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MBL Research in the Rio Tinto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site describes ongoing research of the Marine Biological Laboratory's Astrobiology Group in the Rio Tinto, Spain. The resource includes an image-rich introduction to the Rio Tinto, images of sample sites, information about Rio Tinto biofilms, a list of Rio Tinto references, and a 10-page print-version pdf document including information found on the web site.

Zettler, L. A.; Laboratory, Marine B.


76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...each stage of metal and mineral production including finding, developing, mining and processing natural resources such as aluminium, copper, coal, iron ore, uranium, gold and industrial minerals. Rio Tinto is a dual-listed company...



Can Tinto's Student Departure Model Be Applied To Nontraditional Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Tinto's student departure model has been tested and supported in numerous studies, it has not yet been applied to nontraditional students. This study attempted to find out whether Tinto's model, in particular the concepts of academic and social integration, can explain retention among nontraditional students. Attrition rates of 25 adult learner classes in a college of management and business

Hanna Ashar; Robert Skenes



Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony



An Exploration of Tinto's Integration Framework for Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tinto's integration framework is often assumed to be inapplicable to the study of student persistence at community colleges because one of the linchpins of the framework--social integration--is considered unlikely to occur for students at these institutions. Community college students are thought to lack the time to participate in activities, such…

Karp, Melinda Mechur; Hughes, Katherine L.; O'Gara, Lauren



Microbial Ecology of an Extreme Acidic Environment, the Tinto River  

PubMed Central

The Tinto River (Huelva, southwestern Spain) is an extreme environment with a rather constant acidic pH along the entire river and a high concentration of heavy metals. The extreme conditions of the Tinto ecosystem are generated by the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich complex sulfides of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Molecular ecology techniques were used to analyze the diversity of this microbial community. The community's composition was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using 16S rRNA and by 16S rRNA gene amplification. A good correlation between the two approaches was found. Comparative sequence analysis of DGGE bands showed the presence of organisms related to Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium spp., “Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum,” Ferroplasma acidiphilum, and Thermoplasma acidophilum. The different phylogenetic groups were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization with a set of rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. More than 80% of the cells were affiliated with the domain Bacteria, with only a minor fraction corresponding to Archaea. Members of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and Acidiphilium spp., all related to the iron cycle, accounted for most of the prokaryotic microorganisms detected. Different isolates of these microorganisms were obtained from the Tinto ecosystem, and their physiological properties were determined. Given the physicochemical characteristics of the habitat and the physiological properties and relative concentrations of the different prokaryotes found in the river, a model for the Tinto ecosystem based on the iron cycle is suggested. PMID:12902280

Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Llobet-Brossa, E.; Casamayor, E. O.; Amann, R.; Amils, R.



Río tinto: a geochemical and mineralogical terrestrial analogue of Mars.  


The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) (2003-2006) and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection) (2011-2015), were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue. PMID:25370383

Amils, Ricardo; Fernández-Remolar, David; The Ipbsl Team



Avaliação da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para elaboração de vinho tinto  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY EVALUATION OF THE CV. CABERNET SAUVIGNON IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RED WINE. The Cabernet Sauvignon grape was developed in Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in Brazil in 1921, but its cultivation in the viticultural region of Serra Gaúcha only grew since 1980. It is used in the manufacture of aged or young red wines. Due to its importance, this

Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Alberto Miele



Contributo para a caracterização molecular de echinococcus granulosus em Portugal.  

E-print Network

??Mestrado em Ciências Biomédicas, Especialidade de Biologia Molecular em Medicina Tropical e Internacional A Equinococose/hidatidose – doença causada pela fase larvar (hidátide – vulgarmente conhecida… (more)

Beato, Sílvia Filipa Alves



Microbial Community Composition and Ecology of an Acidic Aquatic Environment: The Tinto River, Spain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This journal article examines the correlation between physicochemical and biological characteristics of the Rio Tinto in Spain. It explains that the extreme acidic environment of the Rio Tinto is due to the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic microorganisms. The article includes an illustration depicting the geographical position of the Rio Tinto with highlighted sampling and mining sites, tables indicating the values of physio-chemical parameters measured in different seasons and in different rivers, a table listing the taxonomic classification of different microbial groups in the Rio Tinto, a table examining the seasonality of microorganism populations in different sampling sites, phenotypic properties of different sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, and a correlation analysis. A paid subscription to SpringerLink is required to view this article.

Lopez-Archilla, A.; Marin, I.; Amils, R.; Ecology, Microbial


Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering\\u000a the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary\\u000a by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (?g

C. H. Nelson; P. J. Lamothe



Eukaryotic Organisms in Extreme Acidic Environments, the Río Tinto Case  

PubMed Central

A major issue in microbial ecology is to identify the limits of life for growth and survival, and to understand the molecular mechanisms that define these limits. Thus, interest in the biodiversity and ecology of extreme environments has grown in recent years for several reasons. Some are basic and revolve around the idea that extreme environments are believed to reflect early Earth conditions. Others are related to the biotechnological potential of extremophiles. In this regard, the study of extremely acidic environments has become increasingly important since environmental acidity is often caused by microbial activity. Highly acidic environments are relatively scarce worldwide and are generally associated with volcanic activity or mining operations. For most acidic environments, low pH facilitates metal solubility, and therefore acidic waters tend to have high concentrations of heavy metals. However, highly acidic environments are usually inhabited by acidophilic and acidotolerant eukaryotic microorganisms such as algae, amoebas, ciliates, heliozoan and rotifers, not to mention filamentous fungi and yeasts. Here, we review the general trends concerning the diversity and ecophysiology of eukaryotic acidophilic microorganims, as well as summarize our latest results on this topic in one of the largest extreme acidic rivers, Río Tinto (SW, Spain). PMID:25369810

Aguilera, Angeles



An Empirical Test of Tinto's Integration Framework for Community Colleges Using Structural Equation Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation empirically tested Tinto's student integration theory through structural equation modeling using a national sample of 2,847 first-time entering community college students. Tinto theorized that the more academically and socially integrated a student is to the college environment, the more likely the student will persist…

Santos-George, Arlene A.



Underground Habitats in the Río Tinto Basin: A Model for Subsurface Life Habitats on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for evidence of cryptic life in the subsurface region of a fractured Paleozoic volcanosedimentary deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004. This conventional deep-drilling experiment is referred to as the MARTE ground truth

David C. Fernández-Remolar; Olga Prieto-Ballesteros; Nuria Rodríguez; Felipe Gómez; Ricardo Amils; Javier Gómez-Elvira; Carol R. Stoker



Why do HE Students Drop Out? A test of Tinto's model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Tinto's (1975) model of student attrition, which suggests that student's dropout decisions are social and academic worlds. The model was tested with path analysis using LISREL8 software (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993a) using maximum likelihood estimation. Findings were that the model does not provide an acceptable description of the data. The findings were based on a global test

Vivienne Brunsden; Mark Davies; Mark Shevlin; Maeve Bracken



R?o Tinto: A Geochemical and Mineralogical Terrestrial Analogue of Mars  

PubMed Central

The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) (2003–2006) and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection) (2011–2015), were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue.

Amils, Ricardo; Fernandez-Remolar, David



Testing Tinto: How Do Retention Theories Work for First-Generation, Working-Class Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents results of a multiple case study involving four first-generation, working-class, white male college freshmen who discuss their perceptions of faculty support. These perceptions are analyzed using Tinto's theories of student retention, specifically as they relate to faculty-student interaction. The study found that…

Longwell-Grice, Rob; Longwell-Grice, Hope



Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to <200, Cd 30 to <0.1, Cu 1,500 to 10, Pb 2,000 to <10, Sb 3000 to <150, and Zn 3,000 to <200. Organic-rich (1.3-2.6% total organic carbon, TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.



Inverting the impacts: Mining, conservation and sustainability claims near the Rio Tinto\\/QMM ilmenite mine in Southeast Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces a genealogy of land access and legitimization strategies culminating in the current convergence of mining and conservation in Southeast Madagascar, contributing to recent debates analyzing the commonalities and interdependencies between seemingly discrete types of land acquisitions. Drawing upon research carried out near the Rio Tinto\\/QMM ilmenite mine in 2009 (January–March), it focuses on how local Malagasy land

Caroline Seagle



Multidisciplinary integrated field campaign to an acidic Martian Earth analogue with astrobiological interest: Rio Tinto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently reported results from latest Mars Orbiters and Rovers missions are transforming our opinion about the red planet. That dry and inhospitable planet reported in the past is becoming a wetter planet with high probabilities of water existence in the past. Nowadays, some results seem to indicate the presence of water beneath the Mars surface. But also mineralogy studies by NASA Opportunity Rover report iron oxides and hydroxides precipitates on Endurance Crater. Sedimentary deposits have been identified at Meridiani Planum. These deposits must have generated in a dune aqueous acidic and oxidizing environment. Similarities appear when we study Rio Tinto, and acidic river under the control of iron. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth widened the window of possibilities for life to develop in the Universe, and as a consequence on Mars and other planetary bodies with astrobiological interest. The compilation of data produced by the ongoing missions offers an interested view for life possibilities to exist: signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity as well as ground morphological characteristics that seem to be promoted by liquid water. The discovery of important accumulations of sulfates and the existence of iron minerals such as jarosite in rocks of sedimentary origin has allowed specific terrestrial models to come into focus. Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain, Iberian Pyritic Belt) is an extreme acidic environment, product of the chemolithotrophic activity of micro-organisms that thrive in the massive pyrite-rich deposits of the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Some particular protective environments should house the organic molecules and bacterial life forms in harsh environments such as Mars surface supporting microniches inside precipitated minerals or inside rocks. Terrestrial analogues could help us to afford the comprehension of habitability (on other planetary bodies). We are reporting here the multidisciplinary study of some endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. These acidic salts deposits located in Río Tinto shelter life forms that are difficult to visualize by eye. This interdisciplinary field analogue campaign was conducted in the framework of the CAREX FP7 EC programme.

Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Amils, R.; Rull, F.; Klingelhöfer, A. K.; Kviderova, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Foing, B.; Behar, A.; Fleischer, I.; Parro, V.; Garcia-Villadangos, M.; Blake, D.; Martin Ramos, J. D.; Direito, S.; Mahapatra, P.; Stam, C.; Venkateswaran, K.; Voytek, M.



Subsurface geomicrobiology in a Mars terrestrial analogue, Río Tinto (SW, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its discovery, only few years ago, subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest [1]. From a fundamental point of view, it seeks to determine whether life can be sustained in the absence of radiation. From an astrobiological point of view, it is an interesting model for life in other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars, as well as early life on Earth. Río Tinto is an unusual extreme acidic environment due to its size (around 100 km), constant acidic pH (mean pH 2.3), high concentrations of heavy metals and high level of microbial diversity [2]. Río Tinto rises in the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt, one of the biggest sulfidic ore deposits in the world [3]. Today it is well stablished that the extreme characteristics of Río Tinto are not due to acid mine drainage from mining activity, as has been suggested in the past. To explore the hypothesis that a continuous underground reactor of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich sulfidic minerals of the Iberian Pyritic Belt is responsible for the extreme conditions found in the system, a drilling project has been developed to detect evidence of subsurface microbial activity and potential resources to support these microbial communities in situ (MARTE project) [4]. Here we report a search for subsurface life in volcanically hosted massive sulfidic deposits from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Aseptic core samples were obtained within and down-gradient from the massive sulfide deposits and formation water was sampled within the resulting bore holes. Microbial activity was detected in un-contaminated samples by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Aerobic iron- and sulfide- oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic denitrifying thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea have been identified. Potential energy fluxes detected in the system include oxidation of reduced iron and sulfur, or hydrogen gas coupled to nitrite, sulfate, ferric iron, inorganic carbon or transient oxygen. These results suggest that multiple energy sources are available from sulfide-mineral weathering to support microbial metabolism, even in the absence of atmospheric oxygen. [1] Stevens, T.O and McKinley, J.P. (1995) Scienc,, 270, 450-454. [2] Amis, R. et al. (2007) Planet Space Sci, 55, 370- 381. [3] Fernández-Remolar, D. et al. (2005) Earth Planet Sci Lett, 240, 149-167. [4] Amils, R. et al. (2008) Microbiology of Extreme Soils, 205-223.

Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Toril, E.; Rodríguez, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Díaz, E.; Stoker, C.



Stress responses of Erica andevalensis Cabezudo & Rivera plants induced by polluted water from Tinto River (SW Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Tinto River water on Erica andevalensis growth, biochemical indicators and elemental concentration and distribution were investigated under laboratory conditions.\\u000a High levels of toxic elements such as B, Fe and S and acidic pH characterized the river water. Plant analysis revealed that\\u000a the concentration of Al, B, S and Fe increased in all plant organs reaching in some

S. Rossini Oliva; R. Bargagli; F. Monaci; B. Valdés; M. D. Mingorance; E. O. Leidi



Tinto Versus Odiel: Two A.M.D. Polluted Rivers and an Unresolved Issue. An Artificial Intelligence Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) is a highly relevant source of Acid Mine Drainage contamination on a global scale. Although\\u000a the Tinto and Odiel Rivers, which cross the Iberian Pyrite Belt, have been widely studied by various authors, an issue is\\u000a still pending: the study of the metal load distribution undergone by each of these rivers and, hence, the

J. A. Grande; J. Aroba; J. M. Andújar; T. Gómez; M. L. de la Torre; J. Borrego; S. Romero; C. Barranco; M. Santisteban


Subsurface Geomicrobiology of a Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide Deposit (VHMS), Near Rio Tinto, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background. We investigated a subsurface lithotrophic microbial ecosystem in a volcanically hosted massive sulfide deposit (VHMS) of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. These extremely reactive rocks persist only because they are sequestered from the atmosphere. The Rio Tinto, in SW Spain is a 100 km-long ARD stream with extreme pH (ca. 2.3) and metal loading (> 2.5 gm/l). Springs feeding the river are already metal-laden, yet their pH can range to 6 and many are anoxic. We hypothesized that subsurface biological activity contributes to the weathering of the VHMS, and that anaerobic metabolism, using in situ electron acceptors was a major component of this putative underground bioreactor. Methods. We aseptically sampled rocks and ground-waters up-gradient from the VHMS, within the VHMS, and down- gradient from the VHMS through springs and continuously-cored boreholes. Samples were analyzed for the presence of microorganisms, resources that might support microbial activity, and metabolites produced by microbial activity. Results. Organisms detected included aerobic Fe and S oxidizers, anaerobic denitrifying S2O32-oxidizers, and SO42--reducing and methanogenic H2 oxidizers. Ground water up- gradient from the VHMS was neutral, aerobic and low in solutes. Within the VHMS, H2 at concentrations up to 1000 ppm was produced by water-rock reactions. Anoxically leached ore produced pH 5-6 solutions containing Fe(II), Fe(III), SO42- and NO2-. Incoming O2 reacted to form NOx gases and pH 3.5 fluids. Low CH4 throughout the VHMS, indicated widespread anoxia. Down-gradient from the VHMS, ground waters were anoxic low-SO42- high- CH4 (5000 ppm) fluids or low- CH4 high- SO42- (800 ppm) fluids with abundant FeS precipitates. Generally, Fe(III) and H2 decreased along the flow path while Fe(II) and CH4 increased. NOx and SO42- concentrations remained relatively constant along the flow path. Conclusions. A subsurface ecosystem driven by weathering of sulfide minerals is present beneath the Rio Tinto region. An unexpected variety of resources are available to drive microbial metabolism, including electron donors and electron acceptors supplied from the rock matrix. Production of H2 from water-rock interactions within the ore body supported profuse activity of H2-oxidizing microorganisms including methane generation. The variety of fluids discharged from springs is apparently due to the various pathways groundwater may take through the fractured rock environment, and mixing with aerobic water. However, many of the activities observed appear to be independent of resources from the surface.

Stevens, T. O.; Amils, R.; Stoker, C.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.



Contrasting Microbial Community Assembly Hypotheses: A Reconciling Tale from the R?o Tinto  

PubMed Central

Background The Río Tinto (RT) is distinguished from other acid mine drainage systems by its natural and ancient origins. Microbial life from all three domains flourishes in this ecosystem, but bacteria dominate metabolic processes that perpetuate environmental extremes. While the patchy geochemistry of the RT likely influences the dynamics of bacterial populations, demonstrating which environmental variables shape microbial diversity and unveiling the mechanisms underlying observed patterns, remain major challenges in microbial ecology whose answers rely upon detailed assessments of community structures coupled with fine-scale measurements of physico-chemical parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings By using high-throughput environmental tag sequencing we achieved saturation of richness estimators for the first time in the RT. We found that environmental factors dictate the distribution of the most abundant taxa in this system, but stochastic niche differentiation processes, such as mutation and dispersal, also contribute to observed diversity patterns. Conclusions/Significance We predict that studies providing clues to the evolutionary and ecological processes underlying microbial distributions will reconcile the ongoing debate between the Baas Becking vs. Hubbell community assembly hypotheses. PMID:19052647

Palacios, Carmen; Zettler, Erik; Amils, Ricardo; Amaral-Zettler, Linda



Enzyme-Cascade Analysis of the Rio Tinto Subsurface Environment: A Biosensor Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Test System (PTS), designed & developed by Charles Rivers Laboratories, Inc. (Charleston, SC) is a portable instrument that was designed to perform analysis of enzymatic assays related to rapid assessment of microbial contamination (Wainwright, 2003). The enzymatic cascade of Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) is known to be one of the most sensitive techniques available for microbial detection, enabling the PTS to be evaluated as a potential life detection instrument for in situ Astrobiology missions. In the summer of 2003 the system was tested as a part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) ground truth science campaign in the Rio Tinto Analogue environment near Nerva, Spain. The preliminary results show that the PTS analysis correlates well with the contamination control tests and the more traditional lab-based biological assays performed during the MARTE field mission. Further work will be conducted on this research during a second field campaign in 2004 and a technology demonstration of a prototype instrument that includes autonomous sample preparation will occur in 2005.

McKay, David S.; Lynch, Kennda; Wainwright, Norman; Child, Alice; Williams, Kendra; McKay, David; Amils, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Elena; Stoker, Carol



Metal uptake and distribution in cultured seedlings of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) from the Río Tinto (Huelva, Spain).  


Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) is a micro-nano phanerophyte that grows in the riverbanks of the Río Tinto basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula). The waters and soils of the Río Tinto area are highly acidic and have high concentrations of heavy metals. In this environment, N. oleander naturally grows in both extreme acidic (EA) and less extreme acidic (LEA) water courses, excluding, and bioindicating certain metals. In this work, we compared and evaluated the accumulation preferences and capacities, the distribution and processes of biomineralization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ca) in the first stages of growth of EA and LEA oleanders by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer analysis. Seeds from both environments were grown and treated with a self-made solution simulating the most extreme red waters from the Río Tinto. LEA plants drastically reduces the metal uptake at the beginning, but later reactivates the uptake reaching concentration values in the same range as the EA plants. The results showed high Mn, Zn and Mg concentrations, accumulation of Fe and Cu in plants from both environments, differing from the metal concentrations of field-grown oleanders. Iron bioformations with traces of other metals were present inside and over epidermal cells and inside vascular cells of stems and roots. They were absent of leaves. The accumulation properties of N. oleander in its early stages of development make it a species to take in consideration in phytoremediation processes but optimized conditions are needed to ensure enough biomass production. PMID:23892697

Franco, Alejandro; Rufo, Lourdes; Zuluaga, Javier; de la Fuente, Vicenta



Microbial Diversity in Anaerobic Sediments at Río Tinto, a Naturally Acidic Environment with a High Heavy Metal Content?†  

PubMed Central

The Tinto River is an extreme environment located at the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt (IPB). It is an unusual ecosystem due to its size (100 km long), constant acidic pH (mean pH, 2.3), and high concentration of heavy metals, iron, and sulfate in its waters, characteristics that make the Tinto River Basin comparable to acidic mine drainage (AMD) systems. In this paper we present an extensive survey of the Tinto River sediment microbiota using two culture-independent approaches: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning of 16S rRNA genes. The taxonomic affiliation of the Bacteria showed a high degree of biodiversity, falling into 5 different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria; meanwhile, all the Archaea were affiliated with the order Thermoplasmatales. Microorganisms involved in the iron (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Sulfobacillus spp., Ferroplasma spp., etc.), sulfur (Desulfurella spp., Desulfosporosinus spp., Thermodesulfobium spp., etc.), and carbon (Acidiphilium spp., Bacillus spp., Clostridium spp., Acidobacterium spp., etc.) cycles were identified, and their distribution was correlated with physicochemical parameters of the sediments. Ferric iron was the main electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter in the most acid and oxidizing layers, so acidophilic facultative Fe(III)-reducing bacteria appeared widely in the clone libraries. With increasing pH, the solubility of iron decreases and sulfate-reducing bacteria become dominant, with the ecological role of methanogens being insignificant. Considering the identified microorganisms—which, according to the rarefaction curves and Good's coverage values, cover almost all of the diversity—and their corresponding metabolism, we suggest a model of the iron, sulfur, and organic matter cycles in AMD-related sediments. PMID:21724883

Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis



Microbial community structure across the tree of life in the extreme R?o Tinto  

PubMed Central

Understanding biotic versus abiotic forces that shape community structure is a fundamental aim of microbial ecology. The acidic and heavy metal extreme Río Tinto (RT) in southwestern Spain provides a rare opportunity to conduct an ecosystem-wide biodiversity inventory at the level of all three domains of life, because diversity there is low and almost exclusively microbial. Despite improvements in high-throughput DNA sequencing, environmental biodiversity studies that use molecular metrics and consider entire ecosystems are rare. These studies can be prohibitively expensive if domains are considered separately, and differences in copy number of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes can bias estimates of relative abundances of phylotypes recovered. In this study we have overcome these barriers (1) by targeting all three domains in a single polymerase chain reaction amplification and (2) by using a replicated sampling design that allows for incidence-based methods to extract measures of richness and carry out downstream analyses that address community structuring effects. Our work showed that combined bacterial and archaeal richness is an order of magnitude higher than eukaryotic richness. We also found that eukaryotic richness was highest at the most extreme sites, whereas combined bacterial and archaeal richness was highest at less extreme sites. Quantitative community phylogenetics showed abiotic forces to be primarily responsible for shaping the RT community structure. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed co-occurrence of obligate symbionts and their putative hosts that may contribute to biotic forces shaping community structure and may further provide a possible mechanism for persistence of certain low-abundance bacteria encountered in the RT. PMID:20631808

Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Zettler, Erik R; Theroux, Susanna M; Palacios, Carmen; Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo



The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the

Olga Prieto-Ballesteros; Jesús Martínez-Frías; John Schutt; Brad Sutter; Jennifer L. Heldmann; Mary Sue Bell Johnson; Melissa Battler; Howard Cannon; Javier Gómez-Elvira; Carol R. Stoker



Acid mine drainage pollution in the Tinto and Odiel rivers (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) and bioavailability of the transported metals to the Huelva Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tinto and Odiel rivers are seriously affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) from the long-term mining activities in Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). As a consequence, the Huelva estuary is heavily contaminated by metals and metalloids. This study presents an estimation of the seasonal variation, and the dissolved contaminant load transported by both rivers from February 2002 to September 2004.

José Miguel Nieto; Aguasanta M. Sarmiento; Manuel Olías; Carlos R. Canovas; Inmaculada Riba; Judit Kalman; T. Angel Delvalls



A Search for Life in the Subsurface At Rio Tinto Spain, An Analog To Searching For Life On Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most familiar life forms on Earth live in the surface biosphere where liquid water, sunlight, and the essential chemical elements for life are abundant. However, such environments are not found on Mars or anywhere else in the solar system. On Mars, the surface environmental conditions of pressure and temperature prevent formation of liquid water. Furthermore, conditions at the Martian surface are unfavorable to life due to intense ultraviolet radiation and strong oxidizing compounds that destroy organic compounds. However, subsurface liquid water on Mars has been predicted on theoretical grounds. The recent discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission, and the abundant evidence for recent Gully features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission strengthen the case for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, the strategy for searching for life on Mars points to drilling to the depth of liquid water, bringing samples to the surface and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project is a field experiment focused on searching for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Rio Tinto, a river in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology relevant to searching for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The Tinto river is located in the Iberian Pyrite belt, one of the largest deposits of sulfide minerals in the world. The surface (river) system is an acidic extreme environment produced and maintained by microbes that metabolize sulfide minerals and produce sulfuric acid as a byproduct. Evidence suggests that the river is a surface manifestation of an underground biochemical reactor. Organisms found in the river are capable of chemoautotrophic metabolism using sulfide and ferric iron mineral substrates, suggesting these organisms could thrive in groundwater which is the source of the Rio Tinto. The MARTE project will simulate the search for subsurface life on Mars using a drilling system developed for future Mars flight to accomplish subsurface access. Augmenting the drill are robotic systems for extracting the cores from the drill head and performing analysis using a suite of instruments to understand the composition, mineralogy, presence of organics, and to search for life signatures in subsurface samples. A robotic bore-hole inspection system will characterize borehole properties in situ. A Mars drilling mission simulation including remote operation of the drilling, sample handling, and instruments and interpretation of results by a remote science team will be performed. This simulated mission will be augmented by manual methods of drilling, sample handling, and sample analysis to fully document the subsurface, prevent surface microbial contamination, identify subsurface biota, and compare what can be learned with robotically-operated instruments. The first drilling campaign in the MARTE project takes place in September 2003 and is focused on characterizing the microbiology of the subsurface at Rio Tinto using conventional drilling, sample handling and laboratory analysis techniques. Lessons learned from this "ground truth" drilling campaign will guide the development of robotic systems and instruments needed for searching for life underground on Mars.

Stoker, C. R.



Behaviour of rare earth elements at the freshwater–seawater interface of two acid mine rivers: the Tinto and Odiel (Andalucia, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of dissolved and suspended particulate rare-earth elements (REE) are reported in acid-sulphate waters from the Odiel and Tinto rivers. Shale normalized patterns are typically convex and high REE concentrations (e.g., Ce=0.43–65 ?g.l?1) are present in the waters. The REE content of the suspended load is greater by a factor of up to 3000. In the Odiel river, REE

Françoise Elbaz-Poulichet; Claude Dupuy



The preservation and degradation of filamentous bacteria and biomolecules within iron oxide deposits at Rio Tinto, Spain.  


One of the keys to understanding and identifying life on other planets is to study the preservation of organic compounds and their precursor micro-organisms on Earth. Rio Tinto in southwestern Spain is a well documented site of microbial preservation within iron sulphates and iron oxides over a period of 2.1 Ma. This study has investigated the preservation of filamentous iron oxidising bacteria and organics through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, from laboratory cultures of natural samples to contemporary natural materials to million-year old river terraces. Up to 40% elemental carbon and >7% nitrogen has been identified within microbial filaments and cell clusters in all samples through SEM EDS analyses. FTIR spectroscopy identified C-H(x) absorption bands between 2960 and 2800 cm(-1), Amide I and II absorption bands at 1656 and 1535 cm(-1), respectively and functional group vibrations from within nucleic acids at 917, 1016 and 1124 cm(-1). Absorption bands tracing the diagenetic transformation of jarosite to goethite to hematite through the samples are also identified. This combination of mineralogy, microbial morphology and biomolecular evidence allows us to further understand how organic fossils are created and preserved in iron-rich environments, and ultimately will aid in the search for the earliest life on Earth and potential organics on Mars. PMID:21443552

Preston, L J; Shuster, J; Fernández-Remolar, D; Banerjee, N R; Osinski, G R; Southam, G



Trace metal partitioning over a tidal cycle in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (Tinto estuary, SW Spain).  


The Tinto River estuary is highly polluted with the acid lixiviates from old sulphide mines. In this work the behaviour of dissolved and particulate trace metals under strong chemical gradients during a tidal cycle is studied. The pH values range from 4.4 with low tide to 6.9 with high tide. Precipitation of Fe and Al is intense during rising tides and As and Pb are almost exclusively found in the particulate matter (PM). Sorption processes are very important in controlling the mobility (and hence bioavailability) of some metals and particularly affect Cu below pH6. Above pH~6 Cu is desorbed, probably by the formation of Cu(I)-chloride complexes. Although less pronounced than Cu, also Zn desorption above pH6.5 seems to occur. Mn and Co are affected by sorption processes at pH higher than ca. 6. Cd behaves conservatively and Ni is slightly affected by sorption processes. PMID:25112821

Hierro, A; Olías, M; Cánovas, C R; Martín, J E; Bolivar, J P



Classification of modern and old Río Tinto sedimentary deposits through the biomolecular record using a life marker biochip: implications for detecting life on Mars.  


The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5?g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar diagenetic maturity. Our LDCHIP200 and SOLID-like instruments may be excellent tools for the search for molecular biomarkers on Mars or other planets. PMID:21294642

Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier



Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.  


Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions. PMID:19105754

Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R



Phyllosilicate production and sedimentation under the acidic conditions of the Rio Tinto: some constraints for clay-hosting environments of early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OMEGA instrument boarded in the Mars Express planetary probe has provided clear evidence of diverse and extensive phyllosilicate deposits covering the Early Mars basins. As most clay-like terrestrial deposits require an active hydrosphere, the Mars materials have been interpreted as having been produced and sedimented under wet conditions. Moreover, the detection of phyllosilicate species such as kaolinite, nontronite, montmorillonite and chamosite were used to infer the chemistry of the ancient Martian solutions as quasi-neutral. Given that the composition of the early Mars atmosphere has been inferred to be composed mainly of CO2 the co-occurrence of carbonates with the phyllosilicate sediments should be expected. However, OMEGA has not detected carbonates, neither associated to the clays, nor in other Mars planetary regions. Two possibilities arise to explain this apparent paradox, they are as follows: (1) the spatial resolution of the OMEGA is not enough to separate the carbonate from the phyllosilicate spectra, and (2) the early Mars environment conditions were driven by a low pH hydrosphere. In the Rio Tinto Mars analog, some phyllosilicates are produced through acidic weathering and transported during rain events within the low-pH solutions of the river. Under acidic attack, the Rio Tinto volcanosedimentary rocks of ryolithic and andesitic nature, which are formed by albite and K-feldspars, produce secondary kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite; whereas chamosite is produced by the simple hydration and erosion of the chamositic deposits that were originated during the Lower Carboniferous hydrothermalism affecting the Paleozoic volcanic deposits. In the acidic stream, chamosite, illite and kaolinite are pervasive phases that resist degradation under low pH to dissolve to silica. Although montmorillonite shows a very low stability when transported inside these acidic solutions, it has been recognized in deposits left by the river during flooding events. During the dry and warm climatic stage, iron sulfates and oxyhydroxides are the prevalent mineralogies occurring in the different environments of the fluvial system. From the simple comparison 1 between the phyllosilicate assemblages of Río Tinto and Mars, it may be inferred that low pH solutions can produce similar phyllosilicate assemblages. Under an acidic planetary chemistry, Mars would have maintained a CO2 -rich atmosphere without any carbonate formation; and, moreover, the red planet would have evolved from clay to sulfate global production through a water decreasing gradient when the inner planetary dynamo declined. 2

Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Rio Tinto Working Group


Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.  


Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R



The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).  


The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R



The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.  


The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando



Energia solar fotovoltaica: Contributo para um roadmapping do seu desenvolvimento tecnológico [Fotovoltaic solar energy: a contribute to a technological development roadmapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal for this report is to alert for the need of a continuous investment in policies that should be developed worldwide, with respect to research and development (R&D), at all levels, in photovoltaic energy. The R&D in this area leads to a strong and possible solution to the actual environmental problems. Such problems are based on the climate

Hugo Gil Silva; Marcos Afonso



Quantification of Tinto River Sediment Microbial Communities: Importance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Role in Attenuating Acid Mine Drainage  

PubMed Central

Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (<2%) at both sites, important differences were detected at the class and genus levels, reflecting differences in pH, redox potential, and heavy metal concentrations. At SN, where the pH and redox potential are similar to that of the water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (?210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo



Access Without Support is Not Opportunity* Vincent Tinto  

E-print Network

less likely to attend four-year institutions than are high-income students. Even when they do their four-year degree within six years while 69 percent of high-income students did so. Among those who's public commitment to provide access to any individual who seeks entry to postsecondary education seems

Su, Xiao


Challenge and Changes to Tinto's Persistence Theory: A Historical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to demonstrate the complexities of accountability issues and institutional effectiveness, a 30-year review of persistence literature provides evidence of the numerous studies and emerging research on student persistence. Although Astin's (1975) groundbreaking research of access and persistence provides a framework for future…

Metz, George W.



Professor Jan Cilliers, Rio Tinto Professor of Mineral Processing  

E-print Network

, 1556 If we remove metals from the service of man, all methods of preserving the course of life are done will move into cities during the next 5 years · Power generation capacity is growing by 100 GW per year Bubble size effectsBubble size effectsBubble size effects · Solids motion Motion wi


RioTinto Centre for Materials and Sensing in Mining  

E-print Network

with the RTCMA, University of Sydney, and RTCAMR, Imperial College London. Our research focuses on two areas key in Ukraine, Russia and Israel, with more projects both locally and overseas in various stages of development


Contributo Allo Studio Fitosociologico Dei Popolamenti Algali Del Mediterraneo Orientale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine phytocoenoses in the Eastern Mediterranean Setz. — In this paper a survey is given on the benthic communities observed in the Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea. The investigation was carried out in 13 localities with aid of diving technique, down to 70 mt. depth. Samples at greater depths were collected with the use of a bottom-dredge. The data

Giuseppe Giaccone




E-print Network

paraSITE proposes the appropriation of exterior ventilation systems on existing architecture to inflate pneumatic shelters that are designed for homeless people. This project involves the production of a series of inflatable ...

