as laser fluctuations. With a high count rate detector system and applying laser fluctuation corrections, we demonstrate FCS measurements up to 38 ?M with the same signal-to-noise as at lower concentrations. Optical nanoconfinement approaches previously used to increase themore »concentration range of FCS are not necessary, and further increases above 38 ?M may be expected using detectors and detector arrays with higher saturation rates and better laser fluctuation corrections. This approach greatly widens the possibilities of dynamic measurements of biochemical interactions using FCS at physiological concentrations.« less

  11. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy at Micromolar Concentrations without Optical Nanoconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, Ted A.; Ly, Sonny; Bourguet, Feliza; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2014-08-14

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an important technique for studying biochemical interactions dynamically that may be used in vitro and in cell-based studies. It is generally claimed that FCS may only be used at nM concentrations. We show that this general consensus is incorrect and that the limitation to nM concentrations is not fundamental but due to detector limits as well as laser fluctuations. With a high count rate detector system and applying laser fluctuation corrections, we demonstrate FCS measurements up to 38 ?M with the same signal-to-noise as at lower concentrations. Optical nanoconfinement approaches previously used to increase the concentration range of FCS are not necessary, and further increases above 38 ?M may be expected using detectors and detector arrays with higher saturation rates and better laser fluctuation corrections. This approach greatly widens the possibilities of dynamic measurements of biochemical interactions using FCS at physiological concentrations.

  12. H4 tail interactions revealed by fluorescent fluctuation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurse, Nathan; Yuan, Chongli

    2015-03-01

    Post-translational modifications to histone tails nave been shown to play a large role in dictating the conformation of chromatin. Structural changes in chromatin can play a large role in gene expression as compact chromatin can occlude transcriptional machinery. The role of the flexible regions of H4 N terminal tails is investigated using fluorescent correlation spectroscopy and the photon counting histogram. The combination of these techniques allows for the distinction between intra-array and inter-array interactions, as well as reveals structural changes that result from these interactions. The H4 tail was found to partake in attractive intra-array interactions that compact the 6x167 nucleosome arrays but did not partake in inter-array interactions that lead to oligomerization.

  13. Imaging fluorescence (cross-) correlation spectroscopy in live cells and organisms.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jan W; Singh, Anand P; Bag, Nirmalya; Garbe, Christoph S; Saunders, Timothy E; Langowski, Jörg; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    Single-plane illumination (SPIM) or total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopes can be combined with fast and single-molecule-sensitive cameras to allow spatially resolved fluorescence (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (FCS or FCCS, hereafter referred to FCS/FCCS). This creates a powerful quantitative bioimaging tool that can generate spatially resolved mobility and interaction maps with hundreds to thousands of pixels per sample. These massively parallel imaging schemes also cause less photodamage than conventional single-point confocal microscopy-based FCS/FCCS. Here we provide guidelines for imaging FCS/FCCS measurements on commercial and custom-built microscopes (including sample preparation, setup calibration, data acquisition and evaluation), as well as anticipated results for a variety of in vitro and in vivo samples. For a skilled user of an available SPIM or TIRF setup, sample preparation, microscope alignment, data acquisition and data fitting, as described in this protocol, will take ?1 d, depending on the sample and the mode of imaging. PMID:26540588

  14. Dynamic and unique nucleolar microenvironment revealed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Hweon; Han, Sung-Sik; Sako, Yasushi; Pack, Chan-Gi

    2015-03-01

    Organization and functions of the nucleolus is maintained by mobilities and interactions of nucleolar factors. Because the nucleolus is a densely packed structure, molecular crowding effects determined by the molecular concentrations and mobilities in the nucleolus should also be important for regulating nucleolar organization and functions. However, such molecular property of nucleolar organization is not fully understood. To understand the biophysical property of nucleolar organization, the diffusional behaviors of inert green fluorescent protein (GFP) oligomers with or without nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were analyzed under various conditions by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Our result demonstrates that the mobility of GFPs inside the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm can be represented by single free diffusion under normal conditions, even though the mobility in the nucleolus is considerably slower than that in the chromatin region. Moreover, the free diffusion of GFPs is found to be significantly size- and NLS-dependent only in the nucleolus. Interestingly, the mobility in the nucleolus is highly sensitive to ATP depletion, as well as actinomycin D (ActD) treatment. In contrast, the ultra-structure of the nucleolus was not significantly changed by ATP depletion but was changed by ActD treatment. These results suggest that the nucleolus behaves similarly to an open aqueous-phase medium with an increased molecular crowding effect that depends on both energy and transcription. PMID:25404711

