Sample records for tio2 photocatalysts synthesis

  1. Composite template-free TiO 2 photocatalyst: Synthesis, characteristics and photocatalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián A. Vega; Mehrdad Keshmiri; Madjid Mohseni

    2011-01-01

    Novel template-free millimetre-size TiO2 photocatalyst spheres with a considerable degree of consistency in their shape and size were developed using sol–gel route. The photocatalyst was prepared by developing a bond between the pre-calcined TiO2 particles in suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles (composite sol–gel) formed by the assistance of a polymeric compound structure. Synthesis variables such as reactant concentrations, pH, drying process

  2. TiO2 (B) nanosheets mediate phase selective synthesis of TiO2 nanostructured photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Sun, Panpan; Kong, Lina; Wei, Yongan; Zheng, Han; Liu, Yichun

    2014-02-01

    Phase selective synthesis is particularly valuable in revealing performance of photocatalyst existing as several polymorphic phases. In this work, we develop a general soft chemical route that used a TiO2 (B) nanosheet as a precursor to synthesize TiO2 nanostructures of desired phase. Benefiting from the structural similarity and ultrathin thickness feature, TiO2 (B) nanosheet precursor can readily transform to pure phase of anatase, rutile and brookite as well as mixed phase of brookite/anatase. A possible dissolution-recrystallization mechanism is proposed for the phase transition of TiO2 (B) nanosheets to other phases. Photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the brookite/anatase mixture had the highest activity in degrading acetaldehyde under UV light irradiation, due to the synergistic effect of high crystallinity, large surface area and mixed phase structure.

  3. Water-phase strategy for synthesis of TiO2-graphene composites with tunable structure for high performance photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changyuan; Chen, Fei; Lu, Tiewen; Lian, Chengjiang; Zheng, Shizheng; Hu, Quanhong; Duo, Shuwang; Zhang, Rongbin

    2014-10-01

    The controllable synthesis of strongly coupled TiO2/graphene composites has been a long-standing challenge for developing advanced photocatalysts. Here, we report a facile water-phase protocol for synthesis of TiO2-graphene composites using GO aqueous suspension and TiO2 aqueous nanosols as precursors. By controlling the ratio of GO to TiO2, both high-/low-dense TiO2 nanoparticles across graphene and graphene-TiO2-graphene sandwich structured composites are successfully achieved through electrostatic attraction between negatively charged GO nanosheets and positively charged TiO2nanosols. The TiO2-graphene composites show an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. Interestingly, the sandwich structured TiO2-graphene composite exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and the highest photocurrent density, which is 12.2 and 35.46 times as that of pure TiO2, respectively. The outstanding photocatalytic activity of sandwich structured composite is likely due to the following two reasons, two-channel electron conduction path between TiO2 and graphene, as well as the better adsorption capability of MB molecule.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of natural zeolite supported Cr-doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Huisheng; Li, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Natural zeolite supported Cr-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized for the sake of improving the recovery and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The results show that the Cr concentration and the calcination temperature play important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. The 10 mol% Cr-doped TiO2/zeolite calcined at 400 °C exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples.

  5. Visible-light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Anh Tuan; Bui Thi Hai Linh; Hoang Yen; Dinh Cao Thang; Tran Manh Cuong; Dang Tuyet Phuong; Tran Thi Kim Hoa; Hoang Vinh Thang; Nguyen Van Hoa; Nguyen Quoc Tuan

    2008-01-01

    Nano TiO2 was synthesized by hydrothermal method. The sample was modified by doping transition metal ion (V, Cr and Fe) and non metal (N). Doped TiO2 samples were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction), FE-SEM (Fieldemission scanning electron microscopy) and UV-Vis (UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy). Photocatalytic activity in mineralization of xylene (vapor phase), methylene blue and active dyer PR (liquid phase)

  6. Facile synthesis of TiO2(B) crystallites/nanopores structure: a highly efficient photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-10-15

    TiO(2)(B) was prepared by a facile green solvothermal method and further characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), raman spectroscopy and nitrogen sorption analysis, and it has been found that the as-synthesized sample possesses a unique crystallites/nanopores structure and has a very large surface area (484 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, it exhibits the very high photocatalytic activity and good stability for the decomposition of methyl orange (MO) compared to that of P25. PMID:20655540

  7. New synthesis of excellent visible-light TiO 2-xN x photocatalyst using a very simple method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Danzhen; Huang, Hanjie; Chen, Xu; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Wenjuan; Ye, Dong; Fu, Xianzhi

    2007-09-01

    An excellent visible-light-responsive (from 400 to 550 nm) TiO 2-xN x photocatalyst was prepared by a simple wet method. Hydrazine was used as a new nitrogen resource in this paper. Self-made amorphous titanium dioxide precursor powders were dipped into hydrazine hydrate, and calcined at low temperature (110 °C) in the air. The TiO 2-xN x was successfully synthesized, following by spontaneous combustion. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of XPS indicated that N atoms were incorporated into the lattice of the titania crystal during the combustion of hydrazine on the surface of TiO 2. Ethylene was selected as a target pollutant under visible-light excitation to evaluate the activity of this photocatalyst. The newly prepared TiO 2-xN x photocatalyst with strong photocatalytic activity and high photochemical stability under visible-light irradiation was firstly demonstrated in the experiment.

  8. Synthesis of a novel magnetic photocatalyst by direct deposition of nanosized TiO 2 crystals onto a magnetic core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Watson; D Beydoun; R Amal

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a study in which nanocrystalline titanium dioxide particles were directly coated onto a magnetic core. A modified hydrolysed alkoxide process, in which the hydrolysis and condensation of a titanium alkoxide (titanium isopropoxide) was carried out under acidic conditions, using a large water:alkoxide ratio, allowed for the synthesis of crystalline titanium dioxide at relatively

  9. Structure, Synthesis, and Applications of TiO2 Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Cabot, Andreu; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 semiconductor nanobelts have unique structural and functional properties, which lead to great potential in many fields, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, energy storage, gas sensors, biosensors, and even biomaterials. A review of synthetic methods, properties, surface modification, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts is presented here. The structural features and basic properties of TiO2 nanobelts are systematically discussed, with the many applications of TiO2 nanobelts in the fields of photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, biosensors, and lithium-ion batteries then introduced. Research efforts that aim to overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of TiO2 nanobelts are also highlighted. These efforts are focused on the rational design and modification of TiO2 nanobelts by doping with heteroatoms and/or forming surface heterostructures, to improve their desirable properties. Subsequently, the various types of surface heterostructures obtained by coupling TiO2 nanobelts with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, chalcogenides, and conducting polymers are described. Further, the charge separation and electron transfer at the interfaces of these heterostructures are also discussed. These properties are related to improved sensitivity and selectivity for specific gases and biomolecules, as well as enhanced UV and visible light photocatalytic properties. The progress in developments of near-infrared-active photocatalysts based on TiO2 nanobelts is also highlighted. Finally, an outline of important directions of future research into the synthesis, modification, and applications of this unique material is given. PMID:25800706

  10. XAFS Study on TiO2 Photocatalyst Loaded on Zeolite Synthesized from Steel Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Ohmichi, Tetsutaro; Mori, Kosuke; Katayama, Iwao; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2007-02-01

    The convenient route for the synthesis of Y-zeolites by utilizing steel slag as a material source was developed. Through hydrothermal treatment, well-crystallized Y-zeolite was obtained. We also synthesized TiO2-loaded Y-zeolites by an impregnation method. The structure of titanium oxide species highly dispersed on the zeolite, which couldn't be detected by XRD patterns, was investigated by XAFS analysis. Photocatalytic activity for decomposition of 2-propanol in liquid phase was found to be enhanced by the hydrophobic surface property of zeolite. It has been demonstrated that the zeolite synthesized from steel slag would be applicable as a promising support of TiO2 photocatalyst.

  11. TiO2 single crystal with four-truncated-bipyramid morphology as an efficient photocatalyst for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Qian; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Rubo; Wu, Chunhui; Gong, Jian Ru

    2013-07-22

    Diverse titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanostructures have attracted much attention recently due to their potential application in photocatalytic and photovoltaic fields. Here, the synthesis of a TiO2 single crystal with a novel four-truncated-bipyramid morphology is reported for the first time, produced by a simple hydrothermal method. Both peroxo titanic acid precursor and hydrofluoric acid capping agent are essential for the formation of this unique morphology. Moreover, the as-prepared TiO2 photocatalyst exhibits excellent hydrogen production activity from an ethanol-water solution, which is attributed to exposure of both high-energy {001} oxidative and low-energy {101} reductive facets in an optimal ratio. The current findings will contribute greatly to development of more novel photocatalysts with controllable microscopic structures for hydrogen production. PMID:23780924

  12. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 photocatalyst doped by transition metal ions (Fe3+, Cr3+ and V5+)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anh Tuan Vu; Quoc Tuan Nguyen; Thi Hai Linh Bui; Manh Cuong Tran; Tuyet Phuong Dang; Thi Kim Hoa Tran

    2010-01-01

    Nano TiO2 was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sample was doped with transition metal ions (V, Cr and Fe) and non-metal (N). Doped TiO2 samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photocatalytic activity in the mineralization of xylene (vapor phase), methylene blue and active dyer PR (liquid phase)

  13. Remote energy storage in Ni(OH)2 with TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukina; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2006-06-21

    Oxidative energy generated by UV-irradiated TiO2 photocatalyst was stored in Ni(OH)2 that was 12.5-50 microm apart from the TiO2. It is likely that active oxygen species generated on TiO2 diffused into the gas phase and oxidized Ni(OH)2. Loading the TiO2 with Pt accelerated the remote energy storage by an order of magnitude. It was revealed that the stored energy could be taken out and used chemically or electrochemically. The oxidized Ni(OH)2 was reduced by gaseous formaldehyde, formate, ethanol and H2O2. PMID:16763703

  14. Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photocatalytic Properties of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Hou, Yang; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts show great potential in environmental remediation and water splitting using either artificial or natural light. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts are studied most frequently because they are stable, non-toxic, readily available, and highly efficient. However, the relatively wide band gap of TiO2 significantly limits its use under visible light or solar light. We herein report a facile route for controllable synthesis of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 with tunable photocatalytic properties using a hydrothermal method with varying amounts of reductant, i.e., sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The resulting TiO2 showed color changes from light yellow, light grey, to dark grey with the increasing amount of NaBH4. The present method can controllably and effectively reduce Ti(4+) on the surface of TiO2 and induce partial transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile TiO2, with the evolution of nanoparticles into hierarchical structures attributable to a high pressure and strong alkali environment in the synthesis atmosphere; in this way, the photocatalytic activity of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 under visible-light can be tuned. The as-developed strategy may open up a new avenue for designing and functionalizing TiO2 materials for enhancing visible light absorption, narrowing band gap, and improving photocatalytic activity. PMID:26044406

  15. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of Fe-incorporated TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Ouyang, Junjie; Xie, Kunpeng; Sun, Lan; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian

    2012-01-15

    Fe incorporated TiO(2) nanotube arrays (Fe-TiO(2)NTs) were prepared by an ultrasound-assisted impregnating-calcination method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) indicated that ?-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles were deposited into the TiO(2) nanotubes, and in the mean time, some Fe(3+) ions were doped into TiO(2) lattice. The absorption of Fe-TiO(2)NTs in the visible light region increased with the increase of Fe content. The photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO(2)NTs was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that the Fe-TiO(2)NTs exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with pure TiO(2)NTs. Photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses further confirmed that the increased photocatalytic activity of the Fe-TiO(2)NTs was attributed to an enhanced separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. PMID:22118853

  16. Development of TiO 2 photocatalyst reaction for water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lianfeng Zhang; Tatsuo Kanki; Noriaki Sano; Atsushi Toyoda

    2003-01-01

    A new type of tubular photocatalytic reactor was developed to realize practical application of TiO2 photocatalyst for water purification. The principal part of the reactor consists of the ceramic cylindrical tube whose inner surface is coated with Pt-loaded TiO2 film and the 30 W ultraviolet light lamp which is set longitudinally in the center of the tube. The water to

  17. A high-stability silica-clay composite: synthesis, characterization and combination with TiO2 as a novel photocatalyst for Azo dye.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfei; Jiang, Yinshan; Xia, Maosheng; Sun, Mengmeng; Xue, Bing; Ren, Xuehong

    2009-06-15

    A novel micro-mesopores composite material has successfully been synthesized at basic hydrothermal conditions using natural mineral montmorillonite (MMT) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Two surfactants, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), have been employed in order to shape the pores in the composite. The resultant silica-clay has large surface area (472m(2)/g) and high hydrothermal stability, which makes it a potentially host-material for catalyst. The molecular size of different surfactant leads to the multi-peak distribution of pore size, and the surfactant of larger size (PEG) corresponds to the formation of larger pores. Moreover, the photocatalytic results show that, comparing with pure TiO(2) particles, the loaded TiO(2) on such silica-clay shows higher photodegradation rate of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous. And another porous aluminosilicate host, zeolite, was also discussed for comparison. PMID:19036502

  18. Favorable recycling photocatalyst TiO 2/CFA: Effects of loading percent of TiO 2 on the structural property and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian-wen; Chen, Shao-hua; Ye, Zhi-long; Wang, Shu-mei; Wu, Peng

    2010-11-01

    A series of photocatalysts TiO 2/CFA were prepared using coal fly ash (CFA), waste discharged from coal-fired power plant, as substrate, and then these photocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption test and ultraviolet-visible absorption analysis. The effects of loading percent of TiO 2 on the photocatalytic activity and re-use property of TiO 2/CFA were evaluated by the photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization of methyl orange solution. The results show that the pore volume and the specific surface area of the TiO 2/CFA both increased with the increase in the loading percent of TiO 2, which improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2/CFA. However, when the loading percent of TiO 2 was too high (up to 54.51%), superfluous TiO 2 was easy to break away from CFA in the course of water treatment, which was disadvantaged to the recycling property of TiO 2/CFA. In this study, the optimal loading percent of TiO 2 was 49.97%, and the efficiencies of photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization could be maintained above 99% and 90%, respectively, when the photocatalyst was used repeatedly, without any decline, even at the sixth cycle.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst under visible light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huili Xia; Huisheng Zhuang; Dongchang Xiao; Tao Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A novel lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by precipitation-dipping method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), transmission\\u000a electron microscopy(TEM) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Compared with the S-doped TiO2, La-doped TiO2 and the standard Degussa P25 photocatalysts, the lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst (the molar percentage of La is 3.0%) calcined at 450 °C for 2 h

  20. DEGRADATION STUDIES ON PARAQUAT AND MALATHION USING TiO2\\/ZnO BASED PHOTOCATALYST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rusmidah Ali; Siti Habsah Hassan

    Paraquat, a herbicide and malathion, an insecticide are pesticides that are always polluting our water system. Thus a lot of efforts has been conducted to treat the polluted water. The latest technology proposed is using photocatalyst. In this study, ZnO and TiO2 were used as photocatalysts to degrade the pesticide in the presence of UV light (?=354 nm). The photodegradation

  1. Preparation of fibrous TiO 2 photocatalyst and its optimization towards the decomposition of indoor ammonia under illumination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongchun Dong; Zhipeng Bai; Ruihua Liu; Tan Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous dispersion containing TiO2 particles was firstly prepared and then mixed with silicone or acrylic additives to establish a treating bath. And the fibrous TiO2 photocatalysts were produced by padding three woven fabrics including cotton, polyester and flax fabrics as support materials with this treating bath and some factors affecting the preparation process were discussed. Moreover, the fibrous TiO2 photocatalysts

  2. Development of copper-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst for hydrogen production under visible light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Yoong; F. K. Chong; Binay K. Dutta

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of copper doping onto TiO2 semiconductor photocatalyst for enhanced hydrogen generation under irradiation at the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum has been investigated. Two methods of preparation for the copper-doped catalyst were selected – complex precipitation and wet impregnation methods – using copper nitrate trihydrate as the starting material. The dopant loading varied from 2 to 15%.

  3. Phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalysts combined with different pulsed discharge systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Jiani; Wang, Xiaoping; Xin, Qing; Cong, Yanqing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chunjuan

    2013-11-01

    Films of TiO2 nanotubes distributed over the inner surface of a discharge reactor cylinder (CTD) or adhered to a stainless steel electrode surface (PTD) in a discharge reactor were compared with a single-discharge (SD) system to investigate their efficiencies in phenol degradation. Morphology studies indicated that the TiO2 film was destroyed in the PTD system, but that there was no change in the CTD system after discharge. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the anatase phase of the original sample was preserved in the CTD system, but that an anatase-to-rutile phase transformation occurred in the PTD system after discharge. The highest efficiencies of phenol degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization were observed in the CTD system, and there was no decrease in phenol degradation efficiency upon reuse of a TiO2 film, indicating high catalysis activity and stability of the TiO2 photocatalysts in the combined treatment. TiO2 photocatalysts favored the formation of hydrogen peroxide and disfavored the formation of ozone. A greater degree of oxidation of intermediates and higher energy efficiency in phenol oxidation were observed with the TiO2-plasma systems, especially in the CTD system, compared to those with the SD system. PMID:23981678

  4. TiO2 impregnated graphene nanostructures: An effectual photocatalysts for water remediation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Durgalakshmi, D.; Balakumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we describe the fabrication of nanohybrid TiO2 impregnated Graphene nanostructures by modified Hummer's method. The chemically impregnated TiO2-Graphene hybrid nanostructures drastically enhanced their photodegradation activity of methylene blue (MB) dye in an aqueous medium compare to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was ascribed by a heterojunction between TiO2-Graphene interfaces. It remarkably decreased the recombination rate and likewise increased the number of holes participating in the photodegradation process, confirmed by XPS analysis. This study can provide a new insight for constructing the hybrid photocatalysts, which can be used in environmental pollution and water treatment applications.

  5. Efficient removal of toluene and benzene in gas phase by the TiO2/Y-zeolite hybrid photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masato; Hidaka, Manabu; Anpo, Masakazu

    2012-10-30

    Efficient removal of toluene or benzene molecules thinly diffused in gas phase was achieved by using TiO(2)/Y-zeolite hybrid photocatalysts. TiO(2) of 10 wt% hybridized with a hydrophobic USY zeolite showed higher photocatalytic reactivity as compared to TiO(2) hybridized with hydrophilic H-Y or Na-Y zeolites. This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the hydrophobic USY zeolite efficiently adsorbs the organic compounds and smoothly supplies them onto the TiO(2) photocatalyst surface. However, the toluene or benzene molecules, which are strongly trapped on the hydrophilic H(+) or Na(+) sites of zeolite, cannot diffuse onto the TiO(2) surfaces, resulting in lower photocatalytic reactivity. Although the adsorption capacity of the pure TiO(2) sample rapidly deteriorated, the TiO(2)/Y-zeolite hybrid system maintained a high adsorption efficiency to remove such aromatic compounds for a long period. PMID:22947182

  6. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic dyes with visible-light-driven codoped TiO 2 photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongfang Zhang; Fanbin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel copper (II) and zinc (II) codoped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O and copper(Il) nitrate as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy\\u000a (DRS) and photo-luminescence spectra (PL). The XRD results showed undoped and Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles mainly including anatase phase and

  7. Floating photocatalysts based on TiO 2 grafted on expanded polystyrene beads for the solar degradation of dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Magalhães; R. M. Lago

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a highly active, low cost, simple and robust floating photocatalyst based on TiO2 P25 grafted on expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads was developed. SEM and TG analyses showed that ca. 18wt% of TiO2 can be permanently grafted on the surface of EPS particles. This floating photocatalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of three different dyes, i.e. methylene

  8. Controlled synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 nanoparticles on glass fibres and their photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Sudong; Mäder, Edith; Ma, Peng-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of novel photocatalysts consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and glass fibres (GF) using a two-step process. The method involves the hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in the presence of GF and a following hydrothermal process under alkaline conditions. Various techniques are employed to characterize the morphology, structure and crystallinity of TiO2 on the fibre surface. The results show that depending on the experiment setups, TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit spherical or flake-like morphology, forming characteristic hierarchical structures along with flexible GF. Flake-like TiO2/GF exhibits much enhanced photocatalytic activity thanks to the large surface area and the hetero-junction of anatase and TiO2-B phases observed in its structure. An interesting observation is that the alkali treatment of GF leads to the formation of porous structures on the fibre surface, facilitating the adsorption-concentration-promoted photocatalytic process. The removal ratio of the organic dye by employing TiO2/GF remains more than 80% after six cyclic runs, showing the reusability of photocatalysts in real application. The novelty of this work lies in the synergy arising from materials with unique morphologies, structures and availabilities as well as capabilities in separating photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which have not been specifically considered previously in photocatalytic semiconductors. PMID:25011616

  9. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic dyes with visible-light-driven codoped TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongfang; Zeng, Fanbin

    2011-06-01

    A novel copper (II) and zinc (II) codoped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O and copper(Il) nitrate as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photo-luminescence spectra (PL). The XRD results showed undoped and Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles mainly including anatase phase and a tiny amount of Zn- and Cu-oxides exist in the mixed system, which is attributed to the decomposition of copper and zinc nitrates in the TiO2 gel to form CuO and ZnO and randomly dispersed on the TiO2 surface. On the basis of the optical characterization results, we found that the codoping of copper (II) and zinc (II) resulted a red shift of adsorption and lower recombination probability between electrons and holes, which were the reasons for high photocatalytic activity of Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light (? > 400 nm). The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested for degradation of methyl orange (MO) in solutions. The results indicated that the visible-light driven capability of the codoped catalyst were much higher than that of the pure TiO2 catalyst under visible irradiation. Because of the synergetic effect of copper (II) and zinc (II) element, the Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 catalyst will show higher quantum yield and enhance absorption of visible light. In the end, a key mechanism was proposed in order to account for the enhanced activity.

  10. Synthesis conditions and electronic structures of heavily N-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yuta; Umezawa, Naoto; Saito, Susumu

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 has drawn a lot of attention for its notable photocatalytic properties. Unfortunately, however, only a small portion of solar spectrum is utilized for photocatalytic activities of TiO2 because of its wide band gap. To harvest solar energy more efficiently, TiO2 must be sensitized under the irradiation of visible light which accounts for nearly 50 % of solar light reaching ground surface. Although N-doped TiO2 is a well-known visible-light driven photocatalyst, its photoabsorption cross section is still limited. In order to enhance visible-light absorption, high-concentration doping of N should be a promising solution. Here, we propose the synthesis conditions of heavily N-doped TiO2 both for rutile and anatase structures based on the density-functional theory. We use supercell models with several different N concentrations to clarify the concentration dependence of the synthesis conditions. To discuss the synthesis conditions, we enforce a constraint to avoid the precipitation of other compounds, e.g. TiN, TiO, Ti2O3, TiO2, during the synthesis of heavily N-doped TiO2, which is described as a set of inequalities with respect to chemical potentials of N and O (?N and ?O) The results show that ?N must be larger than zero, which should be the upper limit for chemical potentials, in order for heavily N-doped TiO2 to deposit stably. This means that high-concentration N doping is energetically difficult to be realized. Also, we will discuss the local arrangement of N atoms in connection with O vacancies and the electronic structures of examined models.

  11. PbO-modified TiO2 thin films: a route to visible light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bhachu, Davinder S; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-01-21

    PbO clusters were deposited onto polycrystalline titanium dioxide (anatase) films on glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The as-deposited PbO/TiO2 films were then tested for visible light photocatalysis. This was monitored by the photodegradation of stearic acid under visible light conditions. PbO/TiO2 composite films were able to degrade stearic acid at a rate of 2.28 × 10(15) molecules cm(-2) h(-1), which is 2 orders of magnitude greater than what has previously been reported. The PbO/TiO2 composite film demonstrated UVA degradation of resazurin redox dye, with the formal quantum yield (FQY) and formal quantum efficiency (FQE) exceeding that of a TiO2 film grown under the same conditions and Pilkington Activ, a commercially available self-cleaning glass. This work correlates with computational studies that predicted PbO nanoclusters on TiO2 form active visible light photocatalysts through new electronic states through PbO/TiO2 interfacial bonds resulting in new electronic states above the valence band maximum in TiO2, shifting the valence band upward as well as more efficient electron/hole separation with hole localization on PbO particles and electron on the TiO2 surface. PMID:24354409

  12. Degradation of textile dye by solar light using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Neppolian; S. Sakthivel; Banumathi Arabindoo; M. Palanichamy; V. Murugesan

    1999-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a textile dye, reactive red 2 in presence of sunlight using TiO2 and ZnO as photocatalysts is reported. The experimental studies have indicated complete decolourisation of the dye in a short period and degradation within 8 hr of irradiation. ZnO was found to be more effective in the removal of colour than TiO2, but the degradation

  13. A Large-Area Patterned TiO 2 \\/SnO 2 Bilayer Type Photocatalyst Prepared by Gravure Printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Kawahara; Kazuhiro Doushita; Hiroaki Tada

    2003-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 films (thickness = 50 nm) were formed in shape of stripes (width = 1.6 mm, interval = 0.4 mm) by gravure printing on commercially available SnO2 coated soda-lime glass substrates (dimension = 300 × 300 mm). Its photocatalytic activity was examined for the gas-phase oxidation of CH3CHO in comparison with a simple TiO2 photocatalyst formed on a silica

  14. Ab initio modeling of sulphur doped TiO2 nanotubular photocatalyst for water-splitting hydrogen generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Lisovski; S Piskunov; Y F Zhukovskii; J Ozolins

    2012-01-01

    In order to construct an efficient visible-light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst for water splitting applications, one has to perform improvements of its electronic structure. In this theoretical study we consider single-walled anatase TiO2 nanotubes having following morphologies: (101) 3-layered wall with chirality indexes (n,0) and (n,n), (101) 6-layered wall with (n,0) and (0,n), (001) 6-layered wall with (n,0) and (0,n), and (001)

  15. The preparation of nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x photocatalyst coated on hollow glass microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifu, Chen; Xuqiang, Liu; Yunzhang, Liu; Gengyu, Cao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effective method for nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x photocatalyst coated on hollow glass microbeads is described, which uses titanium tetraisopropoxide [Ti( iso-OC 3H 7) 4] as the raw materials and gaseous ammonia as a heat treatment atmosphere. The effects of heat treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2- xN x/beads are studied. The photocatalyst is characterized by the UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that when the TiO 2- xN x/beads is heated at 650 °C for 5 h, the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2- xN x/beads is the best. Compared with TiO 2, the photoabsorption wavelength range of nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x red shifts of about 60 nm, and the photoabsorption intensity increases as well. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2- xN x/beads is higher than that of the TiO 2/beads under visible light irradiation. The presence of nitrogen neither influences on the transformation of anatase to rutile, nor creates new crystal phases. When the TiO 2- xN x/beads is heated at 650 °C for 5 h, the amount of nitrogen-doped is 0.53 wt.% in the TiO 2- xN x. As the density of TiO 2- xN x/beads prepared is lower than 1.0 g/cm 3, it may float on water surface and use broader sunlight spectrum directly.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of organophosphorus pesticides using floating photocatalyst TiO 2 · SiO 2\\/beads by sunlight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Shifu; Cao Gengyu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the floating TiO2·SiO2 photocatalyst beads are prepared by the dip-coating method, which use hollow glass microbeads as the carrier and titanium tetraisopropoxide [Ti(iso-OC3H7)4] and ethyl silicate as the raw materials. The feasibility of photocatalytic degradation of organophosphorus pesticides using TiO2·SiO2 beads as a floating photocatalyst by sunlight is studied. The results show that the best heat treatment

  17. Ordered mesoporous black TiO(2) as highly efficient hydrogen evolution photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Wei; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Qu, Yang; Yang, Ying; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Kaifu; Wang, Lei; Fu, Honggang; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 has gained increasing interest because of its outstanding properties and promising applications in a wide range of fields. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of ordered mesoporous black TiO2 (OMBT) materials, which exhibit excellent photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performances. In this case, the employment of a thermally stable and high-surface-area mesoporous TiO2 as the hydrogenation precursor is the key for fabricating the OMBT materials, which not only facilitate H2 gas diffusion into TiO2 and interaction with their structures but also maintain the ordered mesoporous structures as well as inhibit the phase transformation (from anatase to rutile) and crystal growth during hydrogenation at 500 °C. The resultant OMBT materials possess a relatively high surface area of ?124 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore size and pore volume of ?9.6 nm and 0.24 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. More importantly, the OMBT materials can extend the photoresponse from ultraviolet to visible and infrared light regions and exhibit a high solar-driven hydrogen production rate (136.2 ?mol h(-1)), which is almost two times as high as that of pristine mesoporous TiO2 (76.6 ?mol h(-1)). PMID:24937035

  18. Selective Photocatalytic Reduction of NOx with Fe-doped TiO2: A New Approach Towards Photocatalyst Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Conventional TiO2 based photocatalysts oxidize NOx to nitrates which do not automatically desorb and have to be washed away from the catalyst surface. To avoid this, the research described in this thesis aims to design new photocatalysts that can photo-reduce NO into N2 and O2. Previous efforts in the literature have shown that catalysts prepared by depositing isolated titanium oxide

  19. Application of ion beams for preparation of TiO 2 thin film photocatalysts operatable under visible light irradiation: Ion-assisted deposition and metal ion-implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamashita; M. Harada; J. Misaka; H. Nakao; M. Takeuchi; M. Anpo

    2003-01-01

    The visible light sensitive TiO2 thin film photocatalysts can be developed by the application of ion beam techniques, i.e. the combination of an ion-assisted deposition (IAD) method and a metal ion-implantation. The transparent TiO2 thin film photocatalysts have been prepared on silica glass plate by the IAD method. Then the transition metal ions (V+) were implanted into the TiO2 thin

  20. Highly Active TiO2-Based Visible-Light Photocatalyst with Nonmetal Doping and Plasmonic Metal Decoration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiao [University of California, Riverside; Lima, Diana Q. [University of California, Riverside; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Yin, Yadong [University of California, Riverside

    2011-01-01

    A sandwich-structured photocatalyst shows an excellent performance in degradation reactions of a number of organic compounds under UV, visible light, and direct sunlight (see picture). The catalyst was synthesized by a combination of nonmetal doping and plasmonic metal decoration of TiO2 nanocrystals, which improves visible-light activity and enhances light harvesting and charge separation, respectively.

  1. Ab initio modeling of sulphur doped TiO2 nanotubular photocatalyst for water-splitting hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovski, O.; Piskunov, S.; Zhukovskii, Y. F.; Ozolins, J.

    2012-08-01

    In order to construct an efficient visible-light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst for water splitting applications, one has to perform improvements of its electronic structure. In this theoretical study we consider single-walled anatase TiO2 nanotubes having following morphologies: (101) 3-layered wall with chirality indexes (n,0) and (n,n), (101) 6-layered wall with (n,0) and (0,n), (001) 6-layered wall with (n,0) and (0,n), and (001) 9-layered wall with (n,0) and (0,n). The latter configuration occurs to be the most energetically stable, due to possessing negative strain energy. In our study the most stable 9-layered anatase (001) (0,n) nanotube has been doped with sulphur. According to obtained results sulphur dopant creates the mid-gap states making the TiO2 nanotube to be a good candidate for efficient photocatalyst working under day light irradiation.