Rakowitz, Michael



Tiempo para un cambio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

Woltjer, L.



Radioligantes para neurorreceptores benzodiazepínicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os inúmeros avanços técnico-científicos das últimas décadas possibilitaram identificar e caracterizar a estrutura de uma variedade de neurotransmissores e de seus receptores no cérebro, bem como estudar suas interações. Nesse artigo serão relacionados os radiofármacos utilizados em medicina nuclear diagnóstica para acesso a neurorreceptores. Radioligantes cerebrais são moléculas marcadas com isótopos emissores de pósitron ou emissores de fótons (gama emissores)

Sibila Roberta Marques Grallert; Leoberto Costa Tavares; Elaine Bortoleti de Araújo



Mensaje para alumnos y padres  

NASA Video Gallery

El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...


Pruebas genéticas para síndromes hereditarios de cáncer

Hoja informativa sobre pruebas genéticas para riesgos heredados de cáncer; incluye tipos de pruebas, para quién están indicadas y explicación y confidencialidad de los resultados. Ofrece información de pruebas genéticas a domicilio o pruebas para el consumidor.


Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer

Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.


Separating para and ortho water.  


Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. PMID:25196938

Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; D?ugo??cki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen



Separating Para and Ortho Water  

E-print Network

Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separable, and little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. Here we demonstrate the production of isolated samples of both spin isomers in pure beams of para and ortho water, with both species in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental-symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, e. g., laboratory astrophysics and -chemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments.

Horke, Daniel A; D?ugo??cki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen



Efecto del consumo moderado de vino tinto sobre algunos factores de riesgo cardiovascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: the cardiovascular illnesses will be among the main causes of death in Perú by the year 2020. Objective: to determine the effect of moderate consumption of red wine on some cardiovascular risk scores. Materials and methods: chromatography of anthocyanin and several polyphenols was used to measure wine antioxidant capacity. The selected volunteers, 14 men and 14 women, were distributed

Alicia Fernández Giusti; Ana M. Muñoz Jáuregui; Enma N. Cambillo Moyano; Fernando Ramos Escudero; Carlos Alvarado; Ortiz Ureta



Tutorial para rellenar el formulario de expediente de personal y cargos TUTORIAL PARA RELLENAR EL  

E-print Network

Tutorial para rellenar el formulario de expediente de personal y cargos TUTORIAL PARA RELLENAR EL EXPEDIENTE ESPACIAL DE PERSONAS Y CARGOS Objetivo del tutorial: Explicar paso a paso el procedimiento para ubicadas. En este tutorial aprenderá a: ­ Seleccionar mapas de los edificios para imprimir ­ Comprobar los

Escolano, Francisco


Anlise Preliminar de um Processo para Identificao  

E-print Network

Análise Preliminar de um Processo para Identificação e Alinhamento de Seqüências Homólogas para et al., 1998). Para cada arquivo do Protein Data Bank - PDB (Berman et al., 2000), o HSSP possui um arquivo que relata um alinhamento formado por seqüências homólogas obtidas da base de dados de seqüências

Neshich, Goran



E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa


Los consorcios exportadores: Estrategia para vender extralocalmente  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bajo el título Los consorcios exportadores: Estrategia para vender extralocalmente, se expone cómo a través de una investigación exploratoria, realizada mediante la interacción de empresarios en una mesa de trabajo, cumplida con reuniones periódicas por más de un año, se consigue diseñar un sistema de unión entre empresas locales, para que ven-dan sus productos en mercados seleccionados de Colombia y




Recursos para los estudiantes La Oficina para el Bienestar del Estudiante patrocina  

E-print Network

medicina requiere cambios en los hábitos del estudio: los estudiantes podrían tener dificultades para la preparación médica es aprender a cuidar la salud y bienestar propios. Es importante mantener un pacientes. Cómo apoyar a su estudiante de medicina Recursos para las familias OFFICINA PARA EL BIENESTAR DEL

Leistikow, Bruce N.


Estudantes universitrios devem mais de 200 milhes de euros aos bancos  

E-print Network

na sua �rea de forma��o. Decidiu, por isso, lan�ar uma empresa pr�- pria, para criar um restaurante pr�pria", diz. Licenciado em Psicologia Aplicada trabalha em dois empregos, num total de 11 horas por pr�pria", diz H� outra express�o que se repete entre as centenas de contributos re- cebidos nos

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Preguntas para el doctor sobre el cáncer

Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.


Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia

Serie de nueve (9) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la radioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.


Consejos para pacientes que reciben quimioterapia

Serie de dieciocho (18) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la quimioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la quimioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.


Software Libre para ensear o aprender Matemtica  

E-print Network

Software Libre para enseñar o aprender Matemática Porqué y Cómo Pablo De Nápoli #12;Introducción · En esta charla, presentaremos algunos de los pogramas que son software libre, que ventajas de utilizar software libre para la docencia y la investigación en matemática. #12;¿Por qué

De Nápoli, Pablo Luis


Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

Ostrov, P. G.


Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

Chu, C.C.



The ParaScope parallel programming environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.



Desenvolvimento de ímãs para sensor de velocidade para motor de arranque de avião  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de ímãs de ferrita a serem utilizados em sensor de velocidade para motor de arranque de um avião, fabricado pela empresa Aeromot de Canoas - RS. Dois tipos de ímãs foram solicitados pela empresa: na forma de cilindro e na forma de anel. Para a confecção dos ímãs, foi utilizada uma matéria-prima

Moisés de Mattos Dias; Lírio Schaeffer; Arão de Matos Dias; José Lesina Cezar; José Carlos; Krause de Verney


Coletor Solar para Desinfestação de Substratos para Produção de Mudas Sadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Um equipamento, denominado coletor solar, foi desenvolvido para desinfestar substratos utilizados para produção de mudas em viveiros de plantas, com o uso da energia solar. O coletor tem a finalidade de controlar as doenças causadas por microrganismos habitantes do solo em substituição a produtos químicos que contaminam o ambiente e causam riscos aos agricultores. O equipamento consiste, basicamente, de

Raquel Ghini


[Celioscopic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy].  


Because small volume lymph node metastases are difficult to recognize despite modern imaging techniques and since staging laparoscopy is costly and leads to important patient discomfort, pelvic then para-aortic lymph node endoscopic dissection has been introduced for staging gynaecological cancers. Since 1988, we have performed 110 pelvic and 17 para-aortic lymph node dissections using this technique. Pava-aortic endoscopic biopsy is indicated for advanced cancer of the cervix and subrenal biopsy for cancer of the ovary. Pelvic node dissection alone is useful in early stage cancers of the uterus and in cancers of the endometrium as well as in urological indications. PMID:7805478

Querleu, D; Leblanc, E; Castelain, B; Elhage, A


Para presentar unas visiones: El teatro salvadoreño  

E-print Network

experiencias acumuladas y a la enorme voluntad que se traía por hacer arte en el país. Parte de la experiencia es también la apertura, el no cerrarse y abrirse al trabajo conjunto rompiendo así viejas tradiciones y tabúes para ir a la búsqueda de los medios... difuminó y en la actualidad estamos en plena búsqueda para superar las mismas contradicciones que generaron esa guerra; entre esas contradicciones está la falta de una política cultural desde el punto de vista del estado salvadoreño, como de los...

Cea, José Roberto



Gua para Estudiantes Internacionales International Student Guide  

E-print Network

derecho y hasta un cuarto de computadores exclusivo para estudiantes de postgrado en derecho. Los Informática de la Salud l Salud Pública y Promoción de la Salud l Psicología Derecho Criminalística l Derecho Marítimo Internacional l Derecho Comercial Internacional l Derecho Comercial Internacional y Derecho

Martin, Ralph R.


Representacin del Conocimiento para la Composicin Musical  

E-print Network

Meta-modelo EV como herramienta genérica para representar estructuras basadas en el tiempo de forma definitiva se trata de disponer una serie de elementos formando estructuras superiores, y con éstas ordenar. Podemos observar el proceso de composición musical como una construcción arquitectónica de estructuras

Miranda, Eduardo Reck


Prospectiva para la industria de la hotelería  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCCIÓN La recuperación de la economía colombiana que se inició en 2003 y la mejora en las condiciones de seguridad del país se han traducido en un incremento continuado del número de turistas internacionales. Este estudio tiene como objetivo central identificar las principales tendencias del mercado hotelero en Colombia y su posición frente al mercado internacional para determinar las tendencias

Jorge Humberto Botero; Sandra Zuluaga; Carolina Camacho



Multicore Programming in ParaSail  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The advent of multicore processors requires a new approach to programming. ParaSail is an example of such a new approach.\\u000a It is a marriage of implicit parallelism and formal methods integrated into a simplified yet powerful programming language.

S. Taft


ADMINISTRAO Alunos convocados para o Enade 2012*  

E-print Network




E-print Network

MMW. En concreto se realizan experimentos de reconocimiento facial a corta, media y larga distancia adquisición de imágenes en MMW. En concreto el artículo realiza un análisis de tres escenarios para

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


Nota a los padres de familia: Este libro para colorear fue diseado para ayudar a ensear a  

E-print Network

#12;Nota a los padres de familia: Este libro para colorear fue diseñado para ayudar a enseñar a los. Al final de este libro para colorear, encontrarán una lista de alimentos ricos en calcio, que pueden Investigación Dental y Craneofacial #12;y el Amiguito Cepillito UN LIBRO PARA COLOREAR Institutos Nacionales

Rau, Don C.


Nota a los padres de familia: Este libro para colorear fue diseado para ayudar a ensear a  

E-print Network

#12;Nota a los padres de familia: Este libro para colorear fue diseñado para ayudar a enseñar a los. Al final de este libro para colorear, encontrarán una lista de alimentos ricos en calcio, que pueden Cepillito UN LIBRO PARA COLOREAR Institutos Nacionales de la Salud Instituto Nacional de Salud Infantil y

Bezrukov, Sergey M.


Semirido: un desafo para la CienciaSemirido: un desafo para la Ciencia del Suelodel Suelo  

E-print Network

Semiárido: un desafío para la CienciaSemiárido: un desafío para la Ciencia del Suelodel Suelo 13 al(SL), Argentina DIFERENTES USOS DEL SUELO: CONSECUENCIAS SOBRE BALANCE HÍDRICO Y DRENAJE PROFUNDO EN ZONAS aguas y suelos. ¿Se desarrollan procesos similares ante el reciente avance de la agricultura sobre los

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad



E-print Network

JORNADAS 2012 INSTRUCCIONES PARA LOS CARTELES El cartel puede estar escrito en español o en inglés y debe tener las siguientes dimensiones como máximo: 120 cm de alto x 160 cm de ancho. Los carteles presentado. Las sesiones de carteles iniciarán el lunes 17 de septiembre a las 10:00 y a las 12:30 horas; el

Islas, León


Proyecto para desarrollar un 'Teatro Popular Identificador'.  

E-print Network

"van guardia," "político," "social," "popular," etc. Sin negar los sanos propósitos que puedan inspirar estas distintas corrientes, creemos que el enfoque correcto que debe darse a una acción educativa a través del teatro, debe partir esencialmente... de las expresiones dramáticas del mismo pueblo a quien se quiere educar, y no, como es lo usual en estos movimientos teatrales, concebir una ideología o una política que se estima conveniente para el pueblo, pero que se gesta a sus espaldas...

Zapata Olivella, Manuel



Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR.  


The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1-4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far. PMID:23932399

Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan



Planificación para la etapa final de la vida

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos sobre el cuidado del paciente terminal, la planificación para el final de la vida, y la aflicción, el duelo y manejo de la pérdida de un ser querido.


Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

Stoker, Carol



An Examination of Criticisms made of Tinto's 1975 Student Integration Model of by Ian McCubbin  

E-print Network

sixteen, attendance in higher education is voluntary and there are a plethora of reasons why people may understand why individuals withdraw from higher education they could attempt to change their selection the most influential model of dropout from tertiary education. This paper outlines the problems associated

Williamson, John


American Indian/Alaskan Native Undergraduate Retention at Predominantly White Institutions: An Elaboration of Tinto's Theory of College Student Departure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from a major public university sponsored study undertaken with the intention of (a) improving university understanding of factors affecting American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) undergraduates' persistence at this institution, and (b) identifying in what areas, and in what manner, this institution could improve…

Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William; Brown, Eddie F.



Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del mismo.


Protocolo de Espacios. Tutorial de estancias TUTORIAL PARA RELLENAR EL  

E-print Network

Protocolo de Espacios. Tutorial de estancias TUTORIAL PARA RELLENAR EL EXPEDIENTE ESPACIAL DE ESTANCIAS Objetivo del tutorial: Explicar paso a paso el procedimiento para realizar el expediente de estancias En este tutorial aprenderá a: ­ Seleccionar mapas de los edificios para imprimir ­ Comprobar los

Escolano, Francisco


Educating Across Difference: Underrepresented Groups, Graduate Program Integration, and Persistence-Related Attitudes among Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students.  

E-print Network

??Drawing on Tinto’s (1975, 1987, 1993) interactionalist model of student attrition, this survey study examined students’ cultural differences from dominant graduate communities, integration in graduate… (more)

Hamilton, Rachel Ann



Il contributo di G. Braga alla Sociologia del linguaggio (The Contributions of G. Braga to the Sociology of Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Braga's contribution to the study of the sociology of language. Braga developed a dynamic interdisciplinary model of verbal communication based on theories of sociology and linguistics and stressed the importance of language in the acculturation of an individual and in the determination of that individual's status in society. (CFM)

Tessarolo, Marisella



ParaView for climate scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ParaView is an immensely popular scientific visualization framework that provides a variety of tools necessary for scientific visualization especially dealing with large data that ultimately leads to better understanding of simulation and non simulation data. The Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), is a powerful and complete front-end to a rich set of visual-data exploration and analysis capabilities well suited for climate-data analysis problems. This talk describes integration of Paraview within UV-CDAT framework by leveraging python interface of Paraview and various new features added to uvcdat and Paraview specifically targeting climate data such as new readers, filters and parallel spatiotemporal capabilities.

Chaudhary, A.



New strategies maximize para-xylene production  

SciTech Connect

Strong consumption growth and the shutdown of some capacity in 1992 have completely eliminated the surplus of para-xylene (p-xylene) capacity, which existed from 1990 to 1993. p-Xylene supplies are becoming tight and market prices have risen dramatically over the last several months, sparking considerable interest in new p-xylene production capacity. However, adding new capacity does not necessarily mean building new grassroots facilities. Additional capacity can be found'' by creative use of existing BTX (benzene, toluene and xylenes) resources. Options include: debottleneck existing units, reload with new catalysts, convert idle units to new services and diversify into new feedstocks. By making the most of existing facilities, producers can capitalize on the current upswing of the p-xylene market cycle. The paper describes this high demand chemical and how it is integrated with BTX complexes, then discusses short-, medium-, and long-term strategies for increased production.

Jeanneret, J.J.; Low, C.D.; Zukauskas, V. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))



7. Preparacion para el primer examen parcial Matematicas I, 2012-I 7. Preparacion para el primer examen parcial  

E-print Network

7. Preparaci´on para el primer examen parcial Matem´aticas I, 2012-I 7. Preparaci´on para el primer ejercicios como podr´ian venir en el primer examen parcial. Resuelve los que puedes en los d´ias 5 y 7 de 7-1 #12;Matem´aticas I, 2012-I 7. Preparaci´on para el primer examen parcial 3j Resuelve la ecuaci

Barot, Michael



E-print Network

jovens mulheres portuguesas com a Medalha de Honra pelos trabalhos que desenvolveram e pelo contributo, Tecnologia e Inovação em Portugal02 Novembro 2006 semana em revista MULHERES NA CI�NCIA A L'Oréal Portugal-feira passada, na Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, as "Medalhas de Honra L'Oréal Portugal para as Mulheres na

Soares, João Luís Cardoso


Servicios de tecnología para microempresas con base en el mercado  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente documento expone la experiencia del Instituto de Investigaciones Socioeconómicas y Tecnológicas (INSOTEC) de Ecuador, que brinda asistencia técnica y capacitación para pequeños empresarios. INSOTEC ha recibido apoyo de la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (USAID). Este documento trata del proceso de aprendizaje y evolución tanto en la gestión administrativa como en la gestión operativa,

José Antonio Lanusse



Narcotráfico, violencia y desigualdad: una hipótesis para el caso colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

El propósito del ensayo es analizar los factores que explican la violencia en Colombia; para ello, el autor, retoma elementos fundamentalmente en el neoinstitucionalismo, en el narcotráfico y en la desigualdad. González, después de explorara los tres elementos antes enunciados, plantea la hipótesis de que la desigualdad es, a su juicio, el factor que más se aproxima para interpretar la

Jorge Iván González



Instrucciones para laboratorios de pruebas (Actualizado al 2/12)  

E-print Network

externas y cargadores de batería. · Solicitud de Laboratorio de Pruebas para Calentadores de Agua con gran Capacidad de Almacenamiento: esta solicitud cubre calentadores de agua a gas y a electricidad, válvula de desvío de agua para duchas/b


Tratamento de águas residuárias: uma proposta para a sustentabilidade ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Neste trabalho foi estudado o desempenho de quatro sistemas de pós-tratamento de esgoto sanitário, operados com efluente proveniente de reator UASB. O eixo norteador do trabalho esteve diretamente direcionado para avaliar a remoção de nutrientes, organismos patogênicos e material carbonáceo. O processo de monitoramento teve duração média de 12 meses e o objetivo principal era produzir efluente para aplicação

José Tavares de Sousa; Israel Nunes Henrique; Valderi Duarte Leite; Wilton Silva Lopes



Estructuras de Datos Lgica para Ciencias de la Computacin  

E-print Network

1 Estructuras de Datos en Prolog Lógica para Ciencias de la Computación Primer Cuatrimestre de 2009 carencia de tipos de datos implica una mayor responsabilidad para el programador. Estructuras de Datos en Prolog · No disponer de tipos de datos no implica dejar de lado a las estructuras de datos. · Por otro

Simari, Guillermo R.



E-print Network


Fraguela, Basilio B.


Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

Vaisman, Izu [Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)] [Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)



La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Memoria para a verificacin do Mestrado universitario en Lingstica  

E-print Network


Fraguela, Basilio B.


Consejos para cuando le duelan la boca o la garganta

Información para personas que están recibiendo radioterapia y consejos sobre cómo controlar las molestias en la boca y garganta, sentirse mejor durante el tratamiento y comunicarse con su doctor o enfermera.


La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.


La terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.


La quimioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer  

SciTech Connect

The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A




E-print Network

responsabilidad del fichero automatizado corresponde al Consejo de Universidades. Los solicitantes, como cedentes ISCED 2 Ingenier�a y Arquitectura Construcci�n e ingenier�a civil Arquitectura y urbanismo HABILITA PARA

Fraguela, Basilio B.



E-print Network

responsabilidad del fichero automatizado corresponde al Consejo de Universidades. Los solicitantes, como cedentes Ingenier�a y Arquitectura Construcci�n e ingenier�a civil Control y tecnolog�a medioambiental HABILITA PARA

Fraguela, Basilio B.


Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.


Preguntas para el doctor si tiene un cáncer avanzado

Serie de preguntas que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico sobre las opciones de tratamiento si el cáncer es avanzado, las formas de controlar los síntomas y cómo prepararse para la etapa final de la vida.



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A relação água\\/aglomerante utilizada na fabricação do concreto é determinante para o desempenho do material durante sua vida útil. No entanto não existem controles tecnológicos que envolvam a determinação \\

F. A. C. Canesso; E. C. S. Corrêa; A. P. E Silva; M. T. P. Aguilar; P. R. Cetlin



Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported in this paper tested three core constructs in Tinto’s (1993) Model of Student Departure within the context of Christian higher education. In addition, the research added a spiritual integration variable to Tinto’s model that could potentially help to better explain retention and attrition at Christian institutions of higher education. The findings related to the spiritual integration variable




Cambie los cabezales y los escusados viejos para  

E-print Network

1 Cambie los cabezales y los escusados viejos para conservar más agua Sea conciente del uso del agua cada día y ahorre donde pueda 4 3 5 Cambieloscabezales deducha/regadera Cambie su lavadora por una la cocina, el baño, y el jardín para no perder el agua Siembre en su jardín plantas nativas que


Model of the para-terphenyl dye laser  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model for a Para-Terphenyl dye laser pumped by an excimer laser has been developed. A new set of reaction-rate coefficients for Para-Terphenyl has been established. The problem of spontaneous emission in a dye has been solved analytically. The numerical solutions of the laser equations agree closely with the experimental results reported in the literature. Use of our model resulted in the achievement of higher efficiencies and narrower linewidths than those previously reported.

Fournier, G.



Hypervalent iodine mediated para-selective fluorination of anilides.  


A metal-free method for the direct regioselective fluorination of anilides has been developed. In the presence of bis(tert-butylcarbonyloxy)iodobenzene (PhI(OPiv)(2)) and hydrogen fluoride-pyridine, the para-fluorination products of anilides were obtained in moderate to good yields. Because of its operational safety and the use of readily available reagents, this new procedure provides facile access to a variety of para-fluorinated anilides. PMID:23228030

Tian, Tian; Zhong, Wen-He; Meng, Shuai; Meng, Xiang-Bao; Li, Zhong-Jun



Cimpor inventa nova frmula para reduzir pegada de CO2  

E-print Network

Cimpor inventa nova fórmula para reduzir pegada de CO2 CIMENTO. A Cimpor descobriu uma nova fórmula para produzir ci- mento que lhe permitirá reduzir a pegada de CO 2 em 25%. Segundo as contas da as fábricas do grupo, seriam emitidos menos quatro milhões de toneladas de CO 2 por ano, o que permitiria uma

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Preparation of Para-AramideFabrics for Finishing Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the reaction of para-aramid fibres and fabrics with anion-active surfactants (ASF) allowed differentially assessing their sorption characteristics at different pH. The results of the studies confirm the possibility of regulating the reaction of ASF with para-aramid textile materials by measuring the pH of solutions, and this allows increasing the efficiency of finishing operations. Conducting washing and finishing of aramid

A. P. Mikhailovskaya; T. Yu. Dyankova; K. E. Perepelkin



40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...f). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as...



40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...f). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as...



19. Preparacion para el primer examen parcial Matematicas II, 2012-II 19. Preparacion para el primer examen parcial  

E-print Network

19. Preparaci´on para el primer examen parcial Matem´aticas II, 2012-II 19. Preparaci´on para el primer examen parcial En este semestre veremos 4 temas principales: Geometr´ia sint´etica: Resultados cl´atica del primer examen parcial: 15. Coordenadas (Geometr´ia anal´itica): Poder graficar funciones y ecua

Barot, Michael


ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.



Hox and paraHox genes in bivalve molluscs.  


In this study, we sought the presence and analysed the sequences of the Hox and ParaHox genes in bivalve molluscs. The clustered Hox genes play a central role in anterior-posterior axial patterning in bilaterian metazoa, whereas the ParaHox gene cluster is a paralogue (evolutionary sister) of the Hox cluster. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches, we isolated nine different sequences in five species belonging to three of the main bivalve subclasses: Ensis ensis and Tapes philippinarum (Heterodonta), Pecten maximus and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Pteriomorphia), and Yoldia eightsi (Protobranchia). Comparison with the Hox and ParaHox genes of other bilaterians, particularly lophotrochozoans, allowed us to attribute six of these sequences to the Hox gene cluster (one to paralog group [PG] 3 class, and five to the central class), two to the ParaHox cluster and one to the Gbx gene family. The results of our investigation seem to indicate that homeotic Hox and ParaHox gene clusters are homogeneous for both presence and characteristics in molluscs. PMID:14604796

Barucca, Marco; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana



Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.



Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.



[Erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine].  


A case of a 15 year-old girl who developed an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) after Henna tattoos is described. The patient was treated successfully with oral prednisolone and highly potent topical corticosteroids. The patient developed a long-lasting post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Potential hyperreactive response was prevented by applying the PPD patch for only 30 minutes, but still there was a significantly positive reaction. This case highlights the need to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivates in dyes. PMID:21199625

Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Liljefred, Frederik; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard



Nexo casual deve ser comprovado para se caracterizar a responsabilidade do Para ficar caracterizada a responsabilidade subjetiva, assim como a objetiva, alm da  

E-print Network

primeiro grau. Para o tribunal, ficou caracterizada a responsabilidade civil do município, uma vez queNexo casual deve ser comprovado para se caracterizar a responsabilidade do Estado Para ficar caracterizada a responsabilidade subjetiva, assim como a objetiva, além da investigação de culpa do agente, tem

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo


Revista Colombiana de Estadstica Edicin para autor(es)  

E-print Network

result in weights that are not constructed in a systematic fashion. Graphical methods can be usefulRevista Colombiana de Estad�stica Edici�n para autor(es) Statistical Graphics for Survey Weights to sampling design, nonresponse, undercoverage, and other factors. However, practical considerations often

Gelman, Andrew


Uma Perspectiva de Progresso para a Engenharia da Linguagem  

E-print Network

preparatório do Livro Branco António Horta Branco Fac. de Ciências de Lisboa, Dep:// 0 Introdução Procuramos com este texto contribuir para o debate preparatório do Livro Branco do

Branco, António Horta


Marvin, robô construtor para competição em robótica móvel  

Microsoft Academic Search

renatohsp@gmail .com Resumo: Este artigo é sobre a construção do robô autônomo Marvin o Construtor, que foi construído para participar da IV Competição IEEE Brasileira de Robô. A tarefa consiste em empilhar blocos em uma área predeterminada em um menor tempo possível, ganha a torre mais alta. O robô, construído por alunos do Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), foi construído

André Martin Narciso; Carlos Augusto; Bentes da Silva; Jackson Paul Matsuura


DESIGN -MODA Alunos convocados para o Enade 2012*  

E-print Network



RELAES INTERNACIONAIS Alunos convocados para o Enade 2012*  

E-print Network



Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian



actuar en el Sur y para el Sur  

E-print Network

�ginas 06-07 Recursos para la investigaci�n El IRD en 2013 Investigaciones de excelencia La Agencia P internacional sobre el desarrollo econ�mico y social. Actor capital de la diplomacia cient�fica francesa, el IRD desarrollo. As�, las investigaciones sobre el cambio clim�tico, la gesti�n de los recursos, la biodiversidad



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação da aceitabilidade de alternativas tecnológicas de gerenciamento da demanda urbana de água em um bairro da cidade de Campina Grande, na Paraíba. Avaliou-se a opinião da sociedade, através de entrevistas domiciliares, sobre a aceitabilidade quanto à implementação de alternativas tecnológicas (aparelhos hidro-sanitários poupadores, captação de água de chuva e reúso de água) para

Márcia Maria Rios Ribeiro; Maria Josicleide Felipe


Estructuras de Datos Lgica para Ciencias de la Computacin  

E-print Network

Estructuras de Datos en Prolog Lógica para Ciencias de la Computación Primer Cuatrimestre de 2009. #12;3 Estructuras de DatosEstructuras de Datos en Prologen Prolog No disponer de tipos de datos no implica dejar de lado a las estructuras de datos. Por otro lado, la recursión es la principal estructura

Simari, Guillermo R.


Para-[18F]-fluorohippurate [ [18F]-PFH  

E-print Network

of Pharmacy Arvind Chopra, PhD National Center for Biotechnology Information, NLM, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894 Chemical name: Para-[18F]-fluorohippurate Abbreviated name: [18F]-PFH Synonym: Agent Category: Compound and perform renal scans (renography) (2). However, even with these radiolabeled compounds, a low signal

Levin, Judith G.


Terapias adyuvantes y neoadyuvantes para el cáncer de seno

Hoja informativa que explica las terapias adyuvantes (tratamiento que se administra además de la terapia primaria para aumentar la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo) y las neoadyuvantes (terapia que se administra antes de la terapia principal). Contiene información sobre los efectos secundarios y sobre los riesgos y beneficios de estas terapias.


La buena mesa colombiana: pretexto para el turismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

El libro “La buena mesa colombiana: pretexto para el turismo” es el fruto del trabajo de grado realizado por las estudiantes Olga Liliana Mantilla y María Catalina Quintero de la Facultad de Administración de Empresas Turísticas y Hoteleras. La investigación constituye un esfuerzo de reflexión sobre la importancia de la valoración de la gastronomía colombiana como expresión cultural y de

Olga Liliana Mantilla; María Catalina Quintero


Donación de tejidos para investigación oncológica: muestras y depósitos biológicos

Hoja informativa que describe la importancia de las muestras biológicas y de los depósitos biológicos en la investigación oncológica, y los programas del NCI para aumentar el suministro de muestras biológicas de alta calidad. Explica también cómo los pacientes y otras personas pueden ayudar a apoyar la investigación que usa muestras biológicas.



EPA Science Inventory

?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...



Microsoft Academic Search

Partindo do pressuposto de que é no campo próprio da batalha humana que as idéias, os conceitos ou teorias encontram seu pleno significado histórico, e que o campo concreto da batalha, em que se transformou a sociedade russa pós-revolucionária para tornar-se diferente do que era, está vivo nas linhas e entrelinhas das idéias, dos conceitos, enfim, da teoria de Vygotski,

Silvana Calvo Tuleski


Instrumentos económicos para la gestión de residuos sólidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación discute industria del reciclaje, incluye el caso de botellas PET en Río de Janeiro y el caso de sistema reciclaje de la Municipalidad de La Reina, Santiago; mercado de servicios, incluye el caso de apertura del mercado para usuarios no residenciales en Río de Janeiro y el caso de participación privada en Santiago; gestión integral, incluye el caso

Jorge Ducci




E-print Network

dos pasadas décadas, el levantamiento y estudio de suelos como otras disciplinas científicas aplicadas, el estudio y levantamiento de suelos ha estado acompañado con el avenimiento de la tecnología, siendo suelo (SRI). Se realizaron esfuerzos concertados para lograr los retos propuestos, de manera de mantener

Rossiter, D G "David"


Aplicacin de una metodologa paraAplicacin de una metodologa para modelacin de medios fracturados enmodelacin de medios fracturados en  

E-print Network

;� Geolog�a estructural, cartograf�as en superficie y descripci�n de estructuras identificadas en sondeos sondeos flow-logging, interferencia, bombeo desde la mina... Para identificar estructuras: RATONES�NIDENTIFICACI�N DE LASDE LAS PRINCIPALES ESTRUCTURASPRINCIPALES ESTRUCTURAS #12;RATONES:RATONES: Cartograf

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat


NCI Anuncia Contribuciones para Incrementar Acceso de Minorías a Información sobre el Cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anunció este mes una variedad de contribuciones que totalizan casi 1 millón de dólares para ayudar a desarrollar la investigación y programas para comprender y finalmente romper la División Digital que existe en muchas poblaciones minoritarias para el acceso y uso de la información sobre el cáncer disponible en la Internet. Las contribuciones son un esfuerzo del Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer (CIS), dependiente de la NCI, para trabajar con grupos y organizaciones regionales para el control del cáncer para probar estrategias destinadas a aumentar las comunicaciones sobre el cáncer en comunidades deficientemente atendidas


GUIA PARA REALIZAR LA RENOVACION DE LIBROS VIA WEB A continuacin se muestran los pasos que debe realizar para poder llevar a cabo la renovacin de libros va web. Para  

E-print Network

GUIA PARA REALIZAR LA RENOVACION DE LIBROS VIA WEB A continuación se muestran los pasos que debe realizar para poder llevar a cabo la renovación de libros vía web. Para cualquier duda o comentario favor LÍNEA" y deberá dar un clic en Renovación de préstamos de libros. PASO 2: Ingrese el N�MERO

Islas, León


Clearance of para-aminohippuric acid in wethers consuming locoweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To validate the use of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) as a marker for measuring blood flow in wethers consuming a mixed diet of locoweed and blue grama hay.METHODS: Fourteen sheep, stratified by bodyweight (BW), were assigned to one of three treatments: 0.8 mg swainsonine (SW)\\/kg BW (HI), 0.2 mg SW\\/kg BW (LO), and no SW (Control). Sheep were fed various

JR Strickland; MA Custis; AK Ashley; LL Smith; JL Klotz; CR Krehbiel




E-print Network

DERECHOS DEL EMPLEADO LEy PARA LA PROtECCión DEL EMPLEADO COntRA LA PRuEbA DEL POLígRAfO PROHIBICIONES ExENCIONES DERECHOS DE LOS ExAMINADOS CUMPLIMIENTO Generalmente se le prohíbe al empleador que le aspirante a un trabajo por haberse negado a someterse a la prueba o por haberse acogido a otros derechos

Rock, Chris


Estrategias para el Modelado y el Anlisis de Estructuras Histricas  

E-print Network

1 Estrategias para el Modelado y el Análisis de Estructuras Históricas Fernando Peña Mondragón muestra en forma tangible las antiguas técnicas de construcción y los materiales usados. Las estructuras salvaguarda de los valores intrínsecos de la estructura; y no sólo de la seguridad estructural. El objetivo

Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos


Para-aortic Lymphadenopathy Associated with Kawasaki Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis that occurs mainly in children. Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the major presenting manifestations of Kawasaki disease. We report a case of Kawasaki disease with para aortic lymphadenopathy, as an unusual feature in this disease. Case Presentation This 2.5 year old girl presented with persistent high grade fever, erythematous rash, bilateral non purulent conjunctivitis, red lips, and edema of extremities. Laboratory results included an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis, anemia, and positive C-reactive protein. On second day after admission she developed abdominal pain. Ultrasonography of abdomen revealed multiple lymph nodes around para aortic area, the largest measuring 12mm×6mm. Treatment consisted of aspirin and high dose intravenous ?-globulin. Ultrasonography and CT scan of abdomen performed one week later showed disappearance of the lymph nodes. Conclusion There are few previous reports of lymphadenopathy in unusual sites such as mediastinum in Kawasaki disease. Para aortic lymph nodes enlargement might be an associated finding with acute phase of Kawasaki disease. In these patients a close observation and ultrasonographic follow up will prevent unnecessary further investigation. PMID:23056749

Kashef, Sara; Momen, Tooba; Heidari, Behzad; Amin, Reza



Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.  


Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha



Determination of the Ratio of Ortho Hydrogen and Para Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two different quantum states of hydrogen, ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen, possess different properties. The accurate determination of the ortho/para ratio in gaseous, liquid and solid state is important both for research needs and for applications in cryogenic engineering, such as H2 production, transport and storage. NMR can determine the ratio1 accurately, but it is cumbersome and often not practical. Cryogenic applications need a simple and reliable method. We report on the development of a thermal conductivity gauge employing a pure metal thin film that serves as both heater and thermometer for the detection of ortho-para hydrogen ratios in the gaseous state. This ratio-meter has been tested and found to have a nearly pressure-independent voltage response over a broad pressure range with a constant current. The thermal conductivity of hydrogen and nitrogen was measured and found to agree quantitatively with published data. The new development will be presented. *Thanks to Larry Phelps, Bill Malphurs, Stephen Wood, David Hernandez. # Supported by NASA Contract NAG3-2750 Ref. 1. D. Zhou, C. M. Edwards, and N. S. Sullivan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1528 (1989)

Zhou, D.; Ihas, G. G.; Sullivan, N. S.




E-print Network

CONVOCATORIA AL DIPLOMADO EN CULTURA FINANCIERA A DISTANCIA PARA UNIVERSIDADES E INSTITUCIONES sobre el Sistema Financiero Mexicano para elevar su nivel de Cultura Financiera. PROP�SITO El propósito

Islas, León


The Tinto River, an extreme acidic environment under control of iron, as an analog of the Terra Meridiani hematite site of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

One remarkable discovery in Mars geology is the extensive Meridiani iron formation. Although thermal oxidation mechanisms have been proposed for its origin, geomorphology and IR spectroscopy studies support an aqueous scenario as the most feasible environment to host its secondary iron-enriched mineralogy. Terrestrial hydrothermal systems or the iron-rich Precambrian oceans have been proposed as analogs to understand these interesting Martian

D. Fernandez-Remolar; J. Gomez-Elvira; F. Gomez; E. Sebastian; J. Mart??in; J. A. Manfredi; J. Torres; C. González Kesler; R. Amils



The Impact of Family Support on the Success of Black Men at an Historically Black University: Affirming the Revision of Tinto's Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study of 11 Black male students who entered a public historically Black college and university (HBCU) as academically under-prepared and persisted to graduation, provides insight into the ways in which family promotes academic success for Black male students at a public HBCU. The study's findings encourage practitioners at HBCUs…

Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O principal objetivo de currículos CTS é o letramento científico e tecnológico para que os alunos possam atuar como cidadãos, tomando decisões e agindo com responsabilidade social. No pre- sente artigo discutiremos o significado dessa meta educacional e apresentaremos uma revisão da litera- tura sobre suas implicações para o ensino de ciências. As considerações apresentadas contribuem para uma melhor

Wildson Luiz Pereira dos Santos; Eduardo Fleury Mortimer



Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno

E-book para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno que pueden operarse con cirugía. Esta guía explica los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para preservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres a decidir cuál cirugía es la mejor opción para ellas.


Fondos del SBIR para el desarrollo de tecnologías de imágenes más avanzadas

El Programa de Investigación de la Innovación de la Pequeña Empresa (SBIR), junto con el Programa de Transferencia Tecnológica para la Pequeña Empresa (STTR), son los motores del NCI para la creación y comercialización de nuevas tecnologías para prevenir, diagnosticar y tratar el cáncer.


Las políticas públicas: alternativa para combatir la pobreza en México, con enfoque local  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Estado Mexicano tiene la obligación de que las políticas públicas enfocadas al desarrollo regional, sean un instrumento real de política económica a nivel regional, para el combate de la pobreza, desigualdad y la marginación social. Para ello, el reto es crecer en términos económicos, en el ámbito nacional y estatal, para generar esa riqueza y poder pagar impuestos a

Lorenzo Salgado García; Mercedes Pérez Rangel



Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad motriz Linux Ubuntu 10.10  

E-print Network

Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad motriz Linux Ubuntu 10.10 ASIC ­ 18 de noviembre de 2010 Pág. 1 de 7 GUÍA DE ACCESIBILIDAD PARA PERSONAS CON DEBILIDAD MOTRIZ EN ENTORNO Linux Ubuntu 10- get install dasher" y presione enter. #12;Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad motriz Linux

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro


APRESENTAO Este Manual fornece informaes relevantes para os  

E-print Network

Orientação aos candidatos 4 2 Edital do Concurso Vestibular 2014 9 ­ Dos cursos e das vagas oferecidas 9 ­ Da inscrição 13 ­ Da habilitação às vagas reservadas para o ENEM 2013 14 ­ Da confirmação de inscrição 16 ­ Das. #12;Manual do Candidato - Vestibular PuC-rio 2014 5 �RG�O EXPEDIDOR: selecione o �rgão Expedidor do


Cómo cuidarse mientras usted cuida a su ser querido: Apoyo para personas que cuidan a un ser querido con cáncer

Un folleto para las personas responsables del cuidado de un ser querido que recibe tratamiento para el cáncer. Ofrece información práctica y apoyo para ayudarlas a sobrellevar este período difícil y estresante.


NMR Quantum Information Processing with Para-Hydrogen  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the problems of initialization and separability in liquid state NMR based quantum information processors. We prepare pure quantum states lying above the entanglement threshold. Our pure state quantum computer derives its purity from the highly polarized nuclear spin states in the para-hydrogen molecule. The thesis begins with a critique of conventional NMR based quantum information processing outlining the major strengths and weaknesses of the technology. We describe the enhanced magnetic ordering of the nuclear spin states in para-hydrogen and an initialization experiment exploiting this effect to achieve pure, entangled states. These states can indeed be used as initial states in implementing quantum algorithms: we describe mplementations of the Deutsch and the Grover quantum algorithms. The "twirl" operation converts a completely arbitrary input state to a Werner singlet. The NMR implementation of this operation is taken up. We also analyze the possibility of sharing the purity of some highly polarized qubits in a quantum computer onto quantum subspaces of arbitrary dimensions, and whether these sharing operations increase or decrease the likelihood of entanglement.

M. S. Anwar



Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2013 1 Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes 2013  

E-print Network

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2013 1 Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes ­ 2013 Si usted NO TIENE diabetes, por favor NO LLENE este sobre diabetes en el Condado de _______________. D. El código postal en mi casa es __ __ __ __ __. E


Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2013 1 Formulario de Conclusin para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Conclusin para Personas con Diabetes 201  

E-print Network

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2013 1 Formulario de Conclusión para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Conclusión para Personas con Diabetes ­ 201 Si usted NO TIENE diabetes, por favor NO LLENE este últimos cuatro números de mi número telefónico son __ __ __ __. C. Marque todas las clases sobre diabetes


Femtosecond pump and probe spectroscopy on poly(para-phenylenes)  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the sub-picosecond dynamics of photoexcitations in methyl-substituted poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer (m-LPPP) films in a wide excitation density range up to values typical for the regime of narrow band emission by pump-probe spectroscopy. The singlet excitons relaxation dynamics, monitored at the stimulated emission (SE) peak at 2.53 eV, showed an intensity dependent ultrafast decay component, which occurs on a sub-picosecond time scale, ascribed to the onset of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In addition the authors identified photoinduced absorption (PA) bands of singlet excitons at 1.48 eV and polarons at 1.9 eV respectively. At high excitation density an additional absorption band becomes evident at 2.63 eV.

Graupner, W.; Cerullo, G.; Kranzelbinder, G.; Lanzani, G.; Stagira, S.; Nisoli, M.; De Silvestri, S.; Leising, G.



Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.


Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.


Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander



Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.



Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.



Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes.  


We investigated the biotransformation of the oxidative arylamine (AA) hair dye ingredients [14C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) and [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes. Human epidermis quantitatively transformed PAP to its N-acetylated derivative (APAP), whereas hepatocytes transformed PAP to sulfate or glucuronic acid conjugates of APAP or PAP as well as free APAP. Epidermis and hepatocytes converted PPD to N-mono- (MAPPD) and N,N'-di-acetylated (DAPPD) derivatives. At higher concentrations of PPD (250-1000 microM), epidermis or hepatocytes produced more of the MAPPD, whereas concentrations below 250 microM and lower favoured formation of the DAPPD metabolite. When compared with epidermis, human hepatocytes had a three-fold or eight-fold greater capacity for generation of MAPPD or DAPPD, respectively. No evidence of transformation of PAP or PPD to N-hydroxylated derivatives was found in epidermis or hepatocytes. Our results suggest that (i) after dermal absorption of PAP or PPD, humans are systemically exposed to acetylated derivatives; (ii) current in vitro skin absorption studies may be inadapated for determination of human systemic exposure to AAs due to reduced or absent metabolic capacity of non-viable skin; (iii) due to qualitative differences between dermal and hepatic metabolism, oral toxicity studies may be unsuited for the hazard assessment of dermal exposure to AAs; and (iv) use of induced rodent liver S9 metabolic activation systems for in vitro genotoxicity studies may produce misleading results on the hazard of human dermal exposure to AAs. In conclusion, our data support the growing evidence that AAs are transformed in human skin and suggest that current practices of safety assessment of AAs should take these findings into account. PMID:15890478

Nohynek, Gerhard J; Duche, Daniel; Garrigues, Alexia; Meunier, Pierre-Alain; Toutain, Herve; Leclaire, Jacques



Features of the ancestral bilaterian inferred from Platynereis dumerilii ParaHox genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisation of vertebrate Hox clusters is intimately linked to gene regulation, much less is known about the more recently discovered ParaHox cluster. ParaHox gene clustering, and its

Jerome HL Hui; Florian Raible; Natalia Korchagina; Nicolas Dray; Sylvie Samain; Ghislaine Magdelenat; Claire Jubin; Béatrice Segurens; Guillaume Balavoine; Detlev Arendt; David EK Ferrier



Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas

Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que también reciben tratamiento posoperativo para suprimir el funcionamiento ovárico. Los resultados de este estudio se presentaron en mujeres que tenían un tipo de cáncer de seno en estadio inicial sensible al tratamiento hormonal.


Novas configurações de monopólios planares quase-fractais para sistemas de comunicações móveis.  

E-print Network

??As propriedades únicas da geometria fractal têm-se mostrado bastante úteis para a construção de filtros, superfícies seletivas em freqüência, circuitos sintonizados e antenas, possibilitando soluções… (more)

Marcelo Ribeiro da Silva



Seleccin de libros Elsevier para la UA Para el prximo ao 2012 hemos de realizar una seleccin de ttulos que formarn parte de nuestra coleccin  

E-print Network

Selección de libros Elsevier para la UA Para el próximo año 2012 hemos de realizar una selección de acceso a la plataforma de Libros-e Science Direct. También se puede acceder a los libros a través del Buscador de libros electrónicos. Igualmente, enviamos informe de uso de esta plataforma durante el presente

Escolano, Francisco


Quadrupole Approximation for Para-Positronium in Relativistic Schrödinger Theory  

E-print Network

The non-relativistic energy levels of para-positronium are calculated in the quadrupole approximation of the interaction potential. This approximation technique takes into account the anisotropy of the electrostatic electron-positron interaction in the lowest order. The states due to different values of the quantum number $(l_z)$ of angular momentum are found to be no longer degenerate as is the case in the conventional theory. The physical origin of this elimination of the conventional degeneracy may intuitively be attributed to the state-dependent inertial \\emph{broadening} of the rotating charge clouds; the corresponding \\emph{anisotropic} deformation (in the quadrupole approximation) lowers then the negative electrostatic interaction energy. The result of this influence of anisotropy is that the states with $l_z=0$ adopt smaller binding energy whereas the states with maximal value of $|l_z|$ (for fixed principal quantum number $n$) have the largest binding energy within the angular momentum multiplet $(-|l_{z,\\mathrm{max}}| \\le l_z \\le |l_{z,\\mathrm{max}}|)$. This yields a certain kind of electric fine-structure splitting with the splitted RST levels being placed in a relatively narrow band around the (highly degenerated) conventional levels.

M. Mattes; M. Sorg



A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion  

PubMed Central

Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis). When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed. PMID:23762696

Almaliotis, Diamantis; Nakos, Elias; Siempis, Thomas; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Chatzipantazi, Maria; Karampatakis, Vasileios



Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others



Improved bioavailability of para-boronophenylalanine by cyclodextrin complexation.  


This study was undertaken to develop an oral dosage form for para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) plus cyclodextrin (CD) for use in the thermal neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma. Powders of the BPA and CD complexes were obtained in a molar ratio of 1:2. X-ray diffraction of the BPA-CD complexes showed halo patterns that indicated that each complex was in a new solid state as an amorphous compound. The enhancement of BPA solubility by glucosyl (G1)- and maltosyl (G2)-alpha-CD was greater than that with the other CDs. The isolation rate of BPA from its complex was different for each BPA-CD complex. The bioavailability of BPA in rats was improved with oral administration of the BPA-alpha-CD, G1-alpha-CD, and G2-alpha-CD complexes. In contrast, a complex of BPA and dimaltosyl (G2G2) or G2-beta-CD, which had low release rate and low solubility, did not improve the bioavailability of BPA. These results indicate that the solubility and release rate of BPA from a complex in solution are important for the bioavailability of BPA after oral administration of BPA-CD complexes. PMID:8254492

Hatanaka, H; Komada, F; Mishima, Y; Okumura, K



Phase diagram for ortho-para-hydrogen monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram for orientational ordering of hydrogen monolayers on graphite and boron nitride is revised in view of current theory and experimental observations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies recently reported for ortho-H2 concentrations 0.35 ? c ? 0.92 and temperatures 0.14 ? T ? 1.80 K. The characteristic interaction coupling ?0 = 0.50 ± 0.03 K and the crystalline field amplitude V0 = 0.70 ± 0.10 K are derived from experimental data, and distinct types of the local orientationally ordered structures are analysed using a proposed model for site-diluted uniaxial quadrupoles on a triangular plane lattice of hexagonal symmetry. The long-range periodic pinwheel structure and the short-range quadrupolar glass (QG) phase are stable above the 2D site-percolation limit, cp = 0.72, and for 0.48 < c < cp, respectively, where quadrupolar-order effects dominate. At very low T, the QG phase shows instability with respect to local dipole-like polarization effects and the ground state changes to a hindered rotor state. Two para-rotational local ordered PRA and PRB structures driven, respectively, by positive and negative crystalline fields are well distinguished, experimentally and theoretically, and are rather different from the unique PR phase suggested earlier by Harris and Berlinsky.

Sullivan, N. S.; Kokshenev, V. B.



Uninfected Para-Anastomotic Aneurysms after Infrarenal Aortic Grafting  

PubMed Central

Purpose This single-institution retrospective review examines the management of uninfected para-anastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA), developed after infrarenal grafting. Materials and Methods From October 1979 to November 2005, 31 PAAA were observed in our Department. Twenty-six uninfected PAAA of degenerative etiology, including 24 false and 2 true aneurysms, were candidates for intervention and retrospectively included in our database for management and outcome evaluation. Six (23%) patients were treated as emergencies. Surgery included tube graft interposition (n = 12), new reconstruction (n = 8), and graft removal with extra-anatomic bypass (n = 3). Endovascular management (n = 3) consisted of free-flow tube endografts. Results The mortality rate among the elective and emergency cases was 5% and 66.6%, respectively (p = 0.005). The morbidity rate in elective cases was 57.8%, whereas 75% in emergency cases (p = 0.99). The survival rate during the follow-up was significantly higher for elective cases than for emergency cases. Conclusion Uninfected PAAA is a late complication of aortic grafting, tends to evolve silently and is difficult to diagnose. The prevalence is underestimated and increases with time since surgery. The mortality rate is higher among patients treated as an emergency than among patients who undergo elective surgery, therefore, elective treatment and aggressive management in the case of pseudoaneurysm are the keys to obtain a good outcome. Endovascular treatment could reduce mortality. Patients who undergo infrarenal aortic grafting require life-long surveillance after surgery. PMID:19430556

Nano, Giovanni; Cusmai, Francesco; Ramponi, Fabio; Stegher, Silvia; Dell'Aglio, Daniela; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.



Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.



DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

Lin, J I



Features of the ancestral bilaterian inferred from Platynereis dumerilii ParaHox genes  

PubMed Central

Background The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisation of vertebrate Hox clusters is intimately linked to gene regulation, much less is known about the more recently discovered ParaHox cluster. ParaHox gene clustering, and its relationship to expression, has only been described in deuterostomes. Conventional protostome models (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans) are secondarily derived with respect to ParaHox genes, suffering gene loss and cluster break-up. Results We provide the first evidence for ParaHox gene clustering from a less-derived protostome animal, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii. Clustering of these genes is thus not a sole preserve of the deuterostome lineage within Bilateria. This protostome ParaHox cluster is not entirely intact however, with Pdu-Cdx being on the opposite end of the same chromosome arm from Pdu-Gsx and Pdu-Xlox. From the genomic sequence around the P. dumerilii ParaHox genes the neighbouring genes are identified, compared with other taxa, and the ancestral arrangement deduced. Conclusion We relate the organisation of the ParaHox genes to their expression, and from comparisons with other taxa hypothesise that a relatively complex pattern of ParaHox gene expression existed in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, which was secondarily simplified along several invertebrate lineages. Detailed comparisons of the gene content around the ParaHox genes enables the reconstruction of the genome surrounding the ParaHox cluster of the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, which existed over 550 million years ago. PMID:19627570

Hui, Jerome HL; Raible, Florian; Korchagina, Natalia; Dray, Nicolas; Samain, Sylvie; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Jubin, Claire; Segurens, Beatrice; Balavoine, Guillaume; Arendt, Detlev; Ferrier, David EK



Plasma/blood pharmacokinetics and metabolism after dermal exposure to para-aminophenol or para-phenylenediamine.  


The pharmacokinetics and metabolism following dermal application of [(14)C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) or [(14)C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) were investigated. Groups of rats were treated under occlusion for 24 h with 12.5 mg/kg [(14)C]-PAP, or for 4h with 50 mg/kg [(14)C]-PPD on 10% or 20% of their body surface area, respectively. A female minipig was also treated dermally (24 h, occlusion) with 4.7 mg/kg [(14)C]-PAP on 10% of its body surface area. Blood and plasma samples were analysed for radioactivity and presence of metabolites. In PAP-treated rats, mean plasma levels at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 24h were 0.16, 0.24, 0.38, 0.50, 0.36 or 0.14 microg [(14)C]-PAP equivalents/ml, respectively. The plasma half-life was 5.95 h, the C(max) was 0.5 microg/ml, the t(max) was 4 h, and the AUC(0-infinity) was 9.27 microg-equivalentsh/ml. No free PAP was detected in the plasma, but 3 metabolites (M1, M2 and M3) were found in 2-, 4- or 8-h samples at ranges from 0% to 17.7% (M1), 27.6% to 45.0% (M2) or 46.9% to 70% (M3) of the total plasma radioactivity. M2 was identified as acetylated PAP (paracetamol, acetaminophen, APAP), whereas M1 and M3 were identified as O-glucuronide or O-sulfate conjugates of APAP, respectively. In the pig, very low levels of radioactivity (C(max) of approximately 10 ng/ml) were found in the blood, and identified as APAP. Analysis of plasma of PPD-treated rats at 4 h after topical treatment revealed levels of 1.41 +/- 0.34 microg/ml [(14)C]-PPD-equivalents in males, and 7.40 +/- 1.83 microg/ml in females. Radioactivity, reflected a single metabolite, which was identified to be N,N'-diacetylated PPD. Comparison of the plasma APAP levels in rats or the pig following topical PAP with corresponding human plasma levels after a single oral therapeutic dose of APAP suggested a substantial margin of safety. Overall, the results suggest that topically applied PAP or PPD are metabolised in the skin, presumably by N-acetyltransferase-1 resulting in systemic exposure to acetylated metabolites, and not to their parent arylamines. PMID:16239057

Dressler, William E; Appelqvist, Terence



Livro de actividades em ToonTalk para o pré-escolar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como orientação para os educadores, foi desenvolvido um conjunto de actividades adequadas a contextos de educação pré-escolar (crianças dos 3 aos 5 anos, na presença de educadores), que se apoiam no videojogo - ou videobrinquedo - ToonTalk. Para permitir uma fácil compreensão e acompanhamento por parte de crianças e educadores, foi então desenvolvida uma forma gráfica de transmitir essas actividades,

Leonel Morgado; Maria Gabriel Bulas Cruz; Ana Teresa Tavares; Christophe Moura


Seminario sobre temas estratégicos del agua en América Latina y el Caribe agenda para la acción  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el corto plazo, con apoyo del Banco, América Latina y el Caribe se preparan para elaborar un informe regional sobre financiamiento del agua a ser presentado a las agencias de financiamiento durante el Tercer Foro Mundial del Agua, a llevarse a cabo en 2003 en Kyoto. Para contribuir en este proceso, el Banco organizó el presente seminario e invitó

Jerson Kelman; Benedito Braga; Humberto Peña; César Herrera Toledo; Víctor Pochat; Max Campos; Margaret Catley-Carson; Peter Rogers; Raymundo José Garrido; Adrián Baltanás García; Arnold Sánchez; Herman Rosa; Michel Camdessus; Enrique V. Iglesias; Hyperides Pereira de Macedo; Jamal Saghir; Aser Cortines Peixoto Filho; Sergio Heumann; Linda Kemeny; Fuensanta Díaz Cobacho; Carlos M. Jarque




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo- Este artigo procura fornecer subsídios para a implantação de barragens de regularização no estado de Goiás. Com essa finalidade foi desenvolvido e aplicado um modelo de simulação com base na equação de balanço hídrico para reservatórios. O modelo permite, por exemplo, estimar a disponibilidade hídrica máxima do curso d'água, analisar a importância dos diversos componentes do balanço ou dimensionar

Jonas Linhares Melo; Gunter Assis Moraes; Bernd Rusteberg


Hacia una Estrategia de Desarrollo para la Sierra Rural en el Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este proyecto es elaborar un documento que establezca los lineamientos de una política de desarrollo para la Sierra rural en el Perú e identificar los requerimientos institucionales y de investigación complementaria que se requerirían para la construcción de programas específicos que atiendan de la manera más eficiente la problemática de la pobreza en esta región. El documento

J. A. Escobal; L. Valdivia




Microsoft Academic Search

En la Comunidad costera de Cascarero del Municipio Jesús Menéndez, se detectó que existen condiciones desfavorables para lograr la equidad de género, influyendo diversos factores. De ahí que se investigó el proceso para favorecer la equidad de género con el propósito de resolver la insuficiente incorporación de la mujer en actividades económicas, políticas y sociales, por ello el trabajo de

Aiblis Susel Vidal Marrero; Yasenny Bravo Sánchez



Metronet: software para medicin de calidad de servicio en voz y video.  

E-print Network

presente trabajo describe brevemente el software de Metronet y su desarrollo, culminando en la presentación1 Metronet: software para medición de calidad de servicio en voz y video. Pablo Belzarena, Víctor un software para medir los diferentes parámetros de calidad de servicio (QoS) en aplicaciones de voz



E-print Network

APROXIMACIONES EFICIENTES PARA PROBLEMAS DE VIBRACIONES EN SISTEMAS FLUIDO-ESTRUCTURA Mario, Palabras Clave: Vibraciones. Interacci´on fluido-estructura. Adaptividad hp finitos para problemas de vibraciones en sistemas fluido-estructura que tienen una matriz de masas con n

Armentano, María Gabriela


[The place of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in gynaecological malignancies. An old debate].  


There is a lack of prospective randomized trial and scientific evidence for the use of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in gynaecological malignancies. This results in variations between countries for its utility. Based on the recommandations of the French Institute of Cancer (INCa), we open the debate of the place of para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24793624

Philippe, Anne-Cécile; Dauplat, Jacques; Martinez, Alejandra; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas; Ferron, Gwenaël; Pomel, Christophe



Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad visual Google Chrome 8.0.552.224  

E-print Network

Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad visual Google Chrome 8.0.552.224 ASIC ­ 13 de Diciembre de 2010 Pág. 1 de 3 GUÍA DE ACCESIBILIDAD PARA PERSONAS CON DEBILIDAD VISUAL EN GOOGLE CHROME 8 accedido a Google Chrome pulsamos en la llave inglesa y dentro de esta marcamos Opciones. Figura 1 Como

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro



Microsoft Academic Search

En cualquier ámbito, la teoría puesta en práctica y la práctica basada en la teoría se vuelve por ende un quehacer más objetivo y valioso per se. En el presente documento se muestra la propuesta de un Modelo de Tutorías, diseñado para organizar y operacionalizar esta función adyacente del docente universitario con perfil de profesor investigador. La metodología aplicada para

Azucena del Carmen Martínez Rodríguez; Orquídea del Rosario Martínez Rodríguez




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En este trabajo se propone un modelo para predecir y estimar de forma cualitativa los impactos ambientales que los visitantes de un área recreativa provocan, dependiendo del tipo de actividades que realizan y de las características del paraje. Este método podría servir como herramienta para gestionar el turismo y planificar las áreas recreativas de for- ma que pueda satisfacerse

Manuela Andrés Abellán; Antonio del Cerro Barja; Javier Benayas del Alamo


Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno

Contiene información sobre los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para conservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres diagnosticadas con CDIS o con cáncer de seno a decidir cuál cirugía es la más conveniente para ellas.


Imprimir Artculo click para imprimir Cerrar Ventana Martes 23 de Junio del 2009  

E-print Network

que labora no es profesional de la medicina o enfermería sino en el área social de salud pública centro ofrecerá orientaciones que incluyen una biblioteca de salud, computadoras con acceso gratuito a la Internet, consultorios para investigaciones de salud y una sala de conferencias para charlas, lecturas y

Grishok, Alla



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Nos últimos anos, foi despertado um grande interesse para o pr ocessamento da batata na forma de fritura no Brasil. Visando à obtenção de culti- vares nacionais que atendam aos padrões de qualidade culinária exigidos pelas indústrias de processamento, os programas de melhoramento de batata têm estabelecido estratégias para a redução de custos e de tempo. Reali- zou-se



Lanier's patents for vacu-and para-planes 1 IMPLEMENTING LANIER'S PATENTS FOR STABLE, SAFE,  

E-print Network

Lanier's patents for vacu- and para-planes 1 IMPLEMENTING LANIER'S PATENTS FOR STABLE, SAFE, ECONOMICAL ULTRA-SHORT WING VACU- AND PARA-PLANES. G.C. Hocking1, Y.M. Stokes2 and W.L. Sweatman3 Six patents design described by Ed- ward H. Lanier in a series of six United States patents obtained from 1930

Stokes, Yvonne


Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage  

E-print Network

Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage Carlo Beduza , Marina and ortho­para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence surgery" (1­3) involves opening an orifice in fullerene (C60) cages by a series of chemical reactions

Turro, Nicholas J.


Experiences Using the ParaScope Editor: an Interactive Parallel Programming Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ParaScope Editor is an interactive parallel pro- gramming tool that assists knowledgeable users in de- veloping scientific Fortran programs. It displays the re- sults of sophisticated program analyses, provides a set of powerful interactive transformations, and supports program editing. This paper summarizes experiences of scientific programmers and tool designers using the ParaScope Editor. We evaluate existing features and describe

Mary W. Hall; Timothy J. Harvey; Ken Kennedy; Nathaniel McIntosh; Kathryn S. McKinley; Jeffrey D. Oldham; Michael H. Paleczny; Gerald Roth



Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad auditiva Linux Ubuntu 10.10  

E-print Network

Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad auditiva Linux Ubuntu 10.10 ASIC ­ 18 de noviembre de 2010 Pág. 1 de 4 GUÍA DE ACCESIBILIDAD PARA PERSONAS CON DEBILIDAD AUDITIVA EN ENTORNO Linux Ubuntu 10 personas con debilidad auditiva Linux Ubuntu 10.10 ASIC ­ 18 de noviembre de 2010 Pág. 2 de 4 Utilizando el

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro


In search of higher persistence rates in distance education online programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinto's [Rev. Educ. Res. 45 (1975) 89; Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press] student integration model and Bean and Metzner's [Rev. Educ. Res. 55 (1985) 485] student attrition model have been influential in explaining persistence and

Alfred P. Rovai




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A estimativa do fator erosividade da chuva (R) da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo é importante para o planejamento conservacionista de uso e manejo do solo. Uma rede neural artificial (RNA) foi desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Pesquisas em Recursos Hídricos, a fim de estimar o valor de R para qualquer localidade do Estado de São Paulo. Contudo, para

Michel Castro Moreira; Roberto Avelino Cecílio; Francisco Lombardi Neto; Fernando Falco Pruski


Lo que usted debe saber antes de dar sus tejidos para investigación médica

Contiene información sobre las cosas que usted debe saber y tener en cuenta al tomar una decisión de donar sus tejidos para investigación. El tejido puede incluir materiales de su cuerpo tales como piel, cabello, uñas, sangre y orina.


The design and synthesis of linear and macrocyclic Poly(para-arylene)s  

E-print Network

Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) has generated sustained scientific interest due to its potential as a blue-emitting material for use in Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs). However, due to its highly unfavorable solubility, ...

Batson, Joel Marcus



Enabling ITK-based processing and 3D Slicer MRML scene management in ParaView  

PubMed Central

This paper documents on-going work to facilitate ITK-based processing and 3D Slicer scene management in ParaView. We believe this will broaden the use of ParaView for high performance computing and visualization in the medical imaging research community. The effort is focused on developing ParaView plug-ins for managing VTK structures from 3D Slicer MRML scenes and encapsulating ITK filters for deployment in ParaView. In this paper, we present KWScene, an open source cross-platform library that is being developed to support implementation of these types of plugins. We describe the overall design of the library and provide implementation details and conclude by presenting a concrete example that demonstrates the use of the KWScene library in computational anatomy research at Johns Hopkins Center for Imaging Science.

Enquobahrie, Andinet; Bowers, Michael; Ibanez, Luis; Finet, Julien; Audette, Michel; Kolasny, Anthony



Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

Mason, Keith



Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-?-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-?-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.



Investigation of para-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes [n = 6, 8] as potential chelates for (230)U.  


Literature reports of the efficacy of para-sulfonatocalix[6]- and calix[8]-arenes as U(vi) complexants indicated that they might be useful for in vivo chelation of the novel therapeutic alpha-emitter (230)U. We have studied the complexation of U(vi) with para-sulfonatocalix[6]arene and para-sulfonatocalix[8]arene by time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and using competition methods with Chelex resin and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol in simplified and in biological media. New thermodynamic parameters describing the stability of U(vi)-para-sulfonatocalix[n]arene [n = 6, 8] complexes were obtained. Although the interactions are strong, the complexes do not exhibit sufficient stability to compete with carbonate ions and serum proteins for complexation of U(vi) under physiological conditions. PMID:20104364

Montavon, Gilles; Repinc, Urska; Apostolidis, Christos; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Abbas, Kamel; Morgenstern, Alfred



Programa Ibermedia: Cine Transnacional Ibero-Americano O Relaciones Públicas Para España?  

E-print Network

comprender cómo los imperativos económicos determinan las explicaciones cuando se incluyen actores españoles en films Latino Americanos, para así cumplir con los requisitos “técnicos-artísticos” de una co-producción Ibero-Americana. Mientras que el Programa...

Falicov, Tamara L.



Al tratamiento del agua potable para mejo-rar su sanidad o calidad bacteriolgica se  

E-print Network

Al tratamiento del agua potable para mejo- rar su sanidad o calidad bacteriológica se le refiere desinfección usado por los proveedores locales para disminuir la contami- nación bacteriológica del agua. Este método tam- bién puede ser usado por los propietarios de pozos de agua particulares. Pozos de agua Los


Desarrollo y Aplicacin de un ndice de Calidad de Agua para ros en Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Desarrollo y Aplicación de un Índice de Calidad de Agua para ríos en Puerto Rico por Francisco J trabajo presenta la elaboración de un Índice de Calidad de Agua (ICA) para los ríos en Puerto Rico. Dicho índice pretende clasificar en una escala de 0 a 100 la calidad representativa del agua, según los

Gilbes, Fernando


Summer activities Cursos de espaol para extranjeros (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA)  

E-print Network

Summer activities Idiomas Cursos de español para extranjeros (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA (IELTS, PET, FCE) (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA) Estancias lingüísticas en el extranjero (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA). AULAS Junior: inglés para niños/as de 14 a 16 años (Centro Superior de

Escolano, Francisco


Thermal characterization of para- tert-butylphenol formaldehyde epoxy-acrylic resin cured with reactive diluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition of para-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde epoxy-acrylic resin as such or in the presence of reactive diluents based on glycidyl ethers of phenol and para-alkyl substituted phenols has been studied using pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography and thermogravimetric techniques. The samples analysed in the range of temperatures between 200 and 600°C degrade statistically by a radical mechanism. The decomposition

C. N. Ca?caval; D. Ro?u; A. Stoleriu



Matemtica para ubicarse En cualquier lugar del planeta y ms all con el GPS  

E-print Network

Matemática para ubicarse En cualquier lugar del planeta y más allá con el GPS matbaires 09 Pablo Groisman Dpto. de Matemática FCEN-UBA CONICET #12; ¿Qué es GPS? #12; Aplicaciones #12 corrección de errores para los GPS. Reloj atómico que marca la hora oficial de EEUU. (In) presición: 1

Groisman, Pablo


Curing of some epoxy-acrylate glycidyl ethers based on para-alkyl substituted phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curing of epoxy-acrylate glycidyl ethers based on phenol and para-alkyl [?CH3, ?C(CH3)3, ?C9H19] substituted phenols in the presence of benzoyl peroxide was examined by differential scanning calorimetry at different heating rates. The tested monomers polymerize first as acrylic monomers and the reaction continues by the curing process only in the case of the epoxy-acrylate glycidyl ethers of para-alkyl substituted phenols,

C. N. Ca?caval; D. Ro?u; A. Stoleriu



Para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma of the infrapatellar fat pad: a report of three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report three cases of para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma in the region of infrapatellar fat pad. All three lesions\\u000a were resected and examined histologically. Two of them were primarily cartilaginous with a lobular pattern internally, and\\u000a one uniformly osseous with peripheral cartilage. We conclude that these lesions are not the same. The former should be designated\\u000a para-articular chondroma after Jaffe

H. Sakai; K. Tamai; A. Iwamoto; K. Saotome



Quantum chemical calculations of vibrational spectra of para-ethylbenzenesulfonic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum chemical calculations of vibrational spectra of para-ethylbenzenesulfonic acid have been conducted by means of a non-empirical SCF MO LCAO method with the use of the 6-31G( d) basis set. Calculated IR and Raman frequencies are assigned to vibrations of specific atomic groups. It is shown that para-ethylbenzenesulfonic acid can serve as a reasonable quantum chemical model in calculations of vibrational spectra for polystyrene sulfonic resins of various degrees of hydration.