  15. Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongshen; Pei, Yihui

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a new kind of real-time, high-speed and single-molecule technique. It is used to detect the kinetic characteristics of fluorescent dye such as diffusion coefficient in the aqueous solution. Combined with confocal microscope optics, it has been now widely applied in cell biological research. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining viscosity of fluids according to Stokes-Einstein equation. Nucleoplasmic viscosity is an important physical parameter to quantify the rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm. Investigation on nucleoplasmic viscosity plays an important role in further understanding intranuclear environment. In this paper, FCS is introduced to noninvasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells. The results show that nucleoplasmic viscosity of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells is 2.55+/-0.61 cP and nucleoplasmic viscosity is larger than cytoplasmic viscosity at 37 °C (pH 7.4). In addition, significant changes in nucleoplasmic viscosity are detected by FCS when cells are exposed to hyper or hypotonic medium. Our study suggests that FCS can be used to detect the kinetic characteristics of biomolecules in living cells and thus helps to investigate the dynamic changes of the microenvironment in the cell.

  16. Characterization of Titratable Amphiphiles in Lipid Membranes by Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Lebeau, Luc

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the ionization behavior of lipid membranes is a key parameter for successful development of lipid-based drug delivery systems. Accurate determination of the ionization state of a titratable species incorporated in a lipid bilayer however requires special care. Herein we investigated the behavior of titratable lipids in liposomes by fluorescence spectroscopy and determined which extrinsic parameters-i.e., besides those directly related to their molecular structure-determine their ionization state. Two fluorescent dyes, TNS and R18, have been used to investigate basic and acidic titratable lipids, respectively. Our results suggest that the titration behavior of the ionizable lipid in the membrane is more sensitive to the composition of the membrane and to its physical state than to the presence of solutes in the aqueous phase. Essentially overlooked in earlier studies on ionizable lipid assemblies, the concentration of the titratable lipid in the membrane was found to have a major effect on the ionization state of the lipid polar head. This may result in a shift in the apparent pKa value which may be as large as two pKa units and cannot be satisfactorily predicted. PMID:26507074

  17. Deuteration Effect Study on the Vibrational Dynamics of Phenol and Phenol-Water Complex by Picosecond Time-Resolved Ir-Uv Pump-Probe Spectroscopy in a Supersonic Molecular Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki

    2012-06-01

    The vibrational energy relaxations of the OH and OD stretch of phenol-d_0 and phenol-d_0-(H_2O) complex and phenol-d_1 and phenol-d_1-(D_2O) complex, respectively, are investigated by picosecond IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy. The key to understand their dynamic is well-suited to a two-step Tier model. For phenol-d_0, an energy flow is described by the intramolecularVR steps: "OH stretching level" ? "doorway state" ? "bath state". The intramolecularVR lifetime of phenol-d_0 is obtained to be 14 ps. On the other hand, the OD stretching vibration of phenol-d_1 exhibits quantum beats, followed by the intramolecularVR with a lifetime of 90 ps. In contrast, for the phenol-water complex, the intramolecularVR lifetime of OH(OD) stretch becomes 4.3 ps(12 ps) and an energy flow is described by the intramolecular and intermolecular processes, which lead to VP (vibratinal predisocciation). Although the energy difference is 1000 cm-1, no remarkable change of intermolecularVR and VP lifetimes is found in the hydrogen-bonded phenol-water complexes.

  18. Systematic investigation of time-resolved transmittance technique for optical characterization of scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Maria; Delfino, Ines; Falco, Daniela; Ramaglia, Antonio; Urso, Gaetano; Vigilante, Francesco; Indovina, Pietro L.

    1998-04-01

    The optical characterization of scattering media and biological samples is a very important topic due to the interest in using optical techniques as medical diagnostic tool. In this paper we reported experimental results concerning absorption and reduced scattering coefficients obtained in different scattering thick samples like latex and intralipid solutions, bovine muscle, chicken and turkey breast using a tunable time-resolved laser transmittance set-up. Our experimental data have been compared with the result of other different techniques and with the predictions of Mie theory indicating advantages and limits of time-resolved transmittance spectroscopy.