  2. Anchoring a uniform TiO2 layer on graphene oxide sheets as an efficient visible light photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Ye; Long, Mei; Cui, Zhengwei; Li, Xuanke; Dong, Zhijun; Yuan, Guanming; Zhang, Jiang

    2013-10-01

    TiO2-graphene oxide (GO) was successfully prepared by a two-step approach including the in situ growth of a uniform TiC layer on graphene oxide sheets and subsequently oxidation conversion of TiC to anatase TiO2. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results suggest that TiO2-GO keep the similar morphology with the pristine GO sheets and the nanosize anatase TiO2 particles distribute uniformly and densely on the surface of GO sheets. TiO2 particles contact closely with GO via Tisbnd Osbnd C bonds. The presence of GO provides a good support substrate and enhances the adsorption capacity and photo-degradation ability of the composite photocatalyst. And by adjusting the molar ratio of GO and titanium powder in the molten salt process, TiO2-GO nanocomposites with controllable contents of GO and TiO2, good adsorption capacity and excellent photo-degradation ability can be obtained.

  3. A visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays and graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Chan, Donald K L; Cheung, Po Ling; Yu, Jimmy C

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are well-known efficient UV-driven photocatalysts. The incorporation of graphene quantum dots could extend the photo-response of the nanotubes to the visible-light range. Graphene quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by covalently coupling these two materials. The product was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The product exhibited high photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue and enhanced photocurrent under visible light irradiation. PMID:24991506

  4. A visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays and graphene quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Donald K L; Cheung, Po Ling

    2014-01-01

    Summary TiO2 nanotube arrays are well-known efficient UV-driven photocatalysts. The incorporation of graphene quantum dots could extend the photo-response of the nanotubes to the visible-light range. Graphene quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by covalently coupling these two materials. The product was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The product exhibited high photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue and enhanced photocurrent under visible light irradiation. PMID:24991506

  5. Influence of TiO 2 and ZnO photocatalysts on adsorption and degradation behaviour of Erythrosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Uddin; M. A. Hasnat; A. J. F. Samed; R. K. Majumdar

    2007-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of Erythrosine, an anionic dye (?max at 526nm, ?max=7.24×104Lmol?1cm?1), has been investigated over TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts, irradiated by UV–vis light. Spectrum of the dye has been found, unaffected in the pH range 4.86–11.56. The adsorption over TiO2 and ZnO surface followed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The extent of adsorption decreased with the rise of pH.

  6. A highly efficient TiO2@ZnO n-p-n heterojunction nanorod photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Yingchao; Men, Long; Wang, Xin; He, Dannong; Chai, Yuchao; Zhao, Bin; Ghoshroy, Soumitra; Tang, Qunwei

    2012-12-01

    Shell@core-nanostructured TiO2@ZnO n-p-n heterojunction nanorods with diameter of 30 nm were successfully fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The photodegradation rate of the TiO2@ZnO n-p-n nanorods evaluated by photodegrading methyl orange has been demonstrated to increase three times compared to that of wurtzite hexagonal ZnO. Anatase TiO2 and Ti2O3 grow along ZnO crystal lattices, which forms p-type Zn2+ doped Ti2O3 in the interface of TiO2/ZnO and therefore numerous n-p-n heterojunctions owing to the substitution of Ti3+ by Zn2+. Under the drive of inner electric field, the photogenerated electrons are both injected to the conduction band of Zn2+ doped Ti2O3 from conduction bands of ZnO and TiO2, which efficiently enhances the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and accelerates the transport of charges. The results suggest that TiO2@ZnO n-p-n heterojunction nanorods are very promising for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts.

  7. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Ce Co-doped TiO2 hollow fibers photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jingping; Sun, Xiaogang; Xing, Jun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2014-07-01

    A series of B, Ce co-doped TiO2 (B, Ce-TiO2) photocatalytic materials with a hollow fiber structure were successfully prepared by template method using boric acid, ammonium ceric nitrate and tetrabutyltitanate as precursors and cotton fibers as template, followed by calcination at 500°C in an N2 atmosphere for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the morphology, crystal structure, surface structure, and optical absorption properties of the samples. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was studied by photodegradation phenol in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the TiO2 fiber materials have hollow structures, and the fiber structure materials showed better photocatalytic properties for the degradation of phenol than pure TiO2 under UV light. In the experiment condition, the photocatalytic activity of B, Ce co-doped TiO2 fibers was optimal of all the prepared samples. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of B, Ce co-doped TiO2 fiber photocatalyst was also confirmed, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 fibers remained above 90% of that of the fresh sample after being used four times. The material was easily removed by centrifugal separation from the medium. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  8. Coating of TiO 2 photocatalysts on super-hydrophobic porous teflon membrane by an ion assisted deposition method and their self-cleaning performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamashita; H. Nakao; M. Takeuchi; Y. Nakatani; M. Anpo

    2003-01-01

    By means of an ion assisted deposition method, a TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared at relatively lower temperature on porous Teflon sheets (PTS) that are good candidates for the coating materials with super-hydrophobic surfaces. UV light irradiation of TiO2 photocatalyst on PTS led to the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants (self-cleaning), which wear off the water-repellent property of the original PTS

  9. Study on the photocatalytic oxidation of NO 2 – ions using TiO 2 beads as a photocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shifu Chen; Gengyu Cao

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of photocatalytic oxidation of NO2– ions using TiO2 beads as a photocatalyst was studied. The results show that 400 mL of 1.1×10?4 mol\\/L of NO2– ions can be completely photocatalytically oxidized after 25-min illumination by a 375 W medium pressure mercury lamp. The photocatalytic oxidation efficiencies of the NO2– ion were increased rapidly by adding a small amount

  10. Preparation, characterization and visible light photocatalytic activity of silver, nitrogen co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Matiullah; Ramin Gul, Sahar; Li, Jing; Cao, Wenbin; Mamalis, Athanasios G.

    2015-06-01

    TiO2 photocatalyst codoped with Silver (Ag) and Nitrogen (N) with different Ag doping concentrations is successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized samples are characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis. absorption spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic response is evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiations. All synthesized samples are composed of pure anatase phase with good crystallinity. The absorption edge of codoped TiO2 is shifted towards visible light region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the existence of silver and nitrogen in the codoped samples. All the codoped samples demonstrated improved photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO2. Among the different codoped samples, the one with silver doping concentration of 4 at. % exhibited the highest photoactivity.

  11. Self-Cleaning Effect of Solid Immersion Lens Using Photocatalyst TiO2 Film for Near-Field Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyun-Guk; Kim, Young-Joo

    2008-07-01

    A novel approach using the self-cleaning effect of photocatalyst TiO2 film was proposed and studied experimentally to solve the critical contamination issues in solid immersion lens (SIL) based near-field recording (NFR). To evaluate the feasibility of the self-cleaning approach, the surface of a hemispherical (half-ball) SIL and a glass disk were coated with TiO2 film which constituted the final layer of an antireflection (AR) coating for better optical transmittance. The hydrophilic property of the TiO2-coated SIL and disk was confirmed by the contact angle measurement with deionized water after thermal treatment to form an anatase structure and by the irradiation of UV light. To determine the effectiveness of the self-cleaning effect, a removal test was conducted with different contaminants such as a fingerprint and laser toner particles. The effects of the wavelength and intensity of UV light were tested over a range of irradiation times. The air flow during the rotation of the disk was also helpful for removing the contaminants. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the self-cleaning effect of photocatalyst TiO2 film is very effective for removing organic contaminants from the surfaces of an SIL and disk, which means that this approach can be applied to SIL-based NFR systems.

  12. Rapid destruction of the rhodamine B using TiO2 photocatalyst in the liquid phase plasma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodamine B (RhB) is widely used as a colorant in textiles and food stuffs, and is also a well-known water tracer fluorescent. It is harmful to human beings and animals, and causes irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity and chronic toxicity toward humans and animals have been experimentally proven. RhB cannot be effectively removed by biological treatment due to the slow kinetics. Therefore, RhB is chosen as a model pollutant for liquid phase plasma (LPP) treatment in the present investigation. Results This paper presents experimental results for the bleaching of RhB from aqueous solutions in the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst with LPP system. Properties of generated plasma were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy methods. The results of electrical-discharge degradation of RhB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the applied voltage, pulse width, and frequency. The oxygen gas addition to reactant solution increases the degradation rate by active oxygen species. The RhB decomposition rate was shown to increase with the TiO2 particle dosage. Conclusion This work presents the conclusions on the photocatalytic oxidation of RhB, as a function of plasma conditions, oxygen gas bubbling as well as TiO2 particle dosage. We knew that using the liquid phase plasma system with TiO2 photocatalyst at high speed we could remove the organic matter in the water. PMID:24041151

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in a fluidized bed photoreactor with composite template-free TiO 2 photocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián A. Vega; Gustavo E. Imoberdorf; Madjid Mohseni

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was degraded in a photocatalytic fluidized bed reactor with template-free TiO2 photocatalytic spheres in the presence of UV irradiation at 254nm. The photocatalyst was prepared by binding together pre-calcined commercial TiO2 particles (Degussa P-25) in an aqueous sol of TiO2 nanoparticles (composite sol–gel) by the assistance of a polymeric matrix. The photocatalytic spheres had a

  14. A new type of water splitting system composed of two different TiO 2 photocatalysts (anatase, rutile) and a IO 3 ?\\/I ? shuttle redox mediator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryu Abe; Kazuhiro Sayama; Kazunari Domen; Hironori Arakawa

    2001-01-01

    A new photocatalytic reaction that splits water into H2 and O2 was designed by a two-step photoexcitation system composed of a IO3?\\/I? shuttle redox mediator and two different TiO2 photocatalysts, Pt-loaded TiO2-anatase for H2 evolution and TiO2-rutile for O2 evolution. Simultaneous gas evolution of H2(180?mol\\/h) and O2(90?mol\\/h) was observed from a basic (pH=11) NaI aqueous suspension of two different TiO2

  15. Feasibility of silver doped TiO2/glass fiber photocatalyst under visible irradiation as an indoor air germicide.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst supported on glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF) prepared by a sol-gel method as an indoor air germicide. An experimental model was designed to investigate the bacterial disinfection efficiency of Staphylococcus (Staph), the most popular bacterium in hospitals in Korea, by the Ag-TiO2/GF photocatalyst. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1 to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF) for photocatalytic disinfection of Staph. This study confirmed that Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF could work as an electron sink or donor to increase photocatalytic activity and promote the charge separation of electron-hole pairs generated from TiO2 after photon absorption. Ag also acts as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band of TiO2 to an acceptor (O2 gas) to promote photo-oxidation processes. The photocatalytic disinfection activity of Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then slightly decreased with further increasing silver content. The highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of Staph using 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF were 75.23% and 20 (CFU?s-1?cm-2) respectively. The medium level of humidity of 60% ± 5% showed better photocatalytic disinfection than the lower (40% ± 5%) or higher (80% ± 5%) levels. PMID:24658408

  16. Feasibility of Silver Doped TiO2/Glass Fiber Photocatalyst under Visible Irradiation as an Indoor Air Germicide

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst supported on glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF) prepared by a sol-gel method as an indoor air germicide. An experimental model was designed to investigate the bacterial disinfection efficiency of Staphylococcus (Staph), the most popular bacterium in hospitals in Korea, by the Ag-TiO2/GF photocatalyst. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1 to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF) for photocatalytic disinfection of Staph. This study confirmed that Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF could work as an electron sink or donor to increase photocatalytic activity and promote the charge separation of electron-hole pairs generated from TiO2 after photon absorption. Ag also acts as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band of TiO2 to an acceptor (O2 gas) to promote photo-oxidation processes. The photocatalytic disinfection activity of Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then slightly decreased with further increasing silver content. The highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of Staph using 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF were 75.23% and 20 (CFU?s?1?cm?2) respectively. The medium level of humidity of 60% ± 5% showed better photocatalytic disinfection than the lower (40% ± 5%) or higher (80% ± 5%) levels. PMID:24658408

  17. Enhanced sunlight photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 decorated novel combustion synthesis derived TiO2 nanobelts for dye and bacterial degradation.

    PubMed

    Eswar, Neerugatti KrishnaRao; Ramamurthy, Praveen Chandrashekarapura; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-07-01

    This study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts using solution combustion derived TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity for dye degradation and bacterial inactivation. Hydrothermal treatment of combustion synthesized TiO2 resulted in unique partially etched TiO2 nanobelts and Ag3PO4 was decorated using the co-precipitation method. The catalyst particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, BET surface area analysis, diffuse reflectance and electron microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the composites of Ag3PO4 with pristine combustion synthesized TiO2 and commercial TiO2 under sunlight were compared. Therefore the studies conducted proved that the novel Ag3PO4/unique combustion synthesis derived TiO2 nanobelt composites exhibited extended light absorption, better charge transfer mechanism and higher generation of hydroxyl and hole radicals. These properties resulted in enhanced photodegradation of dyes and bacteria when compared to the commercial TiO2 nanocomposite. These findings have important implications in designing new photocatalysts for water purification. PMID:26056065

  18. Enhanced performance of {0 0 1} facets dominated mesoporous TiO2 photocatalyst composed of high-reactive nanocrystals and mesoporous spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Chunhua; Ni, Yaru; Peng, Fengping; Xu, Zhongzi

    2013-01-01

    {0 0 1} facets dominated mesoporous anatase TiO2 sheets composed of mesoporous spheres and high reactive nanocrystals with exposed {0 0 1} facets were synthesized successfully with NH4F as the capping agent by the hydrothermal and heat treatment method. The photocatalyst exhibits a high specific surface area and a higher photocatalytic activity than Degussa P25 and pure TiO2 nanosheets in the degradation of organic dyes under UV irradiation.

  19. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues.Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of TiO2 microspheres; synthesis of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres; synthesis of Ag@Fe3O4@TiO2 nanospheres; SEM images of the as-prepared products: (a) Ag@Fe3O4, (b) Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2 and (c) Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 (Fig. S1); TEM images of the Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2 synthesized with adding different amount of TEOS (Fig. S2); SEM, TEM and EDS spectrum of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 NPs (Fig. S3); SEM and TEM images of as-prepared TiO2 microspheres (Fig. S4); nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and pore size distribution plot for as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2 microspheres (Fig. S5); adsorption rate curve of MB in dark for Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 samples (Fig.

  20. Methyl orange removal over Zn-incorporated TiO 2 photo-catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngmi Kim; Juhyun Lee; Harim Jeong; Yeji Lee; Myeong-Heon Um; Kyung Mi Jeong; Min-Kyeong Yeo; Misook Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the removal of the methyl orange (sodium p-dimethyl amino azo benzene sulfonate) of a representative dye compound in a liquid photo-system using nanometer-sized Zn-incorporated TiO2 synthesized by a solvothermal method. The Zn-incorporated TiO2 particles exhibited a mixed structure of anatase of TiO2 and ZnTiO3 with a particle size of below 20nm. The absorbance was shifted to

  1. The Role of the Relative Dye/Photocatalyst Concentration in TiO2 Assisted Photodegradation Process.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Vagner R; Mourão, Henrique A J L; Malagutti, Andréa R; Ribeiro, C

    2013-09-24

    Despite photocatalytic degradation is studied generally focusing the catalyst, its interaction with the contaminant molecule plays a fundamental role in the efficiency of that process. Then, we proposed a comparative study about the photodegradation of two well-known dyes, with different acidity/basicity - Methylene Blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB), catalyzed by TiO2 nanoparticles, varying both dye and photocatalyst concentrations. The results showed that the amphoteric character of MB molecules, even in a range of concentration of 5.0-10.0 mg L(-1) , did not imply in pH variation in solution. Therefore, it did not affect the colloidal behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles, independent of the relative dye/catalyst concentration. The acid-base character of RhB influenced the resultant pH of the solution, implicating in different colloidal behavior of the nanoparticles and consequently, in different degradation conditions according to dye concentration. As the isoelectric point of TiO2 is between the pH range of the RhB solutions used in this study, from 1.0 to 7.5 mg L(-1) , the resultant pH was the key factor for degradation conditions, from a well dispersed to an agglomerated suspension. PMID:24107092

  2. Humidity effect on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and regeneration of deactivated photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Myung-Geun; Park, Eun Ji; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan

    2013-04-01

    Photocatalytic decomposition of toluene was studied using commercially available TiO2 nanocatalysts (Degussa P25) under different ranges of relative humidity (RH). The toluene removal efficiency (sum of toluene adsorption, and partial and total oxidation) decreased with increasing RH, whereas the selectivity to CO2 in toluene oxidation enhanced. The enhancement in activity in terms of total oxidation at higher RH led to suppressing deactivation of TiO2 with time. On the basis of the humidity effect on photocatalytic reaction, deactivated TiO2 catalyst could recover their activity through the regeneration process consisting of exposure of the deactivated catalysts to the UV light under high RH conditions. The regenerated catalysts under high RH showed a higher total oxidation yield of toluene than that of the original catalysts due to the formation of more hydroxyl groups on TiO2 surface during the regeneration process.

  3. NO treated TiO 2 as an efficient visible light photocatalyst for NO removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihui Ai; Linli Zhu; Shuncheng Lee; Lizhi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report that nitrogen doped TiO2 could be achieved via thermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 in NO atmosphere directly (P25–NO). The samples were characterized with XRD, XPS, and FT-IR. The characterization results suggested that nitrogen species were interstitially doped in P25–NO during the NO thermal treatment process. In comparison with P25, the P25–NO exhibited significantly enhanced

  4. BiFeO3/TiO2 core-shell structured nanocomposites as visible-active photocatalysts and their optical response mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shun; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Li, Jing-Feng; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Anatase titania-coated bismuth ferrite nanocomposites (BiFeO3/TiO2) have been fabricated via a hydrothermal approach combined with a hydrolysis precipitation processing. Analysis of the microstructure and phase composition reveals that a core-shell BiFeO3/TiO2 structure can be formed, which results in a significant redshift in the UV-vis absorption spectra as compared to a simple mechanical mixture of BiFeO3-TiO2 nanopowders. The core-shell structured BiFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of Congo red under visible-light (? >400 nm) irradiation, which should be attributed to the enhancement of the quantum efficiency by separating the electrons and holes effectively. The obtained BiFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites can be used as potential visible-light driven photocatalysts.

  5. Preparation and characterization of SeO2/TiO2 composite photocatalyst with excellent performance for sunset yellow azo dye degradation under natural sunlight illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamanickam, D.; Dhatshanamurthi, P.; Shanthi, M.

    2015-03-01

    To improve the solar light induced photocatalytic application performances of TiO2, in this study, the SeO2 modified TiO2 composite photocatalysts with various ratios of SeO2 to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of SeO2/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of sunset yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using solar light. The SeO2/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The degradation was strongly enhanced in the presence of electron acceptors such as oxone, KIO4 and KBrO3. The kinetics of SY photodegradation was found to follow the pseudo-first order rate law and could be described in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  6. TiO2 synthesis inspired by biomineralization: control of morphology, crystal phase, and light-use efficiency in a single process.

    PubMed

    Nonoyama, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Takatoshi; Higuchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Kenji; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Sato, Kimiyasu; Kato, Katsuya

    2012-05-30

    Hydroxyapatite is mineralized along the long axis of collagen fiber during osteogenesis. Mimicking such biomineralization has great potential to control inorganic structures and is fast becoming an important next-generation inorganic synthesis method. Inorganic matter synthesized by biomineralization can have beautiful and functional structures that cannot be created artificially. In this study, we applied biomineralization to the synthesis of the only photocatalyst in practical use today, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) mainly relates to three properties: morphology, crystal phase, and light-use efficiency. To optimize TiO(2) morphology, we used a simple sequential peptide as an organic template. TiO(2) mineralized by a ?-sheet peptide nanofiber template forms fiber-like shapes that are not observed for mineralization by peptides in the shape of random coils. To optimize TiO(2) crystal phase, we mineralized TiO(2) with the template at 400 °C to transform it into the rutile phase and at 700 °C to transform it into a mixed phase of anatase and rutile. To optimize light-use efficiency, we introduced nitrogen atoms of the peptide into the TiO(2) structure as doped elemental material during sintering. Thus, this biomineralization method enables control of inorganic morphology, crystal phase, and light-use efficiency in a single process. PMID:22578231

  7. Plasmon-enhanced water splitting on TiO2-passivated GaP photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jing; Zeng, Guangtong; Pavaskar, Prathamesh; Li, Zhen; Cronin, Stephen B

    2014-02-21

    Integrating plasmon resonant nanostructures with photocatalytic semiconductors shows great promise for high efficiency photocatalytic water splitting. However, the electrochemical instability of most III-V semiconductors severely limits their applicability in photocatalysis. In this work, we passivate p-type GaP with a thin layer of n-type TiO2 using atomic layer deposition. The TiO2 passivation layer prevents corrosion of the GaP, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. In addition, the TiO2 passivation layer provides an enhancement in photoconversion efficiency through the formation of a charge separating pn-region. Plasmonic Au nanoparticles deposited on top of the TiO2-passivated GaP further increases the photoconversion efficiency through local field enhancement. These two enhancement mechanisms are separated by systematically varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer. Because of the tradeoff between the quickly decaying plasmonic fields and the formation of the pn-charge separation region, an optimum performance is achieved for a TiO2 thickness of 0.5 nm. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the electric field profiles in this photocatalytic heterostructure corroborate these results. The effects of plasmonic enhancement are distinguished from the natural catalytic properties of Au by evaluating similar photocatalytic TiO2/GaP structures with catalytic, non-plasmonic metals (i.e., Pt) instead of Au. This general approach of passivating narrower band gap semiconductors enables a wider range of materials to be considered for plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis for high efficiency water splitting. PMID:24401904

  8. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sunghwan; Yoo, Seunghwa; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sungoh

    2009-01-01

    A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA) precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV-visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO) dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2. PMID:20671780

  9. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-03-01

    A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA) precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV-visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO) dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  10. Synthesis of hybrid zeolite materials with TiO2 nanocrystals using solid-solid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orha, Corina; Lazau, Carmen; Ratiu, Cornelia; Sfirloaga, Paula; Vlazan, Paulina; Ioitescu, Alexandra; Manea, Florica; Barvinschi, Paul; Muscutariu, Ioan; Grozescu, Ioan

    2009-03-01

    Zeolite seems to be a promising support for TiO2 photocatalyst because of its regular pores and good adsorption ability. TiO2 supported on zeolite integrates the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 with the adsorption properties of zeolites. The aim of this paper was the syntheses and characterizations of functionalized zeolite materials with undoped, Fe-doped and N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals. The zeolite hybrid materials impregnation with titanium dioxide was achieved through solid-solid method. TiO2 doped with metallic (Fe) and non-metallic (N) ions was obtained directly from precursors by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM with EDAX, IR and AFM.

  11. Fabricating TiO2 Photocatalysts by rf Reactive Magnetron Sputtering at Varied Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W. S.; Kao, L. M.; Li, W. P.; Hsu, C. Y.; Hou, K. H.

    2011-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were fabricated onto non-alkali glass substrates by rf reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature using Ti-metal target at varied oxygen partial pressure [O2/(Ar + O2)]. The sputtering deposition was performed under an rf power of 200 W. The target to substrate distance was kept at 80 mm, and the total gas pressure was 10 mTorr after 2 h of deposition. It was found that the crystalline structure, surface morphology, and photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 thin films were affected by the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. The XRD patterns exhibited a broad-hump shape indicating the amorphous structure of TiO2 thin films. The thin films deposited at a relatively high value of oxygen partial pressure (70%) had a good photo-induced decomposition of methylene blue (MB), photo-induced hydrophilicity, and had a small grain size.

  12. Anatase TiO 2 nanolayer coating on cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic photocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuyou Fu; Haibin Yang; Minghua Li; Minghui Li; Nan Yang; Guangtian Zou

    2005-01-01

    TiO2\\/CoFe2O4 composite nanoparticles with a core–shell structure have been obtained. The core CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method, and the shell TiO2 nanocrystals were derived via sol–gel technology followed by heat-treatment at 450 °C. The morphology and the crystalline structure of composite nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The as-prepared composite particles can

  13. Sonochemical fabrication of morpho-genetic TiO 2 with hierarchical structures for photocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenmin ZhuDi; Di Zhang; Zhixin Chen; Gang Zhou; Haibo Jiang; Jinlong Li

    2010-01-01

    Titanium oxides (TiO2) with hierarchical structures have been successfully replicated from biotemplate using a sonochemical method. The bio-templates,\\u000a cedarwoods, were irradiated under ultrasonic waves in TiCl4 solutions and then calcined at temperatures between 450 and 600 °C. The fine replications of the biotemplates in TiO2 down to nanometer’s level were verified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM),\\u000a and

  14. Anatase TiO 2 nanolayer coating on strontium ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic photocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuyou Fu; Haibin Yang; Lianxia Chang; Hari-Bala; Minghua Li; Guangtian Zou

    2006-01-01

    TiO2\\/SrFe12O19 composite nanoparticles with core-shell structure have been obtained. The core SrFe12O19 nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate precursor technique with Fe\\/Sr ratio of 10.8, and then the shell TiO2 nanocrystals were derived via sol–gel technology. The presence of a small amount of polyethyleneimine (PEI) on the surface of the strontium ferrite nanoparticles facilitates this coating process. The morphology, crystalline structure,

  15. An environmental friendly solution for air purification and self-cleaning effect: the application of TIO2 as photocatalyst in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne BEELDENS

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a rapidly developing field in environmental engineering. It has a great potential to cope with the increasing pollution by traffic. The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete, creates environmental friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface itself can be diminished. TiO2 is added to a cement mortar in

  16. Large-scale synthesis of TiO2 microspheres with hierarchical nanostructure for highly efficient photodriven reduction of CO2 to CH4.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baizeng; Bonakdarpour, Arman; Reilly, Kevin; Xing, Yalan; Taghipour, Fariborz; Wilkinson, David P

    2014-09-10

    In this study, a simple and reproducible synthesis strategy was employed to fabricate TiO2 microspheres with hierarchical nanostructure. The microspheres are macroscopic in the bulk particle size (several hundreds to more than 1000 ?m), but they are actually composed of P25 nanoparticles as the building units. Although it is simple in the assembly of P25 nanoparticles, the structure of the as-prepared TiO2 microspheres becomes unique because a hierarchical porosity composed of macropores, larger mesopores (ca. 12.4 nm), and smaller mesopores (ca. 2.3 nm) has been developed. The interconnected macropores and larger mesopores can be utilized as fast paths for mass transport. In addition, this hierarchical nanostructure may also contribute to some extent to the enhanced photocatalytic activity due to increased multilight reflection/scattering. Compared with the state-of-the-art photocatalyst, commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, the as-prepared TiO2 microsphere catalyst has demonstrated significant enhancement in photodriven conversion of CO2 into the end product CH4. Further enhancement in photodriven conversion of CO2 into CH4 can be easily achieved by the incorporation of metals such as Pt. The preliminary experiments with Pt loading reveal that there is still much potential for considerable improvement in TiO2 microsphere based photocatalysts. Most interestingly and significantly, the synthesis strategy is simple and large quantity of TiO2 microspheres (i.e., several hundred grams) can be easily prepared at one time in the lab, which makes large-scale industrial synthesis of TiO2 microspheres feasible and less expensive. PMID:25140917

  17. Oxidative energy storage ability of a TiO2-Ni(OH)2 bilayer photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukina; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2005-12-20

    A TiO2-coated indium tin oxide electrode was further coated with Ni(OH)2 by electrodeposition to obtain a TiO2-Ni(OH)2 bilayer film. Upon irradiation of the bilayer film with UV light in a pH 10 buffer, the Ni(OH)2 layer was oxidized, and it turned from colorless to brown; oxidative energy was stored in the layer. The potential of the oxidative energy thus stored was about +0.7 V versus Ag|AgCl. The stored energy could be reversibly taken out of the film by chemical and electrochemical means. The photooxidized Ni(OH)2 was rereduced by alcohols, aldehydes, phenol, I-, H2O2, formate, and acetone. PMID:16343014

  18. Highly Visible Light Active TiO2-xNx Heterojunction Photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinodkumar Etacheri; Michael K. Seery; Steven J. Hinder; Suresh C. Pillai

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen doped anatase-rutile heterojunctions are successfully synthesized through an ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) modified sol-gel process.An FT-IR study of EDTA modified TiO2 gel confirms the existence of an ionic intermediate (as indicated by a ?? value of 233 cm-1).Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy are employed to study the phase evolution, phase purity, and crystallite size of

  19. Heterogeneous photocatalytic treatment of simulated dyehouse effluents using novel TiO 2-photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idil Arslan; Isil Akmehmet Balcioglu; Detlef W. Bahnemann

    2000-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic treatment of two different synthetic dyehouse effluents called RI and RII, that were simulating textile wastewater from an integrated plant and a dyehouse mill and containing various reactive dyestuffs and associated auxiliary chemicals, was investigated by using different TiO2 types and reaction conditions. The effect of initial pH and effluent dilution ratio on treatment efficiency was examined and

  20. Disinfection of water using Pt and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rominder P. S. Suri; Hilary M. Thornton; M. Muruganandham

    2012-01-01

    In this article we have reported heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection using pristine and Ag- and Pt-doped nano TiO2 under near-UV light and solar light irradiation. Disinfection experiments were conducted in slurry reactors with Escherichia coli, artificial light and sunlight. The influence of various amounts of Pt and Ag loading (0.5% to 5%) on the E. coli inactivation was examined and results

  1. Synthesis of anatase TiO 2 supported on porous solids by chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Ding; Xijun Hu; Po L Yue; Gao Q Lu; Paul F Greenfield

    2001-01-01

    Coating anatase TiO2 onto three different particle supports, activated carbon (AC), ?-alumina (Al2O3) and silica gel (SiO2), by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied. The effect of the CVD synthesis conditions on the loading rate of anatase TiO2 was investigated. It was found that introducing water vapor during CVD or adsorbing water before CVD was crucial to obtain anatase TiO2

  2. Design of H3PW12O40/TiO2 nano-photocatalyst for efficient photocatalysis under simulated sunlight irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Lu, Ying; Lu, Nan; Zhao, Yahui; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Hao; Teng, Lianghui; Li, Fu

    2013-11-01

    H3PW12O40/TiO2 (PW12/TiO2) nano-photocatalyst was successfully synthesized through a modified sol-gel-hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms were characterized respectively to investigate the physical and chemical properties of prepared catalysts. Under simulated sunlight (320 nm < ? < 780 nm) irradiation, the degradation of fuchsin acid, malachite green and p-nitrophenol (PNP) were carried out to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of PW12/TiO2. The results showed that the pollutants degradation followed first-order kinetics, and the kinetic constants of photocatalytic degradation of fuchsin acid, malachite green and PNP were 2.82, 4.66, and 3.48 times as great as that using pristine TiO2, respectively. The high pollutants degradation efficiency was ascribed to the synergistic effect between H3PW12O40 and TiO2, which resulted in enhanced quantum efficiency and high light harvesting efficiency. We believe this work could provide new insights into the fabrication of photocatalyst with high photocatalytic performance and facilitate their practical application in environmental issues.