Zelenkovskii, V. M.; Bezyazychnaya, T. V.; Soldatov, V. S.




E-print Network

MAPA DE RIESGO DE EROSI�N DE SUELO PARA LA CUENCA DEL RIO YAG�EZ EN PUERTO RICO Nelson M. Anaya de los suelos en las cuencas hidrográficas. La Ecuación de Pérdidas de Suelo Universal Revisada, RUSLE (por sus siglas en ingles), es comúnmente utilizada para la estimación anual de pérdida de suelos

Gilbes, Fernando


Documentao necessria para matrcula Para a matrcula, o candidato dever apresentar os documentos abaixo. Alguns deles so exigidos no dia da matrcula e  

E-print Network

ENEM poderão ser utilizados para fins de certificação de conclusão do Ensino Médio de acordo com os devem ser obtidas no site do INEP ( 2 ­ certidão de nascimento ou de casamento


Ghost loci imply Hox and ParaHox existence in the last common ancestor of animals.  


Hox genes are renowned for patterning animal development, with widespread roles in developmental gene regulation. Despite this importance, their evolutionary origin remains obscure, due to absence of Hox genes (and their evolutionary sisters, the ParaHox genes) from basal lineages and because the phylogenies of these genes are poorly resolved. This has led to debate about whether Hox and ParaHox genes originated coincidently with the origin of animals or instead evolved after the divergence of the earliest animal lineages. Here we use genomic synteny and Monte Carlo-based simulations to resolve Hox/ParaHox origins, our approach being independent of poorly resolved homeodomain phylogenies and better able to accommodate gene loss. We show Trox-2 of placozoans occupies a ParaHox locus. In addition, a separate locus sharing synteny and hence homology with human Hox loci exists in the placozoan genome, but without a Hox-like gene in it. We call this second locus a "ghost" Hox locus, because it is homologous to the human Hox loci, but does not itself contain a Hox gene. Extending our approach to sponges, we discover distinct ghost Hox and ParaHox loci. Thus, distinct Hox and ParaHox loci were present in the last common ancestor of all living animal lineages. PMID:23022064

Mendivil Ramos, Olivia; Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David E K



Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H2( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H2( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm-1. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H2 molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H2( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H2( j = 1) and para-H2( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even ?j transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H2( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd ?j transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H2( j ? 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H2( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H2 rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François



Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.  


Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome. PMID:25355364

Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja



Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.




E-print Network

LIVROS DIDÁTICOS E SUAS FUN��ES PARA O PROFESSOR DE MATEMÁTICA NO BRASIL E NA FRAN�A. Clovis RESUMO Esse texto aborda as funções do livro didático de matemática em dois n que visa pôr em evidência o livro didático de matemática como «vetor de formação continuada» para os

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a ?~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

Arnal, E. M.


Simulation Studies of the Vibrational Dynamics of para-HYDROGEN Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the construction and application of reduced-dimensional potential energy surfaces for use in performing simulation of para-hydrogen clusters. Simple spherical averaging and `adiabatic-hindered-rotor' averaging treatments of the angular degrees of freedom are considered and compared. The resulting one-dimensional surface is used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of para-hydrogen clusters of varying sizes. Energetic, and structural properties are computed and compared to previously published results, and vibrational frequency shifts are predicted and compared to available experimental measurements. H. Li, P.N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 104305 (2010).

Faruk, Nabil F.; Yang, Jing; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas



para-hydroxybenzoate as an intermediate in the anaerobic transformation of phenol to benzoate.  


Anaerobic phenol transformation was studied using a consortium which transformed phenol to benzoate without complete mineralization of benzoate. Products of monofluorophenol transformation indicated para-carboxylation. Phenol and benzoate were detected during para-hydroxybenzoate (p-OHB) degradation. p-OHB was detected in phenol-transforming cultures containing 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6-OHNA), a structural analogue of p-OHB, or at elevated initial concentrations of phenol (greater than or equal to 5 mM), or benzoate (greater than or equal to 10 mM). PMID:2040433

Genthner, B R; Townsend, G T; Chapman, P J



Natural bond orbital analysis of some para -substituted N -nitrosoacetanilide biological molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical study of several para-substituted N-nitrosoacetanilide biological molecules has been performed using density functional B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set.\\u000a Geometries obtained from DFT calculation were used to perform natural bond orbital analysis. The p characters of two nitrogen\\u000a natural hybrid orbital (NHO) ?\\u000a N3–N2 bond orbitals increase with increasing ?\\u000a p values of the para substituent group on the

Xiao-Hong Li; Rui-Zhou Zhang; Xian-Zhou Zhang



ParaGraph-RTS: A parallel reduction-based run-time system  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of the functional programming paradigm on multiprocessor computers. We have developed a parallel graph reduction run-time system called ParaGraph-RTS (Parallel Graph Reduction) that provides both significant amounts of exploitable parallelism and the robustness to support development of large scientific codes. This system allows us to empirically investigate the functional programming paradigm within computationally intensive application domains. In this paper, we describe an implementation of ParaGraph-RTS on a shared-memory multiprocessor. The implementation strategy reflects insights gained through performance characterizations of the reduction process. Preliminary performance results and analyses are presented. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Yantis, B.; Rich, D.; Michelsen, R.



Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage  

PubMed Central

Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng




Microsoft Academic Search

O artigo aborda a importância do planejamento dos equipamentos turísticos e outras instalações para propriedades que desenvolvem o turismo no espaço rural de forma a minimizar os impactos ambientais. O turismo apresenta potencialidades para o desenvolvimento rural sustentável e o planejamento turístico é uma das ferramentas fundamentais para garantir o desenvolvimento da atividade ao longo dos anos. Para tanto é

Joao Vicente Andre; Ronie Peterson Silvestre



Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in

Leyli Samadi; Gerhard Steiner



Erosin de suelo y mapa de riesgo para la cuenca del Ro Grande de Aasco, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Erosión de suelo y mapa de riesgo para la cuenca del Río Grande de Añasco, Puerto Rico Ángel A hidrográficas. La erosión del suelo es un aspecto que requiere de capital y tiempo para su evaluación. Una serie de modelos paramétricos se han desarrollado para predecir la erosión de los suelos en las cuencas

Gilbes, Fernando


Padronização de testes neurocomportamentais para investigação da importância funcional do wulst visual em corujas buraqueiras (Athene cunicularia).  

E-print Network

??As aves têm sido utilizadas em numerosos estudos envolvendo habilidades visuo-cognitivas, constituindo um excelente modelo para a neurolobiologia comparativa. Vários estudos já demonstraram que na… (more)

Leticia Mercedes Gomes Correia Martins



Sensores CMOS para robotica e industria: Sensor ret nico espacio variante y vision activa  

E-print Network

Sensores CMOS para robotica e industria: Sensor ret nico espacio variante y vision activa Fernando Pardo, Francisco Vegara, Jose A. Boluda, Santiago Felici Instituto de Robotica Universidad de Valencia C venido estudiando especialmente en el terreno de aplicaciones en robotica 2]. Sin em- bargo, en el

Valencia, Universidad de


Estructuras de comunicación para la resolución de problemas de manera distribuida en la ingeniería concurrente  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta el problema de la comunicación en la resolución de problemas distribuidos. Se analizan las siguientes tecnologías de la comunicación: actores, pizarrones, las comunicaciones homogéneas y heterogéneas en un ambiente de multiagentes. Se ilustra la discusión con ejemplos del ambiente para el Diseño de Objetos Estructurados (Design of Structured Objects - DESO). El prototipo actual integra algunos sistemas preexistentes

Leonid B. Sheremetov


Mechanics Systems on Para-Kaehlerian Manifolds of Constant J-Sectional Curvature  

E-print Network

The goal of this paper is to present Euler-Lagrange and Hamiltonian equations on R2n which is a model of para-Kaehlerian manifolds of constant J-sectional curvature. In conclusion, some differential geometrical and physical results on the related mechanic systems have been given.

Mehmet Tekkoyun



Diseño de Metaheurísticos para Problemas de Rutas con Flota Heterogénea: Concentración Heurística  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se propone un algoritmo Metaheurístico para el problema de rutas con ventanas de tiempo, carga y descarga simultánea y flota heterogénea, basado en un proceso de tipo Concentración Heurística, un tipo de Metaheurístico dado a conocer muy recientemente por Rosing (1997) y Rosing y ReVelle (1997), compuesto en dos fases: en la primera se obtienen un conjunto




Um novo método para avaliar as inclinações dentárias utilizando a tomografia computadorizada  

Microsoft Academic Search

O exame de tomografia computadorizada vem sendo amplamente utilizado na Odontologia, principalmente na área de Implantodontia, com o objetivo de mensurar a altura e a espessura ósseas. A possibilidade de realizar cortes tomográficos individualizados nos fez levantar a hi- pótese de sua aplicabilidade para medir inclinações e angulações dentárias na Ortodontia, com maior precisão e confiabilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho

Leopoldino Capelozza Filho; Liana Fattori; Liliana Ávila Maltagliati




E-print Network


Arroyo Rodríguez, Víctor


Metodos de Optimizac~ao para Controlo Optimo e Projecto de Engenharia1  

E-print Network

. Os metodos numericos que propomos no projecto de software TRICE 11] para a resoluc~ao destes tecnologia computacional. O projecto de software TRICE 11] lida com uma classe de problemas com estas Coimbra. O projecto TRICE tem comoumdos seus objectivos prin- cipais a resoluc~ao do seguinte problema de

Vicente, Luís Nunes


La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), una especie potencial para el mejoramiento genético  

Microsoft Academic Search

En Colombia, la piscicultura continental es una alternativa de seguridad alimentaria, que tiene un alto incremento (10% anual), considerándose especies como Tilapia (Oreochromis sp) y cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), los dos renglones más importantes para su desarrollo. Aunque la cachama blanca es una especie en la cual se han realizado investigaciones que han demostrado su potencial zootécnico, gracias a características

Martha N Mesa-Granda; Mónica C Botero-Aguirre


Políticas para la inserción laboral de mujeres y jóvenes en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pesar de que en años recientes Colombia ha experimentado crecimientos del PIB del orden del 7% anual, los jóvenes y las mujeres siguen encontrando fuertes obstáculos para insertarse productivamente en el mercado de trabajo. En 2007, los jóvenes colombianos entre 12 y 24 años representaban un 40% de la población desempleada del país; entre ellos, el 15.5% no había

Stefano Farné




Microsoft Academic Search

Para llevar a cabo una auditoría es necesario que el auditor o grupo de auditores cuenten con el programa auditoría, pues este es el documento que establece los procedimientos de auditoría relacionados con el tema, actividad o asunto objeto de revisión. La presente investigación se desarrolló en el Combinado de Hormigón y Carpintería “Guillermo Tejas” perteneciente a la Empresa Materiales

Yolimir Almira López; Disleidis Alcolea Zayas; María del Carmen Padrón Ramírez; Yuneicy Pérez Peña



Comparación de la potencia de nuevos enfoques para analizar datos de medidas repetidas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo compara la sensibilidad de cinco modernas técnicas analíticas para detectar los efectos de un diseño de medidas parcialmente repetidas cuando se incumplen los supuestos del tradicional enfo- que ANOVA, a saber: el enfoque del modelo mixto ajustado mediante el módulo Proc Mixed del SAS, el enfoque Boostrap-F, el enfoque multivariado de Brown-Forsythe, el enfoque multivariado de Welch- James

Pablo Livacic-Rojas; Guillermo Vallejo; Paula Fernández


Servicio de Referencia Digital en Bibliotecas de Ciencia y Tecnología: alternativas para las prestaciones  

E-print Network

Referencia digital: servicio de referencia que se brinda utilizando distintos medios de comunicación digitales para la interacción usuario-referencista. Referencia virtual: “ … servicio de referencia iniciado electrónicamente, a menudo en tiempo real, donde los usuarios emplean computadoras u otra tecnología de Internet para comunicarse con los bibliotecarios, sin estar físicamente presentes. Los canales de comunicación usados frecuentemente en referencia virtual incluyen videoconferencia, servicios de voz en Internet, correo electrónico y mensajería instantánea. Aunque es frecuente la utilización de fuentes en línea para la provisión del servicio de referencia virtual, el uso de fuentes electrónicas en la búsqueda de respuestas no es en sí misma referencia virtual. El seguimiento de las consultas de referencia virtual se hace a menudo por teléfono, fax o correo electrónico, aún cuando esos modos de comunicación no son considerados virtuales” American Library Association. MARS Ad Hoc Committee on Virtual Reference Guidelines. (2003). Draft guidelines for implementing and maintaining virtual services. •Referencia digital •Referencia virtual •Referencia en línea Terminología variada y aún no consolidada: •Ask a librarian (u otro especialista) •Referencia permanente (24/7) •Referencia en tiempo real Los conceptos son bastante diferentes; sin embargo, estas expresiones suelen considerarse intercambiables. En general se aplican a servicios de referencia que utilizan tecnología digital para la comunicación con los usuarios, principalmente a través de Internet. Un glosario de términos relacionados con RD:

Pedro Falcato; Sistemas Asincrónicos; Correo Electrónico


Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)  

SciTech Connect

Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.




Microsoft Academic Search

-1 , sendo o sistema operado por uma hora para coleta de amostras da água em recirculação, a cada 10 minutos. Na água em recirculação, foram analisados o pH, a CE e as concentrações de sólidos em suspensão e a DQO. Nos grãos processados e, posteriormente, secados, foi analisada a qualidade de bebida. A aplicação de cal hidratada não proporcionou

Antonio Teixeira de Matos; Valdeir Eustáquio Júnior; Priscila dos Anjos Pereira; Pimentel de Matos Mateus



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO --- Em todo setor existe a necessidade de uso racional da água, em vista do grande número de atividades que utilizam água potável para fins que podem e devem utilizar água reaproveitada dentro dos padrões de potabilidade. Dentro deste contexto este trabalho analisou as dependências internas do Departamento de Engenharia Sanitária (UFMT), onde existem laboratórios que colaboram com os

Gabriela Cavalcante; Silva Marsaro; Cláudia Pereira Guimarães


Salud Para Su Corazón: A Community-Based Latino Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Latinos living in the United States. This population is generally unaware of important lifestyle or behavioral changes that can prevent CVD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) designed and implemented Salud para su Corazón (Health for Your Heart), a culturally appropriate, community-based, theory-driven intervention model. NHLBI's goals were:

Rina Alcalay; Matilde Alvarado; Hector Balcazar; Eileen Newman; Elmer Huerta




E-print Network

and monitoring (these characteri- stics are common in Alpine ecosystems and many of their wildlife species) often99J. Mt. Ecol., 7 (Suppl.):2003 MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND WILDLIFE DISEASES: TECNIQUES OF PARA) but their use in the analysis of many macroparasites (as nematodes) -wildlife systems is still limited (Barlow

Pugliese, Andrea


Valoracin de caracteres taxonmicos proceden-tes de estructuras de origen epidrmico para la  

E-print Network

Valoración de caracteres taxonómicos proceden- tes de estructuras de origen epidérmico para la. Palabras clave : Estructuras ep!dérmícas. R�SUM� Evaluation des caractères taxonomiques provenant de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.



Self-assembled monolayers of benzylmercaptan and para-cyanobenzylmercaptan on gold: surface infrared  

E-print Network

Self-assembled monolayers of benzylmercaptan and para-cyanobenzylmercaptan on gold: surface as an Advance Article on the web 5th March 2010 DOI: 10.1039/b923628g Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. The first method involves the direct attachment of transition-metal complexes with suitable ligands

Pfeifer, Holger


ParaSite: Mining the Structural Information on the World-Wide Web  

E-print Network

of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Abstract The World-Wide Web is potentiallyParaSite: Mining the Structural Information on the World-Wide Web by Ellen Spertus S.B., Computer Information on the World-Wide Web by Ellen Spertus Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering

Spertus, Ellen



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El trabajo que se presenta indaga las funciones del profesorado universitario, así como las causas y limitaciones para realizar investigación en la Universidad Tecnológica de San Juan del Río, Querétaro, México. El profesorado universitario debe atender a tres funciones representativas de esta profesión: la docencia y tutoría, la investigación y la gestión. Se empleó una metodología descriptiva, mediante la

Marco Antonio Zamora Antuñano; Jesús Salvador; Zamora Aboytes; José Antonio Cano López



Microsoft Academic Search

A cidade de Maceió em Alagoas constitui uma cidade litorânea da Região Nordeste do Brasil dotada de beleza natural tais como praias e lagoas, as quais constituem atrativos para o turismo tanto nacional como internacional. Todavia, nesta o crescimento do setor turístico tem sido afetado pela poluição dos recursos ambientais, mais especificamente o despejo do esgoto em praias e lagoas.

Eliane Aparecida Pereira De Abreu; Agnaldo Gomes da Silva; Gilberto Gomes Da Silva Junior; Rebecca Suzannah Nascimento De Melo



Red GPS a Tiempo Real con Precisiones Centrimtricas para Utilizar en los Sistemas de  

E-print Network

Red GPS a Tiempo Real con Precisiones Centrim�tricas para Utilizar en los Sistemas de Informaci�n Desarrollo Tecnol�gico Instrumentaci�n � Distanci�metros � Total Stations + C�mara +GPS � Laser Scanners � GPS � GPS Reference Stations � GPS Internet Ready � PDA � Tecnolog�a Bluetooth Mapa de Puerto Rico

Gilbes, Fernando



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este trabalho apresenta um sistema de posicionamento automático para painéis fotovoltaicos, com o objetivo de melhorar a conversão da energia solar em energia elétrica. Um protótipo com movimentação automática foi desenvolvido e sua eficiência na geração de energia foi comparada a outro sistema com as mesmas características, porém fixo. Resultados obtidos demonstram um aumento significativo na eficiência, obtido

Alceu F. Alves; José A. Cagnon; José R. C. P. Fraga


Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

Conozca qué significan los resultados de una prueba de detección como la prueba de Pap (Papanicolaou), entérese si los resultados mostraron cambios en las células del cuello uterino o si la prueba del VPH dio positiva. No todos los cambios cervicouterinos son cáncer. Infórmese sobre la importancia de los cuidados de seguimiento y el tratamiento para los resultados anormales.


Tutorial sobre o uso de Geotecnologias no estudo de Bacias Hidrogrficas para professores da Educao Bsica  

E-print Network

Tutorial sobre o uso de Geotecnologias no estudo de Bacias Hidrográficas para professores da of hydrographic basing degradation, a tutorial was developed for secondary school teachers to use in environmental education and other environmentally-based subjects. This tutorial gives them the possibility of performing


Estados Unidos y cuatro países de América Latina se unen para combatir el cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) de Estados Unidos formalizó esta semana alianzas bilaterales con los gobiernos de Argentina, Brasil, México y Uruguay, para acelerar el avance contra el cáncer en la población hispana de Estados Unidos y de América Latina y mejorar la investigación del cáncer.


Se necesitan 50 000 fumadores y exfumadores para el Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón (NLST)

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) lanzó hoy un nuevo estudio para determinar si el examinar a las personas ya sea con una tomografía computarizada espiral o con una radiografía de pecho antes de que tengan síntomas puede reducir las muertes por cáncer de pulmón.


VFC-RTS: Vector-Field Consistency para Real-Time-Strategy Multiplayer Games  

E-print Network

VFC-RTS: Vector-Field Consistency para Real-Time-Strategy Multiplayer Games Manuel Cajada, Paulo proven useful in order to confine areas with consistency requirements. The Vector-Field Consistency (VFC the player's loca- tion (pivot) with different divergence boundaries. In this work we propose VFC

Ferreira, Paulo


Submetido revista Pesquisa Naval Abordagem Multiobjetivo para Otimizao de Redes de Filas Finitas  

E-print Network

Submetido à revista Pesquisa Naval Abordagem Multiobjetivo para Otimização de Redes de Filas atendimento global de uma rede de filas finitas com serviço geral. Como tais objetivos são conflitantes of these important stochastic systems. Palavras-chave: Redes de filas. Algoritmos genéticos. Otimização multiobjetivo

Cruz, Frederico



E-print Network

1 ABORDAGEM MULTIOBJETIVO PARA OTIMIZA��O DE REDES DE FILAS FINITAS F. R. B. Cruz Departamento de uma rede de filas finitas com servi�o geral. Como tais objetivos s�o conflitantes, utiliza-se uma vers�sticos. Palavras-Chaves: Redes de filas; algoritmos gen�ticos; otimiza��o multiobjetivo. Abstract In this paper

Cruz, Frederico


Cuadro de mando y sistemas de información: herramientas estratégicas para la gestión medioambiental corporativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad protección del ambiente es un nuevo e importante objetivo estratégico de las empresas cubanas y del mundo. La información medioambiental se vuelve cada vez más relevante para las decisiones económicas, por lo que es necesario manejarla de manera oportuna. Muchas entidades presentan Sistemas de Gestión Medioambientales según NC ISO 14000 que se quedan en fases meramente declarativas

Frank Medel; Lourdes García; Liesby Gómez; Rebeca Pentón



Importancia del liderazgo escolar para la consecución de la calidad en instituciones de educación media superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los sistemas de educación en el mundo, se encuentran influenciados por las transformaciones derivadas de la globalización, el neoliberalismo y por la implementación de políticas de cambio recomendadas por los Organismos Financieros Internacionales. Bajo los dictámenes de éstos, la promoción de la orientación de la educación, ha sido su vinculación para el mercado de trabajo, esto es, sujetar la formación

Ma. de Lourdes Salas Luévano; Marco Antonio Salas Luévano; Beatriz Herrera Guzmán



Producing and quantifying enriched para-H2 Brian A. Tom,1  

E-print Network

to para-H2 used a tube filled with an activated charcoal catalyst.16 The tube was immersed in a cryogen of temperatures with the high enrichments accessible when using liquid helium as a cryogen. It was optimized converter consists of a locally modified commercial closed-cycle 4 He cryostat. Austenitic stainless steel

McCall, Benjamin J.


Isolation of Hox and ParaHox genes in the bivalve Pecten maximus.  


The Hox cluster genes encode a set of transcription factors that have been shown to control spatial patterning mechanisms in bilaterian organism development. The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster. The two are believed to descend from an ancestral ProtoHox cluster of four genes from which the three ParaHox genes (Gsx, Xlox, and Cdx) and the four Hox gene classes are believed to have originated. Although molluscs are among the most successful lophotrochozoan groups, very little work has been devoted to the characteristics of their homeotic genes. Using polymerase chain reaction-based approaches, we isolated 13 different Pecten maximus (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia) sequences corresponding to all the genes of the four Hox cluster classes and to genes Xlox and Cdx of the ParaHox cluster. Comparison of results with those obtained in other lophotrochozoans seems to confirm the considerable homogeneity of the Hox and ParaHox genes in these taxa both as regards the presence of nearly all the genes of the two clusters and the marked sequence resemblance among orthologous genes. PMID:15777707

Canapa, Adriana; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Olmo, Ettore; Barucca, Marco



Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star  

PubMed Central

Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star ParaHox domains of expression show chordate-like features not found in the sea urchin, confirming that the dynamics of gene expression for the respective genes and their putative regulatory interactions have clearly changed over evolutionary time within the echinoid lineage. PMID:23803323



Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.  


Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q



Rotational excitations in para-H2+para-H2 collisions: Full- and reduced-dimensional quantum wave packet studies comparing different potential energy surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the process of rotational excitation in the collisions of para-H2 with para-H2 by propagating wave packets with the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) algorithm. Transition probabilities are then calculated by the method of Tannor and Weeks based on time-correlation functions. Calculations were carried out up to a total angular momentum of J =70 to compute integral cross sections up to 1.2eV in collision energy and thermal rate coefficients from 100to3000K. The process is studied on the full-dimensional potential energy surface of Boothroyd-Martin-Keogh-Peterson (BMKP) as well as on the rigid rotor surface of Diep and Johnson. We test the validity of the rigid rotor approximation by also considering two rigid rotor restrictions of the BMKP potential energy surface (PES). Additionally, we investigate a variant of the BMKP PES suggested by Pogrebnya and Clary [Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 523 (2002)] with reduced anisotropy. We compare our results with previous theoretical data for the cross sections and with experimental data for the rate coefficients at low temperatures.

Otto, Frank; Gatti, Fabien; Meyer, Hans-Dieter




Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: Verificar a incidência dos fatores de risco para a Gagueira do Desenvolvimento nas crianças com queixa de gagueira atendidas na Clínica Escola do Univag. Método: Foram analisados os Protocolos de Risco para a gagueira do desenvolvimento de vinte e sete prontuários de crianças de dois até onze anos e onze meses que apresentaram queixa de gagueira e receberam atendimento

Santos Zamo; Daniella Thaís Curriel


Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clínicos sobre el cáncer

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a cabo tratamientos para el cáncer y estudios clínicos.


Bacillus subtilis Soj (ParA): The involvement of DNA binding and dynamic localization in plasmid partitioning  

E-print Network

The ParA family of ATPases encompasses proteins with a wide variety of functions. The prototype of this family is the ParA ATPase from the P1 prophage plasmid, which, along with ParB and the parS binding site, is required ...

Hester, Christina Marie



O recurso a veculos areos tripulados remotamente para realizar vrias tarefas, da investigao cientfica ao controlo de fronteiras,  

E-print Network

TECNOLOGIA DRONES PARA TODO O SERVI�O O recurso a veículos aéreos tripulados remotamente para privacidade aumentam TEXTOS DE ALEXANDRA SIM�ES DE ABREU FOTOGRAFIAS DE NUNO BOTELHO UAV, VANT, RPA, drones falar mais dos drones (zangões em portu- guês), nomeadamente com fins mi- litares -- podem realizar

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Characterization of the axon initial segment (AIS) of motor neurons and identification of a para-AIS  

E-print Network

Characterization of the axon initial segment (AIS) of motor neurons and identification of a para-AIS and a juxtapara-AIS, organized by protein 4.1B Duflocq et al. Duflocq et al. BMC Biology 2011, 9:66 http initial segment (AIS) of motor neurons and identification of a para-AIS and a juxtapara-AIS, organized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


La política brasileña para los residuos sólidos urbanos. Los planteamientos de catadores y empresarios en sus páginas electrónicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno brasileño señala la posibilidad de aprobar la política nacional para los residuos sólidos urbanos (PNRS). La propuesta del Proyecto de Ley 1991\\/07 está en trámite en la cámara de los diputados desde el año 1991. Los senadores mantuvieron una charla con los catadores, empresarios del reciclaje y empresarios de servicios de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos para conocer

Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo




Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se muestra la problemática que enfrenta la Escuela de Graduados en Administración y Dirección de Empresas (EGADE) del Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, en cuanto a la captación de matrícula para su programa de MBA-Full Time, que es el pilar fundamental de esta importante escuela de negocios; para ello se identificó un importante segmento de mercado

Héctor Cuevas Vargas; Rudy Fernández Escobedo; Leticia Almanza Serrano



Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere observed via colour changes in visible light, suggesting a close connection between the tropospheric temperatures, para-H2 and haze characteristics.

Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.



Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Per?: un estudio cualitativo  

PubMed Central

El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Diez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andres G.



Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.



Is the evolution of Cnox-2 Hox/ParaHox genes "multicolored" and "polygenealogical?".  


Understanding the evolution of metazoan bauplans is linked to understanding the evolution of Hox and ParaHox genes. At the base of metazoan radiation we see in both cases a quite confusing picture yet. Here Cnox-2 is one of the best studied diploblast Hox genes. Homologs of this gene are known from Placozoa and several Cnidaria. In those cases where full length gene sequences, or at least full length homeobox sequences, are available the relationship to Hox genes from triploblastic animals as well as the classification to Hox or ParaHox genes can be controversially discussed. The existing data on possible gene functions also reveal a quite heterogeneous picture. It seems conceivable that part of the "multicolored" picture relates to a "polygenealogical" origin of the Cnox-2 gene. PMID:12220979

Schierwater, Bernd; Dellaporta, Stephen; DeSalle, Rob



Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo exper

Ferreres Sabater, Agustin


Substituents and environment influences on aromaticity of peri- and para-substituted naphthalenes.  


The influence of substituents and environment on the aromaticity of the naphthalene ring is shown for a series of peri- and para-substituted naphthalenes. Crystal structure geometries are compared with the single molecule structures in vacuum (optimized at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level) and with structures determined in media of different polarity. The harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index of the naphthalene rings has been used to characterize the aromaticity of the investigated molecules. It has been shown that the ellipticity of the C2-C3 (C6-C7) bonds can be applied as a measure of participation of the quinoid resonance structure and through-resonance effect between the para-substituents. PMID:25091298

Majerz, Irena; Dziembowska, Teresa



Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.



Spontaneous rearrangement of para-sexiphenyl crystallites into nano-fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the growth of para-sexiphenyl films on mica(001), an interesting phenomenon was observed where small individual crystallites\\u000a spontaneously arrange into parallel running high-aspect ratio chains with a length in the micrometer range. A statistical\\u000a analysis of the chain dimensions reveals a very narrow length distribution and the existence of a threshold length. The observation\\u000a of denuded zones around the chains

C. Teichert; G. Hlawacek; A. Yu. Andreev; H. Sitter; P. Frank; A. Winkler; N. S. Sariciftci



PRESENTACIN DE CLSICAS Y MODERNAS, Asociacin para la igualdad de gnero en la cultura  

E-print Network

PRESENTACI�N DE CLÁSICAS Y MODERNAS, Asociación para la igualdad de género en la cultura Y EL DEBATE PENDIENTE, MUJERES Y CULTURA, 4º CICLO Miércoles 11 de diciembre de 2013. Sala Rafael Altamira de CULTURA. EXPERIENCIAS EUROPEAS. Clásicas y Modernas, una asociación faro, por Laura Freixas, presidenta de

Escolano, Francisco


Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium.  


Retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium is a rare form of retinitis pigmentosa that starts early in life with preservation of retinal pigment epithelium adjacent to and under the retinal arterioles and that has hitherto been described as an isolated form. We examined 22 patients from one large family, together with two isolated patients, and confirmed the presumed autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in this type of retinitis pigmentosa. New findings associated with retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium were asteroid hyalosis in four (17%) of 24 patients, tortuosity of retinal arterioles in 11 (46%) of 24 patients, peripheral regions of opacified vessels in eight (33%) of 24 patients, and preservation not only of the para-arteriolar pigment epithelium, but also of the peripheral retinal pigment epithelium in 13 (54%) of 24 patients. Previously reported signs present in these patients were nystagmus in six (25%) of 24 patients, hypermetropia in 23 (96%) of 24 patients, optic nerve head drusen in nine (38%) of 24 patients, vascular sheathing in 11 (46%) of 24 patients, maculopathy in all 24 patients (100%), yellow round deposits in the posterior pole in nine (38%) of 24 patients, exudates resembling those in Coats' disease in two (8%) of 24 patients, visual field defects in all 24 patients (100%), and nondeductible electroretinograms in 21 (91%) of 23 patients. Linkage analysis carried out in the large family resulted in the assignment of a gene for retinitis pigmentosa with preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium to chromosome 1q31-q32.1. PMID:7943119

van den Born, L I; van Soest, S; van Schooneveld, M J; Riemslag, F C; de Jong, P T; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E M



Reconocer los derechos de los migrantes para fortalecer la integracin regional  

E-print Network

Reconocer los derechos de los migrantes para fortalecer la integración regional Buscando una vida su derecho al trabajo. ·El bienestar de las personas migrantes requiere que el Estado y los empleadores garanticen sus derechos sin distinción de condición jurídica, política o social. ·Los más

Richner, Heinz


Significado de los cambios en los senos: Guía para la salud de la mujer

Información sobre cambios o padecimientos específicos de los senos y cómo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Aquí se explica que si bien la mayoría de los cambios en los senos no son cancerosos, estos deben ser examinados por un médico. También se ofrece información sobre los pasos a seguir después de un resultado anormal de una mamografía y se incluye una lista de preguntas para el doctor.