  19. Determining Individual Mineral Contributions To U(VI) Adsorption In A Contaminated Aquifer Sediment: A Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Resch, Charles T.; Moore, Dean A.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2011-05-15

    The adsorption and speciation of U(VI) was investigated on contaminated, fine grained sediment materials from the Hanford 300 area (SPP1 GWF) in simulated groundwater using cryogenic laser-induced U(VI) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis. A series of reference minerals (montmorillonite, illite, Michigan chlorite, North Carolina chlorite, California clinochlore, quartz and synthetic 6-line ferrihydrite) was used for comparison that represents the mineralogical constituents of SPP1 GWF. Surface area-normalized Kd values were measured at U(VI) concentrations of 5x10-7 mol L-1 and 5x10-6 mol L-1, respectively, that displayed the following affinity series: 6-line-ferrihydrite > North Carolina chlorite ? California clinochlore > Michigan chlorite ? quartz > montmorillonite ? illite ? SPP1 GWF. Both time-resolved spectra and asynchronous two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis of SPP1 GWF at different delay times indicated that two major adsorbed U(VI) species were present in the sediment that resembled U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and phyllosilicates. Simulations of the normalized fluorescence spectra confirmed that the speciation of SPP1 GWF was best represented by a linear combination of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz (90%) and phyllosilicates (10%). However, the fluorescence quantum yield for U(VI) adsorbed on phyllosilicates was lower than quartz and, consequently, its fractional contribution to speciation may be underestimated. Spectral comparison with literature data suggested that U(VI) exists primarily as inner-sphere U(VI) complexes with surface silanol groups on quartz while U(VI) on phyllosilicates was consistent with the formation of surface U(VI) tricarbonate complexes.

  20. Heat-induced unfolding of apo-CP43 studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and CD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qing-Jie; Li, Zai-Geng; Yang, Jiao; He, Qing; Xi, Lei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2015-12-01

    CP43 is a chlorophyll-binding protein, which acts as a conduit for the excitation energy transfer. The thermal stability of apo-CP43 was studied by intrinsic fluorescence, exogenous ANS fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Under heat treatment, the structure of apo-CP43 changed and existed transition state occurred between 56 and 62 °C by the intrinsic, exogenous ANS fluorescence and the analysis of hydrophobicity. Besides, the isosbestic point of the sigmoidal curve was 58.10 ± 1.02 °C by calculating ?-helix transition and the Tm was 56.45 ± 0.52 and 55.59 ± 0.68 °C by calculating the unfolded fraction of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence, respectively. During the process of unfolding, the hydrophobic structure of C-terminal segment firstly started to expose at 40 °C, and then the hydrophobic cluster adjacent to the N-terminal segment also gradually exposed to hydrophilic environment with increasing temperature. Our results indicated that heat treatment, especially above 40 °C, has an important impact on the structural stability of apo-CP43. PMID:26071019

  1. Time-resolved spectra from millivolt EELS data.

    PubMed

    Li, Chufeng; Subramanian, Ganesh; Spence, John C H

    2014-06-01

    The millivolt energy resolution now obtainable in electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) on the latest monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope corresponds, via the uncertainty principle, to a time range of 414 fs (for 10 meV resolution), and a time resolution of 0.138 fs (for energy range of 30 eV). (Thus, the width of an EELS peak is inversely related to the lifetime of an excitation.) This compares favorably with the latest X-ray free electron lasers. The time evolution of a Drude-Lorentz oscillator may be obtained from an EELS using logarithmic deconvolution followed by Kramers-Kronig analysis to extract the frequency-dependent dielectric function, and a final Fourier transform from frequency to time domain. This time-dependent dielectric function was interpreted as the impulse response of electrons, phonons, or ions based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. The time evolution of electronic oscillators from ice and protein, extracted from low resolution experimental data, were compared. Using higher energy resolution data we have also extracted the time-resolved spectra from excitons in an alkali halide, BaF2. Despite the small scanning transmission electron microscope probe size, delocalization limits the spatial resolution to about 50 nm, which is, nevertheless, better than the millimeter resolution of infrared absorption spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24878029

  2. Analysis of complex reacting mixtures by time-resolved 2D NMR.

    PubMed

    Dass, Rupashree; Ko?mi?ski, Wiktor; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-20