  3. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of magnetic separable Fe3O4–TiO2 nanocomposites and their catalytic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanquan Jiang; Xueping Zhang; Xinglong Gong; Fangfang Yan; Zhong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A novel sonochemical method is described for the preparation of Fe3O4–TiO2 photocatalysts in which nanocrystalline titanium dioxide particles are directly coated onto a magnetic core. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were partially embedded in TiO2 agglomerates. TiO2 nanocrystallites were obtained by hydrolysis and condensation of titanium tetraisopropyl in the presence of ethanol and water under high-intensity ultrasound irradiation. This method is attractive

  4. Mesoporous core-shell TiO(2) walnuts for photocatalysts and photodetectors with improved performances.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Di; Cheng, Ling; Li, Tao; Li, Guangxing

    2014-05-28

    Mesoporous core-shell TiO2 walnuts (CSTWs) were successfully prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. This superior micro-nanostructure endowed the sample with hierarchical mesopores and a high surface area of 90.97 m(2) g(-1). Their particle size, diameter and morphology could be readily controlled by varying the growth parameters. The influence of the glucose amount, the urea amount and the calcination temperature on the formation of microspheres was investigated. The formation mechanism of the mesoporous CSTWs was studied. The photocatalytic activity of CSTWs had been carried out by degradation of gaseous benzene. The results indicated that, compared with commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25), CSTWs exhibited significant photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the mesoporous CSTWs were also configured as high-performance photodetectors. When illuminated by UV light with a wavelength of 365 nm, the current was found to be significantly enhanced, and an IUV/Idark of about 500, a good rise time and decay time were obtained. PMID:24695865

  5. Gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles on heterostructured TiO2 nanobelts as plasmonic photocatalysts for benzyl alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tongtong; Jia, Chuancheng; Zhang, Lanchun; He, Shuren; Sang, Yuanhua; Li, Haidong; Li, Yanqing; Xu, Xiaohong; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly facilitates the flow of hot electrons from the metal NPs to TiO2 and promotes benzyl alcohol oxidation. This efficient electron transfer was identified by the much higher photocurrent response measured for the Au/TiO2-NB nanostructure with the TiO2(B)/anatase heterojunction than those with either of the single phases under visible light irradiation. Alloying Au with Pd in Au-Pd/TiO2-NB results in a significant improvement in the visible light-promoted activity compared to the monometallic Au/TiO2-NB sample. It is supposed that the plasmon-mediated charge distribution within the alloy NPs is mainly responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the bimetallic nanostructures. PMID:25406968

  6. Carbon-deposited TiO2 3D inverse opal photocatalysts: visible-light photocatalytic activity and enhanced activity in a viscous solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunbok; Lee, Youngshin; Kim, Dong Ha; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-12-11

    We for the first time demonstrated carbon-deposited TiO2 inverse opal (C-TiO2 IO) structures as highly efficient visible photocatalysts. The carbon deposition proceeded via high-temperature pyrolysis of phloroglucinol/formaldehyde resol, which had been coated onto the TiO2 IO structures. Carbon deposition formed a carbon layer and doped the TiO2 interface, which synergistically enhanced visible-light absorption. We directly measured the visible-light photocatalytic activity by constructing solar cells comprising the C-TiO2 IO electrode. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in a solution was also evaluated. Photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light was only observed in the presence of the C-TiO2 IO sample and was increased with the content of carbon deposition. The IO structures could be readily decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles to increase the surface area and enhance the photocatalytic activity. Notably, the photocatalytic reaction was found to proceed in a viscous polymeric solution. A comparison of the mesoporous TiO2 structure and the IO TiO2 structure revealed that the latter performed better as the solution viscosity increased. This result was attributed to facile diffusion into the fully connected and low-tortuosity macropore network of the IO structure. PMID:24266769

  7. Steady hydrogen evolution from water on Eosin Y-fixed TiO 2 photocatalyst using a silane-coupling reagent under visible light irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryu Abe; Koujirou Hara; Kazuhiro Sayama; Kazunari Domen; Hironori Arakawa

    2000-01-01

    A chemical fixation of xanthene dyes on platinized TiO2 particles via silane-coupling reagent was attempted in order to construct a stable dye-sensitized photocatalyst system in water. The Eosin Y fixed Pt-TiO2 (E.Y-TiO2) exhibited steady H2 production from aqueous triethanolamine solution (TEOA aq.) under visible light irradiation for long time, and the H2 evolution reproduced even after the exchange of TEOA

  8. 2D and 3D characterization of a surfactant-synthesized TiO2-SiO2 mesoporous photocatalyst obtained at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Luís; Hernández-Garrido, Juan C; Calvino, Juan J; Mosquera, Maria J

    2013-02-28

    A mesoporous TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanocomposite photocatalyst has been prepared from TiO(2) nanoparticles and ethoxysilane oligomers in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant (n-octylamine). The 2D and 3D structure properties of the resulting nanomaterial are described. The use of 3D techniques, particularly HAADF-STEM electron tomography, together with 3D reconstructions and atomic force microscopy, provides insight into the fine structure of these materials. We find that n-octylamine creates a mesoporous silica structure in which titania nanoparticles are embedded, and that some of the titania is retained on the outer surface of the material. Rapid photodegradation of methylene blue dye is facilitated, due to the synergistic effect of: (1) its adsorption into the composite mesoporous structure, and (2) its photodegradation by the superficial TiO(2). PMID:23338827

  9. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00476g

  10. Effects of SO2 on selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over a TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Teramura, Kentaro; Hosokawa, Saburo; Tanaka, Tsunehiro

    2015-04-01

    The effect of SO2 gas was investigated on the activity of the photo-assisted selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO) with ammonia (NH3) over a TiO2 photocatalyst in the presence of excess oxygen (photo-SCR). The introduction of SO2 (300 ppm) greatly decreased the activity of the photo-SCR at 373 K. The increment of the reaction temperature enhanced the resistance to SO2 gas, and at 553 K the conversion of NO was stable for at least 300 min of the reaction. X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analysis and N2 adsorption measurement revealed that the ammonium sulfate species were generated after the reaction. There was a strong negative correlation between the deposition amount of the ammonium sulfate species and the specific surface area. Based on the above relationship, we concluded that the deposition of the ammonium sulfate species decreased the specific surface area by plugging the pore structure of the catalyst, and the decrease of the specific surface area resulted in the deactivation of the catalyst.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of direct Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 photocatalysts for the decomposition of formaldehyde in air.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaguo; Wang, Shuhan; Low, Jingxiang; Xiao, Wei

    2013-10-21

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a major indoor pollutant and long-term exposure to HCHO may cause health problems such as nasal tumors and skin irritation. Photocatalytic oxidation is considered as the most promising strategy for the decomposition of HCHO. Herein, for the first time, a direct g-C3N4-TiO2 Z-scheme photocatalyst without an electron mediator was prepared by a facile calcination route utilizing affordable P25 and urea as the feedstocks. Photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of HCHO in air. It was shown that the photocatalytic activity of the prepared Z-scheme photocatalysts was highly dependent on the g-C3N4 content. At the optimal g-C3N4 content (sample U100 in this study), the apparent reaction rate constant was 7.36 × 10(-2) min(-1) for HCHO decomposition, which exceeded that of pure P25 (3.53 × 10(-2) min(-1)) by a factor of 2.1. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the formation of a g-C3N4-TiO2 Z-scheme photocatalyst, which results in the efficient space separation of photo-induced charge carriers. Considering the ease of the preparation method, this work will provide new insights into the design of high-performance Z-scheme photocatalysts for indoor air purification. PMID:23999576

  12. Novel high potential visible-light-active photocatalyst of CNT/Mo, S-codoped TiO2 hetero-nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadanian, M.; Shamshiri, M.; Jabbari, V.

    2014-10-01

    The current study deals with synthesize of novel nanophotocatalysts of CNT/Mo,S-codoped TiO2 by reacting between titanium isopropoxide (Ti(OC3H7)4) and CNT in aqueous ammonia and subsequent calcining of hydrolysis of the products. The prepared catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, FT-IR, and UV-vis DRS spectroscopy. SEM and TEM images exhibited uniform coverage of CNT with anatase TiO2 nanoclusters. It was also demonstrated that the presence of S and Mo within the TiO2 acts as electrons traps and prevents the charge recombination and also enables the TiO2 photocatalyst to be active in visible-light region. Moreover, the CNT/Mo,S-doped TiO2 nanohybrids has been proven to has a excellent photocatalytic performance in photodecomposition of Congored (CR), at which the rate of decomposition reaches 100% in only 20 and 30 min under UV and visible-light irradiation, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergetic effects of excellent electrical property of CNT and metal-non-metal codoping. Finally, which to best of our knowledge is done for the first time, we have demonstrated that Mo- and S-doped TiO2 decorated over CNT, or CNT/Mo,S-codoped TiO2, may have high potential applications in photocatalysis and environmental protection with superior catalytic activity under visible-light illumination.

  13. TiO2 Fibers Supported ?-FeOOH Nanostructures as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalyst and Room Temperature Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ting; Li Ong, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Wei Ho, Ghim

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heterostructures of beta-iron oxyhydroxide (?-FeOOH) nanostructures on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. This synthesis method proves to be versatile to tailoring of ?-FeOOH structural design that cuts across zero-dimensional particles (TF-P), one-dimensional needles (TF-N) to two-dimensional flakes (TF-F). In addition, synthesizing such oxyhyroxide nanostructures presents the advantage of exhibiting similar functional performances to its oxides counterpart however, without the need to undergo any annealing step which leads to undesirable structural collapse or sintering. The as-prepared hierarchical heterostructures possess high surface area for dye adsorptivity, efficient charge separation and visible photocatalytic activity. Also, for the first time, hydrogen gas sensing has been demonstrated on ?-FeOOH nanostructures at room temperature. The reported hierarchical heterostructures of ?-FeOOH on TiO2 nanofibers afford multiple functions of photocatalysis and sensing which are highly promising for environment monitoring and clean up applications. PMID:26030002

  14. TiO2 Fibers Supported ?-FeOOH Nanostructures as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalyst and Room Temperature Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ting; Li Ong, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Wei Ho, Ghim

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heterostructures of beta-iron oxyhydroxide (?-FeOOH) nanostructures on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. This synthesis method proves to be versatile to tailoring of ?-FeOOH structural design that cuts across zero-dimensional particles (TF-P), one-dimensional needles (TF-N) to two-dimensional flakes (TF-F). In addition, synthesizing such oxyhyroxide nanostructures presents the advantage of exhibiting similar functional performances to its oxides counterpart however, without the need to undergo any annealing step which leads to undesirable structural collapse or sintering. The as-prepared hierarchical heterostructures possess high surface area for dye adsorptivity, efficient charge separation and visible photocatalytic activity. Also, for the first time, hydrogen gas sensing has been demonstrated on ?-FeOOH nanostructures at room temperature. The reported hierarchical heterostructures of ?-FeOOH on TiO2 nanofibers afford multiple functions of photocatalysis and sensing which are highly promising for environment monitoring and clean up applications. PMID:26030002

  15. Mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalysts with enhanced activity and durability in Cr(vi) reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinguo; Li, Xinru; Li, Xi; Zhu, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2013-02-01

    A novel mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalyst (ST-is) was synthesized by in situ doping TiO2 with SnO2 through solvothermal alcoholysis, followed by sulfurization under hydrothermal conditions. The ST-is displayed higher activity in photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) owing to the strong photosensitizing effect of SnS2 in uniform nanoparticles and the enhanced light harvesting via multiple reflections in yolk-shell chambers. Meanwhile, the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction could generate more heterojunctions which facilitated photoelectron transfer from SnS2 to TiO2, leading to the enhanced activity by inhibiting photoelectron-hole recombination. Moreover, the ST-is displayed strong durability owing to the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction and the encapsulation of SnS2 nanoparticles in the yolk-shell chamber, which could inhibit SnS2 leaching. Furthermore, because of the electronegative surface and high surface area, the ST-is could thoroughly purify wastewater by completely adsorbing Cr3+ resulting from Cr(vi) reduction. In addition, the presence of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds promoted Cr(vi) reduction owing to inhibition of photoelectron-hole recombination by consuming holes.A novel mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalyst (ST-is) was synthesized by in situ doping TiO2 with SnO2 through solvothermal alcoholysis, followed by sulfurization under hydrothermal conditions. The ST-is displayed higher activity in photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) owing to the strong photosensitizing effect of SnS2 in uniform nanoparticles and the enhanced light harvesting via multiple reflections in yolk-shell chambers. Meanwhile, the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction could generate more heterojunctions which facilitated photoelectron transfer from SnS2 to TiO2, leading to the enhanced activity by inhibiting photoelectron-hole recombination. Moreover, the ST-is displayed strong durability owing to the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction and the encapsulation of SnS2 nanoparticles in the yolk-shell chamber, which could inhibit SnS2 leaching. Furthermore, because of the electronegative surface and high surface area, the ST-is could thoroughly purify wastewater by completely adsorbing Cr3+ resulting from Cr(vi) reduction. In addition, the presence of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds promoted Cr(vi) reduction owing to inhibition of photoelectron-hole recombination by consuming holes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the FESEM images, TEM images, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, FTIR spectra, XRD patterns, XPS spectra, zeta-potential test, Mott-Schottky plots, and the schematic illustration of the charge separation in SnS2-TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light irradiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33755j

  16. Fe doped TiO2-graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing -COOH functionalities using sol-gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO(2) analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO(2) were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO(2). The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17?-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2. PMID:25002220

  17. Fe doped TiO2-graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing -COOH functionalities using sol-gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO2 analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO2 were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO2. The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17?-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2.

  18. Degradation of microcystin-LR by highly efficient AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Utsumi, Motoo; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Sugiura, Norio; Cheng, Jay Jiayang

    2015-01-01

    A novel photocatalyst AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 was developed by a simple facile in situ deposition method and used for degradation of mirocystin-LR. TiO2 (P25) as a cost effective chemical was used to improve the stability of AgBr/Ag3PO4 under simulated solar light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity tests for this heterojunction were conducted under simulated solar light irradiation using methyl orange as targeted pollutant. The results indicated that the optimal Ag to Ti molar ratio for the photocatalytic activity of the resulting heterojunction AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 was 1.5 (named as 1.5 BrPTi), which possessed higher photocatalytic capacity than AgBr/Ag3PO4. The 1.5 BrPTi heterojunction was also more stable than AgBr/Ag3PO4 in photocatalysis. This highly efficient and relatively stable photocatalyst was further tested for degradation of the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The results suggested that MC-LR was much more easily degraded by 1.5 BrPTi than by AgBr/Ag3PO4. The quenching effects of different scavengers proved that reactive h+ and •OH played important roles for MC-LR degradation.

  19. Nanostructured AgBr loaded TiO2: An efficient sunlight active photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 120

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The AgBr loaded TiO2 catalyst was prepared by a feasible approach with AgBr and tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and characterized by BET surface area measurement, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. The results of characterization reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a nanostructure. Formation of the nanostructure in AgBr loaded TiO2 results in substantial shifting of the absorption edge of TiO2 to red and enhancement of visible light absorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a higher photoconductivity than prepared TiO2 due to higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. Cyclic voltammetric studies reveal enhanced conductivity in AgBr loaded TiO2, which causes an increase in its photocatalytic activity. AgBr loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2-P25 and prepared TiO2 in the photodegradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120). PMID:21801445

  20. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 heterojunctions: promising TiO2-based photocatalysts under visible light.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mang; Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We use hybrid density functional calculations to find that the monolayer silicane (SiH) and the anatase TiO2(101) composite (i.e. the SiH/TiO2 heterojunction) is a promising TiO2-based photocatalyst under visible light. The band gap of the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction is 2.082?eV, which is an ideal material for the visible-light photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has a favorable type-II band alignment and thus the photoexcited electron can be injected to the conduction band of anatase TiO2 from that of silicane. Finally, the proper interface charge distribution facilitates the carrier separation in the SiH/TiO2(101) interface region. The electron injection and carrier separation can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Our calculation results suggest that such electronic structure of SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has significant advantages over these of doped TiO2 systems for visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:24787027

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activities of the heterostructured upconversion photocatalysts with cotton mediated on TiO2/ZnWO4:Yb(3+),Tm(3.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Kaili; Huang, Shouqiang; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen; Yuan, Haiping

    2015-07-21

    To improve the photocatalytic efficiency and make full use of solar energy, ZnWO4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+) (ZYT) was introduced as the upconversion luminescence agent on TiO2 with a cotton template, and novel upconversion photocatalysts of TiO2/ZnWO4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+) (TZYT-C) were synthesized and optimized with 5%-30% of ZYT. The heterostructure between ZYT and TiO2 was formed in the TZYT-C composites with the presence of tube-like morphologies due to the addition of the cotton template. UV (364 nm) and blue (484 nm) light was emitted from ZYT upon 980 nm NIR irradiation. The BET specific surface areas of all the TZYT-C composites increased from 37 m(2) g(-1) (TiO2-C) to the maximum value of 75 m(2) g(-1) on 5%TZYT-C. The photocatalytic activities of the TZYT-C composites were tested using the degradation process of methyl orange (MO). 5%TZYT-C showed the highest degradation efficiency, with a value of 55.6% under sun-like irradiation for 210 min. The same performance was observed on 5%TZYT-C under NIR (? ? 780 nm) irradiation, with a maximum removal rate of 9.02%, since 5%TZYT-C showed the most efficient electron-hole (e(-)/h(+)) pair separation, compared to ZYT and other TZYT-C composites. PMID:26150279

  2. Design of composite photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-zeolite for degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (? > 420 nm) irradiation. PMID:25314607

  3. Flexible polymer TiO 2 modified film photocatalysts active in the photodegradation of azo-dyes in solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhiyong; D. Laub; M. Bensimon; J. Kiwi

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent developments of thin film polymer coated photocatalysis with TiO2 mediating the discoloration\\/degradation of the azo-dye Orange II under light irradiation. The stable anchoring of TiO2 on non-heat resistant but chemically inert flexible polymer films is described. The nature of the polymer films used, the pretreatment of the film for the TiO2 loading and the testing

  4. Preparation of nanostructured TiO2-based photocatalyst by controlling the calcining temperature and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Jasim; Islam, Md Akhtarul; Haque, Sheikh Ariful; Hasan, Saidul; Amin, Mohammad Shaiful Alam; Rahman, Mohammed Mastabur

    2012-08-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 has been synthesized using one-step sol-gel method and characterized by different characterization techniques (SEM, EDS, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) is studied with the synthesized TiO2. The photocatalytic degradation data has been validated using several kinetic models. The TiO2 showed efficient photocatalytic degradation performance on MB and CR. In addition to this, the effect of pH on the photocatalytic degradation has been investigated. The TiO2 showed enhanced photocatalytic performance in basic media than that in neutral or acidic ones.

  5. Immobilization of TiO2 and Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalysts on the cotton material for application in a flow photocatalytic reactor for decomposition of phenol in water.

    PubMed

    Tryba, Beata

    2008-03-01

    TiO2 and Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalysts have been immobilized on the cotton material and used in a flow photocatalytic reactor for phenol decomposition. The cotton material has been applied as a support for photocatalyst, because can be easily removed and replaced in a reactor, what facilitates the performance of the photocatalytic process. Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalyst has been prepared by modification of TiO2 fine particles of anatase structure with FeC2O4 through heating in Ar at 500 degrees C. The immobilized photocatalysts could efficiently decompose phenol in multiple use, Fe-C-TiO2 showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2, around 15-18 mg and 15-16 mg of phenol have been decomposed after 5 h of UV irradiation on Fe-C-TiO2 and TiO2, respectively. After addition of H2O2 the phenol decomposition and the mineralization degree have been accelerated, especially with immobilized Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalyst, in case of that the photo-Fenton reaction occurred. In the presence of H2O2 around 26-28 mg and 21-24 mg of phenol have been decomposed on Fe-C-TiO2 and TiO2 respectively, after 5 h of UV irradiation. PMID:17658685

  6. A novel route for the production of TiO2 photocatalysts with low energy gap, via Triton-X and oleic acid surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, A.; Mitsionis, A.; Vaimakis, T.; Pomonis, P.; Petrakis, D.; Loukatzikou, L.; Todorova, N.; Trapalis, C.; Ladas, S.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 photocatalysts with high specific surface area between 70 and 110 m2/g were prepared via a novel sol-gel technique using surfactants oleic acid and Triton-X in the presence or absence of diethanolamine. Titania materials showed increased photocatalytic performance in UV light. The production of active species seem to be high enough to perform the degradation of methylene blue dye solution in low catalyst concentration; and a relatively high efficiency in NO oxidation in gaseous phase. All materials prepared showed high photocatalytic activity and degradation efficiency similar or higher compared to commercial Degussa P25 material.

  7. Selective biotemplated synthesis of TiO2 inside a protein cage.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Gregory J; Zhou, Ziyou; Uchida, Masaki; Douglas, Trevor; Gupta, Arunava; Prevelige, Peter E

    2015-01-12

    Biological organisms have evolved tremendous control over the synthesis of inorganic materials in aqueous solutions at standard conditions. Such control over material properties is difficult to achieve with current synthesis strategies. Biotemplated synthesis of materials has been demonstrated to be efficient at facilitating the formation of various inorganic species. In this study, we employ a protein cage-based system to synthesize photoactive TiO2 nanoparticles less than 10 nm in diameter. We also demonstrate phase control over the material, with the ability to synthesize both anatase and rutile TiO2 using distinct biomineralization peptides within the protein cage. Finally, using analytical ultracentrifugation, we are able to resolve distinct reaction products and approximate their loading. We find that two distinct species comprise the reaction products, likely representing procapsid-like particles with early, precursor metal oxide clusters, and shells nearly full with crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. PMID:25494935

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of biologically compatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe for the first time the synthesis of biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles containing a functional NH2 group which are easily dispersible in water. The synthesis of water dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles coated with mercaptosuccinic acid is also reported. We show that it is possible to exchange the stearic acid from pre-synthesised fatty acid-coated anatase 5-nm nanoparticles with a range of organic ligands with no change in the size or morphology. With further organic functionalisation, these nanoparticles could be used for medical imaging or to carry cytotoxic radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy where ultrasmall nanoparticles will be essential for rapid renal clearance. PMID:21711954

  9. [FeII(bpy)3]2+/TiO2-codoped zeolites: synthesis, characterization, and first application in photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bossmann, Stefan H; Shahin, Nabil; Le Thanh, Hieu; Bonfill, Anna; Wörner, Michael; Braun, André M

    2002-05-17

    TiO2-codoped [FeII(bpy)3]2+/zeolite Y systems are revealed to be efficient photocatalysts for photochemically enhanced Fenton processes. Preparation, characterization, and tests using 2,4-xylidine as a model pollutant are described, and a first mechanistic hypothesis explaining the rather high photochemical reactivity of the catalyst system is given. PMID:12465499

  10. An efficient TiO 2 thin-film photocatalyst: photocatalytic properties in gas-phase acetaldehyde degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iis Sopyan; Mitsuru Watanabe; Sadao Murasawa; Kazuhito Hashimoto; Akira Fujishima

    1996-01-01

    A semitransparent TiO2 film with extraordinarily high photocatalytic activity was prepared on a glass substrate by sintering a TiO2 sol at 450 °C. Crystallographic analysis by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the film was purely anatase. The photocatalytic properties of the film were investigated by measuring the photodegradative oxidation of gaseous acetaldehyde at various concentrations under strong and

  11. Synthesis and hydrophilic properties of Mo doped TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardare, Diana; Cornei, Nicoleta; Luca, Dumitru; Dobromir, Marius; Irimiciuc, ?tefan A.; Pung?, Luciana; Pui, Aurel; Adomniţei, C?t?lin

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous undoped TiO2 and Mo-doped TiO2 thin films were obtained by spray pyrolysis. By heat treatment, they became polycrystalline consisting in anatase, or mixed anatase/rutile phases, if deposited on glass or silicon, respectively. Mo enters in the TiO2 matrix as Mo5+, determining a slight red shift of the absorption edge. Based on Fourier transmission infrared analysis, performed on the studied films, before and after irradiation, providing information on the relationship between hydrophilicity and the amount of the adsorbed hydroxyl groups, we certify once again that the anatase phase (present in proportion of 100% in the films deposited on glass) is superior concerning the hydrophilic properties. Mo enhances wettability for the films deposited on silicon, compared to the undoped one, even if determines a rise in the rutile weight percentage, as a combined effect with the substrate nature. The decomposition of the oleic acid confirms that titania films with higher hydrophilic performances are also good photocatalysts, confirming in fact that investigating the hydrophilic properties of these films constitutes a much simpler way to obtain information on their photocatalytic activity.

  12. In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light.A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic setup for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is shown in Fig. S1. The BET specific surface and pore-size distribution of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 is shown in Fig. S2. XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 and Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 are shown in Fig. S3. HRTEM image of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with mixture phase is shown in Fig. S4. The photographs of different colors of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with different flow rates of hydrogen are shown in Fig. S5. TEM images of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 samples with different flow rates of carrier gas are shown in Fig. S6. XPS spectrum of O 1s is shown in Fig. S7. Photodegradation of MB in aqueous solutions using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2, pristine TiO2 and P25 as photocatalysts with irradiation of ultraviolet light is shown in Fig. S8. UV-vis spectra of MB aqueous solutions at different times by using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 as a photocatalyst under the irradiation of visible light is shown in Fig. S9. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00972j

  13. A study on the preparation of floating photocatalyst supported by hollow TiO2 and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingang; He, Bin; Kong, Xiang Z.

    2015-02-01

    This research used hollow glass microspheres (HGMS) as carrier and polystyrene (PSt) as template. PSt was loaded on HGMS surface through the modification by silane coupler. Next, amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) produced through tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) hydrolysis precipitated on PSt surface, forming HGMS/PSt/TiO2 particles. Lastly, using the calcinations method, this research obtained anatase TiO2, eliminated PSt, and ultimately acquired composite particles with hollow TiO2 loaded on HGMS surface (HGMSHT). SEM results presented that hollow TiO2 was compact on HGMS surface and a multilayer network structure was formed. The specific surface area of HGMSHT particles was 26 m2/g, which was much larger than that of HGMS/TiO2 (HGMST) composite particles (5.6 m2/g) through direct TBT hydrolysis. Results of catalytic degradation experiment with Rhodamine B and phenol under UV light and sunlight demonstrated that due to larger TiO2 load capacity and specific surface area, the catalytic activity of HGMSHT composite particles was significantly more desirable than that of HGMST, and the catalyst presented satisfactory stability.

  14. Study the structure and performance of thermal/plasma modified Au nanoparticle-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Asif; Ramay, Shahid M.; Al-Zaghayer, Yousef S.; Atiq, Shahid; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Shar, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Salah Din

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the influence of thermal/plasma treatments on the structure and photocatalytic performance of the Au-doped TiO2 catalyst. Au (gold) nanoparticles were attached on TiO2 (Titania) nanoparticle surfaces by conventional deposition precipitation technique and the resulting catalysts were subsequently modified with thermal (at 450°C under vacuum) and plasma (at an ambient temperature under Argon atmosphere for 20 min) treatments. Structural characterization of the modified catalysts was performed by diverse analytical techniques and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by assessing the degradation of the methylene blue (MB) in water under UV (ultra-violet) irradiations. Results showed that the thermal/plasma treatment significantly influenced the structural features of Au-doped TiO2 catalyst by altering the morphology, increasing the Au nanoparticles population, improving the Au/TiO2 catalytic activity, changing the textural properties and reducing the band gap energies thus tuned Au-doped TiO2 catalyst to higher efficiency. Thermal/plasma treated Au-doped TiO2 was found to exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than the as-synthesized (pristine sample). This improvement in photocatalytic activity might be due to the cathodic influence of gold in suppressing the electron-hole recombination during the reaction.

  15. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-09-01

    TiO2/purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO2/purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO2 crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO2 nanoparticles.

  16. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV-vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles and S-doped TiO2 nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron-hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C.

  17. Ionic-liquid-assisted synthesis of uniform fluorinated B/C-codoped TiO2 nanocrystals and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaguo; Li, Qin; Liu, Shengwei; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2013-02-11

    Exploiting advanced photocatalysts under visible light is of primary significance for the development of environmentally relevant photocatalytic decontamination processes. In this study, the ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, was employed for the first time as both a structure-directing agent and a dopant for the synthesis of novel fluorinated B/C-codoped anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals (T(IL)) through hydrothermal hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate. These T(IL) nanocrystals feature uniform crystallite and pore sizes and are stable with respect to phase transitions, crystal ripening, and pore collapse upon calcination treatment. More significantly, these nanocrystals possess abundant localized states and strong visible-light absorption in a wide range of wavelengths. Because of synergic interactions between titania and codopants, the calcined T(IL) samples exhibited high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the presence of oxidizing Rhodamine?B (RhB). In particular, 300?°C-calcined T(IL) was most photocatalytically active; its activity was much higher than that of TiO(1.98)N(0.02) and reference samples (T(W)) obtained under identical conditions in the absence of ionic liquid. Furthermore, the possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism and the active species involved in the RhB degradation photocatalyzed by the T(IL) samples were primarily investigated experimentally by using different scavengers. It was found that both holes and electrons, as well as their derived active species, such as (·)OH, contributed to the RhB degradation occurring on the fluorinated B/C-codoped TiO(2) photocatalyst, in terms of both the photocatalytic reaction dynamics and the reaction pathway. The synthesis of the aforementioned novel photocatalyst and the identification of specific active species involved in the photodegradation of dyes could shed new light on the design and synthesis of semiconductor materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards organic pollutants. PMID:23297253

  18. Synthesis of chiral TiO2 nanofibre with electron transition-based optical activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohua; Han, Lu; Duan, Yingying; Asahina, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Osamu; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ben; Ma, Liguo; Zhang, Jialiang; Che, Shunai

    2012-01-01

    The optical chirality induced at the absorption bands due to electronic exciton coupling of the transition dipole moments between chromophores in close proximity is ubiquitous in helical organic materials. However, inorganic materials with optical activity resulting from electronic transitions have not been explored. Here we report the synthesis of chiral TiO2 fibres via transcription of the helical structure of amino acid-derived amphiphile fibres through coordination bonding interactions between the organics and the TiO2 source. Upon calcination, the as-prepared amorphous TiO2 double-helical fibres with a pitch length of ~100?nm were converted to double-helical crystalline fibres with stacks of anatase nanocrystals in an epitaxial helical relationship. Both the amorphous and anatase crystalline helical TiO2 fibres exhibited optical response to circularly polarized light at the absorption edge around ~350?nm. This was attributed to the semiconductor TiO2-based electronic transitions from the valence band to the conduction band under an asymmetric electric field. PMID:23169056

  19. Nitrogen-doping of bulk and nanotubular TiO2 photocatalysts by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Creatore, Mariadriana; Ma, Quan-Bao; El Boukili, Aishah; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Verhoeven, M. W. G. M. (Tiny); Hensen, Emiel. J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) was adopted to deposit TiO2-xNx ultrathin layers on Si wafers, calcined Ti foils and nanotubular TiO2 arrays. A range of N content and chemical bond configurations were obtained by varying the background gas (O2 or N2) during the Ti precursor exposure, while the N2/H2-fed inductively coupled plasma exposure time was varied between 2 and 20 s. On calcined Ti foils, a positive effect from N doping on photocurrent density was observed when O2 was the background gas with a short plasma exposure time (5 and 10 s). This correlates with the presence of interstitial N states in the TiO2 with a binding energy of 400 eV (Ninterst) as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A longer plasma time or the use of N2 as background gas results in formation of N state with a binding energy of 396 eV (Nsubst) and very low photocurrents. These Nsubst are linked to the presence of Ti3+, which act as detrimental recombination center for photo-generated electron-hole pairs. On contrary, PA-ALD treated nanotubular TiO2 arrays show no variation of photocurrent density (with respect to the pristine nanotubes) upon different plasma exposure times and when the O2 recipe was adopted. This is attributed to constant N content in the PA-ALD TiO2-xNx, regardless of the adopted recipe.