Um Processador Construtivista na Web para documentos anotados (PcWDa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A notacao XML, cada vez mais, desempenha um papel im- portante na representacao textual da informacao estruturada ou semi- estruturada, sendo a norma mais vulgarizada para marcacao de do- cumentos. Torna-se por isso indispensavel a existencia de ferramentas que possibilitem desenvolver(editar e validar) eficientemente documen- tos XML. Neste artigo pretende-se discutir a especificacao e o desenvolvimento de uma dessas

Mariana Isabel Ferreira; Sandra Cristina Lopes; Pedro Rangel Henriques



E-print Network

CARTILHA PARA IMPLEMENTA��O DE UM PROGRAMA DE GERENCIAMENTO DE RESÍDUOS QUÍMICOS Autor: Wilson de de um PGRQ em qualquer unidade geradora de resíduos químicos, seja ela uma instituição de ensino, de temporal feito a partir do momento em que unidade geradora decide implementar um programa desta natureza. I

Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo


Determinacin de Criterios Numricos de Nutrimentos para Lagos y Reservas de Agua en Puerto Rico*  

E-print Network

Determinación de Criterios Numéricos de Nutrimentos para Lagos y Reservas de Agua en Puerto Rico inventario Nacional de Calidad de Agua de los Estados Unidos identifica los nutrimentos como la principal causa de contaminación de las aguas. Más de 3.4 millones de acre de lagos y 84,000 millas de ríos están

Gilbes, Fernando


5Cosas que usted puede hacer para bajar el nivel de plomo en su nio.  

E-print Network

inspeccionada por personal autorizado. Hervir el agua no elimina el plomo. La única manera de saber si el agua objetos a la boca que contienen este polvo. · Use una toalla de papel con agua para limpiar el polvo. · Asegúrese de limpiar alrededor de las ventanas, áreas de juego y los pisos. · Lave con agua y jabón los


El tratamiento con cloro es un mtodo para desinfectar un pozo de agua. Se recomien-  

E-print Network

El tratamiento con cloro es un método para desinfectar un pozo de agua. Se recomien- da cuando un sistema de agua está contam- inado con bacterias. La contaminación puede ocurrir en la instalación del exceso de lluvia entran en el pozo. Si el agua subterránea constituye en sí la fuente de bacterias, el


Significado de los cambios en los senos: Guía para la salud de la mujer

E-book que describe los cambios o padecimientos específicos de los senos e incluye información sobre cómo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Aquí se explica que si bien la mayoría de los cambios en los senos no son cancerosos, estos deben ser examinados por un médico. También se ofrece información sobre los pasos a seguir después de un resultado anormal de una mamografía y se incluye una lista de preguntas para el doctor.


El Grupo Actoral 80: Una alternativa para la integración latinoamericana en el teatro  

E-print Network

Adjunto y uno de sus ideólogos principales) y reconocido oficialmente como grupo de teatro de la institución. EL GA '80: EL ACTOR Y LA INTEGRACIÓN LATINOAMERICANA Pero el hecho de que actores de distintas nacionalidades latino americanas (boliviana... sesiones de reflexión teórica (conducidas por Gene), decidió convertir la integración latino americana en uno de los ejes orientadores para su actividad, en su alternativa frente al Teatro, en su ideología. Notó también que la reunión de distintas...

Herná ndez, Alex



Actividades de verano Cursos de espaol para extranjeros (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA)  

E-print Network

UA) AULAS: Cursos de Francés, inglés, alemán, italiano, árabe, ruso y de preparación exámenes oficiales (IELTS, PET, FCE) (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA) Estancias lingüísticas en el extranjero (Centro Superior de Idiomas de la UA). AULAS Junior: inglés para niños/as de 14 a 16 años (Centro Superior

Escolano, Francisco


Validacion experimental de modelos y observadores no lineales para la localizacion de fugas en tuberias hidraulicas  

E-print Network

tuber�ias hidr�aulicas Lizeth Torresa, aInstituto de Ingenier�ia, UNAM, Ciudad de M�exico, M�on de par�ametros, Detecci�on de fallas, Tuber�ias Hidr�aulicas 1. Introducci�on Es casi imposible~nos recientes, la comunidad hidr�aulica ha concentrado su atenci�on en el desarrollo de m�etodos eficaces para

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

TEMARIO PARA EL EXAMEN DE BIOQUÍMICA PARTE I. ESTRUCTURA BIOL�GICA Y QUÍMICA DE LAS PROTEÍNAS 1 dieciséis elementos Químicos 2. Los enlaces no covalentes son importantes en la estructura biológica 3. Los estructuras mayores 6. Las proteínas desempeñan una función central en los sistemas vivos. 2. AMINOÁCIDOS 1


Stable self-trapping and ring formation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of two-dimensional beam propagation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate measured values for n2>0 and n3<0 , where Delta n=n2I+n 3I2 , predict stable self-trapping and a new phenomenon in which a spatial ring evolves from a Gaussian input beam. We interpret the numerical results theoretically, using the variational model of nonlinear Gaussian beam propagation.

Wright, Ewan M.; Lawrence, Brian L.; Torruellas, William; Stegeman, George



Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4  

SciTech Connect

Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

Patchett, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ahrens, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ahern, Sean [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL



Regulamenta os procedimentos para a alocao de vagas docentes de Magistrio Superior da  

E-print Network

REGIME DE TRABALHO #12;Art. 2º O perfil docente da UFRJ deve alcançar e manter, pelo menos, 8o% de contratação de professores assistentes em regime de 20 horas, desde que o perfil docente da UFRJ resultante daRegulamenta os procedimentos para a alocação de vagas docentes de Magistério Superior da

Liu, I-Shih


Define os critrios e os procedimentos para a alocao de vagas docentes da UFRJ  

E-print Network

, deverá ser analisado: a) o perfil docente por categoria e dedicação existente no Departamento/Programa; b compromisso da Unidade, Departamento ou Programa com o equilíbrio do perfil etário do corpo docente. Art. 4ºDefine os critérios e os procedimentos para a alocação de vagas docentes da UFRJ Considerando que

Liu, I-Shih


La Universidad de Alicante favorece el encuentro entre ingenieria y medicina para una sanidad ms exigente  

E-print Network

La Universidad de Alicante favorece el encuentro entre ingenieria y medicina para una sanidad más exigente Alicante, 13 de marzo de 2012 Favorecer el desarrollo mutuo de la ingeniería y la medicina en una la Salud, se celebrará a partir de mañana miércoles en la Universidad de Alicante. Organizado por su

Escolano, Francisco


Natural bond orbital (NBO) population analysis of para-substituted S-Nitroso-thiophenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical study of several para-substituted S-Nitroso-thiophenols has been performed using quantum computational ab initio RHF and density functional B3LYP and B3PW91 methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Geometries obtained from DFT calculations were used to perform NBO analysis. It is noted that the weakness in the SN sigma bond is due to nO1??S3N2? delocalisation and is responsible for the longer SN

Li Xiao-Hong; Tang Zheng-Xin; Zhang Xian-Zhou



Pressure-induced orientational glass phase in molecular para-hydrogen.  

SciTech Connect

We propose a theoretical description of a possible orientational glass transition in solid molecular para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium under pressure supposing that they are mixtures of J=0 and J=2 states of molecules. The theory uses the basic concepts and methods of standard spin-glass theory. We expect our orientational glass to correspond to the II phase of the high-pressure hydrogen phase diagram.

Schelkacheva, T. I.; Tareyeva, E. E.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Materials Science Division; Russian Academy of Science; Moscow Inst. Physics and Technology



Lanzamiento del estudio de tratamiento personalizado para el cáncer de seno

Hoy se inició el Estudio de Asignación de Opciones Individualizadas de Tratamiento (Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx), o TAILORx, el cual evaluará si los genes que están frecuentemente asociados con el riesgo de recurrencia entre las mujeres con cáncer de seno en etapa inicial pueden ser utilizados para asignar a las pacientes el tratamiento más adecuado y efectivo. Preguntas y respuestas


Meta versus para substituent effect of organic dyes for sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new metal-free organic donor-bridge-acceptor dyes comprising a triphenylamine moiety as the electron donor, and a cyanoacrylic acid (dye series A) or a carboxylic acid moiety (dye series B) as the electron acceptor were synthesized and utilized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The triphenylamine moiety was linked to the main chromophore through either a para or a meta

Yan-Duo Lin; Ching-Ting Chien; Szu-Yu Lin; Heng-Hsuan Chang; Ching-Yang Liu; Tahsin J. Chow



Mercury Exposures in Riverside Amazon Communities in ParaH , Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies were conducted in three riverside communities in the state of ParaH in the Amazon Region of Brazil. Two of these communi- ties, Bras1H lia Legal and Sa8 oL u1H s do TapajoH s, are located in a watershed exposed to mercury pollu- tion from artisanal gold mining, and the third, San- tana do Ituqui, is outside this area.

Elisabeth C. de Oliveira Santos; Iracina Maura de Jesus; Edilson da Silva Brabo; Edvaldo C. Brito Loureiro; Artur F. da Silva Mascarenhas


Production, Crystallization, and Raman Shifting with para-Hydrogen Lauren E. Moore  

E-print Network

to a week without the appropriate catalyst to speed the process. Different catalysts explored included.5.1 NMR 9 1.5.2 Thermal conductance 11 Chapter 2: Refractive Index of Solid para-Hydrogen 14 2.1 Theory 14 2.2 Design 16 2.3 Crystal production 18 2.4 How to determine the index 19 2.5 Results 22 2

McCall, Benjamin J.


Effect of antioxidants on para-aminophenol-induced toxicity in LLC-PK 1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were designed to investigate the susceptibility of LLC-PK1 cells to cytotoxicity induced by para-aminophenol (PAP) and the ability of antioxidants to prevent PAP-induced cytotoxicity. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated for 4 h with varying concentrations of PAP (0–0.2 mM). Incubation was continued for 20 h and viability was monitored at 24 h after initial exposure to PAP. For

Mark A. Hallman; Ruy Tchao; Joan B. Tarloff



An Unusual Case of Bilateral Maxillary and Mandibular Para Premolar: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The presence of supernumerary teeth is not uncommon in the general population. They occur more frequently in patients with a family history of such teeth. It is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. There have been very few documented cases of bilateral maxillary and mandibular supernumeraries in the premolar region. An unusual case of a 35-year-old man with six para premolars and complete dentition is presented. PMID:24396358

Chanagay, Sunil Kumar Vishwanath; Singh, Vikram; Bantwal, Sunil Rao; Muniyappa, Manjunatha



Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Il?in, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik



Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei



Enhanced mitigation of para-chlorophenol using stratified activated carbon adsorption columns.  


The adsorptive removal of toxic para-chlorophenol using activated carbon adsorption columns is a proven effective engineering process. This paper examined the possibility to stratify an adsorbent bed into layers, in order to enhance the adsorption process performance in terms of increased column service time and adsorbent bed saturation. Four different types of fixed-bed adsorption columns are used and compared under the same operating conditions, but with the variation of column geometry and activated carbon particle size stratification. The Type 3 column - a cylindrical column with particle stratification packing, is found to be the most efficient choice, as the extent of column service time and adsorbent bed saturation are the largest. This could eventually decrease the frequency of adsorbent replacement/regeneration and hence reduce the operating cost of the fixed-bed adsorption process. The Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM) was applied successfully to describe the dynamic adsorption of para-chlorophenol onto Filtrasorb 400 (F400) activated carbon in different types of columns. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model equation, an experimentally derived external mass transfer correlation and a constant surface diffusivity are used in the HSDM. The optimised surface diffusivity of para-chlorophenol is found to be 1.20E-8 cm(2)/s, which is in good agreement with other phenolics/F400 carbon diffusing systems in literature. PMID:22154109

Sze, Michael Fan Fu; McKay, Gordon



A non-equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio of water in the Orion PDR  

E-print Network

The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H$_2$O is thought to be sensitive to the temperature of water formation. The OPR of H$_2$O is thus useful to study the formation mechanism of water. We investigate the OPR of water in the Orion PDR (Photon-dominated region), at the Orion Bar and Orion S positions, using data from {\\it Herschel}/HIFI. We detect the ground-state lines of ortho- and para-H$_2$$^{18}$O in the Orion Bar and Orion S and we estimate the column densities using LTE and non-LTE methods. Based on our calculations, the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) in the Orion Bar is 0.1 $-$ 0.5, which is unexpectedly low given the gas temperature of $\\sim$ 85 K, and also lower than the values measured for other interstellar clouds and protoplanetary disks. Toward Orion S, our OPR estimate is below 2. This low OPR at 2 positions in the Orion PDR is inconsistent with gas phase formation and with thermal evaporation from dust grains, but it may be explained by photodesorption.

Choi, Y; Bergin, E A; Plume, R



The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.  


Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda



Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas  

PubMed Central

Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison



[An anatomical and pathological study of autopsy material on the metastasis of pancreatic cancer to para-aortic lymph nodes].  


The purpose of the present study was to clarify the anatomy of the lymphatic system of the para-aortic region with special reference to lymphatic pathways from the pancreas, and the incidence and extent of lymphatic metastases of pancreatic cancer to para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were found mostly on the bilateral and anterior sides of the aorta, and rarely on its posterior side. Lymphatic vessels from the pancreas (peripancreatic nodes) were closely related to the para-aortic lymph nodes on the bilateral and anterior surfaces of the aorta ranging from the root of the celiac artery and that of the inferior mesenteric artery. Out of 10 autopsy cases of relatively small pancreatic cancer, 4 cases were found to have microscopic metastases in a few para-aortic lymph nodes. The localization of involved para-aortic nodes was compatible with that of anatomically related para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymph node dissection of the para-aortic region, if carried out in a patient with a possibility of radical resection of the primary pancreatic cancer, should be an en bloc resection of lymph nodes and surrounding soft tissues in the area ranging between the root of the celiac artery and that of the inferior mesenteric artery. PMID:3600584

Nagai, H



A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of Para red in foods.  


Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ?0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90-108%, 4-12% and 8-17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R(2) = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection. PMID:22439137

Wang, Jia; Wei, Keyi; Li, Hao; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting



ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source repository and issued as part of its Version 8.1 beta release. This source was transmitted to NSWC-IHD and in collaboration with LLNL personnel the entire ParaDyn software suite successfully installed and demonstrated on its new SGI Altix machine. The ability of even minor numbers of processors for the structural dynamics to impact overall time-to-solution for DYSMAS has been demonstrated. Assessments of combined parallel efficiencies are beginning to highlight areas for further DYSMAS optimizations.

Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R




Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the malolactic fermentation on the chemical age of red wine was studied as a measure of its aging. The evaluated factors and levels were: temperature (15 and 25º C), total SO2 concentration (30 and 50 ppm), and pH (3.0 and 3.5). Grapes of Cabernet sauvignon cultivar from the Mexican state of Zacatecas were used. The changes occurring

J. R. Verde-Calvo


Estudio de terapias dirigidas para el cáncer de seno estableció un modelo de estudios clínicos a nivel mundial

Dos medicamentos de acción dirigida, diseñados para tratar una forma agresiva de cáncer de seno (mama), se pusieron a prueba en un estudio que incluyó a 8 000 participantes en 44 países. Si bien la finalidad del estudio fue ayudar a que los investigadores determinaran si el tratamiento combinado con trastuzumab y lapatinib para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno HER2 positivo en estado inicial era mejor que la terapia solo con trastuzumab, los resultados del estudio no indicaron que existan ventajas para las mujeres al recibir la combinación de fármacos de trastuzumab o lapatinib.



E-print Network

INTEGRACI�N DE TECNOLOGÍA DE PERCEPCI�N REMOTA Y GIS EN LA GENERACI�N DEL MAPA DE USO DE SUELO aplicada para la generación del mapa de uso de suelo para Puerto Rico para el año 2010. La para el año 2010 y una comparación de los cambios de uso de suelo entre el año 2003 y 2010. #12;

Gilbes, Fernando


Condensação de Bose-Einstein para um gás de bósons não interagentes em confinamentos bidimensionais em automatos celulares complexos.  

E-print Network

??Neste trabalho estudamos as propriedades termodinâmicas da Condensação de Bose-Einstein (CBE) para um gás de bósons não-interagentes confinado em potenciais bidimensionais V(x,y) que apresentam classicamente,… (more)

Daniel Schardosim Calovi



Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indican beneficio en mortalidad con el uso de tomografía computarizada de baja dosis

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.


75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 225...2008-D024] RIN 0750-AG13 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid...Qualifying Country AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of...



Instrucciones para renovar material de Biblioteca Es muy sencillo renovar los libros en lnea, solo recuerden que hay dos  

E-print Network

Instrucciones para renovar material de Biblioteca Es muy sencillo renovar los libros en línea, solo biblioteca, daremos click en Catálogos ICF Dentro del Catalogo de Libros se le da click en el icono de

Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos


ParaHox gene expression in larval and postlarval development of the polychaete Nereis virens (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Transcription factors that encode ANTP-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in determining the body plan organization and specification of different organs and tissues in bilaterian animals. The three-gene ParaHox family descends from an ancestral gene cluster that existed before the evolution of the Bilateria. All three ParaHox genes are reported from deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but not to date from

Milana A Kulakova; Charles E Cook; Tatiana F Andreeva



Su "Derecho a Saber" es el trmino genrico que describe los derechos legales de un empleado para obtener  

E-print Network

Su "Derecho a Saber" es el término genérico que describe los derechos legales de un empleado para.405.3960 · FA X : 301.314.9294 Su Derecho a Saber Department of Environmental Safety Division of Administrative Derecho a Saber" a través del correo del campus. Este folleto contiene toda la información necesaria para

Rubloff, Gary W.



E-print Network

DOKBOT: UM AVATAR SEMI-AUT^ONOMO PARA APLICA¸C~OES TELE IMERSIVAS Kayran G. R. S. Domingos , Ot avatar. O sistema desenvolvido ´e semi-aut^onomo e ´e tele-operado por um usu´ario remotamente localizado. Para melhor percep¸c~ao do ambiente remoto, o avatar envia ao usu´ario ´audio e v´ideo streams

Chaimowicz, Luiz


ParaHox gene expression in larval and postlarval development of the polychaete Nereis virens (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa)  

E-print Network

expression domains include all cells of the somatic plate (ectodermal and neuroectodermal) whereas ParaHox genes specify small groups of particular neuroectodermal cells (precursors of motorneurons) in the central part of the neural plate [46]. By contrast... morphogenetic system is formed that includes an active growth zone and many segments at various stages of maturity. The difference in time of acti- vation and down regulation of different ParaHox genes leads to full segmental separation of their expression...

Kulakova, Milana A; Cook, Charles E; Andreeva, Tatiana F




E-print Network

UTILIZACI�N DE SIG PARA LA ELABORACI�N DE UN PLAN DE MANEJO DE AGUAS DE ESCORRENTÍAS (MS4S) Roy Ruiz Vélez Research Assistant II Instituto de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos de Agua y el actualmente se encuentra en la elaboración del Plan de Manejo de Aguas de Escorrentías para el Municipio de

Gilbes, Fernando


PROCEDIMIENTO E IMPRESO DE SOLICITUD Para presentar la solicitud de beca, se debe enviar toda la documentacin requerida a la  

E-print Network

universidades catalanas que ofrecen formación en Ciencias de la Salud y de la Vida: Medicina, Enfermería total de 30.000 euros para que cualquier estudiante de tercer ciclo del ámbito de la Salud de la la denominación "Programa de becas Assistència Sanitària para profesionales de la Salud". III. Podrá


Mrcia Barbosa posa com seu prmio, o L'Oral-Unesco para Mulheres na Cincia. (Foto: Divulgao)  

E-print Network

M�rcia Barbosa posa com seu pr�mio, o L'Or�al-Unesco para Mulheres na Ci�ncia. (Foto: Divulga��o) M�rcia Barbosa posa com seu pr�mio, o L'Or�al-Unesco para Mulheres na Ci�ncia. (Foto: Divulga��o) M�rcia Barbosa mais palp�vel, h� mulheres deste tempo fazendo importantes descobertas na F�sica, revela��es que podem

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.


Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.



Haze, Methane And Para-hydrogen Distributions On Uranus And Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of aerosols, methane, and molecular hydrogen-para fraction on Uranus and Neptune are investigated from spatially resolved near-IR spectra. For reasons not yet understood, Neptune is one of the most meteorologically active planets in the solar system. Uranus, which appeared relatively featureless in Voyager 2 images, has shown increased activity in recent years [1], presumably revealing seasonal changes. The advent of the HST and adaptive optics technology has allowed researchers to map clouds and retrieve chemical abundances [2,3], providing clues to the dynamics driving these worlds. For this study, latitude resolved H- and K-band spectra and images were obtained using adaptive optics on the 200” Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory. Data was acquired nearly annually from 1999 to 2007, with several longitudes covered each year. We use an objective, systematic retrieval algorithm (using singular value decomposition) to minimize differences between observed and modeled spectra. Best fitting vertical profiles of aerosol and methane abundance are retrieved, along with the molecular hydrogen para-fraction. Most observations suggest two layers of aerosols, with a stratospheric depletion of methane, and roughly equilibrium para-fractions, each varying with latitude. These parameters are tracers of atmospheric motions and can provide insight into the atmospheric circulations. Variations in latitude suggest regions of stronger upwelling while temporal changes suggest seasonal change. This project was funded under the NASA Outer Planets Research program. [1] Rages, K.A., H.B. Hammel and A.J. Friedson, 2004. Evidence for temporal change at Uranus’ south pole. Icarus, 172, 548-554. [2] Sromovsky, L.A. and P.M.Fry, 2008. The methane abundance and structure of Uranus’ cloud bands inferred from spatially resolved 2006 Keck grism spectra. Icarus, 193, 252-266 [3] Karkoschka, E., 2011. Neptune’s cloud and haze variations 1994-2008 from 500 HST-WFPC2 images. Icarus 215. 759-773.

Roman, Michael; Banfield, D.; Gierasch, P. J.; Stam, D. M.



Pressure-enhanced ortho-para conversion in solid hydrogen up to 58 GPa  

PubMed Central

We measured the ortho-para conversion rate in solid hydrogen by using Raman scattering in a diamond-anvil cell, extending previous measurements by a factor of 60 in pressure. We confirm previous experiments that suggested a decrease in the conversion rate above about 0.5 GPa. We observe a distinct minimum at 3 GPa followed by a drastic increase in the conversion rate to our maximum pressure of 58 GPa. This pressure enhancement of conversion is not predicted by previous theoretical treatments and must be due to a new conversion pathway. PMID:10535910

Eggert, Jon H.; Karmon, Eran; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Goncharov, Alexander F.



Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model  

PubMed Central

This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy. PMID:21914992

Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.



Quantitative solubility-structure relationships for some meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids  

E-print Network

of the re- quirements;for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Augus t 1963 Ma)or Sub)ect: Chemistry QUANTITATIVE SOLUBILITY-STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIPS POR SOME META- AND PARA-SUBSTITUTED BENZGIC ACIDS A Thesis JOHN NORMAN PAWLOSKI Approved as to style... Solubilities of the Substituted Bensoic kcids in Cyclohexane and in Bensene at 30oC 10 Iv+ Svapozation Test of Acids in Dry State at 2500 12 V. Runs to Det~ if the kcids Evaporate in Solution at 30 0 13 VI. Blank Runs to Deteraine if Soxhlet Filters...

Pawlowski, John Norman



Exito para el XVI Festival Internacional de Teatro Hispano del Teatro Avante  

E-print Network

). Se enferma de los pulmones y paulatinamente muere, pero antes hace un pacto con su amigo Hilaco (Lucas Achirico) de volver el día de los muertos al cumplirse un año de su fallecimiento. "La mina es una madre que atrapa a sus hijos... y los consume..., los personajes profesan no sólo no saber donde están ubicados geográficamente (barca en búsqueda de terra incognita) sino también cuestionan si están vivos o muertos, ya que la "condición" de náufrago es el de un inexistente, un ausente para el...

Marrero, Marí a Teresa



[Successful privatisation of para-professional services in traditional livestock farming systems: the case of Senegal].  


In Senegal, after nearly a decade of experimenting with various privatisation projects, the process of privatising veterinary service provision and empowering producers has become more stable and is now considered irreversible. The means used to satisfy animal health service needs and to develop animal production have become a key factor in poverty reduction strategies. Legislation concerning the veterinary profession has encouraged inexorable growth in the establishment of private veterinarians and para-professionals, thanks to the financing mechanisms that international institutions have promoted and funded. The new legal framework has led to a general liberalisation of veterinary medicine and of the importation and distribution of veterinary products. PMID:15200108

Niang, A B



Natural bond orbital population analysis of para-substituted O -nitrosyl carboxylate compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical study of several para-substituted O-nitrosyl carboxylate compounds has been performed using density functional B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Geometries\\u000a obtained from DFT calculation were used to perform natural bond orbital analysis. It is noted that weakness in the O3–N2 sigma bond is due to $$ n_{{{\\\\text{O}}_{1} }} \\\\to \\\\sigma_{{{\\\\text{O}}_{3} - {\\\\text{N}}_{2} }}^{*} $$ delocalization and is responsible for

Li Xiao-Hong; Chen Qing-Dong; Zhang Xian-Zhou



Salud Para Su Carozón--a Latino promotora-led cardiovascular health education program.  


Salud Para Su Carozón is a culturally sensitive, community-based program to increase heart healthy knowledge and behaviors among Latinos. Promotoras were trained using a 10-session manual to teach participants from 7 communities about heart disease risk factors and skills to achieve heart healthy behaviors. In 435 participants with pre-to-post self-reported data, there were increases in physical activity outside of work (57%-78%), heart health knowledge (49%-76%), and confidence in preparing heart healthy meals (66%-81%) (all Ps < .001). Results suggest that promotoras can provide effective health education to improve heart health risk behaviors in select Latino communities. PMID:22367258

Spinner, Jovonni R; Alvarado, Matilde



The NiCEST approach: nickel(II) paraCEST MRI contrast agents.  


Paramagnetic Ni(II) complexes are shown here to form paraCEST MRI contrast agents (paraCEST = paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer; NiCEST = Ni(II) based CEST agents). Three azamacrocycles with amide pendent groups bind Ni(II) to form stable NiCEST contrast agents including 1,4,7-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L1), 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L2), and 7,13-bis(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,10-trioxa-7,13-diazacyclopentadecane (L3). [Ni(L3)](2+), [Ni(L1)](2+), and [Ni(L2)](2+) have CEST peaks attributed to amide protons that are shifted 72, 76, and 76 ppm from the bulk water resonance, respectively. Both CEST MR images and CEST spectroscopy show that [Ni(L3)](2+) has the largest CEST effect in 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES pH 7.4 at 37 °C. This larger CEST effect is attributed to the sharper proton resonances of the complex which arise from a rigid structure and low relaxivity. PMID:23102112

Olatunde, Abiola O; Dorazio, Sarina J; Spernyak, Joseph A; Morrow, Janet R



Is Prophylactic Irradiation to Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Necessary?  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy of extended field irradiation (EFI) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer without para-aortic nodal involvement. Materials and Methods A total of 203 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage, IB2-IIIB) treated with radiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from 1996 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The median patient age was 59 years (range, 29 to 83 years). None of the patients had para-aortic node metastases. Of the 203 patients, 88 underwent EFI and 115 underwent irradiation of the pelvis only. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 133 patients. EFI field was used for treatment of 26 patients who received radiotherapy alone and 62 who received CCRT. Results The median follow-up period was 60 months. The 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 87.8% and 73.5%, respectively, and the 2- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 81.7% and 75.0%, respectively, however, no survival differences were observed between the two treatment field groups. EFI tended to increase OS in the radiotherapy alone group, but not in the CCRT group. Conclusion These findings suggest that EFI does not have a significant effect in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, especially in patients receiving CCRT. Conduct of additional studies will be required in order to confirm these findings. PMID:25043821

Park, Seung Gyu; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Mi Young; Kwon, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ok Bae



Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup ?2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup ?1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup ?1}. Above 10 cm{sup ?1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France) [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 (Cuba); Stoecklin, Thierry, E-mail:; Halvick, Philippe [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France)] [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France); Dubernet, Marie-Lise [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LPMAA, UMR CNRS 7092, 75252 Paris, France and Observatoire de Paris, LUTH, UMR CNRS 8102, 92195 Meudon (France)] [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LPMAA, UMR CNRS 7092, 75252 Paris, France and Observatoire de Paris, LUTH, UMR CNRS 8102, 92195 Meudon (France)



The Ortho-to-Para Ratio of Ammonia in the L1157 Outflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia in the blueshifted gas of the L1157 outflow by observing the six metastable inversion lines from (J,K)=(1,1) to (6, 6). The highly excited (5, 5) and (6, 6) lines were first detected in the low-mass star-forming regions. The rotational temperature derived from the ratio of four transition lines from (3, 3) to (6, 6) is 130-140 K, suggesting that the blueshifted gas is heated by a factor of ~10 as compared to the quiescent gas. The ortho-to-para ratio of the NH3 molecules in the blueshifted gas is estimated to be 1.3-1.7, which is higher than the statistical equilibrium value. This ratio provides us with evidence that the NH3 molecules have been evaporated from dust grains with the formation temperature between 18 and 25 K. It is most likely that the NH3 molecules on dust grains have been released into the gas phase through the passage of strong shock waves produced by the outflow. Such a scenario is supported by the fact that the ammonia abundance in the blueshifted gas is enhanced by a factor of ~5 with respect to the dense quiescent gas. Based on observations made at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO). NRO is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory, an interuniversity research institute operated by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sport, and Culture, Japan.

Umemoto, Tomofumi; Mikami, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hirano, Naomi



The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic  

PubMed Central

The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

Hanala, Sherif



Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).  


The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F



[Para-aortic lymph node dissection for far-advanced gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy].  


We evaluated the safety of preoperative chemotherapy against advanced gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis. In this study, we compared 11 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy(PC group) to 56 patients who did not receive preoperative chemotherapy (NPC group). We performed 47 total gastrectomies and 2 distal gastrectomies in the PC group and 9 total gastrectomies and 9 distal gastrectomies in the NPC group. In the PC group, the mean operation time was 275 min for distal gastrectomy and 297 min for total gastrectomy. In the NPC group, the mean operation time was 265 min for distal gastrectomy and 296 min for total gastrectomy. Regarding blood loss during operation, in the PC group, the mean blood loss was 650 mL for distal gastrectomy and 760 mL for total gastrectomy. In the NPC group, the mean blood loss was 530 mL for distal gastrectomy and 825 mL for total gastrectomy. No significant differences were seen between the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative chemotherapy against advanced gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis appears to be a safe treatment, but we need to conduct clinical trials for confirmation. PMID:23268063

Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Iwanaga, Tomohiro; Ohinata, Ryouki; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Daisuke



Photoinduced reactions of para-quinones with bicyclopropylidene leading to diverse polycyclic compounds with spirocyclopropanes.  


Photoinduced reactions of bicyclopropylidene (BCP) with para-quinones (p-quinones) including benzoquinones, naphthoquinones, and anthraquinones were found to proceed via different cycloaddition pathways and lead to diverse polycyclic products bearing spiropropyl moiety. Photocycloaddition of BCP with benzoquinones gave spirooxetanes as the primary products, which upon irradiation were able to rearrange into the spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-2,8-diones as secondary photoproducts. Chemoselectivity of the photocycloaddition of BCP with naphthoquinones relies largely on the substitution groups linked to the C?C in between the two carbonyl groups to give different types of products. Photoreaction of BCP with 9,10-anthraquinone gave not only the spirooxetane product, but also a novel spiro[indan-1,1'-phthalan]-3'-one product whose formation might be initiated by a transannular attack of the C4 cyclopropyl radical to the para-carbonyl group. Mechanisms involved in the formation of diverse primary or secondary products in the photoreactions of BCP with p-quinones were proposed. Some of the photoreactions also hold potentials as useful synthetic protocols for important spiropolycyclic compounds such as sesquiterpenes. PMID:23692405

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Lei; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yan



Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution.  


Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT. PMID:25416876

Liu, Shubin



Para-phenylenediamine-specific lymphocyte activation test: a sensitive in vitro assay to detect para-phenylenediamine sensitization in patients with severe allergic reactions.  


Patients sensitized to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) by semi-permanent tattoos increasingly develop threatening allergic reactions in response to black hair dye. The gold standard to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis is to perform epicutaneous patch tests, however, iatrogenic sensitizations and severe patch test reactions to PPD have been described, the latter especially in patients with severe allergic reactions. We examined nine patients with severe allergic reactions in response to permanent hair dyes. Patch tests using the standard concentration of 1% or 0.5% PPD resulted in severe and sometimes even bullous reactions in all patients responsive to PPD. Titration revealed that at 1% of the standard concentration (0.01% PPD), patch test sensitivity decreased and only 50% of patients responded. Consequently, we established an in vitro assay to diagnose PPD allergy. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with titrated concentrations of PPD with or without IL-2 supplementation, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Lymphocyte activation test (LAT) detected PBMC cell proliferation specific to PPD, with at least 3.5-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine uptake in all PPD allergic patients. Most importantly, PPD-LAT without IL-2 supplementation remained negative in three out of eight PPD allergic patients. Thus, PPD-LAT with IL-2 supplementation demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, remained unresponsive in controls not sensitized to PPD, and in one patient sensitive to other p-amino compounds. These data demonstrate that LAT with PPD can be used to detect PPD sensitization as a possible alternative to patch testing at least in patients with severe allergic reactions to PPD. PMID:20113350

Kneilling, Manfred; Caroli, Ulrich; Grimmel, Cornelia; Fischer, Jörg; Eichner, Martin; Wieder, Thomas; Maier, Florian C; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo




SciTech Connect

The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)



El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.