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a versatile tool for chemical analysis. Besides the most straightforward application to study a stable sample containing a single compound, NMR has been also used for the analysis of mixtures. In particular, the analyzed mixtures can undergo changes caused by chemical reactions. The multidimensional NMR techniques are especially effective in a case of samples containing many components. Unfortunately, they are usually too lengthy to be applied in time-resolved experiments performed to study mentioned changes in a series of spectral "snapshots." Recently, time-resolved nonuniform sampling (NUS) has been proposed as a straightforward solution to the problem. In this paper, we discuss the features of time-resolved NUS and give practical recommendations regarding the temporal resolution and use of the time pseudodimension to resolve the components. The theoretical considerations are exemplified by the application in challenging cases of fermenting samples of wheat flour and milk. PMID:25506657

  3. In vitro detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone levels by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy immunoassay for mathematical modeling of glucocorticoid-mediated feedback mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Performing quantitative, highly sensitive measurements at a single molecule level is often necessary to address specific issues related to complex molecular and biochemical systems. For that purpose, we present a technique exploiting both the flexibility of immunoassays as well as the low operating costs and high throughput rates of the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) method. That way we have established a quantitative measurement technique providing accurate and flexibly time resolved data of single molecules. Nanomolar changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels have been detected in a short time-frame that are caused by fast feedback actions in AtT-20 anterior pituitary glands in vitro. Especially with respect to clinical diagnostic or mathematical modeling this improved FCS setup may be of high relevance in order to accurately quantify the amounts of peptide hormones—such as ACTH—as well as signaling molecules, transcription factors, etc., being involved in intra- and extracellular reaction networks. PMID:23102048

  4. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy: ushering in a new age of enlightenment for cellular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, David M.; Ross, Justin A.; Albanesi, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Originally developed for applications in physics and physical chemistry, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is becoming widely used in cell biology. This review traces the development of the method and describes some of the more important applications. Specifically, the methods discussed include fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), scanning FCS, dual color cross-correlation FCS, the photon counting histogram and fluorescence intensity distribution analysis approaches, the raster scanning image correlation spectroscopy method, and the Number and Brightness technique. The physical principles underlying these approaches will be delineated, and each of the methods will be illustrated using examples from the literature. PMID:21547245

  5. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the C3N radical.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Kennosuke; Endo, Yasuki

    2007-11-14

    Electronic spectra of the C3N radical have been observed for the first time in the near ultraviolet wavelength region by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. Seventeen vibronic bands of the B 2Pii-X 2Sigma+ electronic transition system of C3N were identified in LIF spectra of products in a discharge of HC3N. The origin of the B 2Pii state was determined to be 27,929.985(1) cm(-1) from rovibrational analyses. It was found that observations of two types of 2Sigma vibronic levels, which have 2Sigma+ and 2Sigma+/- symmetries originated from excitations of the nu4 trans-bending mode (omega4=369.1(20) cm(-1)) with a large Renner-Teller (RT) interaction (epsilon4=-0.1549(50)), and the nu5 cis-bending mode (omega5=163.24(84) cm(-1)) with a small Renner-Teller interaction (epsilon5=-0.0503(68)), respectively. Vibronic levels, with excitations of the C-C stretching (omega3=869.7 cm(-1)) mode, were also identified. The spin-orbit interaction constant was determined to be Aso=-36.7(50) cm(-1) from the RT analysis. In dispersed fluorescence spectra from B 2Pii, vibrational structures of the low-lying electronically excited A 2Pii state were clearly observed with a strong progression due to the nu3' mode, together with those of the X 2Sigma+ state with weak intensities. The origin of A 2Pii, T0=1844(3) cm(-1), and the vibrational frequencies, omega3'=883(3) cm(-1) and omega5'=121(3) cm(-1) for A 2Pii, and omega3"=1054(3) cm(-1), omega4"=405(3) cm(-1), and omega5"=131(3) cm(-1) for X 2Sigma+, were determined. Time profiles of fluorescence from B 2Pii have short (50-200 ns) and long (>1 micros) decay components with quantum beats, indicating that there is a competition between radiative decay and the nonradiative internal conversion to vibrationally highly excited A 2Pii and X 2Sigma+. PMID:18020636

  6. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Del Razo, Mauricio; Pan, Wenxiao; Qian, Hong; Lin, Guang