  20. Development of TiO 2 photocatalysts suitable for practical use and their applications in environmental cleanup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Taoda

    2008-01-01

    Recently, environmental disruption is proceeding on a global scale through the consumption of huge amounts of fossil fuels\\u000a and the emission of various chemical substances. However, these substances resist bio-treatment. TiO2 generates electrons and holes by irradiation with light. Most organic micro-pollutants, including dioxins, are decomposed\\u000a into carbon dioxide and water by the effect of the holes with high oxidative

  1. Facile synthesis of TiO2/trititanate heterostructure with enhanced photoelectric efficiency for an improved photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feitai; Li, Youji; Liu, Zhi; Fang, Pengfei

    2015-06-01

    TiO2/trititanate photocatalyst was prepared by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman etc. The photocatalytic activities of catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). It is found that the heterostructure can be directly formed via the conversion of surface TiO2 into trititanate. The coupled nanostructure possesses enhanced adsorption ability for RhB as compared with the raw TiO2, owing to the formation of an increased amount of hydroxyl groups on the prepared catalyst surface. Besides, the generated trititanate can successfully introduce a shallow energy level in the coupled composite, which results in the improvement of separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. In the degradation experiments, TiO2/trititanate exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity than the bare TiO2. These advantages of the coupled nanostructure in adsorption capacity and photoelectric efficiency may make it a wider application for the removal of organic pollutants.

  2. Characterization and activity of visible-light-driven TiO 2 photocatalyst codoped with lanthanum and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Zhuang, Huisheng; Bu, Dan

    2011-08-01

    The novel visible-light-activated La/I/TiO 2 nanocomposition photocatalyst was successfully synthesized using precipitation-dipping method, and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The photocatalytic activity of La/I/TiO 2 was evaluated by studying photodegradation of reactive blue 19 as a probe reaction under simulated sunlight irradiation. Photocatalytic experiment results showed that the maximum specific photocatalytic activity of the La/I/TiO 2 photocatalyst appeared when the molar ratio of La/Ti was 2.0 at%, calcined at 350 °C for 2 h, due to the sample with good crystallization, high BET surface area and small crystal size. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, the degradation of reactive blue 19 aqueous solution reached 98.6% in 80 min, which showed La/I/TiO 2 photocatalyst to be much higher photocatalytic activity compared to standard Degussa P25 photocatalyst. The higher visible light activity is due to the codoping of lanthanum and iodine.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Photocatalytic Porous Fe3+\\/TiO2 Layers on Glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Smirnova; Anna Eremenko; Olga Rusina; Werner Hopp; Lubomir Spanhel

    2001-01-01

    Wet chemical synthesis and preliminary photocatalytical characteristics of titania and Fe(III)-containing TiO2 layers are presented. A highly stable coating colloids could be prepared under base- as well as acid-catalyzed condensation conditions. Structural properties of the as-prepared wet gels and sintered films were investigated using SEM, TEM, XRD as well as optical absorption spectroscopy, DTA-TG analysis and photomineralisation studies. X-ray amorphous

  4. TiO2 Nanotubes: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Galstyan, Vardan; Comini, Elisabetta; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis—particularly by electrochemical anodization-, growth mechanism and chemical sensing properties of pure, doped and mixed titania tubular arrays are reviewed. The first part deals on how anodization parameters affect the size, shape and morphology of titania nanotubes. In the second part fabrication of sensing devices based on titania nanotubes is presented, together with their most notable gas sensing performances. Doping largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24184919

  5. Ultrasound with low intensity assisted the synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO 2 without calcination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narjes Ghows; Mohamad H. Entezari

    2010-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for the preparation of nano-sized TiO2 with anatase phase. Nanoparticles with diameter about 6nm were prepared at a relatively low temperature (75°C) and short time. The synthesis was carried out by the hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of water, ethanol, and dispersant under ultrasonic irradiation (500kHz) at low intensity. The results

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-ZnO-graphene nanocomposite towards photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) - Zinc oxide (ZnO) - Graphene (G) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized through facile hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique revealed the formation of TiO2-ZnO-Graphene (TZG) nanocomposite. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets were clearly noticeable in the Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FE-SEM). The UV-Visible absorption spectra clearly indicated that the formation of TZG nanocomposite enriched the absorption in the visible region. Hence, the prepared nanocomposite can be used as photocatalyst to remove organic dyes from water and as photoanode in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  7. Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-02-21

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are thoroughly examined, with additional insights related to the charge transfer events for each strategy of the modified-TiO2 composites. Finally, we offer a summary and some invigorating perspectives on the major challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier, which we hope will advance us to rationally harness the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various environmental and energy-related applications. PMID:24384624

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of Gd 3+-doped mesoporous TiO 2 materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Caixia; Zhou, Yi; Li, Hong; Dang, Mingming; Guo, Changchun; Ou, Yancong; Xiao, Bin

    2011-03-01

    Using multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWNTs) as the template, Gd 3+-doped mesoporous TiO 2 (M-TiO 2) material was prepared by the homogeneous precipitation-assisted template method. The as-prepared photo-catalysts were characterised using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse-reflection spectroscopy analyses. The photo-catalytic properties of Gd 3+-doped M-TiO 2 were primarily investigated by the photo-degradation of methyl orange under Xe-lamp irradiation and compared with those of pure M-TiO 2 and the commercial photo-catalyst Degussa P25. The results showed that the as-synthesised samples were of anatase crystalline phase and had red shifts in their UV-vis patterns with different Gd 3+-doping concentrations. Gd 3+-adding at 0.12 mol% could significantly enhance the photo-catalytic properties of the M-TiO 2 material and the rate of photo-degradation of methyl orange reached 97.3% under Xe-lamp irradiation for 150 min.

  9. Recent progress in design, synthesis, and applications of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures: a review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Kumar, Anil; Boughton, Robert I; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures (1D TiO2NSHs) have been comprehensively studied during the past two decades because of the possible practical applications in various fields, including photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, lithium batteries, biomedicine, catalysis, and supercapacitors. Combining extensive advancements in materials science and nanotechnology, a 1D TiO2NSH material with well-controlled size, morphology, and composition has been designed and synthesized. More importantly, its superior properties, including a high aspect ratio structure, chemical stability, large specific surface area, excellent electronic or ionic charge transfer, and a specific interface effect, have attracted a great deal of interest in improving current performance and exploring new applications. In this tutorial review, we introduce the characteristics of 1D TiO2 nanostructures, the design principles for the fabrication of 1D TiO2NSHs, and we also summarize the recent progress in developing synthesis methods and applications of 1D TiO2NSHs in different fields. The relationship between the secondary phase and the 1D TiO2 nanostructure and between the performance in applications and the excellent physical properties of 1D TiO2NSHs are also discussed. PMID:25014328

  10. Facile synthesis of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene nanosheet composites with enhanced photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Xiaolong; Sheng, Weiqin; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a facile approach for preparing Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene photocatalyst by a one-step vacuum activation technology involved a relative lower temperature, which could be activated by the visible light owing to the synergistic effect among Ti3+ doping, some new intersurface bonds generation and graphene oxide reduction. Compared with the traditional methods, the vacuum activation involves a low temperature and low-costing, which can achieve the reduction of GO, the self doping of Ti3+ in TiO2 and the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles on GR surface at the same time. These resulting TiO2-graphene composites show the high photodegradation rate of MO, high hydrogen evolution activity and excellent IPCE in the visible light irradiation. The facile vacuum activation method can provide an effective and practical approach to improve the performance of TiO2-graphene and other metal oxides-graphene towards their practical photocatalytic applications. PMID:25716132

  11. Mechanism and experimental study on the photocatalytic performance of Ag/AgCl @ chiral TiO2 nanofibers photocatalyst: the impact of wastewater components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Li, Yi; Li Puma, Gianluca; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Qing

    2015-03-21

    The effect of the water matrix components of a secondary effluent of a urban wastewater treatment plant on the photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgCl @ chiral TiO2 nanofibers and the undergoing reaction mechanisms were investigated. These effects were evaluated through the water components-induced changes on the net rate of hydroxyl radical (?OH) generation and modeled using a relative rate technique. Dissolved organic matter DOM (k=-2.8×10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) scavenged reactive oxygen species, Cl(-) (k=-5.3×10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) accelerated the transformation from Ag to AgCl (which is not photocatalytically active under visible-light irradiation), while Ca(2+) at concentrations higher than 50 mM (k=-1.3×10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) induced aggregation of Ag/AgCl and thus all of them revealed inhibitory effects. In contrast, NO3(-) (k=6.9×10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and CO3(2-) (k=3.7×10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) improved the photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgCl slightly by improving the rate of HO? generation. Other ubiquitous secondary effluent components including SO4(2-) (k=3.9×10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), NH3(+) (k=3.5×10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) and Na(+) (k=2.6×10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) had negligible effects. 90% of 17-?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) spiked in the secondary effluent was removed within 12 min, while the structure and size of Ag/AgCl @ chiral TiO2 nanofibers remained stable. This work may be helpful not only to uncover the photocatalytic mechanism of Ag/AgCl based photocatalyst but also to elucidate the transformation and transportation of Ag and AgCl in natural water. PMID:25524623

  12. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. PMID:19863989

  13. The synthesis of TiO2 and TiO2–Pt and their application in the removal of Cr (VI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The deposition of noble metal on titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered as an effective strategy to improve the activity of TiO2. In this paper, TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via a sol?gel route, followed by heat treatment at elevated temperatures. TiO2–Pt catalyst was prepared by deposition of platinum (Pt) on the surface of as?prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 and TiO2–Pt were

  14. Green synthesis of anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals with diverse shapes and their exposed facets-dependent photoredox activity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nitish; Park, Yohan; Sohn, Youngku; Leung, Kam Tong; Pradhan, Debabrata

    2014-10-01

    The exposed facets of a crystal are known to be one of the key factors to its physical, chemical and electronic properties. Herein, we demonstrate the role of amines on the controlled synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with diverse shapes and different exposed facets. The chemical, physical and electronic properties of the as-synthesized TiO2 NCs were evaluated and their photoredox activity was tested. It was found that the intrinsic photoredox activity of TiO2 NCs can be enhanced by controlling the chemical environment of the surface, i.e.; through morphology evolution. In particular, the rod shape TiO2 NCs with ?25% of {101} and ?75% of {100}/{010} exposed facets show 3.7 and 3.1 times higher photocatalytic activity than that of commercial Degussa P25 TiO2 toward the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue, respectively. The higher activity of the rod shape TiO2 NCs is ascribed to the facetsphilic nature of the photogenerated carriers within the NCs. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NCs are found to be in the order of {101}+{100}/{010} (nanorods) > {101}+{001}+{100}/{010} (nanocuboids and nanocapsules) > {101} (nanoellipsoids) > {001} (nanosheets) providing the direct evidence of exposed facets-depended photocatalytic activity. PMID:25188808

  15. Cost effective facile synthesis of TiO2 nanograins for flexible DSSC application using rose bengal dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambure, Supriya Bapurao; Gund, Girish Sambhaji; Dubal, Deepak Prakash; Shinde, Sujata Sureshrao; Lokhande, Chandrakant Dnyandev

    2014-09-01

    Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanograins using economical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been carried out. TiO2 thin films are studied for their structural, compositional, optical and morphological properties. A layer by layer process leads to the formation of 2.4 ?m thick nanocrystalline TiO2 film. The heat treated TiO2 thin films are hydrophilic in nature with contact angle of 67°. The interconnected nanograins are employed for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using inexpensive Rose Bengal (RB) dye. RB dye sensitization resulted into shifting of absorption peak from UV to visible region. The photoresponce of the dye sensitized solar cell is evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte (0.1 M KI + 0.01 M I2) at 40 mWcm-2 illumination intensity. The TiO2 nanograins accompanied with RB sensitizer showed the conversion efficiency ( ?) of 0.89%. These results depict the strong assurance of TiO2 nanograins for DSSC application.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis and photocatalytic properties of sulphur and platinum modified TiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drunka, R.; Grabis, J.; Jankovica, Dz; Krumina, A.; Rasmane, Dz

    2015-03-01

    In the present work formation of active TiO2 nanofibers in microwave synthesis and their modification with platinum were studied. Mixture of anatase and rutile nanopowder and 10M KOH solution were used as raw materials. Microwave assisted synthesis method permitted to obtain TiO2 nanofibres with a diameter of 10nm and a specific surface area up to 40.2 m2/g. In order to modify TiO2 nanofibers with platinum it was stirred in H2PtCl6 solution and illuminated with UV irradiation or reduced with sodium boronhydride. To modify titania with sulphur and prepare co-doped nanofibers platinum doped samples were extra treated in hydrogen sulphide atmosphere. Photocatalytic activity was determined by degradation of the methylene blue (MB) solution under UV and visible light irradiation. The obtained samples showed higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2 nanofibers. The doped TiO2 nanofibers were appropriate for degradation of harmful organic compounds.

  17. Higher intrinsic photocatalytic efficiency of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium-based photocatalysts compared to TiO2 P-25 for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol using solar simulated light.

    PubMed

    Bayarri, Bernardi; Carbonell, Esther; Gimenez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2008-05-01

    The photocatalytic efficiency of two 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium (TP(+)) based photocatalysts (supported on silica or incorporated inside zeolite Beta, 3wt%) for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in aqueous media has been compared with TiO(2) (Degussa P-25). It was found that the efficiency of the degradation depends on the photocatalytic setup, recirculation through a tubular reactor being highly unfavorable for the TP(+)-based photocatalysts due to the deposition of the silica or zeolite particles. In contrast, high efficiency in DCP disappearance (up to 87%) and in the total organic content decrease (up to 62%) were obtained using a discontinuous batch reactor in which the TP(+) photocatalysts were uniformly suspended. Kinetic studies were also made and DCP degradation follows a first order kinetics. The obtained kinetic constants when corrected to account for the influence of the fraction of light absorbed and the amount of active sites shows that the intrinsic activity of TP(+) adsorbed on silica or incorporated inside zeolite Beta was over one order of magnitude higher than TiO(2) activity. PMID:18358513

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of stable nanocrystalline TiO(2) with high crystallinity and large surface area.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guohui; Fu, Honggang; Jing, Liqiang; Tian, Chungui

    2009-01-30

    Superior photoactive TiO(2) nanopowders with high crystallinity and large surface area were synthesized by a hydrothermal process in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and a post-treatment with ammonia. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The prepared nanocrystallites were highly resistant to thermal sintering, and the calcinations up to 900 degrees C were shown to enhance the crystallinity of the anatase phase without any rutile phase and the separation rate of photoinduced charges of TiO(2) particles. It remained as large as 196 and 125 m(2)/g even after calcinations at 700 and 800 degrees C, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of prepared photocatalysts was obviously higher than that of commercial Degussa P25 on the photodegradation of methylene blue and phenol in water under ultraviolet-light irradiation, and the sample calcined at 800 degrees C afforded the highest photocatalytic activity. PMID:18524477

  19. Facile synthesis of TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose nanocomposites: photocatalytically active material under visible light irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Doped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared in situ by a facile and simple synthesis utilizing benign and renewable precursors such as microcrystalline cellulose (MC) and TiCl4 through hydrolysis in alkaline medium without the addition of organic solvents. The as-prepared nanocompos...

  20. Nanomaterial synthesis and characterization for toxicological studies: TiO2 case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valsami-Jones, E.; Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that the novel properties of nanomaterials may predispose them to a hitherto unknown potential for toxicity. A number of recent toxicological studies of nanomaterials exist, but these appear to be fragmented and often contradictory. Such discrepancies may be, at least in part, due to poor description of the nanomaterial or incomplete characterization, including failure to recognise impurities, surface modifications or other important physicochemical aspects of the nanomaterial. Here we make a case for the importance of good quality, well-characterized nanomaterials for future toxicological studies, combined with reliable synthesis protocols, and we present our efforts to generate such materials. The model system for which we present results is TiO2 nanoparticles, currently used in a variety of commercial products. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  1. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and organic synthesis. PMID:24198485

  2. Characterization of the thin layer photocatalysts TiO2 and V2O5- and Fe2O3- doped TiO2 prepared by the sol–gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loc Luu, Cam; Nguyen, Quoc Tuan; Thoang Ho, Si; Nguyen, Tri

    2013-09-01

    The catalysts TiO2 and TiO2 doped with Fe and V were prepared using the sol–gel method. TiO2-modified samples were obtained in the form of a thick film on pyrex glass sticks and tubes and were used as catalysts in the gas phase photo-oxidation of p-xylene. The physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined using the methods of Brunauer–Emmett–Teller adsorption, x-ray diffraction, and infrared, ultraviolet and visible and Raman spectroscopies. The experimental results show that the introduction of V did not expand the region of light absorption, but slightly reduced the size of the TiO2 particles, and reduced the number of OH-groups, which should decrease the photocatalytic activity and efficiency of the obtained catalysts compared to those of pure TiO2. The Fe-doped TiO2 samples, in contrast, are characterized by an extension of the spectrum of photon absorption to the visible region with wavenumbers ? up to 464 nm and the values of their band gap energy decreased to lower quantities (up to 2.67 eV), therefore they should have higher catalytic activity and conversion efficiency of p-xylene in the visible region than the original sample. For these catalysts, a combined utilization of radiation by ultraviolet (? = 365 nm) and visible (? = 470 nm) light increased the activity and the yield in p-xylene conversion by a factor of around 2–3, as well as making these quantities more stable in comparison with those of TiO2–P25 Degussa.

  3. Green synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals with improved photocatalytic activity by ionic-liquid assisted hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Guo, Lingju; He, Meng; He, Tao

    2013-06-28

    Owing to potential industrial applications and fundamental significance, tailored synthesis of well-defined anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed highly reactive {001} facets has stimulated great research interest. In this work, surface-fluorinated anatase TiO2 nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by using an ionic liquid (IL) assisted hydrothermal synthetic route. TiCl4 is used as precursor, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim](+)[BF4](-)) as morphology-controlling agent. The anion of the IL plays a key role in controlling the crystallization process via a dissolution-recrystallization process. Compared with the benchmark material Degussa P25, the fluorinated anatase TiO2 nanocrystals exhibit superior photocatalytic activity. PMID:23670586

  4. The synthesis of TiO2 and TiO2-Pt and their application in the removal of Cr (VI).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Wei; Liu, Xiang-Hu; Zhang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    The deposition of noble metal on titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered as an effective strategy to improve the activity of TiO2. In this paper, TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via a sol-gel route, followed by heat treatment at elevated temperatures. TiO2-Pt catalyst was prepared by deposition of platinum (Pt) on the surface of as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 and TiO2-Pt were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible differential reflectance spectra and infrared spectroscopy. TiO2 and TiO2-Pt were used as heterogeneous catalysts for the removal of Cr (VI) under ultraviolet-light illumination. TiO2 prepared at low temperature had smaller particle size and higher specific surface area, and consequently had higher activity on the removal of Cr (VI). The Pt deposited on the surface of TiO2 favoured the separation of photo-produced electrons (e-) and holes (h+), inhibited the recombination of e- and h+, and enhanced Cr (VI) removal. However, its blocking of active sites also inhibited the removal of Cr (VI). The deposition of 1% (wt.%) Pt to TiO2 produced the optimum activity for the removal of Cr (VI). A lower pH favoured the adsorption of Cr (VI) on the surface of TiO2, and correspondingly enhanced the removal of Cr (VI). PMID:21780710

  5. Solvent-controlled synthesis and electrochemical lithium storage of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Wen, Zhenhai; Li, Jinghong

    2006-08-21

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured TiO2 of different morphologies and structures have been selectively synthesized via a convenient, low-temperature solvothermal route and following calcination. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods were used to characterize the morphology, crystalline structure, and specific surface area of these nanostructured TiO2. The formation of different morphologies, including nanowires and nanotubes, was achieved through a deliberate control of the cosolvent. In addition to the solvent-controlled procedures, another important feature of the synthesis in the present study was that either single-crystalline nanowires (TiO2-B) or polycrystalline nanotubes (anatase and TiO2-B) were achieved by heat treatment at 350 degrees C. The electrochemical performances of the nanowires and nanotubes were further explored in terms of their potential application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-insertion reactions involved in the two materials were elucidated by means of a galvanostatic method, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results suggest that both the crystalline structure and the unique 1-D morphology might be responsible for their favorable electrochemical properties. This work will be valuable for the understanding of the formation of nanostructured TiO2 by the wet-chemistry process and further applications. PMID:16903753

  6. Coexistence of an anatase/TiO2(B) heterojunction and an exposed (001) facet in TiO2 nanoribbon photocatalysts synthesized via a fluorine-free route and topotactic transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2014-05-21

    In this work, we report a novel approach to fabricate hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (HTMS) assembled by ultrathin nanoribbons where an anatase/TiO2(B) heterojunction and high energy facet coexist. The as-adopted approach involves (1) nonaqueous solvothermal treatment of a mixture of tetrabutyl titanate and acetic acid and (2) topotactical transformation into HTMS via thermal annealing. By this approach, the TiO2(B) phase usually synthesized from an alkaline treatment route could be initially formed. Subsequently, phase transition from TiO2(B) to anatase TiO2 occurs upon thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that such phase transition is accompanied by crystallographic orientation along the c-axis of anatase and TiO2(B) crystals, resulting in not only a coherent interface between two phases but also oriented attachment of anatase mesocrystals along the [001] direction, and finally high-energy (001) facet exposure. Interestingly, this work provides an alternative fluorine-free route for the synthesis of TiO2 crystals with high-energy (001) facet exposure. The structural analysis reveals that lattice-match induced topotactic transformation from TiO2(B) to anatase is the sole reason for the (001) facet exposure of anatase TiO2. The photocatalytic test for acetaldehyde decomposition shows that HTMS with anatase/TiO2(B) heterojunction and high-energy (001) facet exhibits superior photocatalytic efficiency compared with the relevant commercial product P25, which can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of large surface area, anatase/TiO2(B) heterojunction as well as high-energy facet exposure. PMID:24699768

  7. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-06-15

    The titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO(2) nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol-gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO(2) nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO(2) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO(2) nanorods and the commercial TiO(2) (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO(2) nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity. PMID:22497717

  8. One-Pot Synthesis of Mesoporous TiO2 Micropheres and Its Application for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Que, Ya-Ping; Mo, Li-E; Chen, Wang-Chao; Ding, Yong; Ma, Yan-Mei; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Lin-Hua; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-05-27

    TiO2 microspheres are of great interest for a great deal of applications, especially in the solar cell field. Because of their unique microstructure and light-scattering effect, TiO2 microsphere-based solar cells often exhibit superior photovoltaic performance. Hence, exploring new suitable TiO2 microspheres for high-efficiency solar cells is essential. In this work, we demonstrate a facile one-pot solvothermal approach for synthesis of TiO2 microspheres using acetone as solvent. The as-prepared TiO2 microspheres are composed of densely interconnected nanocrystals and possess a high specific surface area up to 138.47 m(2) g(-1). As the photoanode, the TiO2 microsphere-based DSSC gives higher dye loading and light adsorption ability as well as longer electron lifetime, resulting in higher short-circuit current value and superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared with Dyesol 18 nm TiO2 nanoparticle paste. Finally, the TiO2 microsphere-based DSSC were optimized by adding a TiO2 nanocrystal underlayer and TiCl4 post-treatment, giving a high PCE of 10.32%. PMID:25945694

  9. Electrospinning Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous TiO2 Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Qiao, Hui; Du, Yuanzhi; Chen, Chen; Li, Xiaolin; Cui, Jing; Kumar, Dnt; Wei, Qufu

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers in the anatase structure were successfully prepared via electrospinning technique followed by calcination process. The morphologies, crystal structure, surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of resulting TiO2 nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that calcination temperature had greatly influenced the morphologies of TiO2 nanofibers, but no obvious effect was noticed on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers. The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanofibers were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was observed that TiO2 nanofibers obtained by calcination at 500°C for 3 hours exhibited the most excellent photocatalytic activity. We present a novel and simple method to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers with high-photocatalytic activity. PMID:22619598

  10. Facile electrochemical synthesis of antimicrobial TiO2 nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Xing, Qi; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; He, Kun; Long, Fei; Low, Ke-Bin; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Zhao, Feng; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Friedrich, Craig; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2014-01-01

    Infection-related complications have been a critical issue for the application of titanium orthopedic implants. The use of Ag nanoparticles offers a potential approach to incorporate antimicrobial properties into the titanium implants. In this work, a novel and simple method was developed for synthesis of Ag (II) oxide deposited TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) using electrochemical anodization followed by Ag electroplating processes in the same electrolyte. The quantities of AgO nanoparticles deposited in TiNT were controlled by selecting different electroplating times and voltages. It was shown that AgO nanoparticles were crystalline and distributed throughout the length of the nanotubes. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests showed that the quantities of released Ag were less than 7 mg/L after 30 days at 37°C. Antimicrobial assay results show that the AgO-deposited TiNTs can effectively kill the Escherichia coli bacteria. Although the AgO-deposited TiNTs showed some cytotoxicity, it should be controllable by optimization of the electroplating parameters and incorporation of cell growth factor. The results of this study indicated that antimicrobial properties could be added to nanotextured medical implants through a simple and cost effective method. PMID:25429214

  11. Low temperature synthesis of iodine-doped TiO 2 nanocrystallites with enhanced visible-induced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Fu, Ji-Wen; Tao, Xia; Li, Xin; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-03-01

    Iodine-doped TiO 2 nanocrystallites (denoted as I-TNCs) were prepared via a newly developed triblock copolymer-mediated sol-gel method at a temperature of 393 K. I-doping, crystallization and the formation of porous structure have been simultaneously achieved. The obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the as-prepared I-TNCs possessed a diameter of ca. 5 nm with anatase crystalline structure and a specific surface area of over 200 m 2 g -1. The presence of iodine expanded the photoresponse in visible light range, and led to enrich in surface hydroxyl group on the TiO 2 surface. Compared with the commercial photocatalyst P25, the I-TNCs significantly enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and the I-TNCs with 2.5 mol% doping ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic activity.

  12. Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ta-Chuan; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The main purposes of this study are replacing conventional hydro-thermal method by microwave heating using water as reaction medium to rapidly synthesize TiO2.Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was hydrolyzed in water. The solution is subsequently processed with microwave heating for crystal growth. The reaction time could be shortened into few minutes. Then we chose different acids as dispersion agents to prepare TiO2 paste for investigating the effects of dispersion on the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photovoltaic performance of the microwave-assisted synthesized TiO2 achieved power conversion efficiency of 6.31% under AM 1.5 G condition (100 mW/cm2). This PCE value is compatible with that of the devices made from commercial TiO2.

  13. A facile low temperature synthesis of TiO2 nanorods for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalan, A. E.; Rashad, M. M.; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantú, Mónica; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Titania (TiO2) nanorods have been synthesized with controlled size for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via hydrothermal route at low hydrothermal temperature of 100 °C for 24 h. The titania nanorods were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM/HRTEM, UV-vis Spectroscopy, FTIR and BET specific surface area ( S BET), as well as pore-size distribution by BJH. The results indicated that the bulk traps and the surface states within the TiO2 nanorods films have enhanced the efficiency of DSSCs. The size of the titania nanorods was 6.7 nm in width and 22 nm in length. The high surface area can provide more sites for dye adsorption, while the fast photoelectron-transfer channel can enhance the photogenerated electron transfer to complete the circuit. The specific surface area S BET was 77.14 m2 g-1 at the synthesis conditions. However, the band gap energy of the obtained titania nanorods was 3.2 eV. The oriented nanorods with appropriate lengths are beneficial in improving the electron transport property and thus leading to the increase of photocurrent, together enhancing the power conversion efficiency. A nearly quantitative absorbed photon-to-electrical current conversion achieved upon excitation at wave length of 550 nm and the power efficiency was enhanced from 5.6 % for commercial TiO2 nanoparticles Degussa (P25) cells to 7.2 % for TiO2 nanorods cells under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm-2). The TiO2 cells performance was improved due to their high surface area, hierarchically mesoporous structures and fast electron-transfer rate compared with the Degussa (P25).

  14. Photo and Chemical Reduction of Copper onto Anatase-Type TiO2 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Surface Hydroxyl Groups as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic efficiency of anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the sol-gel low-temperature method, were enhanced by a combined process of copper reduction and surface hydroxyl groups enhancement. UV-light-assisted photo and NaBH4 -assisted chemical reduction methods were used for deposition of copper onto TiO2 . The surface hydroxyl groups of TiO2 were enhanced with the assistance of NaOH modification. The prepared catalysts were immobilized on glass plates and used as the fixed-bed systems for the removal of phenazopyridine as a model drug contaminant under visible light irradiation. NaOH-modified Cu/TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated higher photocatalytic efficiency than that of pure TiO2 due to the extending of the charge carriers lifetime and enhancement of the adsorption capacity of TiO2 toward phenazopyridine. The relationship of structure and performance of prepared nanoparticles has been established by using various techniques, such as XRD, XPS, TEM, EDX, XRF, TGA, DRS and PL. The effects of preparation variables, including copper content, reducing agents rate (NaBH4 concentration and UV light intensity) and NaOH concentration were investigated on the photocatalytic efficiency of NaOH-modified Cu/TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:25809844

  15. Efficient charge separation based on type-II g-C3N4/TiO2-B nanowire/tube heterostructure photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongmei; Xie, Yinghao; Sun, Xiaoqin; Lv, Meilin; Wu, Fangfang; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-07-14

    Separation of photo-generated charges has played a crucial role in controlling the actual performance of a photocatalytic system. Here we have successfully fabricated g-C3N4/TiO2-B nanowire/tube heterostructures through facile urea degradation reactions. Owing to the effective separation of photo-generated charges associated with the type-II band alignment and intimate interfacial contacts between g-C3N4 and TiO2-B nanowires/tubes, such heterostructures demonstrate an improved photocatalytic activity over individual moieties. Synthetic conditions such as hydrothermal temperatures for the preparation of TiO2-B and the weight ratio of TiO2-B to urea were systematically investigated. A high crystallinity of TiO2-B as well as the proper growth of g-C3N4 on its surface are critical factors for a better performance. Our simple synthetic method and the prolonged lifetime of photo-generated charges signify the importance of type-II heterostructures in the photocatalytic applications. PMID:26102218

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of Hemin (chloro(protoporhyinato)iron(III)) anchored TiO2 photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation: A surface modification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, L. Gomathi; ArunaKumari, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    TiO2 was prepared by sol-gel method through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 and its surface derivatization was carried out with molecular catalyst like Hemin (chloro(protoporhyinato)iron(III)). Catalyst was characterized by various analytical techniques like UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, FE-SEM and XRD. The anchoring of Hemin on titania surface is confirmed by FT-IR spectra through the linkage of Odbnd Csbnd Osbnd Ti bond and also by TGA-DSC and elemental analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the surface modified catalyst is tested for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) as a model compound under UV light. The Hemin impregnated TiO2 (H-TiO2) in presence of H2O2 shows an excellent photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2, Hemin, H2O2, TiO2/H2O2, and Hemin/H2O2 systems. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity is attributed to the presence of iron (III) porphyrin ring on the TiO2 surface, which reduces the electron-hole recombination rate and also by acting as a mediator for continuous production of enriched concentration of hydroxyl radicals along with various other reactive free radicals.