In-plane alignment of para-sexiphenyl films grown on KCl(0 0 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional growth of para-sexiphenyl (p-6P) on KCl(0 0 1) is characterized by a large polymorphism. Using grazing-incidence diffraction, we have found that two of the known five orientational phases feature preferential in-plane alignments along the [1 1 0] in-plane direction of the substrate: p-6P(1 1 -1) ? KCl(0 0 1) with [1 -1 0] ? KCl[1 1 0] as well as p-6P(0 0 1) ? KCl(0 0 1) with [1 -1 0] ? KCl[1 1 0]. The latter structure is a peculiar low-symmetry configuration, which can be understood by analysis of the molecular crystal lattice and the substrate symmetry.

Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Boudet, Nathalie; Yanagi, Hisao



The complex dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at gold/ para-hexaphenylene interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates the capability of the presented experimental approach. A systematic 2P-PEEM study on the dispersion relation of dielectric-loaded gold surfaces shows how effective the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at a gold/ para-hexaphenylene interface can be tuned by adjustment of the dielectric film thickness. Deviations of the experimental results from effective index calculations indicate the relevance of thin film peculiarities arising from the details of the growth process and corroborate the need of experimental analysis techniques for dispersion relation measurements.

Lemke, Christoph; Leißner, Till; Klick, Alwin; Fiutowski, Jacek; Radke, Jörn Willers; Thomaschewski, Martin; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Bauer, Michael



Disorder variables and para-fermions in two-dimensional statistical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that "clock" type models in two-dimensional statistical mechanics possess order and disorder variables ?n and ? m with n and m falling in the range 1,2, …, p. These variables respectively describe abelian analogs to charged fields and the fields of 't Hooft monopoles with charges q = n/ p and topological quantum number m. They are related to one another by a dual symmetry. Products of these operators generate, via a short-distance expansion, para-fermion operators in which rotational symmetry and the internal symmetry group are tied together. The clock models in two dimensions are shown to be an ideal laboratory where these ideas have a very simple realization.

Fradkin, Eduardo; Kadanoff, Leo P.



Study and manufacture of a para-/ortho-hydrogen catalytic converter for a space cryostat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and optimization of a para-/ortho-hydrogen converter to increase the efficiency and lifetime of the hydrogen cryogenic system of the ISO project are described. Catalyst technology and associated heat transfer technology is evaluated. Four catalyst systems were characterized. Their catalytic activity under the orbital conditions anticipated for the three radiation shields of ISO are reported. Results from experiments on in situ deactivation and reactivation are given, indicating that this is a key parameter. Iron oxide gel is the most promising catalyst system. A full scale prototype converter was designed to ESTEC specifications, and three converters were manufactured and tested. Performance, except for two small details, meets or exceeds specification. Plans for the development and testing of flight unit converters are proposed.

Baston, A. H.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Butler, G.; Clark, N. S.; Chadwick, A. T.; Harris, D. H. C.; Leach, F.; Norris, J. O. W.; Price, D.



Development of a para-orthohydrogen catalytic converter for a solid hydrogen cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design features of a tested catalytic converter for altering vented cryogenic parahydrogen used as a coolant on spacecraft into a para-ortho equilibrium for channeling to other cooling functions are described. The hydrogen is expected to be stored in either liquid or solid form. A high surface area Ni-on-Si catalyst was selected for tests at an operating pressure of 2 torr at a ratio of 1000 gr catalyst for a gr/sec hydrogen flow. Cylindrical and radial flow geometries were tried and measurements centered on the converter efficiencies at different operating temperatures when the converter was placed in the vent line of the H2 cooler. Efficiencies ranging from 10-100 percent were obtained for varying flow rates. Further testing is necessary to characterize the converter performance under a wider range of operating temperatures and environments.

Nast, T. C.; Hsu, I. C.


Observation of crystallization slowdown in supercooled para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium quantum liquid mixtures  

E-print Network

We report a quantitative experimental study of the crystallization kinetics of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures of para-hydrogen (pH$_2$) and ortho-deuterium (oD$_2$) by high spatial resolution Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets. We show that in a wide range of compositions the crystallization rate of the isotopic mixtures is significantly reduced with respect to that of the pure substances. To clarify this behavior we have performed path-integral simulations of the non-equilibrium pH$_2$-oD$_2$ liquid mixtures, revealing that differences in quantum delocalization between the two isotopic species translate into different effective particle sizes. Our results provide first experimental evidence for crystallization slowdown of quantum origin, offering a benchmark for theoretical studies of quantum behavior in supercooled liquids.

Matthias Kühnel; José M. Fernández; Filippo Tramonto; Guzmán Tejeda; Elena Moreno; Anton Kalinin; Marco Nava; Davide E. Galli; Salvador Montero; Robert E. Grisenti



Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair.  


This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2?years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. PMID:24862413

Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen



Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.  


African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol



Controlling electronic product branching at conical intersections in the UV photolysis of para-substituted thiophenols.  


H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translation spectroscopy and high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to explore the photodissociation dynamics of three para-substituted thiophenols (p-YPhSH; Y = CH(3), F, and MeO). UV excitation in the wavelength range 305 > ?(phot) > 240 nm results in S-H bond fission and formation of p-YPhS radicals in their ground (X?(2)B(1)) and first excited (Ã(2)B(2)) electronic states; the X?/Ã state product branching ratio, ?, varies with para-Y substituent and excitation wavelength. Excitation at ?(phot) < 265 nm results in direct population of the dissociative 1(1)??* potential energy surface (PES). ? falls across the series p-CH(3)PhSH > p-FPhSH > p-MeOPhSH. Branching is ultimately determined at the conical intersection (CI) formed by the 1(1)??* and ground (S(0)) PESs at extended R(S-H) bond length but is sensitively dependent on the orientation of the S-H bond (relative to the ring plane) in the S(0) molecules prior to photoexcitation. Excitation at ?(phot) > 265 nm populates quasi-bound levels of the respective 1(1)??* states, which predissociate rapidly by tunneling under the lower diabats of the 1(1)??*/1(1)??* CI at short R(S-H). Less extreme X?/Ã product branching ratios are measured, implicating intramolecular vibrational redistribution within the photoexcited 1(1)??* molecules prior to their sampling the region of the 1(1)??*/S(0) CI. PMID:23110379

Oliver, Thomas A A; King, Graeme A; Tew, David P; Dixon, Richard N; Ashfold, Michael N R



A kinetic method for para -nitrophenol determination based on its inhibitory effect on the catalatic reaction of catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of para-nitrophenol on the catalytic reaction of catalase was investigated. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters were determined from\\u000a Lineweaver-Burk plots obtained in the absence or in the presence of the inhibitor. The inhibitor pattern, revealed by the\\u000a Lineweaver-Burk plots, suggested a fully mixed inhibition mechanism. Spectrophotometric monitoring of the indicator reaction:\\u000a $$H_2 O_2 \\\\xrightarrow{{catalase,para - nitrophenol}}H_2 O + \\\\tfrac{1}{2}O_2

Claudia Mure?anu; Lucian Copolovici; Florina Pogùacean



Elaboração, aplicação e avaliação de um programa de ensino de adaptação ao meio aquático para idosos Design, application and assessment of an educational pool-therapy adaptation program for the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este artigo apresenta um programa de ensino, elaborado especificamente para este estudo, com quatro sessões, visando o aprendizado de habilidades que garantam independência motora (adaptação ao meio aquático) durante a imersão para pessoas idosas. A adaptação ao meio aquático é pré-requisito para o desenvolvimento da intervenção hidroterapêutica, devido ao receio apresentado por estas pessoas para a realização de atividades

Juliana Monteiro Candeloro; Fátima Aparecida Caromano



Biradical thermochemistry from collision-induced dissociation threshold energy measurements. Absolute heats of formation of ortho-, meta-, and para-benzyne  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute heats of formation of 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-dehydrobenzene (ortho, meta-, and para-benzyne) have been determined from measurements of the threshold energies for collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ortho, meta-, and para-chlorophenyl anions in a flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole apparatus. The 298 K heats of formation for ortho-, meta-, and para-benzyne derived in this manner are 106.6 [+-] 3.0, 122.0 [+-

Paul G. Wenthold; Robert R. Squires




E-print Network

base bimestral), denominadas procesos sinópticos objetivos, o PSOs. Básicamente, el algoritmo, que modelo meteorológico de mesoescala a alta resolución (2x2 km2 ) para un día característico de varios PSOs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat


Dos floras del Mioceno tardio de Bolivia: implicaciones para el clima y la tectonica de los Andes Centrales  

E-print Network

Dos floras del Mioceno tardio de Bolivia: implicaciones para el clima y la tectonica de los Andes Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile Nuevas colecciones de improntas de la flora Jakokkota, Altiplano de Bolivia, y de polenesporas de la flora Pislepampa, Cordillera Oriental de Bolivia, tienen implicaciones

Gregory-Wodzicki, Kathryn M.


Estudios de la Facultad de Derecho Informacin sobre PREINSCRIPCIN y MATRCULA para el curso 2014-2015  

E-print Network

Estudios de la Facultad de Derecho Información sobre PREINSCRIPCI�N y MATRÍCULA para el curso 2014 · DERECHO · DERECHO-ADE (DADE) · DERECHO-CRIMINOLOGÍA (DECRIM) · GESTI�N Y ADMINISTRACI�N P�BLICA Universitario en Derecho Ambiental y de la Sostenibilidad · Doctorado en Derecho · Curso de experto en Derecho

Escolano, Francisco


Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of S2Cl2: A Candidate Molecule for Measuring Ortho-Para Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S235Cl2 and S235Cl37Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition.

Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto



Malaria: a un paso del fin Para el investigador Quique Bassat hablar de "erradicacin" es posible a largo plazo  

E-print Network

1 Malaria: a un paso del fin Para el investigador Quique Bassat hablar de "erradicación" es posible a largo plazo "Tras un fuerte ataque de malaria la persona se convierte en una piltrafa humana, yace. Según la OMS, la malaria, conocida también como paludismo, afecta cada año a unos 210 millones de

Geffner, Hector


Gestión por competencias: importante para las pymes maquila de pantalón en índigo en la ciudad de Bogotá  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una revisión de literatura internacional y nacional, sobre temas como el de competencias, los tipos de competencias, competencias laborales y proceso de implementación de la gestión por competencias. Adicionalmente, se muestra la reseña sobre la gestión por competencias en Colombia, así como la metodología utilizada para el trabajo de campo con relación al tema del artículo y

Nathalia Andrea Martínez Valero; Juan Carlos Rincón Gaviria




Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se muestran los aspectos clave que han permitido a las empresas del estado de Guanajuato que realizan operaciones de comercio exterior mediante el TLCAN a lograr el éxito en ventas y mantener su competitividad en el mercado internacional, toda vez que para cualquier país es fundamental que sus empresas, especialmente las pequeñas y medianas, tengan una

Héctor Cuevas Vargas; David Israel Contreras Medina; Nélida Carmona García; Leticia Almanza Serrano



Efectos de la desigualdad del ingreso sobre el crecimiento económico: un análisis por entidad federativa para México  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar cuál es el efecto final que la desigualdad del ingreso ejerce sobre el crecimiento económico en los estados de la República Mexicana. Para ello, se utiliza un panel de datos que comprende las 32 entidades federativas durante el período de 1984-1999. Se corren regresiones del modelo estándar que se utiliza en esta clase

Sergio Rios Santos



Instrucciones para el uso del paquete ``La Expansi'on del Universo y la Ley de Hubble''  

E-print Network

: longitud de onda, efecto Doppler, espectroscop'ia, magnitud, galaxias. En la P'agina de CLEA hay un manual observando galaxias con un telescopio, para hacerles espectroscop'ia y determinar su corrimiento al rojo. 1 propia Galaxia, as'i como fuentes difusas y de formas no redondas que son las galaxias externas a la

Rodriguez, Luis F.



E-print Network

se estudia la extensión de la ecuación de Green-Ampt para la infiltración de agua en presencia de un encharcamiento del suelo y balance de agua durante un hietograma de lluvia natural. El modelo se contrasta

Boyer, Edmond


Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Devices: Performance Characteristics of the ParaSight F Device Determined in a Multisite Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic detection of parasites has been the reference standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. However, difficulty in maintaining required technical skills and infrastructure has spurred the development of several nonmicroscopic malaria rapid diagnostic devices based on the detection of malaria parasite antigen in whole blood. The ParaSight F test is one such device. It detects the presence of Plasmodium falciparum-specific




Examen de Calificación: Un Enfoque Basado en Casos para Materializar Arquitecturas de Software en Diseños Orientados a Objetos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las arquitecturas de software posibilitan la toma de decisiones de diseño en etapas tempranas del proceso de desarrollo de software de manera de satisfacer tanto los requerimientos funcionales de un sistema como sus requerimientos de calidad. Como modelos conceptuales las arquitecturas de software admiten múltiples materializaciones orientadas a objetos que sirven como base para lograr la construcción del producto final

Germán Leandro Vázquez


Análise Estrutural de Rotores de Turbinas Hidráulicas para Estudo da Incidência de Trincas e Desempenho à Vida de Fadiga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Um rotor de turbina hidráulica é projetado para vida infinita à fadiga. Porém, em função de necessidades de manu- tenção e de reparos, que com freqüência são realizados por processos severos, como a soldagem por arco elétrico, pode-se inserir dano a estes componentes, reduzindo a vida à fadiga. O acompanhamento dos níveis de tensões residuais indicam o grau

C. G. Filippin; A. T. de Lira



Microsoft Academic Search

Para la realización de esta propuesta se analizaron y discutieron diversos procedimientos de evaluación de proyectos de infraestructura como los desarrollados por Sepúlveda Palacios , Ibarra Pardo y Contreras en aras de determinar las similitudes y formular la propuesta adaptable a las condiciones de Cuba y del sector objeto de análisis. Se tuvo además en cuenta la experiencia nacional e

Inocencio Raúl Sánchez Machado; Jorge Luis Vidal Cárdenas; Mignelys Garcia Bello



Workshop: Mtodos Avanados de Sensoriamento Remoto para Aplicaes em Solos (Advanced Remote Sensing Methods for Soil Applications)  

E-print Network

para o mapeamento global de solos em escala continental e dados de radar (Ground Penetrating Radar, and local to regional radar applications based on Ground Penetrating Radar data. Examples will be presented techniques applied at all scales from ground-based instruments to remote sensing scale for soil geochemical


Uncoupling of Nucleotide Hydrolysis and Polymerization in the ParA Protein Superfamily Disrupts DNA Segregation Dynamics*  

PubMed Central

DNA segregation in bacteria is mediated most frequently by proteins of the ParA superfamily that transport DNA molecules attached via the segrosome nucleoprotein complex. Segregation is governed by a cycle of ATP-induced polymerization and subsequent depolymerization of the ParA factor. Here, we establish that hyperactive ATPase variants of the ParA homolog ParF display altered segrosome dynamics that block accurate DNA segregation. An arginine finger-like motif in the ParG centromere-binding factor augments ParF ATPase activity but is ineffective in stimulating nucleotide hydrolysis by the hyperactive proteins. Moreover, whereas polymerization of wild-type ParF is accelerated by ATP and inhibited by ADP, filamentation of the mutated proteins is blocked indiscriminately by nucleotides. The mutations affect a triplet of conserved residues that are situated neither in canonical nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs in the ParF tertiary structure nor at interfaces implicated in ParF polymerization. Instead the residues are involved in shaping the contours of the binding pocket so that nucleotide binding locks the mutant proteins into a configuration that is refractory to polymerization. Thus, the architecture of the pocket not only is crucial for optimal ATPase kinetics but also plays a key role in the polymerization dynamics of ParA proteins that drive DNA segregation ubiquitously in procaryotes. PMID:23093445

Dobruk-Serkowska, Aneta; Caccamo, Marisa; Rodriguez-Castaneda, Fernando; Wu, Meiyi; Bryce, Kerstyn; Ng, Irene; Schumacher, Maria A.; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr



Uncoupling of nucleotide hydrolysis and polymerization in the ParA protein superfamily disrupts DNA segregation dynamics.  


DNA segregation in bacteria is mediated most frequently by proteins of the ParA superfamily that transport DNA molecules attached via the segrosome nucleoprotein complex. Segregation is governed by a cycle of ATP-induced polymerization and subsequent depolymerization of the ParA factor. Here, we establish that hyperactive ATPase variants of the ParA homolog ParF display altered segrosome dynamics that block accurate DNA segregation. An arginine finger-like motif in the ParG centromere-binding factor augments ParF ATPase activity but is ineffective in stimulating nucleotide hydrolysis by the hyperactive proteins. Moreover, whereas polymerization of wild-type ParF is accelerated by ATP and inhibited by ADP, filamentation of the mutated proteins is blocked indiscriminately by nucleotides. The mutations affect a triplet of conserved residues that are situated neither in canonical nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs in the ParF tertiary structure nor at interfaces implicated in ParF polymerization. Instead the residues are involved in shaping the contours of the binding pocket so that nucleotide binding locks the mutant proteins into a configuration that is refractory to polymerization. Thus, the architecture of the pocket not only is crucial for optimal ATPase kinetics but also plays a key role in the polymerization dynamics of ParA proteins that drive DNA segregation ubiquitously in procaryotes. PMID:23093445

Dobruk-Serkowska, Aneta; Caccamo, Marisa; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Fernando; Wu, Meiyi; Bryce, Kerstyn; Ng, Irene; Schumacher, Maria A; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr



Gestión financiera pública: elementos para su estudio y aplicación. Funciones económicas del Estado, presupuesto, tributos, endeudamiento, gasto público  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo ha sido pensado y diseñado para que sirva básicamente de apoyo y de complemento a la labor docente y\\/o de aprendizaje de las finanzas del Estado colombiano. Pero también le será de gran utilidad a los que por diversas razones tengan relación con el tema especialmente aquellos encargados de la gestión de los asuntos públicos tanto en

José Francisco Mendoza Hernández



Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo presenta, en primer lugar, la estrecha relación entre el Derecho y el Trabajo Social y, en segundo lugar, la metodología innovadora en la docencia de las prácticas curriculares del Titulo de Grado de Trabajo Social de la Universidad de Murcia que aglutina la cooperación docente, profesional e institucional. El objetivo del Titulo es formar profesionales preparados para desarrollar

Enrique Pastor Seller



Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others



La teatralización de la violencia y la complicidad del espectáculo en Información para extranjeros de Griselda Gambaro  

E-print Network

evidente en otros capítulos de la novela en los cuales se vale de recortes periodísticos para mostrar instancias de violencia. Por ejemplo, en el capítulo 114 se nos relata la ejecución de un reo en la prisión de San Quintín, mientras en el capítulo 117...

Corté s, Jason



Visita cinco museos que formen parte de la Institucin Smithsonian para celebrar los 100 aos de las Girl Scouts.  

E-print Network

únicamente cuerpos preservados de personas: también pueden ser cuerpos de animales. Los antiguos egipcios. Los científicos estudian las momias para aprender más acerca de las personas y los animales de hace momificado sobre los antiguos egipcios y su relación con los animales? Chaqueta y traje de vuelo de Sally

Mathis, Wayne N.


Abono para la planta medicinal Cobra fuerza en la Isla el estudio del valor teraputico de la flora tropical.  

E-print Network

que "muchas plantas americanas (como el tabaco, que se preparaba de diferentes maneras), eran de a otros colegas e investigadores de la Escuela de Farmacia. Entre ellos, figuran Ana Vélez, Ricardo pasos para que este logre la acreditación de la Asociación Americana de Museos. Jardín con historia A su

Quirk, Gregory J.



Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio presenta un nuevo modelo matemático y un procedimiento metaheurístico de búsqueda voraz adaptativa y aleatoria (GRASP, por sus siglas en inglés) para resolver el problema de stock de corte ordenado. Este problema ha sido introducido recientemente en la literatura. Es apropiado minimizar la materia prima usada por las industrias que manipulan inventarios reducidos de productos, tales como las

Rodrigo Rabello Golfeto; Antônio Carlos Moretti; Salles Neto


Comparison of WAIS and Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos scores in an institutionalized Latin American psychiatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the WAIS and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), were compared in a chronic population of 42 hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. A matched sample of 12 English and Spanish speakers was administered the WAIS and the EIWA subtests, respectively. A sample of bilingual Latins was administered the

Todd M. Davis; Vene L. Rodriguez



Estudio para la prevención del cáncer necesita voluntarias: El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR) se realiza en Norteamérica

El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en inglés), uno de los estudios más importantes realizados para la prevención del cáncer del seno, está ahora reclutando voluntarias en más de 400 centros en los Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico y Canadá.


Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia  

PubMed Central

Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or digestive gland, and Cdx the hindgut. ParaHox genes of Gibbula are also expressed during specification of cerebral and ventral neuroectodermal cells. Our results provide additional support for the ancestral complexity of Gsx expression and its ancestral role in mouth patterning in protostomes, which was secondarily lost or simplified in some species. PMID:20624311



Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning.  


The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host. PMID:3586028

Gallie, D R; Kado, C I



ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.



A Neurostimulant para-Chloroamphetamine Inhibits the Arginylation Branch of the N-end Rule Pathway.  


In the arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway, unacetylated N-terminal destabilizing residues function as essential determinants of protein degradation signals (N-degron). Here, we show that a neurostimulant, para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), specifically inhibits the Arg/N-end rule pathway, delaying the degradation of its artificial and physiological substrates, including regulators of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4), in vitro and in cultured cells. In silico computational analysis indicated that PCA strongly interacts with both UBR box and ClpS box, which bind to type 1 and type 2 N-degrons, respectively. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of PCA significantly stabilized endogenous RGS4 proteins in the whole mouse brain and, particularly, in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Consistent with the role of RGS4 in G protein signaling, treatment with PCA impaired the activations of GPCR downstream effectors in N2A cells, phenocopying ATE1-null mutants. In addition, levels of pathological C-terminal fragments of TDP43 bearing N-degrons (Arg208-TDP25) were significantly elevated in the presence of PCA. Thus, our study identifies PCA as a potential tool to understand and modulate various pathological processes regulated by the Arg/N-end rule pathway, including neurodegenerative processes in FTLD-U and ALS. PMID:25212999

Jiang, Yanxialei; Choi, Won Hoon; Lee, Jung Hoon; Han, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Chung, Young-Shin; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Min Jae



Oxidation of ortho- and para-aminobenzoic acid. A pulse radiolysis- and gamma radiolysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation of anthranilic acid ( ortho-aminobenzoic acid, ANA) and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) by •OH, N 3• and O •- in basic solution was studied by pulse radiolysis. The kinetic and spectroscopic characteristics of the intermediate transients were determined. For ANA the site attack of the OH radicals was established to be ˜50% on the -NH 2 moiety and ˜50% on the aromatic ring with an overall rate constant k( •OH+ANA)=(5.5×10 9) dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The rate constant of PABA was k( •OH+PABA)=8×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The OH-adducts of both compounds showed a first order decay of 0.8×10 5 and 1.2×10 5 s -1, respectively, whereby the corresponding anilino-radicals were formed. The rate constant of ANA with solvated electrons was k(e -aq+ANA)=2.9×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The radiation induced decomposition of both substrates was studied by gamma radiolysis as a function of the absorbed dose. They exhibited a distinct radiation resistance, the initial degradation yields were ˜0.16 ?mol J -1, i.e. only 28% of the •OH radicals contributed to their decomposition. The hydroxylation process was of minor importance, the yield of hydroxylated aminobenzoic acids was?0.01 ?mol J -1.

Solar, Sonja; Getoff, Nikola; Zona, Robert; Solar, Wolfgang



Synthesis and methemoglobinemia-inducing properties of analogues of para-aminopropiophenone designed as humane rodenticides.  


A number of structural analogues of the known toxicant para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) have been prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia--with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed for alkyl analogues of PAPP (aminophenones 1-20; compound 6 metHb% = 74.1 ± 2). Besides lipophilicity, this structural sub-class suggested there were certain structural requirements for activity, with both branched (10-16) and cyclic (17-20) alkyl analogues exhibiting inferior in vitro metHb induction. Of the four candidates (compounds 4, 6, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, 4 exhibited the greatest toxicity. In parallel, aminophenone bioisosteres, including oximes 30-32, sulfoxide 33, sulfone 34 and sulfonamides 35-36, were found to be inferior metHb inducers to lead ketone 4. Closer examination of Hammett substituent constants suggests that a particular combination of the field and resonance parameters may be significant with respect to the redox mechanisms behind PAPPs metHb toxicity. PMID:24210502

Rennison, David; Conole, Daniel; Tingle, Malcolm D; Yang, Junpeng; Eason, Charles T; Brimble, Margaret A



Correlations of intra- and intermolecular dynamics and structure in liquid para -hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although hydrogen is the simplest of all molecular species, its nuclear quantum effects dominate the structure and thermodynamical properties of the condensed phases. With a recently developed nonempirical quantum molecular dynamics simulation method, we present intuitive understandings of real-time dynamics of each para -hydrogen(p -H2) molecule in the liquid phase including its H-H bond vibrations, molecular orientations, and librational motions. The short- and long-living memories of angular dynamics we found suggest that p -H2 should be described as a librating nonspherical diatomic molecule and can be characterized by two typical dynamics: kinetic motions inside a solvation shell and diffusive dynamics out of the shell. The real-time trajectory reveals that structural rearrangements of a p -H2 molecule such as breakout from a solvation shell significantly correlate with its intramolecular structure and fluctuations. The H-H bond power spectra completely fitted by two functions also indicate that liquid p -H2 has two typical structures. The condensed-phase effects on shifts and broadening of H-H bond stretching frequencies, intrinsic librational dynamics, and molecular orientational distributions are computationally demonstrated and physically rationalized.

Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji



Interface Properties of Organic para-Hexaphenyl/?-Sexithiophene Heterostructures Deposited on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite  

PubMed Central

It was recently reported, that heterostructures of para-hexaphenyl (p-6P) and ?-sexithiophene (6T) deposited on muscovite mica exhibit the intriguing possibility to prepare lasing nanofibers of tunable emission wavelength. For p-6P/6T heterostructures, two different types of 6T emission have been observed, namely, the well-known red emission of bulk 6T crystals and additionally a green emission connected to the interface between p-6P and 6T. In this study, the origin of the green fluorescence is investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). As a prerequisite, it is necessary to prepare structurally similar organic crystals on a conductive surface, which leads to the choice of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as a substrate. The similarity between p-6P/6T heterostructures on muscovite mica and on HOPG is evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and optical spectroscopy. PES measurements show that the interface between p-6P and 6T crystals is sharp on a molecular level without any sign of interface dipole formation or chemical interaction between the molecules. We therefore conclude that the different emission colors of the two 6T phases are caused by different types of molecular aggregation. PMID:24156627



Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA  

PubMed Central

Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrazabal, L.; Molina, Y.



Force field of para- and metabenzyne diradicals: A multireference coupled-cluster study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduced multireference (RMR) coupled-cluster (CC) method with singles and doubles (RMR CCSD) that exploits a modest size MR CISD wave function as an external source for a small subset of the most important (primary) triples and quadruples to account for quasidegeneracy due to a MR nature of the states considered, as well as its RMR CCSD(T) version corrected for the secondary triples, are employed to compute fundamental vibrational frequencies for the para- and metabenzene diradicals. A comparison is made with the available experimental data and with other methods, namely, the state selective or Mukherjee CCSD and completely renormalized, size-extensive version of CCSD(T), the so-called CR-CC(2,3), methods. Both the restricted Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) molecular orbitals (MOs) are employed. The four-reference RMR CCSD using MCSCF MOs gives particularly satisfactory results. The breakdown of CCSD(T) and shortcomings of some other approaches are pointed out and the role of invariance with respect to MO rotation is analyzed. Correlation with triplet-singlet splittings is also pointed out.

Li, Xiangzhu; Paldus, Josef



BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.



Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, "remembers" the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of "united atoms" potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the "united atoms" model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the "united atoms" model.

Neverov, Vladimir S.; Komolkin, Andrei V.



Clinicopathological and tissue indicators of para-aminophenol nephrotoxicity in sprague-dawley rats.  


A model of para-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats was utilized to characterize potential indicators of toxicity in the kidney and in biofluids, and to chronicle the progression of acute renal injury. Rats were administered PAP at a low or high dose and examined terminally at 6, 24 and 48 hours (4 animals/group with matching controls). Acute tubular necrosis was observed in the medullary rays (low and high doses) and the outer stripe of outer medulla (high dose only) as early as 6 hours postdosing. Starting at 24 hours, regeneration of the tubular epithelium was evident in both low and high dose studies. Associated with the tubular lesions, we observed elevation of urinary alpha -glutathione S-transferase levels, an indicator of proximal tubular injury. By immunohistochemistry of the kidney, decreased gamma -glutamylcysteine synthetase expression correlated with tubular injury, especially at high dose, whereas elevation of vimentin, osteopontin, and Ki-67 expression was concurrent with tubular regeneration. Clusterin and kidney injury molecule-1 displayed expression patterns characteristic of both renal injury and regeneration. Taken together, this study provided insight into the progression of nephrotoxicity, and allowed the evaluation of potential urinary and tissue protein biomarkers that could complement the early detection of acute tubular injury. PMID:17562485

Yang, Amy; Trajkovic, Dusko; Illanes, Oscar; Ramiro-Ibáñez, Fernando



The role of para-aminophenol in acetaminophen-induced methemoglobinemia in dogs and cats.  


Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose in most species is associated with hepatotoxicity because of the metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI). In dogs and cats, APAP overdose primarily causes methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. Although NAPQI has been proposed as the responsible intermediate in dogs and cats, it lacks chemical or pharmacokinetic characteristics that favor methemoglobin formation. We hypothesized that para-aminophenol (PAP) rather than NAPQI induces methemoglobinemia and that deficient arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in dogs and cats contributes to this species-dependent methemoglobinemia. Erythrocytes from dogs, cats, mice, and rats were exposed in vitro to APAP, NAPQI, and PAP. Only PAP induced methemoglobin and it induced more methemoglobin formation in dog and cat than rat and mouse erythrocytes. PAP also induced more methemoglobin in erythrocytes from Nat1/Nat2 knockout mice than wildtype (WT) mouse erythrocytes (P < 0.05), but less than in dog and cat erythrocytes (P < 0.01). APAP and PAP toxicity were compared in vivo in WT and Nat1/Nat2 knockout mice. APAP caused no hematotoxicity while PAP induced more methemoglobin in NAT1/NAT2 knockout mice than in WT mice (P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that PAP is the metabolite responsible for APAP-induced methemoglobinemia and that deficient NAT activity in dogs and cats contributes to this species-dependent toxicity. PMID:20444014

McConkey, S E; Grant, D M; Cribb, A E



Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Henna is very popular in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); it is part of the culture and traditions. Allergy to natural henna is not usual; however the addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. The objectives of the study were to identify the presence and concentration of PPD in henna available in UAE. Fifteen henna salons were selected randomly from three cities in UAE. Twenty five henna samples were acquired from these selected salons. The presence of PPD in henna samples was determined qualitatively and quantitatively using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the black henna samples. The presence of PPD in the black henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis among users of black henna and a number of cases have already been reported in UAE. PMID:20617053

Al-Suwaidi, Ayesha; Ahmed, Hafiz



Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye.  


Henna (Lawsonia inermis, family Lythraceae) is a shrub cultivated in India, Sri Lanka and North Africa and contains the active dye lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Henna dye is obtained from the dried leaves, which are powdered and mixed with oil or water and are used to prepare hair and body dyes. Temporary henna tattoos are readily available worldwide, last on the skin for several weeks and offer a self-limited, convenient alternative to a permanent tattoo. The addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is widely recognised as a sensitizer, increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis from henna tattoo mixtures, and a number of cases have been reported. We examined 15 henna samples available in Korea for the presence of PPD and heavy metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, lead and mercury using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), mercury analyser and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. PPD, nickel and cobalt were detected in 3, 11 and 4 samples, respectively. PMID:16842550

Kang, Ik-Joon; Lee, Mu-Hyoung



Propuesta para la innovación en la formación científico-tecnológica de grado y postgrado en España: hacia el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El cartel que se presenta por las firmantes recoge una propuesta innovadora de modelo para la formación científico tecnológica de grado y postgrado en España, que responde a criterios de adaptación al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES). Las componentes del modelo son variantes del establecido para la formación de profesionales docentes por Oliveras, M.L., (Oliveras, 1996), ya que,

Paz Fernández Oliveras; Citlali Y. Servín Martínez


Los NIH anuncian el lanzamiento de 3 estudios integrados de medicina de precisión; ALCHEMIST es para pacientes con ciertos tipos de cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

Los Estudios sobre la Secuenciación e Identificación de Marcadores para el Mejoramiento de la Terapia Adjuvante para el Cáncer de Pulmón, conocidos con el nombre de ALCHEMIST, identificarán a pacientes con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores albergan ciertos cambios genéticos, y evaluarán si los tratamientos con medicamentos que actúan sobre esos cambios pueden mejorar la supervivencia.