    2014-05-30

    The currently existing theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is based on the linear fluctuation theory originally developed by Einstein, Onsager, Lax, and others as a phenomenological approach to equilibrium fluctuations in bulk solutions. For mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear chemical reactions among a small number of molecules, a situation often encountered in single-cell biochemistry, it is expected that FCS time correlation functions of a reaction-diffusion system can deviate from the classic results of Elson and Magde [Biopolymers (1974) 13:1-27]. We first discuss this nonlinear effect for reaction systems without diffusion. For nonlinear stochastic reaction-diffusion systems there are no closed solutions; therefore, stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out. We show that the deviation is small for a simple bimolecular reaction; the most significant deviations occur when the number of molecules is small and of the same order. Extending Delbrück-Gillespie’s theory for stochastic nonlinear reactions with rapidly stirring to reaction-diffusion systems provides a mesoscopic model for chemical and biochemical reactions at nanometric and mesoscopic level such as a single biological cell.

  7. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on nano-fakir surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, Julie; Gresillon, Samuel; Lév"que-Fort, Sandrine; Sojic, Neso; Fort, Emmanuel

    2010-02-01

    Single biomolecule behaviour can reveal crucial information about processes not accessible by ensemble measurements. It thus represents a real biotechnological challenge. Common optical microscopy approaches require pico- to nano-molar concentrations in order to isolate an individual molecule in the observation volume. However, biologically relevant conditions often involve micromolar concentrations, which impose a drastic reduction of the conventional observation volume by at least three orders of magnitude. This confinement is also crucial for mapping sub-wavelength heterogeneities in cells, which play an important role in many biological processes. We propose an original approach, which couples Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), a powerful tool to retrieve essential information on single molecular behaviour, and nano-fakir substrates with strong field enhancements and confinements at their surface. These electromagnetic singularities at nanometer scale, called "hotspots", are the result of the unique optical properties of surface plasmons. They provide an elegant means for studying single-molecule dynamics at high concentrations by reducing dramatically the excitation volume and enhancing the fluorophore signal by several orders of magnitude. The nano-fakir substrates used are obtained from etching optical fiber bundles followed by sputtering of a gold thin-film. It allows one to design reproducible arrays of nanotips.

  8. Dispersed Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Methylcyclohexoxy Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Jahangir; Reza, Md Asmaul; Mason, Amy; Liu, Jinjun

    2015-06-01

    Vibrational structures of the nearly degenerate tilde X and tilde A states of all four positional isomers of the methylcyclohexoxy (MCHO) radicals were studied by jet-cooled dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectroscopy, which unravels the effect of methyl substitution at different positions on the six-membered ring. Experimentally observed vibronic transitions in the DF spectra were assigned based on vibrational frequencies from quantum chemical calculations and predicted Franck-Condon factors that take into account the Duschinsky rotation. DF spectra of 2-, 3-, and 4-MCHO radicals are dominated by CO-stretch progressions or the progressions of CO-stretch modes in combination with the excited vibrational modes. DF spectra of two lowest-energy conformers of the tertiary 1-MCHO radical, chair-axial and chair equatorial, are significantly different from each other and from those of the other three positional isomers. Strong C-CH_3 stretch progressions as well as progressions of its combination bands with the CO stretch modes or the excited modes were observed. Such differences between the isomers and the conformers can be explained by variation of geometry and symmetry of the electronic states of cyclohexoxy upon methyl substitution at different positions. DF study of MCHO provides direct measurement of the energy separation between the tilde A and tilde X states that are subject to the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect.

  9. Inference of protein diffusion probed via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Fluctuations are an inherent part of single molecule or few particle biophysical data sets. Traditionally, ``noise'' fluctuations have been viewed as a nuisance, to be eliminated or minimized. Here we look on how statistical inference methods - that take explicit advantage of fluctuations - have allowed us to draw an unexpected picture of single molecule diffusional dynamics. Our focus is on the diffusion of proteins probed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we discuss how - in collaboration with the Bustamante and Marqusee labs at UC Berkeley - we determined using FCS data that individual enzymes are perturbed by self-generated catalytic heat (Riedel et al, Nature, 2014). Using the tools of inference, we found how distributions of enzyme diffusion coefficients shift in the presence of substrate revealing that enzymes performing highly exothermic reactions dissipate heat by transiently accelerating their center of mass following a catalytic reaction. Next, when molecules diffuse in the cell nucleus they often appear to diffuse anomalously. We analyze FCS data - in collaboration with Rich Day at the IU Med School - to propose a simple model for transcription factor binding-unbinding in the nucleus to show that it may give rise to apparent anomalous diffusion. Here inference methods extract entire binding affinity distributions for the diffusing transcription factors, allowing us to precisely characterize their interactions with different components of the nuclear environment. From this analysis, we draw key mechanistic insight that goes beyond what is possible by simply fitting data to ``anomalous diffusion'' models.