  17. Effect of synthesis conditions on photocatalytic activities of nanoparticulate TiO 2 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Sun; Taicheng An; Shungang Wan; Guiying Li; Ningzhong Bao; Xiaohong Hu; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, design of experiments (DOE) was used to find an optimal combination for the factors affecting the preparation, morphology and catalytic activity of nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films synthesized by sol–gel method. Nine TiO2 thin films were prepared onto indium–tin oxide (ITO) substrates by changing four operating parameters at three levels. The four operating parameters are the volume

  18. Sol gel synthesis of SiC TiO2 nanoparticles for microwave processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Cerneaux; Xiangyuan Xiong; George P. Simon; Yi-Bing Cheng; Leone Spiccia

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach has been explored to facilitate microwave processing of anatase TiO2, a material that is normally inert in a microwave field. This involves production of core-shell silicon carbide (SiC)-titania (TiO2) structures in which the SiC exhibits significant microwave loss, and thus a susceptibility to heating via microwave radiation, as well as a high thermal conductivity. SiC nanoparticles were

  19. Synthesis and characterization of ultrahigh crystalline TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Alam; Jung, Hee-Tae; Yang, O-Bong

    2006-04-01

    Ultrahigh crystalline TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by hydrogen peroxide treatment of very low crystalline titania nanotubes (TiNT-as prepared), which were prepared with synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles by hydrothermal methods in an aqueous NaOH solution. Thus, prepared ultrahigh crystalline TiO2 nanotubes (TiNT-H2O2) showed comparable crystallinity with high crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles. The details of nanotubular structures were elucidated by high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in transmission electron microscopy (TEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and BET surface area. TiNT-H2O2 was found to be a multiwalled anatase phase only with an average outer diameter of approximately 8 nm and an inner diameter of approximately 5 nm and grown along the [001] direction to 500-700 nm long with an interlayer fringe distance of ca. 0.78 nm. The photocatalytic activity of TiNT-H2O2 was about 2-fold higher than those of TiNT-as prepared, synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles, and TiO2-P25 (Degussa) in the photocatalytic oxidation of trimethylamine gas under UV irradiation. PMID:16570964

  20. Facile synthesis of porous TiO2 nanospheres and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiarui; Ren, Haibo; Liu, Xiaosi; Li, Xuexue; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Uniform and monodisperse porous TiO2 nanospheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption-desorption, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. The BET surface area of the porous TiO2 nanospheres was calculated to be 26.1 cm2 g-1. In addition, the obtained porous TiO2 nanospheres were used as catalyst to photodegrade methylene blue, Rhodamine B, methyl orange, p-nitrophenol, and eosin B. Compared to commercial TiO2 powder, the as-prepared porous TiO2 nanospheres exhibited higher catalytic activities due to their large surface areas and porous nanostructures. The photocatalytic reaction rate constant of the porous TiO2 nanospheres in photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue and Rhodamine B under simulated solar light were calculated as 0.0545 min-1 and 0.0579 min-1, respectively. Moreover, the catalyst was demonstrated to have good stability and reusability.

  1. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene-supported TiO2 (B) nanosheets with enhanced lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Chu, Qingxin; Li, Huiyan; Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Lu, Baoping; Ke, Xi; Li, Jing; Tang, Jilin

    2013-11-01

    A facile process was developed for the synthesis of graphene-supported TiO2 (B) nanosheets (GTBN) composite based on the hydrothermal treatment titanium (III) chloride and graphene oxide in an ethylene glycol. The morphology and microstructure of the composites were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained GTBN show a high thermal stability and the phase transformation of TiO2 (B) to anatase can be prevented by graphene after pyrolysis of GTBN at 350°C for 2h. Furthermore, GTBN exhibited high rate performance and stability of lithium ion batteries, due to the enhanced conductivity of the electrode and accommodation to volume/strain changes during lithium insertion-extraction. PMID:23972503

  2. A route for the synthesis of Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with a very low band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, T.; Navas, J.; Alcántara, R.; Fernández-Lorenzo, C.; Gallardo, J. J.; Blanco, G.; Martín-Calleja, J.

    2013-05-01

    This letter presents a method for the synthesis of copper-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The semiconductors synthesized were characterized in order to know the composition, crystalline structure, the band gap energy, etc. The nanoparticles obtained have a very low band gap (1.6 eV for 7.5% Cu-doping) compared with the values reported in the literature. The results obtained revealed that internal doping of the TiO2 structure is produced, and that the predominant crystalline phase is anatase. The semiconductors synthesized would be of great use in photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications due to the high specific surface and the low band gap energy values.

  3. Light-induced efficient molecular oxygen activation on a Cu(II)-grafted TiO2/graphene photocatalyst for phenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Guo, Liang-Hong; Wang, Dabin; Zhao, Lixia; Wan, Bin

    2015-01-28

    An efficient photocatalytic process involves two closely related steps: charge separation and the subsequent surface redox reaction. Herein, a ternary hybrid photocatalytic system was designed and fabricated by anchoring Cu(II) clusters onto a TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite. Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization revealed that both TiO2 nanoparticles and Cu(II) clusters were highly dispersed on a graphene sheet with intimate interfacial contact. Compared with pristine TiO2, the TiO2/RGO/Cu(II) composite yielded an almost 3-fold enhancement in the photodegradation rate toward phenol degradation under UV irradiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra and electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the improved photocatalytic activity of this ternary system benefitted from the synergetic effect between RGO and Cu(II), which facilitates the interfacial charge transfer and simultaneously achieves in situ generation of H2O2 via two-electron reduction of O2. These results highlight the importance to harmonize the charge separation and surface reaction process in achieving high photocatalytic efficiency for practical application. PMID:25556692

  4. Radiation-induced synthesis of Fe-doped TiO 2: Characterization and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdon, Sylwia; Góralski, Jacek; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Perkowski, Jan; Rogowski, Jacek; Szadkowska-Nicze, Magdalena

    2012-03-01

    Fe-doped TiO 2 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation, using TiO 2 P25 Degussa as a precursor and Fe(NO 3) 3 as a dopant, followed by irradiation with an electron beam or ?-rays. Surface properties of Fe/TiO 2 samples were examined by BET, XRD, ToF-SIMS, and TPR methods. The photocatalytic activity towards destruction of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), in aqueous solutions was higher for the irradiated Fe/TiO 2 catalysts than for bare TiO 2 P25 or that calcined at 500 °C. The results show that irradiated catalysts exhibit a more uniform texture with high dispersion of iron species. An enhancement of the activity of irradiated Fe/TiO 2 systems can be attributed to the synergetic effects of small crystallite size and homogenous distribution of iron species including FeTiO 3 phase.

  5. Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by mechanochemical synthesis and their photochemical activity studied by EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billik, P.; Plesch, G.; Brezová, V.; Kuchta, L.'.; Valko, M.; Mazúr, M.

    2007-05-01

    Anatase TiO2 has been prepared by mechanochemical synthesis using TiOSO4·xH2O and Na2CO3 as starting reactants. The reaction was performed in high-energy ball mill using steel and corundum jars, respectively. The final products were obtained by annealing the milled powder in the temperature range of 300 700 °C and subsequently by washing out the water-soluble byproduct Na2SO4·xH2O. When steel jars were used, the annealing in the range of 300 600 °C led to anatase. For products milled in corundum, the stability of anatase increased up to 700 °C. Transition electron microscopy (TEM) showed that crystallites with a size in the range of 20 50 nm with equiaxed morphology were obtained after milling in corundum and annealing at 600 and 700 °C. The process of photoinduced reactive hydroxyl radical generation in aerated aqueous titania suspensions was studied by EPR spectroscopy using spin trapping technique. The presence of iron impurities in the samples milled in steel substantially decreases the radical formation. The rate of radical formation is substantially affected by particle size development of TiO2 nanopowders. The product milled in corundum and annealed at 700 °C outperforms more than twice the photochemical activity of TiO2 Degussa P25 standard.

  6. Synthesis of Nanophase TiO2 by Ion Beam Sputtering and Cold Condensation Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Saraf; S. I. Patil; S. B. Ogale; S. R. Sainkar; S. T. Kshirsager

    1998-01-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO2 have been synthesized by an ion beam sputtering-cold condensation (IBS-CC) technique. A sintered TiO2 was sputtered by an ion beam (Kaufman source, 900 eV, Ar+ ions) and the ejected atoms\\/radicals were made to condense on a Si(l00) substrate held at -50°C. X-ray diffraction data showed that the average particle size in the as-deposited material is about 3.5

  7. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous TiO 2 nanostructured films prepared by a modified sol–gel method for application in dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Muniz; M. S. Góes; J. J. Silva; J. A. Varela; E. Joanni; R. Parra; P. R. Bueno

    2011-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 colloidal dispersions were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 200°C from titanium isopropoxide gels modified with acetic acid in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant. Absolute ethanol, anhydrous terpineol and ethyl cellulose were added to this anatase dispersion resulting in a 23wt% TiO2 paste. Mesoporous films for application as working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared by the

  8. Uniform TiO2-SiO2 hollow nanospheres: Synthesis, characterization and enhanced adsorption-photodegradation of azo dyes and phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Na; Liang, Yimai; Lan, Shi; Liu, Lu; Ji, Guijuan; Gan, Shucai; Zou, Haifeng; Xu, Xuechun

    2014-06-01

    TiO2-SiO2 hollow nanospheres with remarkable enhanced photocatalytic performance have been fabricated by sol-gel method. The hollow sphere possesses both high phototcatalytic activity and adsorption capability. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS, BJH and TGA/DSC. The experiment results show that, the photocatalyst calcined at 500 °C with Ti/Si ratio of 5:1 (denoted as 5T/S-500) displayed superiorities in both textural and functional properties with the enhanced degradation efficiency on azo dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange) and phenol. The high adsorption capability of organic poisonous contaminants onto 5T/S-500 in aqueous solution demonstrated that the photocatalyst can remove the contaminants from water effectively even without illumination. The TEM and SEM morphologies demonstrated unique hollow and coarse structure of 5T/S-500. Structural analysis showed that Si was doped into the lattice of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles can work as a surface modifier on TiO2. The surface area of 5T/S-500 is 1105 m2/g, 14.5 times as great as that of the pure hollow TiO2 nanosphere, confirms the effect of SiO2 on the improvement of specific surface area. The high photocatalytic activities and high adsorption ability for organic poisonous contaminants demonstrate that the nanocomposite of TiO2-SiO2 is a promising candidate material for future treatment of contaminated water.

  9. Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to mussel hemocytes and gill cells in vitro: Influence of synthesis method, crystalline structure, size and additive.

    PubMed

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Berhanu, Deborah; Howard, Kieren T; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Oron, Miriam; Reip, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2015-08-01

    Increasing the production and applications of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has led to grow concerns about the consequences for the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of a set of TiO2 NPs on the viability of mussel hemocytes and gill cells using neutral red and thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assays. For this, we compared the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs (0.1-100?mg Ti/L) produced by different techniques: rutile NPs (60?nm) produced by milling and containing disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (DSLS), rutile NPs (10, 40 and 60?nm) produced by wet chemistry and anatase/rutile NPs (?100?nm) produced by plasma synthesis. The commercially available P25 anatase/rutile NPs (10-20?nm) were also tested. Exposures were performed in parallel with their respective bulk forms and the cytotoxicity of the additive DSLS was also tested. Z potential values in distilled water indicated different stabilities depending on the NP type and all NPs tested formed agglomerates/aggregates in cell culture media. In general, TiO2 NPs showed a relatively low and dose-dependent toxicity for both cell models with the two assays tested. NPs produced by milling showed the highest effects, probably due to the toxicity of DSLS. Size-dependent toxicity was found for NPs produced by wet chemistry (10?nm?>?40?nm and 60?nm). All TiO2 NPs tested were more toxic than bulk forms excepting for plasma produced ones, which were the least toxic TiO2 tested. The mixture bulk anatase/rutile TiO2 was more toxic than bulk rutile TiO2. In conclusion, the toxicity of TiO2 NPs varied with the mode of synthesis, crystalline structure and size of NPs and can also be influenced by the presence of additives in the suspensions. PMID:25188678

  10. TiO2-B/anatase core-shell heterojunction nanowires for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Khare, Ankur; Aydil, Eray S

    2011-11-01

    Fast separation and spatial control of electrons and holes after photogeneration is important in photocatalysis. Ideally, after photogeneration, electrons and holes must be segregated to different parts of the photocatalyst to take part in separate oxidation and reduction reactions. One way to achieve this is by building junctions into the catalyst with built-in chemical potential differences that tend to separate the electron and the hole into two different regions of the catalyst. In this work, we sought to accomplish this by controllably forming junctions between different phases of TiO(2). A synthesis method has been developed to prepare TiO(2)-B core and anatase shell core-shell nanowires. We control the anatase phase surface coverage on the TiO(2)-B core and show that the maximum photocatalytic activity is obtained when the solution containing the reactants can contact both the anatase and TiO(2)-B phases. The photocatalytic activity drops both with bare TiO(2)-B nanowires and with completely anatase covered TiO(2)-B nanowires. In contrast, nanowires partially covered with anatase phase gives the highest photocatalytic activity. The improved photocatalytic activity is attributed to the effective electron-hole separation at the junction between the anatase and TiO(2)-B phases. PMID:22008419

  11. TiO2-Al2O3 binary mixed oxide surfaces for photocatalytic NOx abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, Asli Melike; Polat, Meryem; Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Say, Zafer; Y?ld?r?m, Cansu; Birer, Özgür; Ozensoy, Emrah

    2014-11-01

    TiO2-Al2O3 binary oxide surfaces were utilized in order to develop an alternative photocatalytic NOx abatement approach, where TiO2 sites were used for ambient photocatalytic oxidation of NO with O2 and alumina sites were exploited for NOx storage. Chemical, crystallographic and electronic structure of the TiO2-Al2O3 binary oxide surfaces were characterized (via BET surface area measurements, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and DR-UV-Vis Spectroscopy) as a function of the TiO2 loading in the mixture as well as the calcination temperature used in the synthesis protocol. 0.5 Ti/Al-900 photocatalyst showed remarkable photocatalytic NOx oxidation and storage performance, which was found to be much superior to that of a Degussa P25 industrial benchmark photocatalyst (i.e. 160% higher NOx storage and 55% lower NO2(g) release to the atmosphere). Our results indicate that the onset of the photocatalytic NOx abatement activity is concomitant to the switch between amorphous to a crystalline phase with an electronic band gap within 3.05-3.10 eV; where the most active photocatalyst revealed predominantly rutile phase together and anatase as the minority phase.

  12. Preparation and characterization of TiO 2 photocatalysts supported on various rigid supports (glass, quartz and stainless steel). Comparative studies of photocatalytic activity in water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fernández; G. Lassaletta; V. M. Jiménez; A. Justo; A. R. González-Elipe; J.-M. Herrmann; H. Tahiri; Y. Ait-Ichou

    1995-01-01

    In the present study TiO2 has been supported on several rigid substrates. Deposition on glass and quartz was carried out by a dip coating procedure and the deposition on stainless steel by an electrophoretic deposition process. The resulting materials have been characterized by XPS, SEM\\/EDX, XRD and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The materials were then tested for the photocatalytic degradation of

  13. Non-solvolytic synthesis of aqueous soluble TiO2 nanoparticles and real-time dynamic measurements of the nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Rahme, Kamil; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A; Slater, Nigel Kh

    2012-01-01

    Highly aqueously dispersible (soluble) TiO2 nanoparticles are usually synthesized by a solution-based sol-gel (solvolysis/condensation) process, and no direct precipitation of titania has been reported. This paper proposes a new approach to synthesize stable TiO2 nanoparticles by a non-solvolytic method - direct liquid phase precipitation at room temperature. Ligand-capped TiO2 nanoparticles are more readily solubilized compared to uncapped TiO2 nanoparticles, and these capped materials show distinct optical absorbance/emission behaviors. The influence of ligands, way of reactant feeding, and post-treatment on the shape, size, crystalline structure, and surface chemistry of the TiO2 nanoparticles has been thoroughly investigated by the combined use of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). It is found that all above variables have significant effects on the size, shape, and dispersivity of the final TiO2 nanoparticles. For the first time, real-time UV-vis spectroscopy and PL are used to dynamically detect the formation and growth of TiO2 nanoparticles in solution. These real-time measurements show that the precipitation process begins to nucleate after an initial inhibition period of about 1?h, thereafter a particle growth occurs and reaches the maximum point after 2?h. The synthesis reaction is essentially completed after 4?h. PMID:22676412

  14. Synthesis and visible-light-induced catalytic activity of Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Yong Nam; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis and visible-light-induced catalytic activity of Ag(2)S-coupled TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) and TiO(2) nanowires (NWs). Through a simple wet chemical process from a mixture of peroxo titanic acid (PTA) solution, thiourea and AgAc, a composite of Ag(2)S NPs and TiO(2) NPs with sizes of less than 7 nm was formed. When the NP composite was further treated with NaOH solution followed by annealing at ambient conditions, a new nanocomposite material comprising Ag(2)S NPs on TiO(2) NWs was created. Due to the coupling with such a low bandgap material as Ag(2)S, the TiO(2) nanocomposites could have a visible-light absorption capability much higher than that of pure TiO(2). As a result, the synthesized Ag(2)S/TiO(2) nanocomposites exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency for the decomposition of methyl orange than commercial TiO(2) (Degussa P25, Germany) under visible light. PMID:19946150

  15. Synthesis and visible-light-induced catalytic activity of Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Yong Nam; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis and visible-light-induced catalytic activity of Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and TiO2 nanowires (NWs). Through a simple wet chemical process from a mixture of peroxo titanic acid (PTA) solution, thiourea and AgAc, a composite of Ag2S NPs and TiO2 NPs with sizes of less than 7 nm was formed. When the NP composite was further treated with NaOH solution followed by annealing at ambient conditions, a new nanocomposite material comprising Ag2S NPs on TiO2 NWs was created. Due to the coupling with such a low bandgap material as Ag2S, the TiO2 nanocomposites could have a visible-light absorption capability much higher than that of pure TiO2. As a result, the synthesized Ag2S/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency for the decomposition of methyl orange than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25, Germany) under visible light.

  16. The Comparative Photodegradation Activities of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Using UV Alone and TiO2-Derived Photocatalysts in Methanol Soil Washing Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Tan; Lu, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs. PMID:25254664

  17. A systematic study on visible-light N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst obtained from ethylenediamine by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Hao, Yubao; Lu, Haiqiang; Liang, Liping; Wang, Yuanyang; Qiu, Jianhao; Shi, Xianchao; Wang, Ying; Yao, Jianfeng

    2015-07-01

    N-doped titania is prepared using ethylenediamine as the nitrogen source by a sol-gel method. The preparation conditions, such as the volume ratio of ethylenediamine to sol, and the heat temperature on the nitrogen doping are systematically examined. UV results indicate the N-doped TiO2 catalysts have enhanced absorption in the visible light region, and exhibit high activities on the visible light photocatalytic reactions to the hydrogen production and methyl orange degradation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR results reveal that N species have been incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at a high N-doping level. N-doped titania prepared with an ethylenediamine to sol volume ratio of 1:1 and sintering temperature of 500 °C performed the highest hydrogen production rate (2.98 mmol g-1 h-1) and best methyl orange degradation performance. A conceivable structure change of N-doped TiO2 sintered at different temperature was proposed.

  18. Synthesis of TiO2 nanocoral structures in ever-changing aqueous reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Tetsuro; Jin, Ren-Hua; Terayama, Yuki; Takahara, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Takamasa; Ito, Seishiro; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2012-02-01

    A far-from-equilibrium strategy is developed to synthesize coral-like nanostructures of TiO(2) on a variety of surfaces. TiO(2) nanocoral structures consist of anatase base film and rutile nanowire layers, and they are continuously formed on substrates immersed in aqueous TiOSO(4)-H(2)O(2). The sequential deposition of TiO(2) starts with hydrolysis and condensation reactions of titanium peroxocomplexes in the aqueous phase, resulting in deposition of amorphous film. The film serves as adhesive interface on which succeeding growth of rutile nanowires to occur. This initial deposition reaction is accompanied by shift in pH of the reaction media, which is favorable condition for the growth of rutile nanocrystals. During the growth of rutile nanocoral layers, the amorphous base films are transformed to anatase phase. These sequential deposition reactions occur at temperatures as low as 80 °C, and the mild synthetic condition allows the use of a wide range of substrates such as ITO (indium tin oxide), glass, and even organic polymer films. The thickness of nanocoral layer is controllable by repeating the growth reaction of rutile nanocorals. TiO(2) nanocorals show photocatalytic activity as demonstrated by site-specific reduction of Ag(I) ions, which proceeds preferentially on the rutile nanowire layer. The rutile nanowire layer also shows photocatalytic decomposition of acetaldehyde, which is promoted upon increase of the thickness of the nanowire layer. The use of temporally transforming reaction media allows the formation of biphasic TiO(2) nanocoral structures, and the concept of nonequilibrium synthetic approach would be widely applicable to developing structurally graded inorganic nanointerfaces. PMID:22214471

  19. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Jia, Li; Wu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Li-Qiang; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-01-21

    N-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles modified with carbon (denoted N-TiO(2)/C) were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment in the presence of L-lysine, which acts as a ligand to control the nanocrystal growth and as a source of nitrogen and carbon. As-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation at ?? 400 nm. The results show that N-TiO(2)/C nanocomposites increase absorption in the visible light region and exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2), commercial P25 and previously reported N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts. We have demonstrated that the nitrogen was doped into the lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of the photocatalysts. N-doping narrows the band gap and C-modification enhances the visible light harvesting and accelerates the separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes. As a consequence, the photocatalytic activity is significantly improved. The molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) and the pH of the hydrothermal reaction solution are important factors affecting the photocatalytic activity of the N-TiO(2)/C; the optimum molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) is 8 and the optimum pH is ca. 4, at which the catalyst exhibits the highest reactivity. Our findings demonstrate that the as-obtained N-TiO(2)/C photocatalyst is a better and more promising candidate than well studied N-doped TiO(2) alternatives as visible light photocatalysts for potential applications in environmental purification. PMID:22143193

  20. A revised algorithm for calculating TiO2 from Clementine UVVIS data: A synthesis of rock, soil, and remotely sensed TiO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Elphic, Rick C.

    2003-02-01

    Investigating mare basalt compositions, at both the sample and remote-sensing level for the Apollo and Luna mare sites, reveals the need for a more complex regression procedure than previously proposed in order to extract accurate TiO2 concentrations from Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data. The TiO2 algorithm of Lucey and coworkers is modified by using two different sets of regression parameters to relate measured regolith compositions from sampling locations to the CSR properties of these sites. One regression trend fits the majority of Apollo data, and the second regression is a fit to the Apollo 11, Luna 16, and Luna 24 data, which were considered to be anomalous in previous TiO2 calibrations. These three sites have unusually low albedo compared to other mare landing sites, and some 32% of nearside mare regions appear to share this characteristic. Possible reasons for these differences related to proximity of the other sites to mare-highland boundaries are discussed. Using the dual-regression method, we find (1) that TiO2 concentrations calculated for the basaltic landing sites faithfully reproduce a bimodal distribution as seen in the sample data, (2) that when coupled with the effects of other thermal neutron absorbers, Ti concentrations are more consistent with observed epithermal-to-thermal neutron-flux ratios than are previous Clementine-based derivations of TiO2 for basaltic regions, and (3) that basalts of intermediate-TiO2 concentrations occur most frequently in the Oceanus Procellarum region and that these intermediate concentrations appear to be inherent to the flows underlying the regolith and presumably to the basalt source regions.

  1. Bamboo leaf-assisted formation of carbon/nitrogen co-doped anatase TiO2 modified with silver and graphitic carbon nitride: novel and green synthesis and cooperative photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhifeng; Liu, Dong; Jiang, Deli; Wei, Wei; Qian, Kun; Chen, Min; Xie, Jimin

    2014-09-28

    We report a novel synthesis approach employing bamboo leaves as sources of both the C/N dopant and reductant to the formation of C/N co-doped TiO2 modified with Ag and g-C3N4 (Ag/CN-TiO2@g-C3N4). In this case, the ternary composite has a hierarchical structure and a large surface area, which increases the contact area of reactants. Degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and hydrogen generation were carried out to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples under visible light irradiation. It is found that with respect to single and binary catalysts, the Ag/CN-TiO2@g-C3N4 ternary composite shows the highest photocatalytic activity (degradation of RhB, H2 evolution from water splitting) as a result of the fast generation, separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers, which was evidenced by photoluminescence measurements and free radical/hole scavenging experiments. At last, a possible photocatalytic mechanism under visible light irradiation was proposed. The novel and green synergistic approach presented here could provide a facile yet effective method for designing other visible light active non-metal co-doped TiO2 based photocatalysts with enhanced activity and high chemical stability. PMID:25102976

  2. Synthesis, characterization and effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation and photocatalytic activity of Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadanian, M.; Reisi-Vanani, A.; Majedi, A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel copper and sulfur codoped TiO 2 photocatalyst was synthesized by modified sol-gel method using titanium(IV) isopropoxide, CuCl 2·2H 2O and thiourea as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The XRD results showed undoped and Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles only include anatase phase. Effect of calcination temperature showed rutile phase appears in 650 and 700 °C for undoped and 0.1% Cu,S-codoped TiO 2, respectively. The SEM analysis revealed the doping of Cu and S does not leave any change in morphology of the catalyst surface. The increase of copper doping enhanced "red-shift" in the UV-vis absorption spectra. The TEM images confirmed the dopants suppressed the growth of TiO 2 grains. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested for degradation of methyl orange (MO) solutions. The results showed photocatalytic activity of the catalysts with 0.05% Cu,0.05% S and 0.1% Cu,0.05% S were higher than that of other catalysts under ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiation, respectively. Because of synergetic effect of S and Cu, the Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 catalyst has higher activity than undoped and Cu or S doped TiO 2 catalysts.

  3. Synthesis of TiO2/GO composite film via an electrochemical route.

    PubMed

    He, Yunqiu; Wang, Ruihua; Zhang, Qiong; Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Linjiang; Hu, Donghu

    2010-11-01

    A nano-structured film composed of TiO2 and reduced graphite oxide (GO) was synthesized on ITO glass via a typical electrochemical route. A mixed solvent of Ti(SO4)2 and GO was prepared, with the addition of H2O2, HNO3 and DMF at different ratio. A setup of two electrodes of ITO glass in a plastic cell and an electrochemical analyzer is used for the film forming. The film is characterized with a microstructure of GO plates being perpendicular to the glass substrate, since GO in the electrolyte solvent is separated as small plates at about several nanometers in diameter. TiO2 is found being deposited between these GO plates. This microstructure is quite different from the film formed by normal deposition, where the GO plates are generally parallel to the substrate. The oxygen containing groups of C=O, C-O-C and C-OH on the GO surface are reduced because of neighboring to TiO2, it means two phases being bonded to each other at the interface. The photoelectric current of the composite film is compared with the pure TiO2 film, the former one is almost one time higher than the latter one. The degradation of methyl orange of two kinds of film is also analyzed under the irradiation of ultraviolet light. The photocatalytic activity of two kinds of film presents the same trend of variation as that of photoelectric current. These results suggest that the photoexcited electrons of TiO2 may quickly transfer to the glass substrate through the reduced GO neighbor, that owns a better conductivity, and so far decrease the recovery of excited electron-hole. The unordinary microstructure of the composite film may favor both to the electron transmission between the GO and ITO glass substrate, and to the light excitation of TiO2. The microstructure of different films was studies by AFM, XPS, FESEM. The photo-electrochemical property was measured by an electrochemical instrument Model CHI660C with Blupoint4 as a UV light source. PMID:21137873

  4. Functionalization of electrospun magnetically separable TiO 2 -coated SrFe 12 O 19 nanofibers: strongly effective photocatalyst and magnetic separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cong-Ju Li; Jiao-Na Wang; Xiu-Yan Li; Lian-Lian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Magnetically separable TiO2-coated SrFe12O19 electrospun nanofibers were obtained successfully by means of sol–gel, electrospinning, and coating technology, followed\\u000a by heat treatment at 550–650 °C for 3 h. The average diameter of the electrospun fibers was 500–600 nm. The fibers were characterized\\u000a by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and vibrating sample\\u000a magnetometer (VSM). The optimized calcining temperature was

  5. Synthesis of iron-doped TiO2 for degradation of reactive Orange16

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study the optimum conditions for preparing the iron-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. Samples were synthesized by sol–gel impregnation method. Three effective parameters were optimized using Taguchi method, consisted of: (i) atomic ratios of Fe to Ti; (ii) sintering temperature; (iii) sintering time. The characterization of samples was determined using X-ray diffraction, BET- specific surface area, UV- Vis reflectance spectra (DRS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD patterns of the samples indicated the existence of anatase crystal phase in structure. UV- Vis reflectance spectra showed an enhancement in light absorbance in the visible region (wavelength?>?400 nm) for iron-doped samples. The photocatalytic activity of samples was investigated by the degradation of RO 16 (RO 16) dye under UV irradiation. The results illustrated that the photocatalytic activity of iron-doped TiO2 was more than pure TiO2, because of the smaller crystal size, grater BET surface area and higher light absorption ability. PMID:24405975

  6. Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Masakatsu; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke; Ohmori, Akira

    2014-08-01

    Anatase (A-) TiO2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO2 without HAp, TiO2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO2+30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed.

  7. Sol gel synthesis of SiC TiO2 nanoparticles for microwave processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerneaux, Sophie; Xiong, Xiangyuan; Simon, George P.; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Spiccia, Leone

    2007-02-01

    A novel approach has been explored to facilitate microwave processing of anatase TiO2, a material that is normally inert in a microwave field. This involves production of core-shell silicon carbide (SiC)-titania (TiO2) structures in which the SiC exhibits significant microwave loss, and thus a susceptibility to heating via microwave radiation, as well as a high thermal conductivity. SiC nanoparticles were coated with TiO2 using a sol-gel process, involving the hydrolysis of titanium(IV) isopropoxide. Heat treatment of the novel core-shell nanostructure carried out in a conventional furnace and a microwave oven revealed that crystallization of the titania shell to anatase phase occurred at quite different temperatures, viz. 450 °C and 190 ± 10 °C, respectively. A range of microstructural and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques were used to characterize the different materials obtained from the two annealing methods. The relationship between structure and resultant physical properties of these core-shell materials and their behaviour in a microwave field is discussed.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of carbon modified TiO2 nanotube and photocatalytic activity on methylene blue under sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinchang; Wang, Yongqian; Kong, Junhan; Jia, Hanxiang; Wang, Zhengshu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon modified TiO2 nanotube was successfully synthesized via anodic oxidation method and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegrading methylene blue. The full width at half maximum of carbon modified TiO2 nanotube is smaller than that of pristine TiO2 nanotube, indicating the fact that carbon modifying leads to the increase of TiO2 crystallinity. TiO2 nanotube modified by carbon has a great enhancement on visible light absorption while contrasting with the pristine TiO2 nanotube. A tentative mechanism for the enhancement of sunlight absorption is proposed.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of TiO 2 and Fe/TiO 2 nanoparticles and their performance for photocatalytic degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chu, Hsin; Tseng, Ting-Ke

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of nano-sized TiO 2 and Fe/TiO 2 prepared by a sol-gel method was characterized in this study. The synthesized photocatalysts were used for the photodegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE). From X-ray powder diffraction data, the crystal phase presents a mixture of anatase and rutile with anatase the dominant phase. As seen in TEM images, the crystallites of photocatalysts are spherical particles with a crystallite size about 10-20 nm. UV-vis absorption spectra of Fe/TiO 2 show a slightly increase in absorbancy in the visible light region with the increasing iron ion doping concentration. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the Ti 2p 3/2 and Ti 2p 1/2 photoelectrons for TiO 2 and Fe/TiO 2 are located at binding energies of 459 and 465 eV, respectively, which represent the values of Ti 4+ in the TiO 2 lattices. The XPS data also indicate that the doped Fe ions exist in the forms of Fe(III). The Fe(III) may alleviate the surface poison phenomenon and act as both h +/e - traps to reduce the recombination rate of h +/e - pairs, and the optimum iron doping amount is 0.001 mol%. From 1,2-DCE photocatalytic degradation, the photocatalytic performance is a function of retention time and it would have a competitive adsorption on the active site of TiO 2 between water vapor and 1,2-DCE. The byproducts of 1,2-DCE photodegradation include H 2O, CO, CO 2, C 2H 5Cl, CH 2Cl 2, and HCl.