The effect of band-seeding legumes into para grass ( Brachiaria mutica ) on pasture production, sustainability and animal productivity in Vanuatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

A band-seeding method was utilised to oversow a suite of legumes into an established para grass ( Brachiaria mutica ) pasture. Twining legumes Pueraria phaseoloides and Centrosema pubescens persisted productively in the dense para grass sward but Neonotonia wightii cvv. Malawi and Cooper persisted weakly and Aeschynomene americana cv. Glenn, Stylo- santhes guianensis cv. Cook and Vigna parkeri cv. Shaw



HERRAMIENTAS GERENCIALES PARA EL POSICIONAMIENTO DE LA EMPRESA SOSTENIBLE Y EL MARKETING ECOLÓGICO Management tools and positioning of sustainable enterprises and marketing ecological  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La civilización humana está direccionando su acción comercial hacia el componente ecológico, tomando como principio la gerencia para proyectarse al mercado verde es decir, productos que generen menor impacto ambiental. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las herramientas gerenciales para el posicionamiento de la empresa sostenible y el marketing ecológico. Este trabajo de investigación fue descriptivo, transeccional y

Dalia Plata de Plata


An Apparatus to Control and Monitor the Para-D2 Concentration in a Solid Deuterium, Superthermal Source of Ultra-cold Neutrons  

E-print Network

Controlling and measuring the concentration of para-D2 is an essential step toward realizing solid deuterium as an intense ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source. To this end, we implemented an experimental technique to convert para- to ortho-deuterium molecules by flowing D2 gas through a cryogenic cell filled with paramagnetic hydrous ferric oxide granules. This process efficiently reduced the para-D2 concentration from 33.3% to 1.5%. Rotational Raman spectroscopy was applied to measure the residual para-D2 contamination to better than 2 parts in 10^3, and the hydrogen contamination to 1 part in 10^3. We also contrast our optical technique to conventional thermal conductivity measurements of the para-D2 concentration, reporting some of the relevant strengths and weaknesses of our implementation of each technique.

C. -Y. Liu; S. K. Lamoreaux; A. Saunders; D. Smith; A. R. Young



Baccalaureate Attainment of College Students at 4-Year Institutions as a Function of Student Engagement Behaviors: Social and Academic Student Engagement Behaviors Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vincent Tinto originally asserted, "… it is the individual's integration into the academic and social systems of the college that most directly related to his continuance in that college" (Tinto, "Review of Educational Research" 45(10): 89-125, 1975), yet the rates of college degree attainment are still stagnant.…

Flynn, Daniel



The Role of Supportive Relationships in Facilitating African American Males’ Success in College  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on Sanford’s notions of challenge and support, coupled with Tinto’s theory on retention, this quantitative investigation sought to measure the association between supportive relationships and success in college for a sample of Black men. Results suggest that supportive relationships are associated with higher levels of satisfaction but not academic achievement as measured by grades. Implications for future policy, practice,

Terrell L. Strayhorn



Genes, Enzymes, and Regulation of para-Cresol Metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens? †  

PubMed Central

In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; ?2?2 composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The ? subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an ????2 composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:17449613

Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jorg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias



High-strength poly(para-phenylene) as an orthopedic biomaterial.  


Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) exhibits exceptional mechanical strength, stiffness, toughness, and chemical inertness, although it is not currently used in any biomedical applications. The purpose of this study is to serve as a preliminary investigation into the potential of PPP as a biomaterial in orthopedic load-bearing applications. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed a polymer structure composed of an aromatic backbone and side groups. Tensile PPP specimens along with samples from several other polymers often used for orthopedic applications were elongated to failure after being soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and more than 1 year. Results showed that PBS absorption of the PPP plateaued at 1 week at values of ?0.7 wt % and remained within one standard deviation when soaked for over 1 year. PBS absorption did not affect elastic modulus (5.0 GPa), yield strength (141 MPa), fracture strength (120 MPa) and strain-to-failure (17%) more than one standard deviation. Zero-to-tension fatigue testing established an endurance limit of approximately 35 MPa, which was relatively insensitive to frequency (1-10 Hz). Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) elution assay with fibroblasts confirmed that the PPP was noncytotoxic. Relative to other polymers used for load-bearing biomedical applications, PPP displays promising mechanical properties that remain stable in aqueous solution. Lastly, prototype PPP and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bone plates were manufactured and tested, with the PPP plate showing a 38% higher maximum tensile load before failure. PMID:24123879

Frick, Carl P; DiRienzo, Amy L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Safranski, David L; Saed, Mohand; Losty, Eric J; Yakacki, Christopher M



Membrane Potential-Dependent Inhibition of the Na+,K+-ATPase by para-Nitrobenzyltriethylammonium Bromide  

PubMed Central

Membrane potential (VM)-dependent inhibitors of the Na+,K+-ATPase are a new class of compounds that may have inherent advantages over currently available drugs targeting this enzyme. However, two questions remain unanswered regarding these inhibitors: (1) what is the mechanism of VM-dependent Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition, and (2) is their binding affinity high enough to consider them as possible lead compounds? To address these questions, we investigated how a recently synthesized VM-dependent Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, para-nitrobenzyltriethylamine (pNBTEA), binds to the enzyme by measuring the extracellular pNBTEA concentration and VM dependence of ouabain-sensitive transient charge movements in whole-cell patch-clamped rat cardiac ventricular myocytes. By analyzing the kinetics of charge movements and the steady-state distribution of charge, we show that the VM-dependent properties of pNBTEA binding differ from those for extracellular Na+ and K+ binding, even though inhibitor binding is competitive with extracellular K+. The data were also fit to specific models for pNBTEA binding to show that pNBTEA binding is a rate-limiting VM-dependent reaction that, in light of homology models for the Na+,K+-ATPase, we interpret as a transfer reaction of pNBTEA from a peripheral binding site in the enzyme to a site near the known K+ coordination sites buried within the transmembrane helices of the enzyme. These models also suggest that binding occurs with an apparent affinity of 7 ?M. This apparent binding affinity suggests that high-affinity VM-dependent Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitors should be feasible to design and test as specific enzyme inhibitors. PMID:22456853

Peluffo, R. Daniel



Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

Bennett, Gordon D.



Nitration of endogenous para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and the metabolism of nitrotyrosine.  

PubMed Central

Reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, can nitrate tyrosine in proteins to form nitrotyrosine. Nitrotyrosine is metabolized to 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (NHPA), which is excreted in the urine. This has led to the notion that measurement of urinary NHPA may provide a time-integrated index of nitrotyrosine formation in vivo. However, it is not known whether NHPA is derived exclusively from metabolism of nitrotyrosine, or whether it can be formed by nitration of circulating para -hydroxyphenylacetic acid (PHPA), a metabolite of tyrosine. In the present study, we have developed a gas chromatography MS assay for NHPA and PHPA to determine whether or not NHPA can be formed directly by nitration of PHPA. Following the injection of nitrotyrosine, 0.5+/-0.16% of injected dose was recovered unchanged as nitrotyrosine, and 4.3+/-0.2% as NHPA in the urine. To determine whether or not NHPA could be formed by the nitration of PHPA, deuterium-labelled PHPA ([(2)H(6)]PHPA) was injected, and the formation of deuterated NHPA ([(2)H(5)]NHPA) was measured. Of the infused [(2)H(6)]PHPA, 78+/-2% was recovered in the urine unchanged, and approx. 0.23% was recovered as [(2)H(5)]NHPA. Since the plasma concentration of PHPA is markedly higher than free nitrotyrosine (approx. 400-fold), the nitration of high-circulating endogenous PHPA to form NHPA becomes very significant and accounts for the majority of NHPA excreted in urine. This is the first study to demonstrate that NHPA can be formed by nitration of PHPA in vivo, and that this is the major route for its formation. PMID:12797864

Mani, Ali R; Pannala, Ananth S; Orie, Nelson N; Ollosson, Richard; Harry, David; Rice-Evans, Catherine A; Moore, Kevin P



Contribution of Reactive Oxygen Species to para-Aminophenol Toxicity in LLC-PK1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Para-aminophenol (PAP) causes nephrotoxicity by biochemical mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. PAP can undergo enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation to form reactive intermediates. Using modulators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the role of ROS in PAP toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was investigated. ROS formation was determined using a fluorescein derivative and viability using alamarBlue. Following treatment of cells with PAP, ROS formation occurred prior to loss of cell viability. Several modulators of ROS were used to identify the pathways involved in PAP toxicity. Viability was improved with catalase treatment, while viability was decreased when cells were treated with superoxide dismutase (SOD). Both catalase and SOD exert their effects outside of cells in the incubation medium, since there was no evidence of uptake of these enzymes in LLC-PK1 cells. In cell-free incubations, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was produced when 0.5 mM PAP was included in the incubation medium. Further, SOD greatly increased and catalase greatly decreased H2O2 production in these cell-free incubations. These data suggest that H2O2 formed in the incubation medium contributes to loss of viability following PAP treatment. When cells were coincubated with 0.5 mM PAP and tiron, pyruvate, bathocuproine, 1, 10-phenanthroline, or dimethylthiourea (DMTU), ROS formation was decreased. However, there was minimal improvement in cell viability. Paradoxically, DMTU exacerbated PAP-induced loss of viability. These data suggest ROS are generated in cells exposed to PAP but these species are not the predominant cause of cellular injury. PMID:18396305

Foreman, Brooke D.; Tarloff, Joan B.



Contribution of reactive oxygen species to para-aminophenol toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells.  


para-aminophenol (PAP) causes nephrotoxicity by biochemical mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. PAP can undergo enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation to form reactive intermediates. Using modulators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the role of ROS in PAP toxicity in LLC-PK(1) cells was investigated. ROS formation was determined using a fluorescein derivative and viability using alamarBlue. Following treatment of cells with PAP, ROS formation occurred prior to loss of cell viability. Several modulators of ROS were used to identify the pathways involved in PAP toxicity. Viability was improved with catalase treatment, while viability was decreased when cells were treated with superoxide dismutase (SOD). Both catalase and SOD exert their effects outside of cells in the incubation medium, since there was no evidence of uptake of these enzymes in LLC-PK(1) cells. In cell-free incubations, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was produced when 0.5 mM PAP was included in the incubation medium. Further, SOD greatly increased and catalase greatly decreased H(2)O(2) production in these cell-free incubations. These data suggest that H(2)O(2) formed in the incubation medium contributes to loss of viability following PAP treatment. When cells were coincubated with 0.5 mM PAP and tiron, pyruvate, bathocuproine, 1, 10-phenanthroline, or dimethylthiourea (DMTU), ROS formation was decreased. However, there was minimal improvement in cell viability. Paradoxically, DMTU exacerbated PAP-induced loss of viability. These data suggest that ROS are generated in cells exposed to PAP but these species are not the predominant cause of cellular injury. PMID:18396305

Foreman, Brooke D; Tarloff, Joan B



Effect of antioxidants on para-aminophenol-induced toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells.  


The present studies were designed to investigate the susceptibility of LLC-PK1 cells to cytotoxicity induced by para-aminophenol (PAP) and the ability of antioxidants to prevent PAP-induced cytotoxicity. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated for 4 h with varying concentrations of PAP (0-0.2 mM). Incubation was continued for 20 h and viability was monitored at 24 h after initial exposure to PAP. For coincubation experiments, cells were incubated for 4 h with various antioxidants [including ascorbate, glutathione (GSH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), or beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)] in the absence or presence of 0.1 mM PAP. For preincubation experiments, cells were incubated for 1 h with ascorbate, GSH or NADPH. Antioxidants were removed and cells were exposed to 0 or 0.1 mM PAP for 4 h. Viability was determined 24 h following PAP exposure. LLC-PK1 cells displayed a steep concentration-response relationship for PAP; 0.1 mM PAP caused approximately 50% loss of viability. Coincubation with ascorbate, GSH and NADPH was without effect on cell viability in the absence of PAP and attenuated PAP-induced losses in viability. In contrast, NADH was ineffective in preventing PAP-induced cytotoxicity. BHT alone produced a significant loss of cell viability and was ineffective in preventing PAP cytotoxicity. Inability of NADH to prevent PAP-induced cytotoxicity was related to rapid degradation of NADH in aqueous solution. Preincubation of cells with ascorbate or GSH but not NADPH was associated with attenuation of PAP-induced cytotoxicity. These data suggest that (1) PAP is cytotoxic to LLC-PK1 cells, (2) a portion of PAP cytotoxicity is due to nonenzymatic oxidation that occurs in the incubation medium, and (3) a portion of PAP cytotoxicity is due to enzymatic or nonenzymatic oxidation that occurs within cells. PMID:11162874

Hallman, M A; Tchao, R; Tarloff, J B



Comparison of para-aminophenol cytotoxicity in rat renal epithelial cells and hepatocytes.  


Several chemicals, including para-aminophenol (PAP), produce kidney damage in the absence of hepatic damage. Selective nephrotoxicity may be related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb filtered water, thereby raising the intraluminal concentration of toxicants and exposing tubular epithelial cells to higher concentrations than would be present in other tissues. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells exposed to equivalent concentrations of PAP would be equally susceptible to toxicity. Hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells were prepared by collagenase digestion of tissues obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicity was monitored using trypan blue exclusion, oxygen consumption and ATP content. We measured the rate of PAP clearance and formation of PAP-glutathione conjugate by HPLC. We found that renal epithelial cells accumulated trypan blue and showed declines in oxygen consumption and ATP content at significantly lower concentrations of PAP and at earlier time points than hepatocytes. The half-life of PAP in hepatocyte incubations was significantly shorter (0.71+/-0.07 h) than in renal epithelial cell incubations (1.33+/-0.23 h), suggesting that renal epithelial cells were exposed to PAP for longer time periods than hepatocytes. Renal epithelial cells formed significantly less glutathione conjugates of PAP (PAP-SG) than did hepatocytes, consistent with less efficient detoxification of reactive PAP intermediates by renal epithelial cells. Finally, hepatocytes contained significant more reduced glutathione (NPSH) than did renal epithelial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced formation of PAP-SG by this cell population. In conclusion, our data indicates that renal epithelial cells are intrinsically more susceptible to PAP cytotoxicity than are hepatocytes. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be due to longer exposure to PAP and/or reduced detoxification of reactive intermediates due to lower concentrations of reduced NPSH in renal epithelial cells than in hepatocytes. PMID:15725515

Li, Ying; Bentzley, Catherine M; Tarloff, Joan B



Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Postpartum Latinas: Madres para la Salud  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors of postpartum Latinas who are overweight or obese prior to initiating Madres para la Salud, a social-support mediated walking intervention to promote postpartum weight loss. Methods 139 postpartum (13.6 ± 7.7 weeks since childbirth) women (age = 28.3 ± 5.6 years and BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg.m2), recruited from Phoenix area Latino-serving organizations completed the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) and concurrently wore an accelerometer (AG) and a pedometer for 7-days, and kept a PA record (PAR). Results Most were classified as inactive and lightly active on the SBAS (51% inactive, 37% light, 11% moderate). Most time was spent in sedentary (512.0 ± 169.9 min.d?1) and light-intensity PA (242.4 ± 51.4 min.d?1) with less time in moderate-intensity lifestyle (78.3 ± 39.9 min.d?1), moderate-intensity walking (16.6 ± 14.4 min.d?1), and vigorous-intensity PA (0.34 ± 1.5 min.d?1). Pedometer steps.d?1 were low (total = 4,973 ± 2,202 steps; aerobic = 412 ± 774 steps) with most participants rated as sedentary (61%) or low-active (28.1%). Consistent with objective PA measures, PARs showed more time spent in light-intensity PAs such as home care, cooking, child- and self care tasks, occupation, religious events, and watching television. Conclusion By and large, the postpartum Latinas enrolled spent most of their day in low-intensity activity levels with little time spent in health-enhancing PA levels/behaviors. This demographic should be the focus of PA interventions to increase PA to health enhancing levels. PMID:23439416

Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Herrmann, Stephen; Belyea, Michael; Records, Kathryn; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean V.



Three-generation evaluation of dietary para-nonylphenol in CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats.  


This study evaluated the potential for dietary para-nonylphenol (NP; CAS No. 84852-15-3) to affect parental fertility and growth and development of three offspring generations in CD (Sprague-Dawley [SD]) rats, including sperm counts across generations to determine the validity of equivocal reductions observed in the F2 generation by R. E. Chapin et al. (1999, Toxicol. Sci. 52, 80-91). Male rat kidney toxicity was also examined based on inconsistent observations in NP-exposed rats at 2000 ppm but not at 200 or 650 ppm in Purina 5002 (H. C. Cunny et al., 1997, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 26, 172-178) and at all of these NP concentrations in NIH-07 diet (R. E. Chapin et al., 1999, Toxicol. Sci. 52, 80-91). Concentrations were 0, 20, 200, 650, and 2000 ppm NP in Purina 5002 diet and 0 and 650 ppm NP in NIH-07 diet. 17beta-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control at 2.5 ppm in Purina 5002 diet. There were no NP effects on any reproductive parameters in any generation, including sperm counts. Kidney toxicity (histopathology) occurred at 650 and 2000 ppm with no clear difference for the two diets. Ovarian weight was decreased at 2000 ppm NP in all generations, with no effect on reproduction. Dietary E2 at 2.5 ppm caused renal, reproductive, and developmental (lactational and peripubertal) toxicity in all generations. This study confirmed that dietary NP is not a selective reproductive toxicant with an no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of > 2000 ppm ( approximately > 150 mg/kg/day) and provided an NOAEL for male rat kidney toxicity of 200 ppm NP (approximately 15 mg/kg/day). PMID:16624851

Tyl, Rochelle W; Myers, Christina B; Marr, Melissa C; Castillo, Nora P; Seely, John C; Sloan, Carol S; Veselica, Michael M; Joiner, Ronald L; Van Miller, John P; Simon, Glenn S



Propuesta de un m‚todo para la elecci¢n de buenas alternativas para la localizaci¢n de empresas de reciclaje de RAEE en Espa¤a  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ante la necesidad de Espa¤a de instalar nuevas empresas de reciclaje de RAEE, este trabajo proporciona a los agentes decisores una ordenaci¢n de los principales municipios espa¤oles seg£n su apropiabilidad para la instalaci¢n de estas empresas. Desarrolla un procedimiento que consiste en la identificaci¢n de los factores relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta y en la posterior aplicaci¢n de una

Dolores Queiruga; Javier Gonz lez Benito; Grit Walther; Thomas Spengler



Electron-Donating Para-Methoxy Converts a Benzamide-Isoquinoline Derivative into a Highly Sigma-2 Receptor Selective Ligand  

PubMed Central

The sigma-2 (?2) receptor has been suggested to be a promising target for pharmacological interventions to curb tumor progression. Development of ?2-specific ligands, however, has been hindered by lack of understanding of molecular determinants that underlie selective ligand-?2 interactions. Here we have explored effects of electron donating and withdrawing groups on ligand selectivity for the ?2 versus ?1 receptor using new benzamide-isoquinoline derivatives. The electron-donating methoxy group increased but the electron-withdrawing nitro group decreased ?2 affinity. In particular, an extra methoxy added to the para-position (5e) of the benzamide phenyl ring of 5f dramatically improved (631 fold) the ?2 selectivity relative to the ?1 receptor. This para-position provided a sensitive site for effective manipulation of the sigma receptor subtype selectivity using either the methoxy or nitro substituent. Our study provides a useful guide for further improving the ?2-over-?1 selectivity of new ligands. PMID:22055714

Hajipour, Abdol R.; Guo, Lian-Wang; Pal, Arindam; Mavlyutov, Timur; Ruoho, Arnold E.



A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.  


Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12?months post-transplantation was 1.3?mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection. PMID:25362187

Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos



Impact of para-phenylenediamine on cyclooxygenases expression and prostaglandin formation in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT).  


para-Phenylenediamine, a monocyclic arylamine, is a frequently used chemical and ingredient of oxidative hair coloring products. Thus exposure occurs predominantly via skin. Cyclooxygenases, the key enzymes in prostaglandin synthesis, exhibit manifold physiological and pathophysiologial functions in skin and skin cells such as keratinocytes. We studied if para-phenylenediamine impacts on the expression of enzymes in the cyclooxygenase pathway in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) as a model for keratinocytes. We analyzed COX-1, COX-2 and cPLA(2) steady state mRNA levels for 100-400 microM PPD after 2-24 h and found clear COX-2 induction for 400 microM PPD after 24 h, while cPLA(2) and COX-1 levels were increased dose-dependently between 8 and 24 h. Increased expression was accompanied by enhanced prostaglandin E(2) and F(2alpha) formation. Specific involvement of COX enzymes was confirmed by prostaglandin analysis in the presence of exogenous arachidonic acid and inhibition experiments using COX inhibitor NS-398. In addition, para-phenylenediamine-induced prostaglandin formation was completely inhibited in cells pre-stimulated with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine. N-acetylation of PPD was observed in HaCaT yielding mono-acetyl-PPD (MAPPD) and di-acetyl-PPD (DAPPD). Further investigations of MAPPD and DAPPD and the generated auto-oxidation product Bandrowski's base (BB) found that these compounds were not able to impact on COX enzyme expression and activity. In sum, these results demonstrate that para-phenylenediamine, but not its generated acetylated derivatives or BB, induces COX expression and activity in human keratinocytes likely via oxidative processes. PMID:18571826

Moeller, Ruth; Lichter, Jutta; Blömeke, Brunhilde



Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.



Investigadores de la UA y la UV obtienen una nueva lnea celular de retina para el cribado de frmacos neuroprotectores  

E-print Network

Investigadores de la UA y la UV obtienen una nueva línea celular de retina para el cribado de la Universidad de Valencia han obtenido una nueva línea celular de retina que permite evaluar la, obtenida a partir de un cultivo de células de Müller de retinas de ratones adultos, y es la única en el

Escolano, Francisco


Green synthesis of para-Menthane-3,8-diol from Eucalyptus citriodora: Application for repellent products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient method was developed for the synthesis of para-Menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), a well-known repellent active against mosquitoes, from Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil by a treatment of citric acid in a biphasic medium (H2O\\/essential oil). The E. citriodora contains as main component (+)-citronellal (74% in the present case), which cyclises (Prins reaction) to form cis\\/trans PMD isomers. As an example,

Jeremy Drapeau; Manon Rossano; Didier Touraud; Ulla Obermayr; Martin Geier; Andreas Rose; Werner Kunz



SOLICITUD DE PERMISOS PARA PUBLICAR EN LA WEB DE LA UA A la atencin del Director del Servicio de Informtica.  

E-print Network

SOLICITUD DE PERMISOS PARA PUBLICAR EN LA WEB DE LA UA A la atención del Director del Servicio de conozca): BAJA DE PERMISOS en las siguientes direcciones web (en caso de que las conozca):

Escolano, Francisco


Propuesta de un certificado de defunción para mejorar el registro y reporte de la muerte en el periodo perinatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contreras-Lemus J, Flores-Huerta S, Cardona-Pérez JA. Propuesta de un certificado de defunción para mejorar el registro y reporte de la muerte en el periodo perinatal. Salud Publica Mex 2001;43:217-223. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http:\\/\\/\\/salud\\/index.html Resumen Objetivo. Analizar la forma en que se registran los naci- mientos y la muerte en el periodo perinatal,

Javier Contreras-Lemus; Samuel Flores-Huerta; Jorge Arturo Cardona-Pérez



Yale University School of Medicine Autorizacin para el Uso o la Revelacin de Informacin de Salud Protegida (PHI)  

E-print Network

Yale University School of Medicine Autorización para el Uso o la Revelación de Información de Salud: ___________________________ Yo autorizo a la Universidad de Yale que use o revele la siguiente información de salud protegida tome acción confiando en esta: Oficial de privacidad del adjunto de Medicina de Yale, 300 George Street


Laccase-catalyzed carbon–nitrogen bond formation: coupling and derivatization of unprotected l -phenylalanine with different para -hydroquinones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unprotected l-phenylalanine was derivatized by an innovative enzymatic method by means of laccases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Myceliophthora thermophila. During the incubation of l-phenylalanine with para-hydroquinones using laccase as biocatalyst, one or two main products were formed. Dependent on the substitution grade of\\u000a the hydroquinones mono- and diaminated products were detected. Differences of the used laccases are discussed. The described

V. Hahn; A. Mikolasch; K. Manda; D. Gördes; K. Thurow; F. Schauer



Long-term survival after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with para-aortic lymph node metastasis: case report  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis have a poor prognosis and patients living longer than 3 years are rare. We had a patient with pancreatic cancer who survived for more than 10 years after removal of the para-aortic lymph node metastasis. A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed with pancreatic head cancer and underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy with subtotal gastric resection following Whipple reconstruction in 2000. Para-aortic lymph node metastasis was detected during the operation by intraoperative pathological diagnosis and an extended lymphadenectomy was performed with vascular skeletonization of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In 2004, a low-density area was detected around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) 5 cm from its root and she was treated with gemcitabine, and the area was undetectable after 3 years of treatment. In 2010, computed tomography showed a low-density area around the same lesion with an increased carcinoembryonic antigen level. After 4 months of gemcitabine treatment, we resected the tumor en bloc with the associated superior mesenteric vein and perineural tissue. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma that closely resembled the original primary pancreatic cancer, indicating perineural recurrence 10 years after the initial resection. She had no recurrence around the SMA for more than one year. Although a meta-analysis has not proved the efficacy of preventive radical dissection, this case indicates that a patient with well-differentiated, chemotherapy-responsive pancreatic cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis could have a long survival time through extended dissection of the lymph nodes. PMID:23945441



Radioterapia extema radical en cáncer infiltrante de vejiga en pacientes geriátricos con contraindicación médica para la cirugía: experiencia institucional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  Se analiza retrospectivamente la tolerancia y el control tumoral en pacientes con cáncer infiltrante de vejiga cuya única\\u000a alternativa terapéutica radical es la radioterapia externa.\\u000a \\u000a Cuarenta y siete pacientes (3 mujeres y 44 varones), con contraindicación para cistectomía, fueron tratados con radioterapia\\u000a externa con intención curativa. Cuarenta (85%) tenían una edad al diagnóstico ? 70 años. Nueve presentaban performance status

Raúl Matute Martín; Arnaldo Alvarado Astudillo; Nuria E. Martínez Moreno; José A. Arranz Arija; Marina Gómez Espí; Dolores de la Mata Moya; Esperanza Lozano Guerra; Javier Serrano Andreu; Rafael Herranz Crespo; Manuel Felipe A. Calvo



Path-integral Monte Carlo study of a lithium impurity in para-hydrogen: Clusters and the bulk liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation studies using the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics are reported for single atomic lithium impurities in bulk liquid para-hydrogen and in clusters, Li(p-H2)n, with n=12, 13, 32, 33, and 34. Over the range of temperatures studied in the clusters (T=2.5–6.0 K), the lithium impurity is found to reside outside or at the surface of the clusters. Nevertheless, perturbations

Daphna Scharf; Glenn J. Martyna; Michael L. Klein




E-print Network

BUSCA LOCAL PARA P´OS-PROCESSAMENTO EM RESULTADOS DE OTIMIZA¸C~AO MULTI-OBJETIVO EM REDES DE FILAS otimiza¸c~ao de redes de filas finitas, a capacidade total do sistema em ´areas de espera deve ser a menor redistribui¸c~ao de ´areas de circula¸c~ao entre as filas, preservando fixa a capacidade total do sistema. Um

Cruz, Frederico



E-print Network

EL PAISAJE: INVESTIGACI�N PARA ENFRENTAR LOS RETOS DEL SIGLO XXI" (5ª ED.) "Degradación de los suelos pta. MÁS INFORMACI�N EN NUESTRA WEB : Los suelos ferralíticos rojos de Cuba cuya realiza un bosquejo histórico de las causas de la degradación de los suelos arcillosos de composición

Escolano, Francisco


Se da a conocer el plan del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para acelerar la investigación del cáncer

En la 100va Reunión Anual de la Asociación Estadounidense de Investigación del Cáncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de más subvenciones, creación de una plataforma para atención personalizada del cáncer y un programa acelerado de genética del cáncer que hará avanzar la investigación oncológica en este nuevo ambiente económico.


The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

Xavier, Sandhya [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); MacDonald, Shannon [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Roth, Jennifer [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Caunt, Maresa [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Akalu, Abebe [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Morais, Danielle [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Buckley, Michael T. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Liebes, Leonard [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, Peter C. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail:



Antibacterial Activity of Sulfamethoxazole Transformation Products (TPs): General Relevance for Sulfonamide TPs Modified at the para Position.  


Sulfonamide antibiotics undergo transformation in the aquatic environment through biodegradation, photolysis, or hydrolysis. In this study, the residual antibacterial activity of 11 transformation products (TPs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated with regard to their in vitro growth and luminescence inhibition on Vibrio fischeri (30 min and 24 h exposure). Two transformation products, 4-hydroxy-SMX and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-SMX, were synthesized in-house and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results of individual compound experiments showed that TPs modified at the para amino group still exhibit clear antibacterial effects, whereas TPs resulting from breakdown of the SMX structure lost this mechanism of action. 4-NO2- and 4-OH-SMX were found to inhibit growth to a clearly greater extent than the parent compound, SMX. In contrast, the N(4)-acetyl- and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-derivatives retain less than 10 and 5% of the effect of SMX on growth and luminescence inhibition, respectively. The effect of a mixture of para-modified TPs was observed to be additive. Considering the homologous series of sulfa drugs widely prescribed and their common mechanism of action, the potential environmental impact must consider the total amount of sulfonamide antibiotics and their derivative TPs, which might end up in a water body. Extrapolating the results obtained here for the para TPs of SMX to other sulfa drugs and determining the persistence and occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment is required for improved risk assessment. PMID:25211553

Majewsky, Marius; Wagner, Danny; Delay, Markus; Bräse, Stefan; Yargeau, Viviane; Horn, Harald



Identification of N-Hydroxy-para-aminobenzoic acid in a cyanotic child after benzocaine exposure.  


Abstract Context. Methemoglobinemia (MetHb) after exposure to benzocaine (BZC) has been reported for more than 50 years, however the pathophysiologic mechanism has not been previously established. Direct administration of BZC to blood does not produce MetHb. After topical use, due to the lipophilicity and rapid acetylation in the tissue, little BZC reaches the liver for hepatic biotransformation. However, isolated human livers have been shown to produce MetHb forming N-hydroxyl metabolites from BZC. We report a case of BZC-induced MetHb with the first identification and quantification of the reactive metabolite responsible for the oxidative stress: N-Hydroxy-Para-amino benzoic acid (N-OH-PABA). Case details. An 8 year old male was admitted to a hospital for an appendectomy. Several applications of BZC spray were used during multiple attempts at nasogastric tube placement. In various attempts to achieve local anesthesia, benzocaine spray was used in both nares and through the mouth aimed at the posterior oropharynx. The patient subsequently became cyanotic with an initial MetHb level of 32.9 %. Methylene blue was administered and the patient promptly responded with resolution of cyanosis. Blood taken within 20 min of the initial symptoms contained benzocaine (5.2ug/mL), bupivacaine (740ng/mL), lidocaine (530ng/mL), acetaminophen (12ug/mL), midazolam (60ng/mL), PABA and N-OH-PABA (35ng/mL). Serum was analyzed using Liquid Chromatography- Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Mass spectrometry was done using an electrospray ionization source run in negative and positive polarities. A reference standard for N-OH-PABA was synthesized for confirmation and quantification. Discussion. The rare and idiopathic nature of methemoglobinemia after benzocaine use has made study of the pathophysiologic mechanism in humans difficult. Lack of understanding has brought calls for restriction of use of the widely used medication that may not be based on evidence. Our case presents several unique features: 1) benzocaine absorption after topical administration was documented with serum concentrations 2) confirmation of an in vivo formation of MetHb-forming n-hydroxyl-metabolite after benzocaine use and 3) the documentation of N-OH-PABA in humans within 20 min of MetHb post-benzocaine administration. PMID:25211007

Spiller, H A; Russell, J L; Casavant, M J; Ho, R Y; Gerona, R R



Characterization of the Role of para-Aminobenzoic Acid Biosynthesis in Folate Production by Lactococcus lactis?  

PubMed Central

The pab genes for para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis were identified and characterized. In L. lactis NZ9000, only two of the three genes needed for pABA production were initially found. No gene coding for 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (pabC) was initially annotated, but detailed analysis revealed that pabC was fused with the 3? end of the gene coding for chorismate synthetase component II (pabB). Therefore, we hypothesize that all three enzyme activities needed for pABA production are present in L. lactis, allowing for the production of pABA. Indeed, the overexpression of the pABA gene cluster in L. lactis resulted in elevated pABA pools, demonstrating that the genes are involved in the biosynthesis of pABA. Moreover, a pABA knockout (KO) strain lacking pabA and pabBC was constructed and shown to be unable to produce folate when cultivated in the absence of pABA. This KO strain was unable to grow in chemically defined medium lacking glycine, serine, nucleobases/nucleosides, and pABA. The addition of the purine guanine, adenine, xanthine, or inosine restored growth but not the production of folate. This suggests that, in the presence of purines, folate is not essential for the growth of L. lactis. It also shows that folate is not strictly required for the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. L. lactis strain NZ7024, overexpressing both the folate and pABA gene clusters, was found to produce 2.7 mg of folate/liter per optical density unit at 600 nm when the strain was grown on chemically defined medium without pABA. This is in sharp contrast to L. lactis strains overexpressing only one of the two gene clusters. Therefore, we conclude that elevated folate levels can be obtained only by the overexpression of folate combined with the overexpression of the pABA biosynthesis gene cluster, suggesting the need for a balanced carbon flux through the folate and pABA biosynthesis pathway in the wild-type strain. PMID:17308179

Wegkamp, Arno; van Oorschot, Wietske; de Vos, Willem M.; Smid, Eddy J.



Model studies of hydrogen atom addition and abstraction processes involving ortho-, meta-, and para-benzynes.  