  10. Intraoperative metastases detection by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Young, J. D.; Chandra, Mudjianto; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Beeder, Clain; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-06-01

    The authors studied the ability of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for the intraoperative identification of metastases using a photosensitizing agent Photofrin IIr to enhance spectroscopic detection. A He-Cd laser source (442 nm) was used to produce low-power illumination of tissue via a hand-held 400 micrometers fiberoptic probe. Through the same fiber, reflected and emitted light was returned to an optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA III) for analysis. Spectroscopic signals were displayed on a screen for immediate examination. Lobund Wistar rats, inoculated with Pollard rat adenocarcinoma cells, were used as an animal model. Photofrin IIr was administered intraperitoneal 24 or 48 hours prior to surgical exploration in doses varying from 0.75-7.5 mg/kg. Metastases detection was performed during abdominal exploration directed to ipsilateral and contralateral inguinal, iliac, para-aortic and renal lymph nodes. Nineteen tissue samples, identified as abnormal by LIFS, were removed for histologic analysis; 11 of these samples were larger than 5mm and histologic examination revealed malignancy in all cases. While LIFS signals showed malignancy in 8 tissue samples with dimensions less than 5mm, histology confirmed this in only 3. However, serial histologic sections were not performed. From the initial results, it was concluded that LIFS detection of malignant tissue is feasible and enhanced by the addition of Photofrin IIr. LIFS may be a promising technique for the intraoperative detection of primary malignant and metastatic tissue.

  11. Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of hematoporphyrin and its photoproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotomskis, R.; VaiAitis, V.; Piskarskas, A.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation of an aqueous solution of hematoporphyrin causes the formation of the stable photoproduct which may play an important role in cancer therapy. The spectra and kinetic characteristics of the absorption changes of hematoporphyrins and their photoproducts were measured by a picosecond pump and probe absorption spectrophotometer with continuous tunability of pump and probe pulses in the spectral region of 400-1500 nm with an accuracy better than 10 -3 optical units and with a temporal resolution less than 10 ps. Careful examination of the differential absorption spectra showed that the photoproduct is involved in aggregates or exists as a part of the covalently linked oligomer of hematoporphyrins.

  12. Femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of coherent oscillations in nanomaterials 

    E-print Network

    Jerebtsov, Serguei Nikolaevich

    2009-05-15

    The interaction of laser radiation with a material can excite coherent lattice vibration. The observation of such periodic motion of the atoms in the lattice provides information on the properties of the material. In the ...

  13. Time-Resolved Coherent Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Quantized Electronic

    E-print Network

    Hoefer, Ulrich

    by a quantum defect 0 a 0.5. Experimentally, image-potential states have been studied with 2PPE on many metal the ultrafast electron dynamics of image- potential states on metal surfaces. For a (100) surface of copper and detected that described the quasi-classical periodic motion of weakly bound electrons. They traveled more

  14. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in H?, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  15. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopic techniques as applied to channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Eglof; Puskar, Ljiljana; Bartl, Franz J.; Aziz, Emad F.; Hegemann, Peter; Schade, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Among optogenetic tools, channelrhodopsins, the light gated ion channels of the plasma membrane from green algae, play the most important role. Properties like channel selectivity, timing parameters or color can be influenced by the exchange of selected amino acids. Although widely used, in the field of neurosciences for example, there is still little known about their photocycles and the mechanism of ion channel gating and conductance. One of the preferred methods for these studies is infrared spectroscopy since it allows observation of proteins and their function at a molecular level and in near-native environment. The absorption of a photon in channelrhodopsin leads to retinal isomerization within femtoseconds, the conductive states are reached in the microsecond time scale and the return into the fully dark-adapted state may take more than minutes. To be able to cover all these time regimes, a range of different spectroscopical approaches are necessary. This mini-review focuses on time-resolved applications of the infrared technique to study channelrhodopsins and other light triggered proteins. We will discuss the approaches with respect to their suitability to the investigation of channelrhodopsin and related proteins. PMID:26217670