  10. Graphene oxide based Pt-TiO2 photocatalyst: ultrasound assisted synthesis, characterization and catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw; Bruno, Andrea; Bianchi, Claudia L; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted method was used for synthesizing nanosized Pt-graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 photocatalyst. The Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 BET adsorption-desorption measurements, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of a commonly used anionic surfactant, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS), in aqueous solution was carried out using Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles in order to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. For comparison purpose, sonolytic degradation of DBS was carried out. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst degraded DBS at a higher rate than P-25 (TiO2), prepared TiO2 or GO-TiO2 photocatalysts. The mineralization of DBS was enhanced by a factor of 3 using Pt-GO-TiO2 compared to the P-25 (TiO2). In the presence of GO, an enhanced rate of DBS oxidation was observed and, when doped with platinum, mineralization of DBS was further enhanced. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst also showed a considerable amount of degradation of DBS under visible light irradiation. The initial solution pH had an effect on the rate of photocatalytic oxidation of DBS, whereas no such effect of initial pH was observed in the sonochemical or sonophotocatalytic oxidation of DBS. The intermediate products formed during the degradation of DBS were monitored using electrospray mass spectrometry. The ability of GO to serve as a solid support to anchor platinum particles on GO-TiO2 is useful in developing new photocatalysts. PMID:21684791

  11. Synthesis, characterization and effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation and photocatalytic activity of Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamadanian; A. Reisi-Vanani; A. Majedi

    2010-01-01

    A novel copper and sulfur codoped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by modified sol–gel method using titanium(IV) isopropoxide, CuCl2·2H2O and thiourea as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The XRD results showed undoped and

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2. PMID:24200650

  13. Synthesis of scaly Sn3O4/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures for enhanced UV-visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohui; Ji, Shaozheng; Sang, Yuanhua; Chang, Sujie; Wang, Yana; Hao, Pin; Claverie, Jerome; Liu, Hong; Yu, Guangwei

    2015-02-01

    A novel scaly Sn3O4/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructured photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal route. The scaly Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be synthesized in situ and assembled on surface coarsened TiO2 nanobelts through a hydrothermal process. The morphology and distribution of Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be well-controlled by simply tuning the Sn/Ti molar ratio of the reactants. Compared with single phase nanostructures of Sn3O4 and TiO2, the scaly hybrid nanobelts exhibited markedly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, which caused higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution even without the assistance of Pt as a co-catalyst, and enhanced the degradation ability of organic pollutants under both UV and visible light irradiation. In addition to the increased exposure of active facets and broad light absorption, the outstanding performance is ascribed to the matching energy band structure between Sn3O4 and TiO2 at the two sides of the heterostructure, which efficiently reduces the recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs and prolongs the lifetime of charge carriers. Both photocatalytic assessment and PEC tests revealed that Sn3O4/TiO2 heterostructures with a molar ratio of Sn/Ti of 2/1 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. This study provides a facile and low-cost method for the large scale production of Sn3O4 based materials in various applications.A novel scaly Sn3O4/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructured photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal route. The scaly Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be synthesized in situ and assembled on surface coarsened TiO2 nanobelts through a hydrothermal process. The morphology and distribution of Sn3O4 nanoflakes can be well-controlled by simply tuning the Sn/Ti molar ratio of the reactants. Compared with single phase nanostructures of Sn3O4 and TiO2, the scaly hybrid nanobelts exhibited markedly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, which caused higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution even without the assistance of Pt as a co-catalyst, and enhanced the degradation ability of organic pollutants under both UV and visible light irradiation. In addition to the increased exposure of active facets and broad light absorption, the outstanding performance is ascribed to the matching energy band structure between Sn3O4 and TiO2 at the two sides of the heterostructure, which efficiently reduces the recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs and prolongs the lifetime of charge carriers. Both photocatalytic assessment and PEC tests revealed that Sn3O4/TiO2 heterostructures with a molar ratio of Sn/Ti of 2/1 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. This study provides a facile and low-cost method for the large scale production of Sn3O4 based materials in various applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05749j

  14. In situ synthesis of graphene molecules on TiO2: application in sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Wu, Ruilian; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Doorn, Stephen K; Sykora, Milan

    2014-11-26

    We present a method for preparation of graphene molecules (GMs), whereby a polyphenylene precursor functionalized with surface anchoring groups, preadsorbed on surface of TiO2, is oxidatively dehydrogenated in situ via a Scholl reaction. The reaction, performed at ambient conditions, yields surface adsorbed GMs structurally and electronically equivalent to those synthesized in solution. The new synthetic approach reduces the challenges associated with the tendency of GMs to aggregate and provides a convenient path for integration of GMs into optoelectronic applications. The surface synthesized GMs can be effectively reduced or oxidized via an interfacial charge transfer and can also function as sensitizers for metal oxides in light harvesting applications. Sensitized solar cells (SSCs) prepared from mesoscopic TiO2/GM films and an iodide-based liquid electrolyte show photocurrents of ?2.5 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of ?0.55 V and fill factor of ?0.65 under AM 1.5 illumination. The observed power conversion efficiency of ?=0.87% is the highest reported efficiency for the GM sensitized solar cell. The performance of the devices was reproducible and stable for a period of at least 3 weeks. We also report first external and internal quantum efficiency measurements for GM SSCs, which point to possible paths for further performance improvements. PMID:25322280

  15. Solvent-controlled synthesis of TiO 2 1D nanostructures: Growth mechanism and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kajari; Panda, Subhendu K.; Chaudhuri, Subhadra

    2008-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) anatase TiO 2 nanostructures such as nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes with different aspect ratios were synthesized by a simple solvothermal process. The influence of the different organic solvents and the reaction time on the morphology, size and the formation of the nanostructures were investigated. The anatase TiO 2 precursor powder reacted with highly alkaline aqueous solution, yielding layered sodium titanate nanosheets. These nanosheets transformed to different 1D sodium titanates nanostructures like nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes in the different solvents i.e. highly alkaline aqueous solution, highly alkaline water-ethanol and highly alkaline water-ethylene glycol mixed solvent, respectively. Acid treatment of these 1D sodium titanates resulted hydrated titanates and finally dehydration by calcinations at 500 °C in air gave the products retaining the morphology. The synthesized samples were characterized with XRD, SEM and TEM. All the 1D nanostructures showed intense and sharp absorption spectra indicated that the products were almost defect free. Photoluminescence studies of the nanostructures showed photostable UV emission properties that arise from the band-edge free excitation.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of aqueous propoxur solution using TiO 2 and H? zeolite-supported TiO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mahalakshmi; S. Vishnu Priya; Banumathi Arabindoo; M. Palanichamy; V. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and zeolites supported TiO2 were investigated using propoxur as a model pollutant. H?, HY and H-ZSM-5 zeolites were examined as supports for TiO2. H? was chosen as the TiO2 support based on the adsorption capacity of propoxur on these zeolites (H?>HY=H-ZSM-5). TiO2\\/H? photocatalysts with different wt.% were prepared and characterized by XRD, FT-IR and BET surface

  17. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of Bisphenol A using Pr, N co-doped TiO 2 with highly visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2011-08-01

    Praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped titania (Pr/N-TiO 2) photocatalysts, which could degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, were prepared by the modified sol-gel process. Tetrabutyl titanate, urea and praseodymium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen and praseodymium, respectively. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). It was found that Pr doping inhibited the growth of crystalline size and the transformation from anatase to rutile. The degradation of BPA under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photo-activity of the co-doped photocatalyst. In our experiments, the optimal dopant amount of Pr was 1.2 mol% and the calcination temperature was 500 °C for the best photocatalytic activity. Pr/N-TiO 2 samples exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared to N-TiO 2, undoped TiO 2 and commercial P25. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. Pr doping could slow the radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO 2. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen and Pr co-doping.

  18. Effects of various TiO2 nanostructures and graphene oxide on photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Li, Anran; Sun, Darren Delai; Ng, Wun Jern

    2014-08-30

    The nanostructures of TiO2 significantly affect its photocatalytic activity. In this work, various TiO2 nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, including one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanotube, 1D TiO2 nanowire, three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 sphere assembled by nanoparticles (TiO2 sphere-P) and 3D TiO2 sphere assembled by nanosheets (TiO2 sphere-S). The results of photodegradation activity towards acid orange 7 (AO7) indicate that the photodegradation efficiency of TiO2 sphere-S is the highest among the investigated TiO2 nanostructures, even though the specific surface area of TiO2 sphere-S is lower than that of TiO2 nanotube. The best photodegradation activity of TiO2 sphere-S can be attributed to the highest light harvesting capacity resulted from multiple reflections of light, and hierarchical mesoporous structure. In addition, the combination of TiO2 sphere-S with graphene oxide (GO) sheets can further enhance the photodegradation efficiency of AO7 and disinfection activity of Escherichia coli (E. coli) under solar light, which is more energy efficient. The promising photocatalytic activity of GO-TiO2 composites is originated from the enhanced light absorption and efficient charge separation. Hence, this study paves a way for improving the performance of other photocatalysts. PMID:25038577

  19. A direct synthesis of B-doped TiO2 and its photocatalytic performance on degradation of RhB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Yang, Yulin; Liu, Xinrong; Fan, Ruiqing; Shi, Yan; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Lingyun; Fan, Xiao; Tang, Pengxiao; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yazhen; Ma, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    B-doped TiO2 was synthesized by a direct hydrolyzation of n-tetrabutyl titanate in a solution of boric acid, and was treated by hydro-thermal synthesis. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), surface photoviolet spectra, UV-visible absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation was used as a probe reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of B-doped TiO2 under simulate sunlight, and excellent photocatalytic performance was achieved.

  20. Effect of Nb doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flame-made TiO2 nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Michalow, Katarzyna A; Flak, Dorota; Heel, Andre; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Rekas, Mieczyslaw; Graule, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    TiO(2):Nb nanopowders within a dopant concentration in the range of 0.1-15 at.% were prepared by one-step flame spray synthesis. Effect of niobium doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanopowders was studied. Morphology and structure were investigated by means of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Diffuse reflectance and the resulting band gap energy were determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the investigated nanopowders was revised for the photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and 4-chlorophenol under UVA and VIS light irradiation. Commercial TiO(2)-P25 nanopowder was used as a reference. The specific surface area of the powders was ranging from 42.9 m(2)/g for TiO(2):0.1 at.% Nb to 90.0 m(2)/g for TiO(2):15 at.% Nb. TiO(2):Nb particles were nanosized, spherically shaped and polycrystalline. Anatase was the predominant phase in all samples. The anatase-related transition was at 3.31 eV and rutile-related one at 3.14 eV. TiO(2):Nb nanopowders exhibited additional absorption in the visible range. In comparison to TiO(2)-P25, improved photocatalytic activity of TiO(2):Nb was observed for the degradation of MB and MO under both UVA and VIS irradiation, where low doping level (Nb?photocatalyst. PMID:23054731

  1. Catalytic and photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 based nanoparticles—their use in the synthesis of a novel TICT probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Prasad Mandal, Ranju; Dutta, Saheb; Nandi, Nilashis; De, Swati

    2015-06-01

    Biologically inspired synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and Au/TiO2 nanocomposites (NCs) using L-tryptophan is reported. Highly crystalline composite NPs are obtained by this totally ‘clean’ synthesis. The TiO2 NPs and Au/TiO2 NCs cause efficient photocatalytic degradation of the well-known dye pollutant malachite green. The surface area, pore volume and probability of dye reduction by photogenerated electrons and holes are important considerations for the photodegradation efficiency. Contrary to popular belief, the Au/TiO2 NCs show decreased photocatalytic efficiency. The TiO2 NPs and Au/TiO2 NCs also function as very efficient catalysts in a novel multi component reaction (MCR). In contrast to photocatalysis, Au/TiO2 NCs shows better catalytic efficiency. A comparison is made of the difference in photocatalytic and catalytic behaviors of the NPs. This is the first report of the catalysis of an MCR by TiO2-based NPs. The product of the MCR is a novel fluorescent probe which shows evidence for the existence of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer state. Thus this work shows promise for the development of new catalysts for synthesis of novel fluorescent probes.

  2. Characterisation of the photocatalyst Pilkington Activ™: a reference film photocatalyst?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Mills; Anne Lepre; Nicholas Elliott; Sharan Bhopal; Ivan P. Parkin; S. A. O’Neill

    2003-01-01

    Pilkington Glass Activ™ represents a possible suitable successor to P25 TiO2, especially as a benchmark photocatalyst film for comparing other photocatalyst or PSH self-cleaning films. Activ™ is a glass product with a clear, colourless, effectively invisible, photocatalytic coating of titania that also exhibits PSH. Although not as active as a film of P25 TiO2, Activ™ vastly superior mechanical stability, very

  3. Studies on photocatalytic activity of the synthesised TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 photocatalysts under UV and sunlight irradiations.

    PubMed

    Vaithiyanathan, R; Sivakumar, T

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic decolorisation and degradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) has been investigated under UV (365 nm) and solar light as radiation sources using synthesised nano titania catalyst prepared via sol-gel method. The study encompassed calcination of synthesised titania catalyst at a range of temperature up to 1,000°C. The effects of calcination temperature on titania catalyst have been evaluated on the decolorisation of RR 120. The analysis revealed complete decolorisation of dye solution in 100 min under UV light with the TiO2 catalyst calcined at 200°C. Only a maximum of 47% dye decolorisation was achieved under sunlight in 4 h with no improvement even after prolonged irradiation. In an endeavour to improve the catalytic activity, bare titania was modified with silver metal and a comprehensive study on the characteristics of silver modified catalyst was made. The result was an enhancement of the rate of decolorisation of dye under both UV and solar light sources. All the catalysts were characterised by XRD and BET analyses. Optimisation of the degradation of RR 120 has been carried out using the unmodified catalyst by varying the amount of catalyst, substrate concentration, pH of dye solution. Effects of addition of small amounts of various oxidants such as H2O2, KBrO3 and (NH4)2S2O8 have also been studied. Pseudo first order kinetics was observed in the photocatalytic decolorisation of dye. The mineralisation of RR 120 was monitored by TOC analysis. PMID:21278457

  4. Water and temperature effects on photo-selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide on Pd-loaded TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Lasek, Janusz; Yu, Yi-Hui; Wu, Jeffrey C S

    2012-09-01

    Photo-selective catalytic reduction (photo-SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) was studied in the presence of water. The incipient wetness impregnation was applied to prepare 1 wt% PdO/TiO2 photocatalyst. Steady-state photoreaction was carried out in a continuous-flow photoreactor with 0.55-1.6 v% water at 30-120 degrees C under UV-light intensity of approximately 200mW/cm(2). The C3H8/NO molar ratio in the feed ranged from 0.8 - 16.8 at a volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) from 330-1090 h(-1). The result indicates that the increase of temperature has played an important role in inhibiting NO transformation to NO2 under the humid condition. Another important factor for maximizing denitrification (reduction of nitrogen oxides, DeNOx) efficiency was C3H8/NO ratio. An increase of temperature at a suitable C3H8/NO ratio can minimize NO2 formation, which can lead to high NO removal efficiency of more than 90% at a temperature of 70-100 degrees C. In addition, the mechanism of palladium transformation during photoreaction is proposed, to explain the influence of Pd on the improvement of NO removal. PMID:23240208

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole/Sn-doped TiO 2 nanocomposites (NCs) as a protective pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, M. R.; Basirun, W. J.; Alias, Y.; Ebadi, M.

    2011-08-01

    We have chemically polymerized pyrrole in the presence of Sn-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) and TiO 2 (NPs) which act as a protective pigment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show a core-shell structure of pigments in which TiO 2 and Sn-doped TiO 2 NPs have a nucleus effect and caused a homogenous PPy core-shell type morphology leading to coverage of the TiO 2 and Sn-doped TiO 2 NPs by PPy deposit. The XRD results indicate that the crystalline size of polypyrrole/TiO 2 NCs and polypyrrole/Sn-doped TiO 2 NCs were approximately 93.46 ± 0.06 and 23.36 ± 0.06 nm respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the performance of polypyrrole/Sn-doped TiO 2 NCs is better than polypyrrole/TiO 2 NCs. The results indicate that increasing the area of synthesized polypyrrole in the presence of Sn-doped TiO 2 NPs can increase its ability to interact with the ions liberated during the corrosion reaction of steel in the presence of NaCl. The UV-vis results show that the band gap of TiO 2 NPs increases with doped of Sn in lattice of TiO 2. The increase of the band gap of TiO 2 with doping of Sn can decrease the charge transfer through the coating.

  6. Synthesis of high-density nanocavities inside TiO2-B nanoribbons and their enhanced electrochemical lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanjun; Zhang, Jingwei; Liu, Bingbing; Li, Ming; Liu, Ran; Li, Xianglin; Ma, Honglei; Yu, Shidan; Wang, Lin; Zou, Yonggang; Li, Zepeng; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Zou, Guangtian

    2008-11-01

    Single crystalline TiO2-B nanoribbons with high-density nanocavities were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal route. The as-prepared TiO2-B nanoribbons exhibited a large Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area of about 305 m(2)/g because of the high-density nanocavities inside the thin nanoribbons. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the TiO2-B nanoribbons with dense nanocavities showed discharge specific capacity higher than those of TiO2-B nanotubes and nanowires. It was found that the dense nanocavities have an important influence on the electrochemical lithium intercalation properties. PMID:18837547

  7. One-step synthesis of TiO2 nanorod arrays on Ti foil for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi; Chen, Jiajun; Yoshida, Ryuji; Gao, Xiang; Tarr, Kayla; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Zhou, Weilie

    2014-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays grown directly on Ti metal foil were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method, in which the Ti foil serves as both substrate and precursor. The nanorods are tetragonal rutile single crystal with growth orientation along the [001] direction. The electrochemical properties of the TiO2 nanorod arrays were systematically investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a three-electrode system. As a result, the TiO2 nanorod arrays exhibit good areal specific capacitance and excellent cyclic stability by retaining more than 98% of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. In addition, a good flexibility of the Ti foil with TiO2 nanorod arrays was demonstrated by the stable electrochemical performance under different bending angles, which indicates that TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on Ti foil could be a promising electrode material for flexible supercapacitor application.

  8. Fe2 O3 -TiO2 nanocomposites for enhanced charge separation and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Savio J A; Shevlin, Stephen A; An, Xiaoqiang; Guo, Zheng-Xiao; Tang, Junwang

    2014-11-17

    Photocatalysis provides a cost effective method for both renewable energy synthesis and environmental purification. Photocatalytic activity is dominated by the material design strategy and synthesis methods. Here, for the first time, we report very mild and effective photo-deposition procedures for the synthesis of novel Fe2 O3 -TiO2 nanocomposites. Their photocatalytic activities have been found to be dramatically enhanced for both contaminant decomposition and photoelectrochemical water splitting. When used to decompose a model contaminant herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), monitored by both UV/Vis and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, 10% Fe-TiO2 -H2 O displayed a remarkable enhancement of more than 200?% in the kinetics of complete mineralisation in comparison to the commercial material P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Furthermore, the photocurrent is nearly double that of P25. The mechanism for this improvement in activity was determined using density functional theory (DFT) and photoluminescence. These approaches ultimately reveal that the photoelectron transfer is from TiO2 to Fe2 O3 . This favours O2 reduction which is the rate-determining step in photocatalytic environmental purification. This in situ charge separation also allows for facile migration of holes from the valence band of TiO2 to the surface for the expected oxidation reactions, leading to higher photocurrent and better photocatalytic activity. PMID:25280047

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of aqueous propoxur solution using TiO2 and Hbeta zeolite-supported TiO2.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, M; Vishnu Priya, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Palanichamy, M; Murugesan, V

    2009-01-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and zeolites supported TiO2 were investigated using propoxur as a model pollutant. Hbeta, HY and H-ZSM-5 zeolites were examined as supports for TiO2. Hbeta was chosen as the TiO2 support based on the adsorption capacity of propoxur on these zeolites (Hbeta>HY=H-ZSM-5). TiO2/Hbeta photocatalysts with different wt.% were prepared and characterized by XRD, FT-IR and BET surface area. The progress of photocatalytic degradation of aqueous propoxur solution using TiO2 (Degussa P-25) and TiO2 supported on Hbeta zeolite was monitored using TOC analyzer, HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The degradation of propoxur was systematically studied by varying the experimental parameters in order to achieve maximum degradation efficiency. The initial rate of degradation with TiO2/Hbeta was higher than with bare TiO2. TOC results revealed that TiO2 requires 600min for complete mineralization of propoxur whereas TiO2/Hbeta requires only 480min. TiO2/Hbeta showed enhanced photodegradation due to its high adsorption capacity on which the pollutant molecules are pooled closely and hence degraded effectively. PMID:18455297

  10. Novel TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao-Shuai; Sun, Ling-Dong; Zhou, Huan-Ping; Yan, Chun-Huan

    2012-05-01

    This article reports a facile and controllable two-step method to construct TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), with small size and high surface energy, were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction process. The TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites were fabricated by a reverse micro-emulsion method. SiO2 shell coated NPs were adopted for further photocatalytic reaction. Because of their small size and high surface energy, TiO2@SiO2 and TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites show higher photocatalytic activity than commercial Degussa P25. Compared with TiO2@SiO2, TiO2-Pt@SiO2nanocomposites have improved photocatalytic activity due to the Pt induced spatial separation of electrons and holes. The silica shells not only maintain the structure of the nanocomposites but also prevent their aggregation during the photocatalytic reactions, which is highly important for the good durability of the photocatalyst. This strategy is simple, albeit efficient, and can be extended to the synthesis of other composites of noble metals. It has opened a new window for the construction of hetero-nanocomposites with high activity and durability, which would serve as excellent models in catalytic systems of both theoretical and practical interest.This article reports a facile and controllable two-step method to construct TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), with small size and high surface energy, were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction process. The TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites were fabricated by a reverse micro-emulsion method. SiO2 shell coated NPs were adopted for further photocatalytic reaction. Because of their small size and high surface energy, TiO2@SiO2 and TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites show higher photocatalytic activity than commercial Degussa P25. Compared with TiO2@SiO2, TiO2-Pt@SiO2nanocomposites have improved photocatalytic activity due to the Pt induced spatial separation of electrons and holes. The silica shells not only maintain the structure of the nanocomposites but also prevent their aggregation during the photocatalytic reactions, which is highly important for the good durability of the photocatalyst. This strategy is simple, albeit efficient, and can be extended to the synthesis of other composites of noble metals. It has opened a new window for the construction of hetero-nanocomposites with high activity and durability, which would serve as excellent models in catalytic systems of both theoretical and practical interest. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30523b

  11. Preillumination of TiO2 and Ta2O5 photoactive thin films as a tool to tailor the synthesis of composite materials.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valencia, Juan R; Borrás, Ana; Barranco, Angel; Rico, Victor J; Espinós, Juan P; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2008-09-01

    Illumination of TiO 2 thin films with UV light is known to induce the transformation of the surface of this material from partially hydrophobic into fully hydrophilic. The present work shows that this transformation is accompanied by other effects that may be used to control the synthesis of composite materials. For this purpose, TiO 2 and Ta 2O 5 transparent thin films with a columnar structure and open pores were prepared by electron evaporation at glancing angles. Transparent TiO 2 thin films with micropores (i.e., pores smaller than 2 nm) prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were also used. All these films became hydrophilic upon UV illumination. Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine 800 dyes were irreversibly adsorbed within the columns of the TiO 2 and Ta 2O 5 thin films by immersion into a water solution of these molecules. Isolated and aggregated molecules of these two dyes were detected by visible absorption spectroscopy. The infiltration adsorption efficiency was directly correlated with the acidity of the medium, increasing at basic pHs as expected from simple considerations based on the concepts of the point of zero charge (PZC) in colloidal oxides. The infiltration experiments were repeated with columnar TiO 2 and Ta 2O 5 thin films that were subjected to preillumination with UV light. It was found that this treatment produced a modification in the type (isolated or aggregated) and amount of dye molecules incorporated into the pores. Moreover, the selective adsorption of a given dye in preilluminated areas of the films permitted the lithographic coloring of the films. Preillumination also controls the UV induced deposition of silver on the surface of the microporous TiO 2 thin films. It was found that the size distribution of the formed silver nanoparticles was dependent on the preillumination treatment and that a well-resolved surface plasmon resonance at around 500 nm was only monitored in the preilluminated films. A model is proposed to account for the effects induced by UV preillumination on the TiO 2 and Ta 2O 5 oxide surfaces. The possibilities of this type of light treatment for the tailored synthesis of nanocomposite thin films (i.e., dye-oxide, metal nanoparticles-oxide) are highlighted. PMID:18642860

  12. Synthesis and characterization of TiO 2/Ag/polymer ternary nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Joo Hwan; Seo, Jin Ah; Cho, Yong Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2011-08-01

    We report on the novel ternary hybrid materials consisting of semiconductor (TiO 2), metal (Ag) and polymer (poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM)). First, a hydrophilic polymer, i.e. POEM, was grafted from TiO 2 nanoparticles via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. These TiO 2-POEM brush nanoparticles were used to template the formation of Ag nanoparticles by introduction of a AgCF 3SO 3 precursor and a NaBH 4 aqueous solution for reduction process. Successful grafting of polymeric chains from the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles and the in situ formation of Ag nanoparticles within the polymeric chains were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR spectroscopy also revealed the specific interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the C dbnd O groups of POEM brushes. This study presents a simple route for the in situ synthesis of both metal and polymer confined within the semiconductor, producing ternary hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials.

  13. TiO2-SnO2 heterostructures applied to dye photodegradation: The relationship between variables of synthesis and photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendonça, Vagner R.; Lopes, Osmando F.; Fregonesi, Raul P.; Giraldi, Tania R.; Ribeiro, Caue

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of TiO2-SnO2 heterostructures and their application to water decontamination based on the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The heterostructures were fabricated through two different routes, a hydrolytic sol gel and the polymeric precursor method, both of which induced the growth of SnO2 on commercial TiO2. The results show that the heterostructures presented higher photoactivity behaviors than commercial TiO2 nanopowders. The achievement of homogeneity during phase formation (i.e., of the SnO2 dispersion over the TiO2 nanoparticles) was a key parameter for obtaining higher photocatalytic activities per unit area. The main degradation mechanism was correlated with the process of rad OH radical generation, which was related to the concentration and nature of the surface hydroxyl groups. Accordingly, the polymeric precursor method was shown to be more adequate for dispersing higher amounts of SnO2 in comparison with the hydrolytic sol gel method. Additionally, the polymeric precursor method delivered higher proportions of bonded surface hydroxyl groups, which were responsible for radical formation; in contrast, the hydrolytic sol gel method demonstrated the highest amount of adsorbed water.

  14. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature. PMID:26008203

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline photocatalytic TiO 2 thin films and particles using sol–gel method modified with nonionic surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeok Choi; Elias Stathatos; Dionysios D. Dionysiou

    2006-01-01

    A simple sol–gel route has been developed for the preparation of nanocrystalline photocatalytic TiO2 thin films and particles at 500 °C. The synthesis involved a novel chemistry method employing nonionic surfactant molecules as a pore directing agent along with acetic acid-based sol–gel route without direct addition of water molecules. This study investigated the effect of surfactant type and concentration on

  16. Influence of calcination parameters on the synthesis of N-doped TiO2 by the polymeric precursors method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Margaret; Soares, Gabriela Byzynski; Ribeiro, Caue

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of calcination parameters on the synthesis of N:TiO2 catalysts obtained through the polymeric precursors method was evaluated. The powders were prepared by annealing Ti4+ precursor resins at different temperature-time conditions in air, resulting in powders with different degrees of crystallinity for N doping, which was done by adding urea to the as-prepared powders and calcining in N2 atmosphere. The N doping process resulted in band gap narrowing of TiO2 and, varying annealing temperature and time, can be an alternative method for preferential formation of substitutional N or interstitial N. It was found that the percentage of interstitial N increased with an increase in annealing temperature, resulting in the complete absence of substitutional N at 400 °C. The photocatalytic performance of the powders was evaluated using Rhodamine-B and Atrazine solutions under ultraviolet and visible irradiations. The coefficients revealed that interstitial N had a positive correlation to both ultraviolet and visible photoactivity. In contrast, substitutional N showed a negative correlation. Further, the ratio of substitutional N to interstitial N indicated a strong negative correlation to ultraviolet light photoactivity and no correlation to visible light photoactivity. However, substitutional N should be controlled for better photocatalytic properties.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanorods with high crystallinity using ammonia solution as a solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Ri; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kang, Young Soo

    2011-07-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanorods with high crystallinity were synthesized using ammonia solution (28%) as a solvent by through the hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the product's anatase phase and high crystallinity, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) image demonstrated the unique morphologies of the two ends of the TiO2 nanorods (two tringle-horn shapes and one round-horn shape), whose lengths and widths were within the ranges of 200-300 and 60-110 nm, respectively. The high-resolution TEM image clearly displayed the crystal lattices of the (101) planes lying along the direction of the lengthes of the TiO2 nanorods. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum of a TiO2 nanorod revealed the presence of about 4 atm% nitrogen element as a trace in the anatase TiO2 nanorod. The Raman spectrum of the TiO2 nanorods also showed the typical bands of anatase TiO2 and very weak peaks resulting from the TiN first-order defect-induced Raman scattering. The UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectra showed a slight red shift (about 3 nm) of the anatase TiO2 nanorods compared with P25, which probably resulted from the trace of TiN on the surfaces of the anatase TiO2 nanorods. A three-stage-process mechanism model is proposed for the formation of the nanorods: Rhombus crystallites bounded by four {101} faces are first formed through anisotropic growth, then longer rhombus crystallites are grown via oriented attachment, finally, nanorods with a unique morphology are self-assembled by Van Der Waals forces. PMID:22121648

  18. Photocatalytic performance of TiO2-zeolite templated carbon composites in organic contaminant degradation.

    PubMed

    Donphai, Waleeporn; Kamegawa, Takashi; Chareonpanich, Metta; Nueangnoraj, Khanin; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kyotani, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    TiO2 composites with zeolite templated carbon (TiO2-ZTC) and activated carbon (TiO2-AC) were prepared and used as the photocatalysts for comparative studies with pure TiO2. TiO2-ZTC exhibited the highest rate of methylene blue degradation with a rate approximately 4 and 400 times higher than those of TiO2-AC and pure TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the highest catalytic performance of TiO2-ZTC in gas-phase degradation of acetone was approximately 1.1 and 12.9 times higher than TiO2-AC and pure TiO2, respectively. These outstanding performances could be attributed to high surface area, pore volume, and hydrophobic surface properties, leading to improvement in the adsorption properties of organic molecules. PMID:25328126

  19. Controlled synthesis of skein shaped TiO2-B nanotube cluster particles with outstanding rate capability.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kahee; Kim, Hwan Jin; Choi, Jae-Man; Choi, Young-Min; Song, Min Sang; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-21

    Herein, we first report a facile synthetic route for preparing micron-sized particles comprising TiO(2)-B nanotubes, namely, skein shaped TiO(2)-B nanotube cluster particles with an ultra high surface area of 257 m(2) g(-1). The galvanostatic charge-discharge test showed that the hierarchical micron-sized particles composed of TiO(2)-B nanotubes with approximately 10 nm in diameter exhibited outstanding rate capability as well as high specific capacity. PMID:23403469

  20. Solvothermal synthesis and photocatalytic activity of S-doped TiO 2 and TiS 2 powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. He

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of S-doped TiO2 powder depends on the S content. To synthesize S-doped TiO2 powders with high S content, solvothermal processes were used in this work. The S-doped TiO2 powder contains 2.0 M% sulfur and has an absorption edge of 460 nm (2.7 eV). The pure TiS2 powder also synthesized by a solvothermal process has an absorption edge of 595 nm (2.08 eV)

  1. Synthesis of C60-decorated SWCNTs (C60-d-CNTs) and its TiO2-based nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chai, Bo; Peng, Tianyou; Zhang, Xiaohu; Mao, Jing; Li, Kan; Zhang, Xungao

    2013-03-14

    A novel nanostructured carbon/TiO(2) nanocomposite photocatalyst is firstly fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process by using fullerene (C(60)) decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carbon source, which is denoted as C(60)-d-CNTs. The obtained nanostructured carbon/TiO(2) nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence spectra (PL), and then are used as catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen production. It is found that the kinds and contents of various carbon nanostructured materials (such as SWCNTs, C(60) and C(60)-d-CNTs) coupled with TiO(2) can significantly enhance the photoactivity for hydrogen production, and the 5 wt% C(60)-d-CNTs/TiO(2) nanocomposite exhibits the best performance. Experimental results suggest that the C(60)-d-CNTs as a novel carbon nanostructured material could be more beneficial for the photogenerated carrier separation than SWCNTs and C(60) when these carbon nanostructured materials are coupled with TiO(2). PMID:23258545

  2. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 produced in a solid phase reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Gang; Pan, Hongfei; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Zhihua; Wen, Bin

    2013-02-01

    N-doped TiO2 was synthesized by calcining a mixture of titanic acid and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) at temperatures above 500 °C. The final samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was studied by assessing the degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous solution, under visible light and UV light irradiation. It was found that the N-doped TiO2 displayed higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2, under both visible and UV light.