H-atom addition and abstraction processes involving ortho-, meta-, and para-benzyne have been investigated by multiconfigurational self-consistent field methods. The H(A) + H(B)...H(C) reaction (where r(BC) is adjusted to mimic the appropriate singlet-triplet energy gap) is shown to effectively model H-atom addition to benzyne. The doublet multiconfiguration wave functions are shown to mix the "singlet" and "triplet" valence bond structures of H(B)...H(C) along the reaction coordinate; however, the extent of mixing is dependent on the singlet-triplet energy gap (DeltaE(ST)) of the H(B)...H(C) diradical. Early in the reaction, the ground-state wave function is essentially the "singlet" VB function, yet it gains significant "triplet" VB character along the reaction coordinate that allows H(A)-H(B) bond formation. Conversely, the wave function of the first excited state is predominantly the "triplet" VB configuration early in the reaction coordinate, but gains "singlet" VB character when the H-atom is close to a radical center. As a result, the potential energy surface (PES) for H-atom addition to triplet H(B)...H(C) diradical is repulsive! The H3 model predicts, in agreement with the actual calculations on benzyne, that the singlet diradical electrons are not coupled strongly enough to give rise to an activation barrier associated with C-H bond formation. Moreover, this model predicts that the PES for H-atom addition to triplet benzyne will be characterized by a repulsive curve early in the reaction coordinate, followed by a potential avoided crossing with the (pi)1(sigma*)1 state of the phenyl radical. In contrast to H-atom addition, large activation barriers characterize the abstraction process in both the singlet ground state and first triplet state. In the ground state, this barrier results from the weakly avoided crossing of the dominant VB configurations in the ground-state singlet (S0) and first excited singlet (S1) because of the large energy gap between S0 and S1 early in the reaction coordinate. Because the S1 state is best described as the combination of the triplet X-H bond and the triplet H(B)...H(C) spin couplings, the activation barrier along the S0 abstraction PES will have much less dependence on the DeltaE(ST) of H(B)...H(C) than previously speculated. For similar reasons, the T1 potential surface is quite comparable to the S0 PES. PMID:11674001

Clark, A E; Davidson, E R



Infrared Spectra of the 2-CHLOROETHYL Radical in Solid Para-Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of chlorine atoms with ethylene and two of its deuterium isotopomers in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) matrices at 3 K has been studied using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 365 nm of a co-deposited mixture of Cl2, C2H4, and p-H2 at 3 K produces a series of new lines in the infrared spectrum. Several of the new lines are readily assigned to the gauche and trans conformers of 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl) resulting from the addition of two Cl atoms to C2H4. Of the remaining lines, a strong line at 664 Cm-1 and three weaker lines at 562, 1070, and 1228 Cm-1 are concluded to be due to a single carrier based on their behavior upon subsequent annealing to 4.5 K and irradiation at 254 and 214 nm. When the positions and intensities of these lines are compared to the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ predicted vibrational spectra of the possible species that could result from the addition and abstraction reactions of one Cl atom with C2H4, the best agreement is found with the 2-chloroethyl radical (CdotCH2CH2Cl). In order to confirm this assignment, isotopic experiments were performed with C2D4 and t-C2H2D2 and the corresponding infrared bands due to the deuterium isotopomers of this radical (CdotCD2CD2Cl and \\cdotCHDCHDCl) have been observed. A final set of experiments were performed following irradiation of the Cl2/C2H4/p-H2 mixture at 365 nm, in which the matrix was irradiated with filtered infrared light from a globar source, which has been shown to induce a reaction between isolated Cl atoms and matrix H2 to produce HCl and H atoms. In our experiments, the major products observed were HCl and ethyl chloride (CH3CH2Cl) and the possible mechanism of the formation of ethyl chloride will be discussed. P. Brana, B. Menendez, T. Fernandez, and J. A. Sordo, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10842 (2000) P. L. Raston and D. T. Anderson, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3124 (2006)

Amicangelo, Jay C.; Bahou, Mohammed; Golec, Barbara; Lee, Yuan-Pern



Infrared Spectra of the 2-CHLOROPROPYL Radical in Solid Para-Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of chlorine atoms with propylene and one of its deuterium isotopomers in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) matrices at 3.2 K has been studied using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 365 nm of a co-deposited mixture of Cl2, C3H6, and p-H2 at 3.2 K produces a series of new lines in the infrared spectrum. Several of the new lines are readily assigned to the gauche and trans conformers of 1,2-dichloropropane (CH3CHClCH2Cl) resulting from the addition of two Cl atoms to C3H6. Weak lines observed at 802 and 975 cm-1 and at 813 and 981 cm-1 that become more prominent upon secondary irradiation at 254 and 214 nm are assigned to the allyl radical (C3H5) and an HCl-allyl radical complex (HCl-C3H5), respectively. Of the remaining lines, a strong line at 650 cm-1 and weaker lines at 532, 1008, 1133, 1150, 1215 and 1382 cm-1 are concluded to be due to a single carrier based on their behavior upon subsequent annealing to 4.5 K and irradiation at 254 and 214 nm. When the positions and intensities of these lines are compared to the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ predicted vibrational spectra of the possible species that could result from the addition and abstraction reactions of one Cl atom with C3H6a, the best agreement is found with the 2-chloropropyl radical (CH3CHClCH2...). Isotopic experiments were performed with 3,3,3-C3H3D3 and the corresponding infrared peaks due to the deuterium isotopomer of this radical (CD3CHClCH2...) have also been observed. A final set of experiments were performed following irradiation of the Cl2/C3H6/p-H2 mixture at 365 nm, in which the matrix was irradiated with filtered infrared light from a globar source, which has been shown to induce a reaction between isolated Cl atoms and matrix H2 to produce HCl and H atoms. In our experiments, the major products observed after infrared irradiation are HCl, 2-chloropropane (CH3CHClCH3) and the isopropyl radical (CH3CH...CH3) and the possible mechanisms of formation of these species will be discussed. P. Brana and J. A. Sordo, J. Comput. Chem. 24, 2044 (2003) P. L. Raston and D. T. Anderson, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3124 (2006)

Amicangelo, Jay C.; Golec, Barbara; Lee, Yuan-Pern



Dissection of the region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA that is important for dimerization and interactions with its partner ParB  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA belongs to a large subfamily of Walker-type ATPases acting as partitioning proteins in bacteria. ParA has the ability to both self-associate and interact with its partner ParB. Analysis of the deletion mutants defined the part of the protein involved in dimerization and interactions with ParB. Here, a set of ParA alanine substitution mutants in the region between E67 and L85 was created and analysed in vivo and in vitro. All mutants impaired in dimerization (substitutions at positions M74, H79, Y82 and L84) were also defective in interactions with ParB, suggesting that ParA–ParB interactions depend on the ability of ParA to dimerize. Mutants with alanine substitutions at positions E67, C68, L70, E72, F76, Q83 and L85 were not impaired in dimerization, but were defective in interactions with ParB. The dimerization interface partly overlapped the pseudo-hairpin, involved in interactions with ParB. ParA mutant derivatives tested in vitro showed no defects in ATPase activity. Two parA alleles (parA84, whose product can neither self-interact nor interact with ParB, and parA67, whose product is impaired in interactions with ParB, but not in dimerization) were introduced into the P. aeruginosa chromosome by homologous gene exchange. Both mutants showed defective separation of ParB foci, but to different extents. Only PAO1161 parA84 was visibly impaired in terms of chromosome segregation, growth rate and motility, similar to a parA-null mutant. PMID:25139949

Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Mikosa, Malgorzata; Plochocka, Danuta; Thomas, Christopher M.



EXERCICIOS PROPOSTOS DE EDPS -FICHA 3 (1) Recorrendo `as identidades de Green, prove a unicidade do problema de Dirichlet para a  

E-print Network

Laplace) Prove que se u C2 () ´e harm´onica ent~ao - B(x,r) u dS = - B(x,r) u dy = u(x) para toda a bola(x) para toda a bola aberta B(x, r) . Prove que u ´e harm´onica em . (6) Seja u C2 () tal que - B u n dS = 0 para toda a bola aberta B . Prove que u ´e harm´onica em . (7) Seja RN um aberto limitado. Seja

Baia, Margarida


Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

Jones, J.



Influence of the nature of the solvent of crystallization on X-ray crystal structures of para-azidomethyltetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different molecular structures of a para-azidomethyltetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene have been determined by single X-ray diffraction studies on crystals obtained from different solvent conditions. Among them, one structure also contains a water molecule and a toluene molecules although the two others are composed purely of para-azidomethyltetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene molecules. A comparative study of the three crystal structures in relation with solvent conditions and a global study of the azido moieties are presented.

Dupont, Nathalie; Navaza, Alda; Coleman, Anthony W.; Shkurenko, Oleksandr; Suwinska, Kinga



Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey




E-print Network

PROPOSTA DE ANÁLISE DE DESEMPENHO DE ALGORITMOS PARA OTIMIZA��O DE REDES DE FILAS M/G/c/K BASEADA espera em redes de filas finitas, abertas e acíclicas, com serviços gerais e servidores múltiplos. Dos de filas, sem aplicar um algoritmo de alocação de áreas de espera para determinar qual configuração é

Cruz, Frederico


I ERPO NE 2007 04 a 06 de junho de 2007 Recife / PE MODELAGEM MATEMTICA DE REDE DE FILAS PARA O  

E-print Network

I ERPO NE 2007 ­ 04 a 06 de junho de 2007 ­ Recife / PE 1 MODELAGEM MATEMÁTICA DE REDE DE FILAS artigo discute uma metodologia para a modelagem de rede de fila de espera em industria sucro parâmetros como o número de médio de veículos na fila, o tempo médio em espera na fila e para a operação de

Cruz, Frederico


O professor do IST diz que a poltica europeia hoje um deserto de ideias onde no h uma viso estratgica para o futuro  

E-print Network

recursos endógenos. A revolução do shale gas nos EUA transformou este país no maior produtor mundial apreciável. E o que fazem os líderes europeus? Pedem agora para os EUA exportarem shale gas para a Europa sem eficaz que minimizasse os impactos ambientais. A Europa tem reservas de shale gas que são o dobro das

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Radiosurgery for Para-IAC Meningiomas: The Effect of Radiation Dose to the Cochlea on Hearing Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was performed to assess the radiosurgical results of meningiomas extending into the internal acoustic canal (para-IAC meningiomas), with a particular focus on the effect of radiation dose to the cochlea on hearing outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients who underwent radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas between 1998 and 2009, which were followed for 2 years, were enrolled. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 15-75). The mean tumor volume was 6.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-19.0), the mean tumor length in the IAC was 6.9 mm (range, 1.3-13.3), and the mean prescribed marginal dose was 13.1 Gy (range, 10-15) at an isodose line of 50%. The mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range, 24-122). Results: Eight (16.0%) patients had nonserviceable hearing at the time of surgery. At the last follow-up, the tumor control rate was 94%; unchanged in 17 patients, decreased in 30 patients, and increased in 3 patients. Among 42 patients with serviceable hearing at the time of radiosurgery, it was preserved in 41 (97.6%) patients at the last follow-up. The maximal and mean radiation doses to the cochleae of these 41 patients were 5.8 Gy {+-} 0.3 (range, 3.1-11.5) and 4.3 Gy {+-} 0.2 (range, 2.2-7.5), respectively. The maximal dose to the cochlea of the patient who lost hearing after radiosurgery was 4.7 Gy. Conclusions: The radiation dose to the cochlea may have the minimal toxic effect on the hearing outcome in patients who undergo radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas.

Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, In Kyung; Song, Sang Woo [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Developing Continuous-Wave Raman Lasers Using Solid Para-Hydrogen and Barium Nitrate for Molecular Spectroscopy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many interesting molecular targets have vibrational transitions between 5 and 10 ?m. However, widely tunable continuous-wave laser sources in this region are extremely rare. One possible solution to this situation is with continuous-wave Raman lasers. We will present our recent work toward the construction of two continuous-wave Raman lasers: one using solid para-hydrogen as the Raman shifting medium, and the other using barium nitrate. Solid para-hydrogen is a promising medium for a continuous-wave Raman laser because of its high Raman gain coefficient (18 cm/MW, almost 400 times higher than any room-temperature crystal), wide spectral transmission window (transparent from ˜100 nm to ˜30 ?m), its nature as a ``quantum crystal," and its large Raman shift (4150 cm-1 in the solid). We will also describe our more recent work designing and constructing a continuous-wave Raman laser in barium nitrate. Barium nitrate has the advantage of being the room-temperature crystal with the highest Raman gain coefficient, as well as being highly transparent from 350 to 1800 nm. Barium nitrate has been used as a continuous-wave Raman shifter for several years. Our recent work builds upon this foundation, combining lessons learned from our work with solid para-hydrogen. Our design is the first barium nitrate Raman laser using an actively-locked, doubly-resonant laser cavity. This holds the promise of requiring much lower threshold pump powers than previous setups. We will discuss some of the details in designing and building these lasers. Finally, we will report on the current state of our projects as well as anticipated future work.

Evans, William R.; Momose, Takamasa; McCall, Benjamin J.



The change in upper tract urolithiasis composition, surgical treatments and outcomes of para and quadriplegic patients over time.  


Stone disease in patients with spinal cord injury is a source of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have indicated a decrease in infection-based urolithiasis in recent decades. We aimed to identify changes in stone composition and surgical outcomes in patients with para and quadriplegia over time. A retrospective review of para and quadriplegic patients from 1986 to 2011 who underwent surgical intervention for urolithiasis was performed, identifying 95 patients. The Mantel-Haenszel Chi square test was used to compare change in stone composition over time. The mean patient age was 44.0 years (range 18-88) and treatment included percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) 40 (42.1 %), ureteroscopy 28 (29.5 %), shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) 26 (27.4 %), and nephrectomy 1 (1 %). Overall stone-free status was found in 47.4 % with 19.0 % requiring a repeat procedure. The median hospital stay for patients undergoing SWL was 2.5 days, ureteroscopy 5 days, and PCNL 6 days. Infection-based stone composition was identified in 23 patients (36.5 %). We evaluated the linear change in percent of each stone component over time and identified increasing components of calcium oxalate dihydrate (p = 0.002) and calcium carbonate (p = 0.009). However, over a period of 25 years, the incidence of infection-based stone did not change (p = 0.57). Para and quadriplegic patients with urolithiasis can be difficult to treat surgically with prolonged hospitalizations, low stone-free status, and often require additional procedures. Despite improvements in antibiotic agents and management of neurogenic bladders, infection-based calculi continue to be a significant source of morbidity to this patient population. PMID:25015593

Clifton, Marisa M; Gettman, Matthew T; Patterson, David E; Rangel, Laureano; Krambeck, Amy E



Molecular Genetics of para-Aminosalicylic Acid Resistance in Clinical Isolates and Spontaneous Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to first-line antibiotics has renewed interest in second-line antitubercular agents. Here, we aimed to extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) resistance by analysis of six genes of the folate metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides (thyA, dfrA, folC, folP1, folP2, and thyX) and three N-acetyltransferase genes (nhoA, aac(1), and

Vanessa Mathys; R. Wintjens; P. Lefevre; J. Bertout; A. Singhal; M. Kiass; N. Kurepina; X.-M. Wang; B. Mathema; A. Baulard; B. N. Kreiswirth; P. Bifani



Should Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenectomy Be Different Depending on Histological Subtype in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the different histological subtypes (serous versus non-serous) on\\u000a the location of nodal metastases in patients undergoing pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomies during the initial management\\u000a of epithelial ovarian tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We carried out a retrospective analysis of data concerning patients fulfilling the following inclusion criteria: (1) an epithelial\\u000a ovarian tumor; (2)

Natacha Roger; Yaelle Zafrani; Catherine Uzan; Sebastien Gouy; Annie Rey; Patricia Pautier; Catherine Lhommé; Pierre Duvillard; Damienne Castaigne; Philippe Morice



Mineral status in cattle fed rice straw and para grass combined with different levels of protein derived from cassava foliage.  


Eight male cattle of the Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage supplementation on mineral metabolism in growing cattle fed rice straw and para grass as basal diet. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cassava foliage intake was lower than the planned levels. DM consumption was significantly affected by cassava foliage supplementation, with the largest intake observed at the two highest levels of cassava foliage supplementation. Rice straw intake showed the opposite pattern, with lower intake at higher cassava foliage supplementation. No refusals occurred for para grass in any of the treatments. Ca, P, Mg, K, S and Mn intake increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage, but Na intake was not affected by treatment. Faecal excretion of Ca, Mg, S and Mn increased significantly with increasing cassava foliage intake. There were no differences between P, K and Na excretion in faeces. There was a significant diet effect on Mg, S and Mn digestibility. Mg and Mn digestibility increased with increasing cassava foliage supplementation, while S digestibility decreased. Ca, P, K and Na digestibility was not affected by diet. There was a significant effect of treatment on P retention, with the highest value observed for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. Ca and Mg showed similar trends, with the highest retention again for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. There were weak but significant positive correlations between nitrogen retention and the macro minerals Ca, P and Mg. Furthermore, retention of all these minerals was positively correlated. Mineral losses in urine were not affected by dietary treatment with the exception of P excretion, which was affected by treatment. In conclusion, cassava foliage is a good Ca source which compensates for the low Ca content in rice straw and para grass, but P deficiency appears to be exaggerated in cattle with higher cassava intake. The results suggest that under these conditions growing cattle on a high cassava intake would benefit from P and S supplementation. PMID:25049706

Sath, K; Pauly, T; Holtenius, K



Multicolor multilayer light-emitting devices based on pyridine-containing conjugated polymers and para-sexiphenyl oligomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increased interest in developing multicolor light-emitting devices. We report here the fabrication and study of multilayer color-variable/white light-emitting devices based on pyridine-containing conjugated polymers and para-sexiphenyl (6P) oligomer. Voltage-dependent multicolor emission was observed in both bilayer and trilayer configurations. The emission colors of single devices cover a wide range of visible spectra whose Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates vary from blue to white to green with increasing voltages. The color coordinate traverses along a straight line in the CIE chromaticity diagram. The role of interfaces in the operation of devices is discussed.

Wang, Y. Z.; Sun, R. G.; Meghdadi, F.; Leising, G.; Epstein, A. J.



The Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument: Evaluating features, amenities and incivilities of physical activity resources in urban neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Neighborhood environment factors may influence physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to develop and test a\\u000a brief instrument to systematically document and describe the type, features, amenities, quality and incivilities of a variety\\u000a of PA resources.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The one-page Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument was developed to assess all publicly available PA resources in thirteen urban lower

Rebecca E Lee; Katie M Booth; Jacqueline Y Reese-Smith; Gail Regan; Hugh H Howard



Para- and Ortho-Substitutions Are Key Determinants of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Activity toward Ryanodine Receptors and Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants that bioaccumulate in human tissues. Their neurotoxicity involves dysregulation of calcium ion (Ca2+) signaling; however, specific mechanisms have yet to be defined. Objective We aimed to define the structure–activity relationship (SAR) for PBDEs and their metabolites toward ryanodine receptors type 1 (RyR1) and type 2 (RyR2) and to determine whether it predicts neurotoxicity. Methods We analyzed [3H]ryanodine binding, microsomal Ca2+ fluxes, cellular measurements of Ca2+ homeostasis, and neurotoxicity to define mechanisms and specificity of PBDE-mediated Ca2+ dysregulation. Results PBDEs possessing two ortho-bromine substituents and lacking at least one para-bromine substituent (e.g., BDE-49) activate RyR1 and RyR2 with greater efficacy than corresponding congeners with two para-bromine substitutions (e.g., BDE-47). Addition of a methoxy group in the free para position reduces the activity of parent PBDEs. The hydroxylated BDEs 6-OH-BDE-47 and 4?-OH-BDE-49 are biphasic RyR modulators. Pretreatment of HEK293 cells (derived from human embryonic kidney cells) expressing either RyR1 or RyR2 with BDE-49 (250 nM) sensitized Ca2+ flux triggered by RyR agonists, whereas BDE-47 (250 nM) had negligible activity. The divergent activity of BDE-49, BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 toward RyRs predicted neurotoxicity in cultures of cortical neurons. Conclusions We found that PBDEs are potent modulators of RyR1 and RyR2. A stringent SAR at the ortho and para position determined whether a congener enhanced, inhibited, or exerted nonmonotonic actions toward RyRs. These results identify a convergent molecular target of PBDEs previously identified for noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that predicts their cellular neurotoxicity and therefore could be a useful tool in risk assessment of PBDEs and related compounds. PMID:21106467

Kim, Kyung Ho; Bose, Diptiman D.; Ghogha, Atefeh; Riehl, Joyce; Zhang, Rui; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Lein, Pamela J.; Pessah, Isaac N.



Development of a Highly Biocompatible Antituberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation Based on Para-Aminosalicylic Acid--Zinc Layered Hydroxide Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a lethal epidemic, difficult to control disease, claiming thousands of lives every year. We have developed a nanodelivery formulation based on para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and zinc layered hydroxide using zinc nitrate salt as a precursor. The developed formulation has a fourfold higher efficacy of PAS against mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found to be at 1.40??g/mL compared to the free drug PAS with a MIC of 5.0??g/mL. The newly developed formulation was also found active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. The formulation was also found to be biocompatible with human normal lung cells MRC-5 and mouse fibroblast cells-3T3. The in vitro release of PAS from the formulation was found to be sustained in a human body simulated phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH values of 7.4 and 4.8. Most importantly the nanocomposite prepared using zinc nitrate salt was advantageous in terms of yield and free from toxic zinc oxide contamination and had higher biocompatibility compared to one prepared using a zinc oxide precursor. In summary, these promising in vitro results are highly encouraging for the continued investigation of para-aminosalicylic acid and zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposites in vivo and eventual preclinical studies. PMID:25050392

Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J.; Geilich, Benjamin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir



In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (?p) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (fp). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ?p or high fp, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ?p and fp. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

Chou, Chia-Man; Yeh, Chou-Ming; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang



The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic: November 15-16, 2011, Frankfurt, Germany.  


The inaugural IgM event entitled "The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic" brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23-24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

Hanala, Sherif



Effect of van der Waals Interaction on Ortho-Para Conversion of H2 on Ag(111) Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the H2 molecular adsorption on the Ag(111) surfaces. To treat van der Waals (vdW) interaction accurately, we performed first principles calculation based on spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) with the semiempirical correction term of vdW interaction. We got the value of 36.0 meV as the depth of potential energy with this method. We also found that in-plane diffusion barrier was less than 1.3 meV, and zero-point energy about perpendicular direction to the surfaces was 5.0 meV. Totally, the adsorption energy of H2/Ag(111) was 31.0 meV, which accordingly agreed with experimental value of 25.5 meV. We also calculated the ortho-para H2 conversion rate with the anisotropic potential energy. We found that this anisotropy induced the hindered rotational state, which imposed steric effects and accelerated ortho-para H2 conversion.

Kunisada, Yuji; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki


HPLC analysis of para-aminosalicylic acid and its metabolite in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissues  

PubMed Central

Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an approved drug for treatment of tuberculosis, is a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of manganese (Mn)-induced parkinsonian syndromes. Lack of a quantifying method, however, has hindered the clinical evaluation of its efficacy and thereupon new drug development. This study was aimed at developing a simple and effective method to quantify PAS and its major metabolite, N-acetyl-para-aminosalicylic acid (AcPAS), in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and tissues. Biological samples underwent one-step protein precipitation. The supernatant was fractionated on a reversed-phase C18 column with a gradient mobile system, followed by on-line fluorescence detection. The lower limits of quantification for both PAS and AcPAS were 50 ng/ml of plasma and 17 ng/g of tissues. The intra-day and inter-day precision values did not exceed 5% and 8%, respectively, in all three matrices. The method was used to quantify PAS and AcPAS in rat plasma and brain following a single iv injection of PAS. Data showed a greater amount of PAS than AcPAS in plasma, while a greater amount of AcPAS than PAS was found in brain tissues. The method has been proven to be sensitive, reproducible, and practically useful for laboratory and clinical investigations of PAS in treatment of Mn Parkinsonism. PMID:21159459

Hong, Lan; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Su



Conformation Specific Electronic and Infrared Spectroscopy of Isolated [2,2,2]-PARA-TRICYLCLOPHANE and its Monohydrated Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[2,2,2]-Para-tricyclophane (TCP) is a highly symmetric macrocycle containing three para-substituted phenyl rings linked by ethyl bridges. Therefore, TCP affords a unique opportunity to explore the coupling between three electronic chromophores isolated in supersonic expansion. Furthermore, the three phenyl rings create an electron rich macrocyclic cavity capable of forming a ?-hydrogen bond to a single water molecule. Resonant two-photon ionization and UV-UV hole-burning spectroscopy proved that the monomer population resides in a single conformer. Its vibronic spectrum shows unusual activity in the first 150 Cm-1 due to the close, intermingled set of three excited states. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy was carried out in the alkyl and aromatic CH stretch regions to probe the conformations of the three ethyl linkages. Dispersed fluorescence spectra served to probe the electronic energy transfer between the three phenyl rings, which is rampant already at low energies. In the TCP-H2O complex, RIDIR spectroscopy is used to characterize the ? H-bonding of H2O in the TCP cavity.

Buchanan, Evan G.; Dean, Jacob C.; Marsh, Brett M.; Zwier, Timothy S.



First time-dependent study of H2 and H3+ ortho-para chemistry in the diffuse ISM  

E-print Network

The chemistry in the diffuse interstellar medium initiates the gradual increase of molecular complexity during the life cycle of matter. A key molecule that enables build-up of new molecular bonds and new molecules via proton-donation is H$_3^+$. Its evolution is tightly related to molecular hydrogen and thought to be well understood. However, recent observations of ortho and para lines of H$_2$ and H$_3^+$ in the diffuse ISM showed a puzzling discrepancy in nuclear spin excitation temperatures and populations between these two key species. H$_3^+$, unlike H$_2$, seems to be out of thermal equilibrium, contrary to the predictions of modern astrochemical models. We conduct the first time-dependent modeling of the para-fractions of H$_2$ and H$_3^+$ in the diffuse ISM and compare our results to a set of line-of-sight observations, including new measurements presented in this study. We isolate a set of key reactions for H$_3^+$ and find that the destruction of the lowest rotational states of H$_3^+$ by dissociat...

Albertsson, T; Kreckel, H; Semenov, D; Crabtree, K N; Henning, Th



Breakdown of the mirror image symmetry in the optical absorption/emission spectra of oligo(para-phenylene)s  

E-print Network

The absorption and emission spectra of most luminescent, pi-conjugated, organic molecules are the mirror image of each other. In some cases, however, this symmetry is severely broken. In the present work, the asymmetry between the absorption and fluorescence spectra in molecular systems consisting of para-linked phenyl rings is studied. The vibronic structure of the emission and absorption bands is calculated from ab-initio quantum chemical methods and a subsequent, rigorous Franck-Condon treatment. Good agreement with experiment is achieved. A clear relation can be established between the strongly anharmonic double-well potential for the phenylene ring librations around the long molecular axis and the observed deviation from the mirror image symmetry. Consequences for related compounds and temperature dependent optical measurements are also discussed.

G. Heimel; M. Daghofer; J. Gierschner; E. J. W. List; A. C. Grimsdale; K. Müllen; D. Beljonne; J. -L. Brédas; E. Zojer



Electrosynthesis of poly(para)phenylene in an ionic liquid: cyclic voltammetry and in situ STM/tunnelling spectroscopy studies.  


The electropolymerization of benzene in the air and water-stable ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (HMIm)FAP is investigated. The study comprises cyclic voltammetry, IR and in situ STM/tunnelling spectroscopy measurements. The IR results indicate that poly(para)phenylene is the end product of the electropolymerization of benzene in the employed ionic liquid. The resulting conjugation lengths of the product fall between 19 and 21. A polymer reference electrode is used successfully for the electrochemical polymerization of benzene. The first in situ STM results show that the electropolymerization of benzene in the ionic liquid can be probed on the nanoscale and the band gap of the prepared polymer can be determined. The electrodeposited polymer film obtained at a constant potential of 1.0 V vs PPP (polyparaphenylene) exhibits a band gap of 2.9+/-0.2 eV. PMID:18247438

Carstens, T; El Abedin, S Zein; Endres, F



para-Nitroaniline is a Promising Matrix for MALDI-MS Imaging on Intermediate Pressure MS Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

para-Nitroaniline (PNA) is presented as a promising matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) on an intermediate-pressure ion source (~1 Torr) QqTOF instrument using an Nd:YVO4 laser operated at 5 kHz. An imaging study was carried out to determine the utility of PNA at this pressure by analyzing 14 tissue sections. We demonstrate acquisition of high-quality imaging data over a 6-h period in the ion source. In this study, comparisons were made between PNA and ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) in positive ion mode to demonstrate the utility of PNA in these circumstances. PNA performed as well as or better than CHCA in terms of lipid ion intensities, resulting in lower levels of ion fragmentation and in lower incidences of analyte migration at the edges of the tissue sections when using airspray matrix deposition.

Steven, Rory T.; Race, Alan M.; Bunch, Josephine



Dynamics of charge pair generation in ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) at different excitation photon energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of charge pairs in a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) was investigated by means of electric field modulated femtosecond pump-probe absorption spectroscopy upon excitation at 3.1 and 4.66eV . Exciting at 3.1eV in the optical S0?S1 transition, the number of geminately bound electron-hole pairs rises smoothly within the entire exciton life time. Upon excitation at 4.66eV an instantaneous generation of geminate pairs superimposed on the more gradual increase is observed. Both processes are field-assisted, albeit differently. The former is attributed to ultrafast dissociation of a hot Franck-Condon state, while the latter is assigned to dissociation of vibrationally relaxed singlet excitons.

Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Zaushitsyn, Yuri; Bässler, Heinz; Yartsev, Arkady; Sundström, Villy



A detailed perceptive on the growth and characterization studies of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The spectral and its structural properties of the crystals were studied by FT-IR, micro-Raman and factor group analysis. The optical transparency in the UV-Visible regions was found to be good for non-linear optics (NLO) applications. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) showed that the compound decomposes beyond 300 °C. The dielectric behavior of the compound predicts low dielectric loss at high frequency applied whereas in the case of mechanical behavior of the specimen hardness increases with increasing applied load. After certain weight increase, hardness gets saturated in the region of ?110. Relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 1.8 times greater than that of potassium di-phosphate reference.

Sathesh Kumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.



Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach.  


Liquid para-hydrogen (p-H2) is a typical quantum liquid which exhibits strong nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) and thus anomalous static and dynamic properties. We propose a real-time simulation method of wave packet (WP) molecular dynamics (MD) based on non-empirical intra- and inter-molecular interactions of non-spherical hydrogen molecules, and apply it to condensed-phase p-H2. The NQEs, such as WP delocalization and zero-point energy, are taken into account without perturbative expansion of prepared model potential functions but with explicit interactions between nuclear and electron WPs. The developed MD simulation for 100 ps with 1200 hydrogen molecules is realized at feasible computational cost, by which basic experimental properties of p-H2 liquid such as radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficients, and shear viscosities are all well reproduced. PMID:24811617

Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji




SciTech Connect

Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H{sub 2} can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H{sub 2} newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D{sub 2}, consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H{sub 2} formation on surfaces at low temperature.

Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l'Observatoire de Paris et de l'Universite de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320 (United States); Chehrouri, M. [Permanent address: LEPC Universite de Saida, BP138, ENSAR, 20002 Saida (Algeria); Fillion, J.-H., E-mail: [Permanent address: LPMAA, UMR 7092, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)



Controlling the growth mode of para-sexiphenyl (6P) on ZnO by partial fluorination.  


We report on the impact of partial fluorination of para-sexiphenyl (6P) on the growth mode when deposited on the non-polar ZnO(101[combining macron]0) surface. The evolution of the thin film structure and morphology is monitored by in situ atomic force microscopy and in situ real-time X-ray scattering. Both 6P and its symmetrical, terminally fluorinated derivative (6P-F4) grow in a highly crystalline mode, however, with a distinctly different morphology. While 6P films are characterised by the formation of two different phases with three-dimensional nanocrystallites and consequently a rather rough surface morphology, layer-by-layer growth and phase purity in case of 6P-F4 prevails leading to smooth terraced thin films. We relate the different growth behaviour to specifics of the thin film structure. PMID:25361069

Sparenberg, M; Zykov, A; Beyer, P; Pithan, L; Weber, C; Garmshausen, Y; Carlà, F; Hecht, S; Blumstengel, S; Henneberger, F; Kowarik, S



A detailed perceptive on the growth and characterization studies of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) single crystals.  


Single crystals of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The spectral and its structural properties of the crystals were studied by FT-IR, micro-Raman and factor group analysis. The optical transparency in the UV-Visible regions was found to be good for non-linear optics (NLO) applications. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) showed that the compound decomposes beyond 300°C. The dielectric behavior of the compound predicts low dielectric loss at high frequency applied whereas in the case of mechanical behavior of the specimen hardness increases with increasing applied load. After certain weight increase, hardness gets saturated in the region of ?110. Relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 1.8 times greater than that of potassium di-phosphate reference. PMID:24873892

Sathesh Kumar, K; Srinivasan, P; Mahadevan Pillai, V P



Spin-orbit quenching of the C+(2P) ion by collisions with para- and ortho-H2.  


Spin-orbit (de-)excitation of C(+)((2)P) by collisions with H2, a key process for astrochemistry, is investigated. Quantum-mechanical calculations of collisions between C(+) ions and para- and ortho-H2 have been performed in order to determine the cross section for the C(+) (2)P3?2 ? (2)P1?2 fine-structure transition at low and intermediate energies. The calculation are based on new ab initio potential energy surfaces obtained using the multireference configuration interaction method. Corresponding rate coefficients were obtained for temperatures ranging from 5 to 500 K. These rate coefficients are compared to previous estimations, and their impact is assessed through radiative transfer computation. They are found to increase the flux of the (2)P3?2 ? (2)P1?2 line at 158 ?m by up to 30% for typical diffuse interstellar cloud conditions. PMID:23742482

Lique, François; Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry; Faure, Alexandre; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Dagdigian, Paul J