  16. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopic techniques as applied to channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eglof; Puskar, Ljiljana; Bartl, Franz J; Aziz, Emad F; Hegemann, Peter; Schade, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Among optogenetic tools, channelrhodopsins, the light gated ion channels of the plasma membrane from green algae, play the most important role. Properties like channel selectivity, timing parameters or color can be influenced by the exchange of selected amino acids. Although widely used, in the field of neurosciences for example, there is still little known about their photocycles and the mechanism of ion channel gating and conductance. One of the preferred methods for these studies is infrared spectroscopy since it allows observation of proteins and their function at a molecular level and in near-native environment. The absorption of a photon in channelrhodopsin leads to retinal isomerization within femtoseconds, the conductive states are reached in the microsecond time scale and the return into the fully dark-adapted state may take more than minutes. To be able to cover all these time regimes, a range of different spectroscopical approaches are necessary. This mini-review focuses on time-resolved applications of the infrared technique to study channelrhodopsins and other light triggered proteins. We will discuss the approaches with respect to their suitability to the investigation of channelrhodopsin and related proteins. PMID:26217670

  17. Non-invasive detection of oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    McGee, Sasha Alanda

    2008-01-01

    In vivo reflectance and fluorescence spectra were collected from patients with oral lesions, as well as healthy volunteers, in order to evaluate the potential of spectroscopy to serve as a non-invasive tool for the detection ...

  18. Protein oligomerization monitored by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy: Self-assembly of Rubisco activase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is presented to characterize complex protein assembly pathways by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We have derived the total autocorrelation function describing the behavior of mixtures of labeled and unlabeled protein under equilibrium conditions. Our modeling approach allows us...

  19. Primary light-induced reaction steps of reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein Padron0.9 investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Walter, Arne; Andresen, Martin; Jakobs, Stefan; Schroeder, Jörg; Schwarzer, Dirk

    2015-04-23

    The reversible photoswitching of the photochromic fluorescent protein Padron0.9 involves a cis-trans isomerization of the chromophore. Both isomers are subjected to a protonation equilibrium between a neutral and a deprotonated form. The observed pH dependent absorption spectra require at least two protonating groups in the chromophore environment modulating its proton affinity. Using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we elucidate the primary reaction steps of selectively excited chromophore species. Employing kinetic and spectral modeling of the time dependent transients, we identify intermediate states and their spectra. Excitation of the deprotonated trans species is followed by excited state relaxation and internal conversion to a hot ground state on a time scale of 1.1-6.5 ps. As the switching yield is very low (?trans?cis = 0.0003 ± 0.0001), direct formation of the cis isomer in the time-resolved experiment is not observed. The reverse switching route involves excitation of the neutral cis chromophore. A strong H/D isotope effect reveals the initial reaction step to be an excited state proton transfer with a rate constant of kH = (1.7 ps)(-1) (kD = (8.6 ps)(-1)) competing with internal conversion (kic = (4.5 ps)(-1)). The deprotonated excited cis intermediate relaxes to the well-known long-lived fluorescent species (kr = (24 ps)(-1)). The switching quantum yield is determined to be low as well, ?cis?trans = 0.02 ± 0.01. Excitation of both the neutral and deprotonated cis chromophores is followed by a ground state proton transfer reaction partially re-establishing the disturbed ground state equilibrium within 1.6 ps (deuterated species: 5.6 ps). The incomplete equilibration reveals an inhomogeneous population of deprotonated cis species which equilibrate on different time scales. PMID:25802098

  20. Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang He; Chini, Michael; Chen Shouyuan; Zhang Changhua; Cheng Yan; Wu Yi; Thumm, Uwe; He Feng; Chang Zenghu

    2010-10-01

    Autoionization of argon atoms was studied experimentally by transient absorption spectroscopy with isolated attosecond pulses. The peak position, intensity, linewidth, and shape of the 3s3p{sup 6}np {sup 1}P Fano resonance series (26.6-29.2 eV) were modified by intense few-cycle near infrared laser pulses, while the delay between the attosecond pulse and the laser pulse was changed by a few femtoseconds. Numerical simulations revealed that the experimentally observed splitting of the 3s3p{sup 6}4p {sup 1}P line is caused by the coupling between two short-lived highly excited states in the strong laser field.