  3. TiO2 nanoparticles are phototoxic to marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Bennett, Samuel; Keller, Arturo A; Pease, Scott; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO(2). Because TiO(2) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO(2) has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO(2) is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiments demonstrating cytotoxicity of TiO(2) have used exposure to strong artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In vivo tests of TiO(2) toxicity with aquatic organisms have typically shown low toxicity, and results across studies have been variable. No work has demonstrated that photoactivity causes environmental toxicity of TiO(2) under natural levels of UVR. Here we show that relatively low levels of ultraviolet light, consistent with those found in nature, can induce toxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles to marine phytoplankton, the most important primary producers on Earth. No effect of TiO(2) on phytoplankton was found in treatments where UV light was blocked. Under low intensity UVR, ROS in seawater increased with increasing nano-TiO(2) concentration. These increases may lead to increased overall oxidative stress in seawater contaminated by TiO(2), and cause decreased resiliency of marine ecosystems. Phototoxicity must be considered when evaluating environmental impacts of nanomaterials, many of which are photoactive. PMID:22276179

  4. TiO2 Nanoparticles Are Phototoxic to Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert J.; Bennett, Samuel; Keller, Arturo A.; Pease, Scott; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO2. Because TiO2 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO2 has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO2 is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiments demonstrating cytotoxicity of TiO2 have used exposure to strong artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In vivo tests of TiO2 toxicity with aquatic organisms have typically shown low toxicity, and results across studies have been variable. No work has demonstrated that photoactivity causes environmental toxicity of TiO2 under natural levels of UVR. Here we show that relatively low levels of ultraviolet light, consistent with those found in nature, can induce toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to marine phytoplankton, the most important primary producers on Earth. No effect of TiO2 on phytoplankton was found in treatments where UV light was blocked. Under low intensity UVR, ROS in seawater increased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. These increases may lead to increased overall oxidative stress in seawater contaminated by TiO2, and cause decreased resiliency of marine ecosystems. Phototoxicity must be considered when evaluating environmental impacts of nanomaterials, many of which are photoactive. PMID:22276179

  5. Direct synthesis of nanowires with anatase and TiO2-B structures at near ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Walid A; Pang, G K H

    2006-12-28

    In this study, we present a new approach toward titanium oxide nanowires. In this approach, the growth formation of the wires sets in at a temperature as low as 40 degrees C under ambient pressure. Moreover, we provide evidence that nanowires with distinctive TiO2-anatase and TiO2-B structures can be directly produced without further thermal treatment using controlled reaction conditions. PMID:17181216

  6. Synthesis of molecular imprinted polymer modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode and their photoelectrocatalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na Lu; Shuo Chen; Hongtao Wang; Xie Quan; Huimin Zhao

    2008-01-01

    A tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode was prepared via surface molecular imprinting. Its surface was structured with surface voids and the nanotubes were open at top end with an average diameter of approximately 50nm. The MIP-modified TiO2 nanotube array with anatase phase was identified by XRD and a distinguishable red shift in the

  7. Effect of synthesis temperature on the morphology, structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, J.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Kim, Heeje

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystals of TiO2 were synthesized by a single-step chemical reaction between oleic acid and titanium (IV) iso-propoxide. The morphology and structure of the crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The vibrational properties of the nanocrystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The ultraviolet photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanocrystals was investigated by studying the photodegradation of aqueous solution of protocatecheuic acid (3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid).

  8. A novel single-step synthesis of N-doped TiO 2 via a sonochemical method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-Kui Wang; Chen Wang; Wei-Lin Guo; Jin-Gang Wang

    2011-01-01

    A novel single-step synthetic method for the preparation of anatase N-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline at low temperature has been devoleped. The N-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication of the solution of tetraisopropyl titanium and urea in water and isopropyl alcohol at 80°C for 150min. The as-prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and

  9. The sol-gel template synthesis of porous TiO2 for a high performance humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi; Wu, Fengqing; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong

    2011-07-01

    This research develops a simple template assisted sol-gel process for preparing porous TiO2 for a high performance humidity sensor. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a template was directly introduced into TiO2 sol formed by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxide; the following calcination led to the formation of TiO2-SiO2 composite, and the selective removal of SiO2 by dilute HF solution led to the formation of porous structure in TiO2. The resulting porous TiO2-based sensor exhibits high sensitivity and linear response in the wide relative humidity (RH) range of 11%-95%, with an impedance variation of four orders of magnitude to humidity change. Moreover, it exhibits a rapid and highly reversible response characterized by a very small hysteresis of < 1% RH and a short response-recovery time (5 s for adsorption and 8 s for desorption), and a 30-day stability test also confirms its long-term stability. Compared with pure TiO2 prepared by the conventional sol-gel method, our product shows remarkably improved performance and good prospect for a high performance humidity sensor. The complex impedance spectra were used to elucidate its humidity sensing mechanism in detail.

  10. The sol-gel template synthesis of porous TiO2 for a high performance humidity sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi; Wu, Fengqing; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong

    2011-07-01

    This research develops a simple template assisted sol-gel process for preparing porous TiO2 for a high performance humidity sensor. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a template was directly introduced into TiO2 sol formed by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxide; the following calcination led to the formation of TiO2-SiO2 composite, and the selective removal of SiO2 by dilute HF solution led to the formation of porous structure in TiO2. The resulting porous TiO2-based sensor exhibits high sensitivity and linear response in the wide relative humidity (RH) range of 11%-95%, with an impedance variation of four orders of magnitude to humidity change. Moreover, it exhibits a rapid and highly reversible response characterized by a very small hysteresis of <1% RH and a short response-recovery time (5 s for adsorption and 8 s for desorption), and a 30-day stability test also confirms its long-term stability. Compared with pure TiO2 prepared by the conventional sol-gel method, our product shows remarkably improved performance and good prospect for a high performance humidity sensor. The complex impedance spectra were used to elucidate its humidity sensing mechanism in detail. PMID:21597157

  11. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 nano composites for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, D.; Merline Shyla, J.; Xavier, Francis P.

    2012-12-01

    The use of titania-silica in photocatalytic process has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional TiO2 catalysts. Mesoporous materials have been of great interest as catalysts because of their unique textural and structural properties. Mesoporous TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, tetra-ethylorthosilicate as starting materials. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauett-Emmett-Teller and field-dependent photoconductivity. The UV-Vis spectrum of as-synthesized samples shows similar absorption in the visible range. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized samples was calculated by Scherrer's formula. The BET surface area for TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite is found to be 303 m2/g and pore size distribution has average pore diameter about 10 nm. It also confirms the absence of macropores and the presence of micro and mesopores. The field-dependent photoconductivity of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite shows nearly 300 folds more than that of TiO2 nanoparticle for a field of 800 V/cm.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of monoethanolamine in wastewater using nanosized TiO2 loaded on clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Sheini, Azarmidokht; Armand, Nezam

    2012-06-15

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) as photocatalyst to degrade the organic compounds is an effective method of oxidation process and has been widely studied in environmental engineering. In this investigation photocatalytic degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) using TiO(2) (in form of anatase) loaded on surface of clinoptilolite (CP) (TiO(2)-CP) in wastewater was studied. The surface interaction between TiO(2) and CP was investigated by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), atom force microscope (AFM), IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Then the effects of some parameters such as pH, amount of photocatalyst, and initial concentration of MEA on degradation percentage of MEA were examined. The obtained results show that the TiO(2)-CP is an active photocatalyst as compared with TiO(2) nanopowders. All these results indicated that this proposed method can be useful for the development of wastewater treatment applications. PMID:22446755

  13. A study on the band gap and the doping level of V-doped TiO2 with respect to the visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ah Young; Han, Chul-Hee

    2014-10-01

    The visible-light response is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for semiconductor photocatalyst to function as a visible-light active photocatalyst. To shed more light on the issue of visible-light response of semiconductor photocatalysts, the band-gaps and the doping levels of multivalency vanadium-doped TiO2 were investigated from sonochemically prepared samples. Sonochemical doping, which relies on acoustic cavitation phenomena, is a one step process excluding chemical synthesis, and three types of vanadium doped TiO2 nanopowder were prepared using such vanadium oxides as V2O3, V2O4, and V2O5. The band-gaps of as-prepared samples were obtained from the diffuse reflectance measurement, and the doping levels of vanadium in these samples were measured using electron probe micro analyzer. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer was introduced to complement electron probe micro analyzer. Furthermore, quantum-chemical calculations on simple cluster models for TiO2 and V-doped TiO2 were performed, and the resulting computational results in conjunction with experimental findings provided valuable information on oxygen vacancy and doping mechanism. PMID:25942925

  14. Nanotubes with the TiO2-B structure.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Graham; Armstrong, A Robert; Canales, Jesus; Bruce, Peter G

    2005-05-21

    Here we report the first synthesis of TiO2-B nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal route; lithium may be intercalated up to a composition of Li(0.98)TiO2 compared with Li(0.91)TiO2 for the corresponding nanowires. PMID:15886768

  15. Palladium nanoparticles anchored to anatase TiO2 for enhanced surface plasmon resonance-stimulated, visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Kah Hon; Chu, Hong Ye; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    Summary Freely assembled palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on titania (TiO2) nano photocatalysts were successfully synthesized through a photodeposition method using natural sunlight. This synthesized heterogeneous photocatalyst (Pd/TiO2) was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), Raman and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The simple and smart synthesis anchored well the deposition with controlled Pd NPs size ranging between 17 and 29 nm onto the surface of TiO2. Thus, it gives the characteristic for Pd NPs to absorb light in the visible region obtained through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPRs). Apparently, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by degrading the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) amoxicillin (AMX) excited under an artificial visible light source. In the preliminary run, almost complete degradation (97.5%) was achieved in 5 h with 0.5 wt % Pd loading and the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reusability trend proved the photostability of the prepared photocatalysts. Hence, the study provides a new insight about the modification of TiO2 with noble metals in order to enhance the absorption in the visible-light region for superior photocatalytic performance. PMID:25821683

  16. In situ synthesis of TiO2/SnOx-Au ternary heterostructures effectively promoting visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Wu, Minghua; Wu, Jiaying; Ma, Yuanyuan; Ma, Zhenzhen

    2015-07-14

    TiO2/SnOx-Au ternary heterostructures were successfully fabricated via a simple in situ reduction of AuCl4(-) on TiO2 surfaces pre-modified with Sn(2+). The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, N2 physical absorption and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results suggested that the highly dispersive and ultrafine Au nanoparticles (NPs) covered with SnOx were deposited onto the surface of TiO2. The heterostructures significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity compared with the traditional TiO2/Au sample prepared by the impregnation method and also enhanced the activity more than the binary TiO2/SnOx sample. Moreover, the size of the Au NPs could be well controlled by simply tuning the dosage of HAuCl4, and the optimized catalytic activity of the ternary heterostructures was obtained when the dosage of Au was 1% and the Au particle size was ?2.65 nm. The enhancement of photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance effect of the Au NPs and the electron-sink function of the SnOx, which improve the optical absorption properties as well as photoinduced charge carrier separation, synergistically facilitating the photocatalysis. PMID:26061220

  17. Effect of post-synthesis acid activation of TiO2 nanofilms on the photocatalytic efficiency under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambolova, I.; Blaskov, V.; Shipochka, M.; Eliyas, A.; Vassilev, S.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosized TiO2 films were deposited by spray pyrolysis and thermally treated at 400oC. Then the films were dipped in 1M aqueous solution of HCl. The activated samples were divided into two parts - one part was dried (A) and another was annealed (AT) in air. The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black (RB5) textile dye under visible light was tested. The following instrumental methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the phase and surface characterization of obtained samples. According to Raman and XRD analyses all films are anatase. The XRD showed that activated films are better crystallized than non activated TiO2 film. The presence of chlorine at 200.3 eV was registered for acid activated samples by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The acidic activated films exhibited higher rate of dye photodegradation than that of the reference TiO2 sample. The photocatalytic efficiency decreases in the order A > AT> non activated TiO2 films. The degradation rate constant for acid activated films is two times higher than those of the reference film. The hydroxyl content in TiO2 acidic activated films is greater than that of the non- activated films, which results in significant increase in the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the presence of chlorine may also lead to enhancement in efficiency.

  18. Facile one-pot synthesis of uniform TiO2-Ag hybrid hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunli; Qian, Huanhuan; Hu, Yong; Dai, Wei; Zhong, Yijun; Chen, Jiafu; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-28

    TiO(2)-Ag hybrid hollow spheres (about 700 nm in diameter) with a highly uniform morphology and good structural stability were facilely prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal method, using carbon spheres as templates followed by an annealing treatment. Through this route, the as-prepared hybrid hollow spheres preserved the uniformity of the initial carbon sphere templates and the loading amount of the Ag nanocrystals can be conveniently varied or controlled by the concentration of the Ag precursor. The investigation of the photocatalytic ability demonstrated that the as-prepared TiO(2)-Ag hybrid hollow spheres possess excellent photocatalytic activity, superior to commercial TiO(2) nanoparticles (Degussa P25), for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes under visible-light illumination. Furthermore, the ?OH radicals formed during photocatalysis with different Ag content hybrids were revealed by means of a terephthalic acid fluorescence probe method, which uncovers that the Ag content in the TiO(2)-Ag hybrids was crucial to obtain an optimal synergistic effect between the Ag and TiO(2) for the degradation of organic pollutants. Accordingly, the optimum matching for the best photocatalytic activity was investigated thoroughly and a reasonable mechanism was also proposed. PMID:23135487

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a stable, label-free optical biosensor from TiO2-coated porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianlin; Sailor, Michael J

    2014-05-15

    A nanoscale layer of TiO2 is coated on the inner pore walls of a porous silicon (PSi) film by room-temperature infiltration of a TiO2 sol-gel precursor and firing at 500 °C. The PSi:TiO2 composite films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). The analysis indicates that TiO2 conformally coats the inner pore surfaces of the PSi film. The film displays greater aqueous stability in the pH range 2-12 relative to a PSi:SiO2 surface. A label-free optical interference immunosensor based on the TiO2-coated PSi film is demonstrated by real-time monitoring of the physical adsorption of protein A, followed by the specific binding of rabbit anti-sheep immunoglobulin (IgG) and then specific capture of sheep IgG. The time to achieve equilibrium for the physical adsorption of protein A on the surface of TiO2-coated PSi film is significantly greater than that of PSi film. The specificity of the protein A and rabbit anti-sheep IgG construct on the sensor is confirmed by tests with non-binding chicken IgG. The sensitivity of the immunosensor is shown to be 8210 ± 170 nm/refractive index unit (RIU). PMID:24419080

  20. Solvothermal synthesis of TiO2 hollow nanospheres utilizing the Kirkendall effect and their photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sifeng; Wang, Huiqun; Zhu, Lianjie; Li, Jianfa; Sun, Jingfeng

    2014-12-01

    Anatase TiO2 hollow nanospheres were prepared by solvothermal method, using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as an auxiliary agent, followed by calcination at 400, 500 and 700 °C, respectively. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The optical properties and photocatalytic reaction mechanism were investigated by means of UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, radical-trapping experiments and fluorescent technique. The effect of the PEI quantity on morphologies of the products and the formation mechanism of the TiO2 nanospheres were explored on the basis of series of control experiments. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) solutions and compared with that of the commercial TiO2 (P25). The results clearly show that the TiO2 hollow nanospheres were formed via the Kirkendall effect. For the first time, we find that the morphologies of the products change dramatically with slightly increasing the PEI quantity. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanospheres calcined at 500 °C is higher than those of the other two samples and P25. The active species for the photocatalytic reactions is not ·OH.

  1. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Qin, Zhenping; Guo, Hongxia; Yang, Hanxiao; Zhang, Guojun; Ji, Shulan; Zeng, Tingying

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium4- styrenesulfonate) (PSS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) confirmed the anatase crystalline phase. The charges of the prepared TiO2, PEI-TiO2 and PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potentials. The results showed that the zeta potentials of PEI-TiO2 nanoparticles can be tuned from +39.47 mV to +95.46 mV, and that of PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles can be adjusted from ?56.63 mV to ?119.32 mV. In comparison with TiO2, PSS-TiO2 exhibited dramatic adsorption and degradation of dye molecules, while the PEI modified TiO2 nanoparticles showed lower photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performances of these charged nanoparticles were elucidated by the results of UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which indicated that the PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles showed a lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs than TiO2 and PEI-TiO2. PMID:25506839

  2. Modified microwave method for the synthesis of visible light-responsive TiO2/MWCNTs nanocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently, TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid nanocatalysts have been a subject of high interest due to their excellent structures, large surface areas and peculiar optical properties, which enhance their photocatalytic performance. In this work, a modified microwave technique was used to rapidly synthesise a TiO2/MWCNT nanocatalyst with a large surface area. X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were used to characterise the structure, morphology and the surface area of the sample. The photocatalytic activity of the hybrid nanocatalysts was evaluated through a comparison of the degradation of methylene blue dye under irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. The results showed that the TiO2/MWCNT hybrid nanocatalysts degraded 34.9% of the methylene blue (MB) under irradiation with ultraviolet light, whereas 96.3% of the MB was degraded under irradiation with visible light. PMID:23919496

  3. Synthesis and photolysis of NaYF4@SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guoyou; Mao, Yifu; Ren, Guozhong; Gong, Lunjun; Zhi, Zhugong

    2014-12-01

    Monodisperse ?-NaYF4 nanocrystals were synthesized with oleic acid as capping ligands by solvothermal method, and then, SiO2 and TiO2 were coated successively. Intense ultraviolet light is emitted from NaYF4:Yb/Tm under the 980 nm laser and the intensity of ultraviolet light reduce dramatically after these nanocrystals were coated with SiO2 and TiO2 shells, which means NaYF4@SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites can be used to realize the infared photocatalysis. Photocatalytic activity of these nanocomposites is demonstrated using methyl orange (MO) as a chemical probe under the 980 nm laser excitation.

  4. Synthesis of titanate nanotube from different phases of TiO2 powders and its hydrogen absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Yi Hun; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2009-02-01

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method with different NaOH concentration using various TiO2 powders (P-25, rutile, anatase, and Ni doped TiO2) at 120 degrees C for 24 hrs. At 10 M NaOH, Ni doped TiO2 powders formed the titanate nanotubes which consisted of layered structure such as A2Ti2O5.H2O, A2Ti3O7, H2TiO.H2O (A = Na and/or H) with outer and inner diameter of approximately 10 nm and 6 nm. Ni doped nanotubes absorbed a small amount of hydrogen at 6 and 10 atm, however, uptake of hydrogen was 1.2 wt% at 20 atm. PMID:19441427

  5. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h-1 g-1 has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature.We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h-1 g-1 has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02097b

  6. Development of the IR laser pyrolysis for the synthesis of iron-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles: Structural properties and photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Soare, I.; Gavrila, L.; Ciupina, V.; Kylberg, W.; Figgemeier, E.

    2010-03-01

    The preparation of TiO 2-based nanoparticles of closely controlled sizes and purity gives rise to considerable interest in the frame of environmental applications, e.g. in photocatalysis. When nanoparticles instead of their bulk counterpart are used the synthesis method plays a fundamental role in defining specific structural properties. Between the different gas-phase synthesis techniques, the CO 2 laser pyrolysis is a versatile method allowing for the preparation of nanostructures of various chemical compositions. Here we demonstrate that pure and Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with rather low Fe concentration may be prepared by applying the sensitized IR laser pyrolysis to a gas mixtures containing titanium tetrachloride, air and iron pentacarbonyl (vapors). The structures of TiO 2-based particles were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Depending on the synthesis parameters, the nanoparticle system contains mixtures of anatase and rutile, with a preponderance of the anatase phase. Higher rutile proportion was found in the iron-doped samples. Mean particle diameters of around 14 nm and 12 nm were estimated for undoped and doped anatase titania, respectively. From UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, higher absorbance and red shifted absorption were evidenced at higher amount of doped iron. Preliminary evaluation tests of the UV photoactivity of samples were performed by using the scanning electrochemical microscopy for determining the evolution of the oxygen consumption in the presence of IV-chlorophenol. They show that the undoped nano titania samples perform better than the reference P25 Degussa sample. A drop of the nano-titania photoactivity as a consequence of Fe doping was observed. Possible reasons of this effect are tentatively discussed.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of undoped and cobalt-doped TiO2 nanoparticles via sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugundan, S.; Rajamannan, B.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Praveen, P.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different concentrations of cobalt (4, 8, 12 and 16 %) were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In general, TiO2 can exist in anatase, rutile, and brookite phases. In this present study, we used titanium tetra iso propoxide and 2-propanol as a common starting materials and the obtained products were calcined at 500 °C and 800 °C to get anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The crystalline sizes of the doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were observed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), the band gap energy and excitation wavelength of doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were identified. The defect oriented emissions were seen from photoluminescence (PL) study. The spherical uniform size distribution of particles and elements present in the samples was determined using two different techniques viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was also found and the obtained result was compared with potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  8. Large-scale synthesis of metastable TiO2(B) nanosheets with atomic thickness and their photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guolei; Li, Tianyang; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2010-09-28

    A one-pot method was developed to prepare atomic thick nanosheets of metastable TiO(2)(B), which has a unique open structure owing to the coupling of intrinsic channels and the preferentially exposed (010) facets. They display high activity of doping due to the rapid incorporation and diffusion along these open channels. PMID:20730205

  9. Synthesis of metal-doped tio 2 nanotubes and their catalytic performance for low-temperature co oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baolin Zhu; Qi Guo; Shurong Wang; Xiucheng Zheng; Shoumin Zhang; Shihua Wu; Weiping Huang

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Gold-, gold and copper-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Au\\/TiO2 NTs, Au-Cu\\/TiO2 NTs) are prepared by impregnation-reduction method. The doped nanotubes are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)\\u000a and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their catalytic performance for CO oxidation is also examined

  10. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Menzies; Qing Dai; Christian Maunders; Yi-Bing Cheng; George P. Simon; Leone Spiccia

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 nanocrystals have been synthesized from Titanium(IV) butoxide without the use of an autoclave. It was found that using heat treatment temperatures below 600°C pure anatase phase was retained in the nanocrystals. In addition, with increasing heat treatment temperature the nanocrystals became larger in size and the homogeneity was dramatically reduced.

  11. Synthesis of molecular imprinted polymer modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode and their photoelectrocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Hongtao; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-10-01

    A tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode was prepared via surface molecular imprinting. Its surface was structured with surface voids and the nanotubes were open at top end with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. The MIP-modified TiO 2 nanotube array with anatase phase was identified by XRD and a distinguishable red shift in the absorption spectrum was observed. The MIP-modified electrode also exhibited a high adsorption capacity for TC due to its high surface area providing imprinted sites. Photocurrent was generated on the MIP-modified photoanode using the simulated solar spectrum and increased with the increase of positive bias potential. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the MIP-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode exhibited enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity with the apparent first-order rate constant being 1.2-fold of that with TiO 2 nanotube array electrode. The effect of the thickness of the MIP layer on the PEC activity was also evaluated.

  12. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via ?-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a mixed phase of anatase TiO2 and TiO2(B) by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) for high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimupala, Y.; Hyett, G.; Simpson, R.; Brydson, R.

    2014-06-01

    This project is concerned with enhancing photocatalytic activity by preparing a mixed phase of nano-sized TiO2. TiO2 thin films were synthesized by using Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (LPCVD). Titanium isopropoxide and N2 gas were used as the precursor and carrier gas respectively. The effects of reaction temperature, carrier gas flow rate and deposited area were studied. TiO2 thin films with nano-sized TiO2 particles were obtained under suitable conditions and SEM, TEM, powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the phase and physical appearance of synthesized materials. Preliminary results show that a dual phase (TiO2(B) and anatase) thin film nanopowder was successfully prepared by LPCVD with needle- and polygonal plate-shape crystallites respectively. This thin film deposit produced a preferred orientation of TiO2(B) needles in the [001] direction of average crystallite size 50-80 nm in length and 5-10 nm in width, whilst the crystallite size of anatase polygonal-plates was around 200 nm. The optimal LPCVD condition for preparing this mixed phase of TiO2 was 600°C with a 1 mL/s N2 flow rate.

  14. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from H 2 and O 2 using TiO 2-supported Au–Pd catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer K. Edwards; Benjamin E. Solsona; Philip Landon; Albert F. Carley; Andrew Herzing; Christopher J. Kiely; Graham J. Hutchings

    2005-01-01

    The direct synthesis of H2O2 at low temperature (2?°C) from H2 and O2 using TiO2-supported Au, Pd, and Au–Pd catalysts is discussed. The Au–Pd catalysts performed significantly better than the pure Pd\\/TiO2 and Au\\/TiO2 materials. Au–Pd particles were found with a core–shell structure, with Pd concentrated on the surface. The highest yields of H2O2 were observed with uncalcined catalysts, but

  15. Nanostructured nitrogen and carbon codoped TiO2 thin films: Synthesis, structural characterization and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzybayev, Inci

    TiO2 is widely used in applications like photocatalysis, sensors, solar cells, and memory devices because it is inexpensive, abundant, nontoxic and stable in aqueous solution. Another exciting application where TiO 2 has the potential to be a very useful catalyst is the clean hydrogen generation using solar radiation. Energy consumption is increasing every year and, as a result, renewable and sustainable alternative energy sources are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, clean hydrogen generation research is becoming more and more important. This study aims at the preparation and characterization of nitrogen and carbon (N-C) codoped TiO2 photoanode material that could potentially be used in photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen generation. The solar spectrum peaks around 500 nm (2.48 eV) which is in the visible part of the spectrum. The photoanode material to be used for solar hydrogen generation should absorb visible light photons to yield high efficiency. The challenge with TiO2 is that the wide band gap (3.00--3.20 eV) absorbs only ultra-violet (UV) photons and only a small percentage of the solar spectrum is in the UV range. There are various ways to overcome the challenge of sensitizing the material to visible light absorption and this study focuses on one of the most promising ways: band modification of TiO2 by N-C codoping. The role of pure oxygen pressure on pulsed laser deposited N-C codoped TiO2 films were investigated. At low pressures rutile phase of TiO2 was dominant and a microstructure with densely packed grains was obtained. However, at high pressures anatase phase became dominant and columnar structure was favored. Therefore, the anatase-rutile phase ratio as well as the microstructure of the films can be controlled by adjusting oxygen pressure and introducing N and C into the TiO2 matrix. Optimized oxygen pressure and higher doping concentrations yielded films with more effective absorption in the visible region. The preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited N-C codoped TiO2 thin films were investigated for dopant incorporation using N2 and CH4 gases. Polycrystalline anatase structured films were obtained. A 2 theta shift of the anatase (101) X-ray diffraction main peak towards lower values indicated carbon incorporation into the lattice. N incorporation was confirmed with observed Ti-N bonds using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Optical data showed significant reduction, approximately 1.00 eV, of the band gap. The reduction of the band gap allowed the photons in the visible part of the solar spectrum to be absorbed. Through a collaborative work with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Yonsei University, precise modeling of the electronic structure of N-C codoped TiO2 films were carried out to reveal the underlying physics of band gap reduction. Experimental results were compared with first-principle density functional theory calculations. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that O, N and C 2p states overlapped effectively and shifts in the valence band maximum towards the Fermi level were observed. Optical band gap results showed that N-C codoping is an effective route for band gap reduction in TiO2. Comparison of the measured valence band structure with theoretical photoemission density of states further revealed C substitution on the Ti site and N substitution on the O site. Finally, films grown using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering were compared with the pulsed laser deposited films. Sputtered N-C codoped TiO2 films showed phase transformation from anatase to rutile at constant argon pressure with increasing doping concentration. Moreover, with slow-rate N-C codoping of TiO2, a texturing effect was observed in X-ray diffraction scans such that anatase (004) Bragg reflection plane became more favored over anatase (101). Optical band gap was reduced but the reduction was not as significant as in the films prepared with the pulsed laser deposition method. Electrochemical methods were applied in the photoelectrochemical cell and the sample prep

  16. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE vapour USING FIXED BED MULTICHANNEL PHOTOREACTORS EQUIPPED WITH TiO2?COATED FABRICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of producing TiO2?coated fabric using nonwoven polyester as a photocatalyst support was examined through investigations on (i) changes in the fabric properties after coating with TiO2, (ii) the toluene removal capacity of a multichannel TiO2\\/fabric\\/UV reactor in removing the toluene vapour with and without O3 addition, and (iii) the photocatalytic effect of regenerated TiO2. The value and usefulness

  17. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotube array thin films and determination of the optical constants using transmittance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, K.; Abdolahzadeh Ziabari, Ali; Mirabbaszadeh, K.; Ahmadi, S.

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown on glass substrate by ZnO nanorod sol-gel template process. XRD analysis and FESEM microscopy were employed to characterize the structural and morphological properties of the prepared nanotube. EDX and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to assess the chemical composition and study the optical properties of the film. An optical model has been performed to simulate the optical constants and thicknesses of the films from transmittance data using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm via Drude model. The simulated transmittance is in good agreement with the measured spectrum in the whole measurement wavelength range. The refractive index and extinction coefficient, thickness and dielectric function of TiO2 nanotube films were calculated by Drude model. Also, the related absorption coefficient, optical bandgap and porosity were determined.

  18. Synthesis of a CNT-grafted TiO(2) nanocatalyst and its activity triggered by a DC voltage.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chien-Sheng; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Lin, Hong-Ying; Huang, Chia-Hung; Shen, Chih-Yen; Li, Yuan-Yao; Ismat Shah, S; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2007-11-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-grafted TiO(2) (CNT/TiO(2)) was synthesized as an electrically conductive catalyst that exhibits redox ability under electrical excitation besides ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The CNT/TiO(2) material was synthesized by a two-step process. Ni nanoparticles were photodeposited onto TiO(2) first. The Ni nanoparticles then served as seeds for the growth of CNTs using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C(2)H(2). The CNT/TiO(2) nanocomposite exhibits strong oxidation activity toward NO gas molecules via both photocatalysis under UV irradiation and electrocatalysis under a DC voltage of 500 V in dark conditions. PMID:21730487

  19. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal ion doping on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wetchakun; K. Chiang; R. Amal; S. Phanichphant

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal ion (V, Fe, or Cu) doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized from titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in absolute ethanol by the modified sol-gel method. The precursor of the transition metal to be doped was added to an alcoholic solution containing TTIP. This solution was loaded into a pouch type cellophane membrane and placed in a clear solution containing 1:1 (v\\/v)

  20. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhengji; Yuan, Shengjie; Fan, Junqi; Hou, Zeliang; Zhou, Wenhui; Du, Zuliang; Wu, Sixin

    2012-11-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-?m thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density ( I sc) of 4.51 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency ( ?) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule.

  1. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengji; Yuan, Shengjie; Fan, Junqi; Hou, Zeliang; Zhou, Wenhui; Du, Zuliang; Wu, Sixin

    2012-01-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-?m thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 4.51 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency (?) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule. PMID:23181940

  2. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-?m thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 4.51 mA cm?2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency (?) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule. PMID:23181940

  3. Synthesis, structural and magnetic behavior of undoped and Mn-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Asif; Ramay, Shahid M.; Al-Zaghayer, Yousef S.; Atiq, Shahid; Saleem, Murtaza; Al Masary, Waheed A.; Haider, Sajjad

    2015-02-01

    Ti1-xMnxO2 (x = 0, 0.05) nanoparticles have been synthesized using chemically derived self-propagating combustion reaction method. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate the formation of anatase phase of TiO2 belonging to 141/amd space group in both samples without the formation of any impurity phase. The incorporation of 5 at.% Mn content does not produce any changes in crystal structure which reveals the exact substitution of Mn atoms at Ti sites. Some change in lattice parameters and crystallite size is observed in Mn-doped composition, attributed to the difference in ionic radii. The size of grains obtained using scanning electron micrographs shows the consistent trend with the crystallite size evaluated from X-ray diffraction analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms the incorporation of Mn content in TiO2 structure. Ferromagnetic behavior detected only in Mn-doped TiO2 composition correspond to the strong Mn d-shell contribution.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ZnS-TiO2 photocatalyst and its excellent sun light driven catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Dhatshanamurthi, P; Subash, B; Senthilraja, A; Kuzhalosai, V; Krishnakumar, B; Shanthi, M

    2014-07-01

    The different wt% of ZnS loaded TiO2 (ZnS-TiO2) catalysts were successfully synthesized by precipitation cum sol-gel method and used for degradation of phenol dye, Phenol red sodium salt (PRSS) under natural sun light. Highly efficient 10.7 wt% of ZnS-TiO2 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL) and BET surface area measurements. ZnS-TiO2 is found to be more efficient than bare TiO2, TiO2-P25 and ZnS at pH 6.5 for the mineralization of PRSS dye. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst and dye concentration have been analyzed. The mineralization of PRSS dye has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A dual mechanism has been proposed for the degradation of PRSS under solar light. This catalyst is found to be reusable. PMID:24757964

  5. Preparation of Thin Films of TiO2 Nanoparticles using Electrophoresis Deposition Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuatsu Ito; Yuuki Sato; Motonari Adachi; Shinzo Yoshikado

    2009-01-01

    TiO2-thin-films have remarkable properties as a photocatalyst to resolve organic pollutants and an electron transporter with high energy transformation efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells. For these applications, it is required that thin film has no apparent cracks or has high optical transparency. In this study, TiO2-nanoparticles are synthesized and are deposited using the electrophoresis deposition method. TiO2-nanoparticles can transport electrons

  6. Photocatalytic inactivation of microorganisms using nanotubular TiO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir Baram; David Starosvetsky; Jeana Starosvetsky; Marina Epshtein; Robert Armon; Yair Ein-Eli

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a well known process for deactivation contaminations in aqueous solutions. However, enhancing the photocatalytic process efficiency remains a challenge and a subject of extensive research. In this paper, nanotubular TiO2 oxide layer with high surface area was grown and was used as a photocatalyst, inactivating Escherichia coli bacteria and other microorganisms, as well. The photocatalytic process was studied

  7. Visible light induced photocatalytic activity of sulfur doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesized via a novel route.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib; Paria, Santanu

    2014-04-14

    Water pollution by organic pollutants has been a growing global problem in recent years, for which there is a great demand of efficient technologies for wastewater treatment. Remediation of water by photocatalytic oxidation has several advantages over adsorption or any other conventional techniques. This study reports a easy synthesis technique of a sulfur doped hollow TiO2 nanocatalyst for photo degradation of organic dye under solar light. The hollow doped TiO2 nano catalyst has significantly high specific surface area (318.11 m(2) g(-1)) and low band gap (2.5 eV) compared to that of solid particles (130.94 m(2) g(-1) and 3.2 eV respectively), as a result it acts as an efficient photocatalyst under solar light. The methylene blue dye degradation ability of this catalyst is shown to be 98.6% compared to that of standard Degussa P25 (30%) as reported before. Additionally, the catalyst is also able to degrade 71% methylene blue dye during fifth times recycling without any further treatment because of its high surface area. So our sulfur doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles can be used as a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation applications. PMID:24534839

  8. Characterization and mechanistic analysis of the visible light response of cerium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 nano-photocatalyst synthesized using a one-step technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Tan, Xin; Zhao, Lin

    2010-04-15

    Cerium and nitrogen co-doped anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-step technique via a modified sol-gel process and characterized by XRD, BET, DRS, Raman and XPS. The photocatalytic mechanism of the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under fluorescent light and visible light irradiation was studied. Co-doping cerium and nitrogen in the crystal lattice of TiO(2) narrowed the band gap from 2.40 eV (Ce-doped TiO(2)) to 2.21 eV (Ce/N co-doped TiO(2)). Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) pairs, oxynitride species and Ti-O-N and Ti-O-Ce bonds were determined by XPS. The recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs was inhibited due to the synergistic effect of doping with Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) ions and N atoms. The optimal doping ratio was 0.70% Ce and 0.70% N using MB photocatalytic degradation under fluorescent light and visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm). The enhanced photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation was attributed to the increasing number of photogenerated OH radicals. The recombination of photogenerated e(-)-h(+) was attributed to be the key factor for the decrease in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB. PMID:20005630

  9. One-pot synthesis of Cd1-x In x Te semiconductor as a sensitizer on TiO2 mesoporous for potential solar cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singsa-ngah, Mutika; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis of a new ternary semiconductor nanoparticle Cd1-x In x Te, as a sensitizer for solar cell devices via a one-pot mixed precursor solution. The Cd1-x In x Te nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition process and coated onto a TiO2 photoelectrode. A tetragonal structure of Cd1-x In x Te NPs was constituted on the TiO2 photoelectrode with a diameter range ˜25-30 nm, and the atomic percentages of the chemical elements showed that the structure could be Cd0.1In0.9Te incorporated with the CdIn2Te4 structure. When the dipping cycle increased, the energy gaps became narrower from 1.2 to 0.6 eV due to the increasing amount and the larger size of nanoparticles. The photovoltaic properties of various cycles were investigated, and the best power conversion efficiency (?) of 0.49 % under full 1 sun illumination (100 mW/cm2, AM 1.5G) was obtained for the seven-cycle-Cd1-x In x Te NPs with a current density (J sc) of 2.64 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 638 mV, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.29. The efficiency of this material can be further improved for higher potential solar cell devices.

  10. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis products in Fe 2 O 3 \\/TiO 2 \\/Al and Fe 2 O 3 \\/TiO 2 \\/Al\\/C thermite systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Kobyakov; N. V. Sachkova; M. A. Sichinava

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the microstructure and elemental composition of the air combustion products of Fe2O3\\/TiO2\\/Al and Fe2O3\\/TiO2\\/Al\\/C thermite mixtures. These systems are shown to differ markedly in the composition and morphology of inclusions and the\\u000a mechanism of their formation. The metallic phase of the combustion products is shown to contain nanometer-sized titanium nitride\\u000a inclusions. A mechanism is proposed for the

  11. Synthesis, characterization and binding interactions of amino acids coupled perylene diimides with colloidal doped and undoped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kavery, E; Nagarajan, N; Paramaguru, G; Renganathan, R

    2015-07-01

    Two sensitizers based on amino acids coupled with perylene moiety having absorption in the visible region have been designed and their interaction with doped and undoped TiO2 for the application of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been studied. The synthesized compounds PDI-PA and PDI-AA were characterized using (1)H and (13)C NMR, Mass and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The optical properties and lifetime measurements of the sensitizers were analyzed using various solvents with different polarity. The solvatochromism effect was studied using Lippert-Mataga plot. The electrochemical studies of both dyes were investigated in DMF with various scan rate ranging from 200 to 1000mVs(-1). Colloidal doped and undoped TiO2 was prepared and characterized by using absorption measurements. Binding ability of the sensitizers with the nanoparticles was studied through absorption, fluorescence quenching, cyclic voltammetry and FT-IR measurements. Results obtained from all the above analysis suggest the mode of quenching may be static. The binding constant values were calculated using Kamat-Fox equation indicates the binding behavior of the sensitizers with the nanoparticles. The fluorescence quenching was mainly attributed to electron transfer from the excited state of PDI's to the conduction band of colloidal semiconductors. The electron transfer mechanism was explained based on the Rehm-Weller equation as well as the energy level diagram. PMID:25804509

  12. Synthesis, characterization and binding interactions of amino acids coupled perylene diimides with colloidal doped and undoped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavery, E.; Nagarajan, N.; Paramaguru, G.; Renganathan, R.

    2015-07-01

    Two sensitizers based on amino acids coupled with perylene moiety having absorption in the visible region have been designed and their interaction with doped and undoped TiO2 for the application of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been studied. The synthesized compounds PDI-PA and PDI-AA were characterized using 1H and 13C NMR, Mass and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The optical properties and lifetime measurements of the sensitizers were analyzed using various solvents with different polarity. The solvatochromism effect was studied using Lippert-Mataga plot. The electrochemical studies of both dyes were investigated in DMF with various scan rate ranging from 200 to 1000 mV s-1. Colloidal doped and undoped TiO2 was prepared and characterized by using absorption measurements. Binding ability of the sensitizers with the nanoparticles was studied through absorption, fluorescence quenching, cyclic voltammetry and FT-IR measurements. Results obtained from all the above analysis suggest the mode of quenching may be static. The binding constant values were calculated using Kamat-Fox equation indicates the binding behavior of the sensitizers with the nanoparticles. The fluorescence quenching was mainly attributed to electron transfer from the excited state of PDI's to the conduction band of colloidal semiconductors. The electron transfer mechanism was explained based on the Rehm-Weller equation as well as the energy level diagram.

  13. Synthesis of nano-sized TiO 2\\/poly(AA coMMA) composites by heterocoagulation and blending with PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jui-Hung Chen; Chi-An Dai; Hung-Jen Chen; Pei-Chi Chien; Wen-Yen Chiu

    2007-01-01

    Nano-sized TiO2 or SiO2\\/TiO2 particles were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation reactions in aqueous media, followed by mixing with poly(AA-co-MMA) latex to form different composites, then blending with poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. The TGA results of composites indicated that negative charged latexes had greater interaction with TiO2\\/ or SiO2\\/TiO2 particles through strong electrostatic forces, while cationic latexes incorporated with TiO2 or

  14. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (? = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (?). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 ( Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  15. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste (Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (? = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste (Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (?). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste (Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 (Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  16. Synthesis of visible light active graphene-modified BaCrO4 nanocomposite photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Sandeep B.; Thakare, Sanjay R.

    2013-05-01

    In situ chemical deposition sol-gel method has been used to prepare graphene oxide-BaCrO4 (GO-BaCrO4), which was then reduced to graphene-BaCrO4 (RGO-BaCrO4) under visible-light irradiation. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the morphological characteristics of the prepared composite material. This synthesis method offers effortless incorporation of a visible light active photocatalyst in a composite; the reduction of GO to RGO was carried out under visible light as well. Graphene sheets with high specific surface area and unique electronic properties can be used as a good support for BaCrO4 and enhance the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye compared to pure BaCrO4. The poor photocatalytic activity of pure BaCrO4 is due to its fast charge recombination. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity is attributed predominantly to the presence of graphene, which serves as an electron collector and transporter to lengthen efficiently the lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers from BaCrO4 nanoparticles. The modified surface of BaCrO4 acts as a good photocatalyst compared to unmodified BaCrO4. The optimum reaction time for synthesis and GO concentration in the composite to enhance photocatalytic activity are presented in this article.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic efficacy of hetropolyacid pillared TiO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Nivea, R; Gunasekaran, V; Kannan, R; Sakthivel, T; Govindan, K

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dye from industrial effluents is prime important, photo-catalysis is a finest method to combat dye from effluents. This study concerns about the investigation of photocatalytic activity of TiO2-HPAs (Hetropolyacids) nanocomposite namely TiO2-Phosphomolybdic nanocomposite [TiO2-HMA] and TiO2-Phosphotungstic nanocomposite [TiO2-HWA] which were prepared by Sol-gel method and the same were characterized by using XRD, SEM-EDAX. The photocatalytic activity of prepared photo-catalysts were evaluated and compared by the degradation of Methylene Blue dye in water solution under UV irradiation. In that TiO2-HMA nanocomposite showed superior photocatalytic activity than TiO2-HWA. PMID:24738400

  18. Important role of surface fluoride in nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jonathan I; Szulczewski, Greg

    2014-12-11

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sol-gel methods and subsequently fluorinated at room temperature by aging in acidic solutions of NaF. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, and IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After aging at room temperature in NaF solutions, the Ti-OH groups on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles were replaced by Ti-F bonds, which resulted in a decrease of the point of zero charge from pH 5.4 to 2.8. Most importantly, the nitrogen dopants were retained after the fluorination process, and the amorphous nanoparticles were partially converted into the anatase phase. Annealing the photocatalysts resulted in a decrease of both the nitrogen and fluoride atomic concentration. Diffuse reflectance spectra show an increase in absorbance above 400 nm after annealing the F,N-doped TiO2, which suggests the formation of color centers. The photoactivity of the F,N-doped and N-doped TiO2 catalysts were evaluated by monitoring by the decolorization of methylene blue with visible light. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that methylene blue undergoes successive demethylation, and more importantly, the rate of decolorization depends on the fluoride concentration. These results show the importance of a two-step synthesis method to independently control the nitrogen and fluoride concentration. PMID:25266909

  19. Hyperbranched anatase TiO2 nanocrystals: nonaqueous synthesis, growth mechanism, and exploitation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Carlino, Elvio; Giannini, Cinzia; Altamura, Davide; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Gigli, Giuseppe; Cozzoli, P Davide

    2011-11-30

    A colloidal crystal-splitting growth regime has been accessed, in which TiO(2) nanocrystals, selectively trapped in the metastable anatase phase, can evolve to anisotropic shapes with tunable hyperbranched topologies over a broad size interval. The synthetic strategy relies on a nonaqueous sol-gel route involving programmed activation of aminolysis and pyrolysis of titanium carboxylate complexes in hot surfactant media via a simple multi-injection reactant delivery technique. Detailed investigations indicate that the branched objects initially formed upon the aminolysis reaction possess a strained monocrystalline skeleton, while their corresponding larger derivatives grown in the subsequent pyrolysis stage accommodate additional arms crystallographically decoupled from the lattice underneath. The complex evolution of the nanoarchitectures is rationalized within the frame of complementary mechanistic arguments. Thermodynamic pathways, determined by the shape-directing effect of the anatase structure and free-energy changes accompanying branching and anisotropic development, are considered to interplay with kinetic processes, related to diffusion-limited, spatially inhomogeneous monomer fluxes, lattice symmetry breaking at transient Ti(5)O(5) domains, and surfactant-induced stabilization. Finally, as a proof of functionality, the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells based on thin-film photoelectrodes that incorporate networked branched nanocrystals with intact crystal structure and geometric features is demonstrated. An energy conversion efficiency of 6.2% has been achieved with standard device configuration, which significantly overcomes the best performance ever approached with previously documented prototypes of split TiO(2) nanostructures. Analysis of the relevant photovoltaic parameters reveals that the utilized branched building blocks indeed offer light-harvesting and charge-collecting properties that can overwhelm detrimental electron losses due to recombination and trapping events. PMID:22004553

  20. Adsorption properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/activated carbon fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuhua; Song, Shuangping; Shi, Zhongliang

    2014-06-01

    Photocatalysts of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and TiO2/activated carbon fiber (TiO2/ACF) composite were prepared by sol-gel method, followed by calcining the pure TiO2 sols and the TiO2/ACF sols at 500°C for 2 h in a N2 atmosphere, respectively. These photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption property of TiO2/ACF composite using methylene blue as adsorbate. The adsorption data obtained from different batch experiments were analyzed using pseudo-second-order kinetic model, the experimental data can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. The photodecomposition behavior of TiO2/ACF was investigated in aqueous solution using methylene blue as target pollutant. It was found that methylene blue could be removed rapidly from water by TiO2/ACF, the photocatalytic decomposition was obviously improved when the photocatalyst was used. Kinetics analysis revealed that the photocatalytic decomposition reaction can be described well by a first-order rate equation.

  1. Decomposition of pollutants in wastewater using magnetic photocatalyst particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurinobu, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Natui, Y.; Kimata, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    The magnetic photocatalyst particles with a core-shell structure of three layers coating Fe 3O 4 core particles with SiO 2 and TiO 2 were prepared. Methylene blue, red basic dye, blue basic dye, nonylphenol, and octylphenol were used as pollutants. The magnetic photocatalyst particles efficiently decomposed those organic substances. The adsorption of those substances on the magnetic photocatalyst particles was found to be effective. The magnetic photocatalyst particles were easily recovered using magnetic separation.

  2. Ultrathin TiO2 layer coated-CdS spheres core-shell nanocomposite with enhanced visible-light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-12-26

    Development of various strategies for controllable fabrication of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) with highly active photocatalytic performance has been attracting ever-increasing research attention. In particular, control of the ultrathin layer TiO2 shell in constructing CSNs in an aqueous phase is a significant but technologically challenging issue. Here, this paper demonstrates the interface assembly synthesis of CdS nanospheres@TiO2 core-shell photocatalyst via the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged water-stable titania precursor with positively charged CdS nanospheres (CdS NSPs), followed by the formation of the ultrathin-layer TiO2 shell through a facile refluxing process in aqueous phase. The as-formed CdS NSPs@TiO2 core-shell nanohybrid exhibits a high visible-light-driven photoactivity for selective transformation and reduction of heavy metal ions. The ultrathin TiO2 layer coated on CdS NSPs results in excellent light transmission property, enhanced adsorption capacity, and improved transfer of charge carriers and lifespan of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which would prominently contribute to the significant photoactivity enhancement. It is anticipated that this facile aqueous-phase synthesis strategy could be extended to design a variety of more efficient CSN photocatalysts with controllable morphology toward target applications in diverse photoredox processes. PMID:24245797

  3. Determination of electron and hole lifetimes of rutile and anatase TiO2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2012-09-01

    The dynamical behavior of photoexcited states of TiO2 governs the activities of TiO2-based solar cells and photocatalysts. We determined the lifetimes of photoexcited electrons and holes in rutile and anatase TiO2 single crystals by combining advantages of time-resolved photoluminescence, photoconductance, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Electrons and holes in rutile show exponential decays with the lifetime of a few tens of nanoseconds, while non-exponential decays are observed in anatase, indicating the presence of multiple carrier trapping processes. We revealed the generic features of the carrier recombination processes in rutile and anatase TiO2.

  4. Sol–gel synthesis, characterization and optical properties of mercury-doped TiO 2 thin films deposited on ITO glass substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mechiakh; N. Ben Sedrine; R. Chtourou

    2011-01-01

    The Hg-doped and undoped nano-crystalline TiO2 films on ITO glass substrates surface and polycrystalline powders were prepared by sol–gel dip coating technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology of TiO2 were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results indicated that the powder of TiO2, doped with

  5. Synthesis and characterisation of new titanium amino-alkoxides: precursors for the formation of TiO2 materials.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Nathan; Kanna, Miki; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Molloy, Kieran C; Wongnawa, Sumpun

    2008-02-01

    Reaction of the amino-alkoxides HOCH(CH(2)NMe(2))(2) (Hbdmap) and HOC(CH(2)NMe(2))(3) (Htdmap) with [Ti(OR)(4)] yields a series of heteroleptic titanium alkoxides [Ti(OR)(4-n)(L)(n)] (L = bdmap, tdmap). Substitution of the monodentate alkoxide with the chelating alkoxides becomes progressively more difficult, with homogeneous products being obtained only for n = 1, 2. The structure of [Ti(OEt)(3)(bdmap)](2), a mu-OEt bridged dimer, has been determined. Hydrolysis of [Ti(OR)(2)(L)(2)], by adventitious moisture affords the dimeric oxo-alkoxides [Ti(O)(L)(2)](2), both of which have been characterised crystallographically. These two compounds have also been prepared by reaction of [Ti(NMe(2))(2)(L)(2)] with the hydrated metal salts [Zn(acac)(2).2H(2)O] and [Zn(OAc)(2).2H(2)O] using the intrinsic water molecules in these salts to react with the labile amido groups, though the former also produces Me(Me(2)N)C=C(H)C(O)Me from reaction of liberated HNMe(2) with the coordinated acac ligand, while the latter also affords the ligand exchange product [Zn(OAc)(bdmap)]. In neither case does the free dimethylamino group of [Ti(O)(L)(2)](2) coordinate a second metal. The dimeric structure of [Zn(OAc)(bdmap)](2) has been established, and the structure of the tetrameric oxo-alkoxide [Ti(O)(OPr(i))(OCH(2)CH(2)NMe(2))](4) is reported for comparison with others in this study. [Ti(OEt)(3)(bdmap)](2) has been used as a precursor in AACVD (Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition) to generate amorphous TiO(2) films on glass at 440 degrees C, and TiO(2)@C nanoparticles of approximate diameter 350 nm with a carbon coating of width ca. 75 nm on heating in a sealed container at 700 degrees C. PMID:18217119

  6. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail. PMID:24369051

  7. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail. PMID:24369051

  8. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nano TiO2-SiO2: PVA composite - a novel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venckatesh, Rajendran; Balachandaran, Kartha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari

    2012-07-01

    A novel, simple, less time consuming and cost-effective sol-gel method has been developed to synthesize nano titania-silica with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite relatively at low temperature in acidic pH. Titania sol is prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride and was mixed with silicic acid and tetrahydrofuran mixture. The reaction was carried out under vigorous stirring for 6 h and dried at room temperature with the addition of PVA solution. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible spectroscopy and thermal techniques. The grain size of the particles was calculated by X-ray diffraction; surface morphology and chemical composition were determined from scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy; metal oxide stretching was confirmed from FT-IR spectroscopy; bandgap was calculated using UV-visible spectroscopy, and thermal stability of the prepared composite was determined by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis. Since TiO2 got agglomerated on the surface of SiO2, effective absorptive sites increase which in turn increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the resulting composite.

  10. Facile synthesis of tetragonal columnar-shaped TiO2 nanorods for the construction of sensitive electrochemical glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanjun; Tang, Yan; Li, Juan; Zhang, Yongcai; Hu, Xiaoya

    2014-04-15

    A tetragonal columnar-shaped TiO2 (TCS-TiO2) nanorods are synthesized via a facile route for the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor is constructed based on the direct electrochemistry of GOx at TCS-TiO2 modified glassy carbon electrode. The fabricated biosensor is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The immobilized enzyme molecules on TCS-TiO2 nanorods retain its native structure and bioactivity and show a surface controlled, quasi-reversible and fast electron transfer process. The TCS-TiO2 nanorods have large surface area and provide a favorable microenvironment for enhancing the electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. The constructed glucose biosensor shows wide linear range from 5.0×10(-6) to 1.32×10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 23.2 mA M(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit is calculated to be 2.0×10(-6) M at signal-to-noise of 3. The proposed glucose biosensor also exhibits excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, and acceptable operational stability. Furthermore, the biosensor can be successfully applied in the detection of glucose in serum sample at the applied potential of -0.50 V. The TCS-TiO2 nanorods provide an efficient and promising platform for the immobilization of proteins and development of excellent biosensors. PMID:24325982

  11. Hydrogen production by photocatalytic steam reforming of methanol on noble metal-modified TiO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Luca Chiarello; Myriam H. Aguirre; Elena Selli

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic production of hydrogen by methanol steam reforming was studied over a series of pristine or noble metal (Ag, Au, Au–Ag alloy and Pt) – modified TiO2 photocatalysts, synthesised by flame spray pyrolysis or by the deposition of preformed noble metal nanoparticles on TiO2. A closed recirculation apparatus was employed, with the photocatalyst bed continuously fed with methanol\\/water vapours.

  12. TiO2/palygorskite composite nanocrystalline films prepared by surfactant templating route: synergistic effect to the photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye in water.

    PubMed

    Stathatos, E; Papoulis, D; Aggelopoulos, C A; Panagiotaras, D; Nikolopoulou, A

    2012-04-15

    Microfibrous palygorskite clay mineral and nanocrystalline TiO(2) are incorporating in the preparation of nanocomposite films on glass substrates via sol-gel route at 500°C. The synthesis involves a simple chemical method employing nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with the acetic acid-based sol-gel route without direct addition of water molecules. Drying and thermal treatment of composite films lead to the elimination of organic material while ensure the formation of TiO(2) nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the surface of the palygorskite microfibers. TiO(2) nanocomposite films without cracks consisted of small crystallites in size (12-16 nm) and anatase crystal phase was found to cover palygorskite microfibers. The composite films were characterized by microscopy techniques, UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, and porosimetry methods in order to examine their structural properties. Palygorskite/TiO(2) composite films with variable quantities of palygorskite (0-2 w/w ratio) were tested as new photocatalysts in the photo-discoloration of Basic Blue 41 azo-dye in water. These nanocomposite films proved to be very promising photocatalysts and highly effective to dye's discoloration in spite of the small amount of immobilized palygorskite/TiO(2) catalyst onto glass substrates. 3:2 palygorskite/TiO(2) weight ratio was finally the most efficient photocatalyst while reproducible discoloration results of the dye were obtained after three cycles with same catalyst. It was also found that palygorskite showed a positive synergistic effect to the TiO(2) photocatalysis. PMID:22177018

  13. The synthesis of nanostructure TiO2 co-doped with N and Fe and their application for micro-polluted source water treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Wei; Liu, Jia-Yu; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Jie

    2009-12-01

    The doping of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with various metal or nonmetal elements has been considered as an effective strategy to extend the photoactive wavelength region to include visible light. In this paper, TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with N and Fe were prepared via a sol-gel route, followed by a heat treatment at elevated temperatures. The co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed a strong visible light absorption and exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue as compared with pure TiO2 nanoparticles. Polypropylene packings, coated with the prepared N-Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, were used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the treatment of micro-polluted source water. Under the illumination of sunlight, when the water was treated with the coated polypropylene packings, the reduction of COD(Mn) was about 60%, whereas it was just 10% and 30% when the water was treated with pure polypropylene packings and polypropylene packings coated with pure TiO2, respectively. The NH3-N could also be decreased dramatically on the co-doped TiO2-coated polypropylene packings. The results showed that N-Fe co-doped TiO2-coated polypropylene packings still had a strong activity after three months of operation. PMID:20088210

  14. Hexagonal microrods of anatase tetragonal TiO2: self-directed growth and superior photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Yong; Long, Lu-Lu; Li, Wen-Wei; Wang, Wei-Kang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-07-11

    Novel TiO2 mesocrystalline microrods with unique hexagonal structure were prepared via a facial thermal method. Their photocatalytic performance under UV irradiation was much higher than that of the Degussa P25 benchmark, one of the best commercial polycrystalline TiO2 photocatalyst. The hexagonal microrods were formed through self-directed self-assembly within intermediate scaffolds. PMID:23727818

  15. Electrochemical characterization of TiO2/WOx nanotubes for photocatalytic application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/WOx nanotubes have unique photo-energy retention properties that have gathered scientific interest. Herein, we report the synthesis, morphological characterization, and the electrochemical characterization of TiO2/WOx nanotubes compared with pure TiO2 nanotubes, prepared by anodization technique. Significant structural differences were not observed in TiO2/WOx nanotubes as observed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The charge transfer resistance of TiO2/WOx before and after photo irradiation determined by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy proves the inherent energy retention property which was not observed in pure TiO2 nanotubes. PMID:25346647

  16. Employment of the electrical arc discharge method to prepare Titania nanoparticles in oxygen bubbled water: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Aghigh; M. Kavianipour; S. A. A. Afshar; A. A. Ashkarran

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most popular photocatalyst among the common photocatalysts such as TiO2, ZnO, ZrO2, SnO2, WO3, CeO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZnS and CdS as it is relatively inexpensive, stable chemically, and the photogenerated holes are highly oxidizing. In general, synthesis of TiO2 usually results in amorphous structures, but electrical arc discharge in water has the advantage in this regard

  17. Band gap engineered, oxygen-rich TiO2 for visible light induced photocatalytic reduction of CO2.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lling-Lling; Ong, Wee-Jun; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-07-01

    A facile and dopant-free strategy was employed to fabricate oxygen-rich TiO2 (O2-TiO2) with enhanced visible light photoactivity. Such properties were achieved by the in situ generation of oxygen through the thermal decomposition of the peroxo-titania complex. The O2-TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited high photoactivity towards CO2 reduction under visible light. PMID:24841282

  18. TiO2 nanoparticles induce DNA double strand breaks and cell cycle arrest in human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Krupa; Patel, Pal; Shah, Darshini; Shukla, Ritesh K; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have the second highest global annual production (?3000 tons) among the metal-containing NPs. These NPs are used as photocatalysts for bacterial disinfection, and in various other consumer products including sunscreen, food packaging, therapeutics, biosensors, surface cleaning agents, and others. Humans are exposed to these NPs during synthesis (laboratory), manufacture (industry), and use (consumer products, devices, medicines, etc.), as well as through environmental exposures (disposal). Hence, there is great concern regarding the health effects caused by exposure to NPs and, in particular, to TiO2 NPs. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs in A549 cells was examined, focusing on their potential to induce ROS, different types of DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest. We show that TiO2 NPs can induce DNA damage and a corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency, as evident from the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays. We demonstrate that DNA damage may be attributed to increased oxidative stress and ROS generation. Furthermore, genomic and proteomic analyses showed increased expression of ATM, P53, and CdC-2 and decreased expression of ATR, H2AX, and Cyclin B1 in A549 cells, suggesting induction of DNA double strand breaks. The occurrence of double strand breaks was correlated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Overall, the results indicate the potential for genotoxicity following exposure to these TiO2 NPs, suggesting that use should be carefully monitored. PMID:25524809

  19. A method for large-scale synthesis of Al-doped TiO2 nanopowder using pulse-modulated induction thermal plasmas with time-controlled feedstock feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoto; Tanaka, Yasunori; Kita, K.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.; Watanabe, S.; Nakamura, K.

    2014-05-01

    A unique method of large-scale synthesis of Al-doped TiO2 nanopowder was developed, using 20 kW Ar-O2 pulse-modulated induction thermal plasmas (PMITP) with time-controlled feedstock feeding (TCFF). This PMITP-TCFF method is characterized by intermittent feedstock powder feeding synchronized with modulation of the power of the PMITP. The method enables heavy-load feeding of raw material powder to the thermal plasmas for complete evaporation. The nanopowder synthesized was analysed using different methods including field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM/energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry. The results showed that Al-doped TiO2 nanopowder can be synthesized with mean diameters of 50-60 nm. The Al doping in TiO2 was confirmed from the constituent structure in the XRD spectra, the uniform presence of Al in the nanopowder in the TEM/EDX mapping, the chemical shift in the x-ray photoelectron spectra, and the absorption edge shift in the optical properties. The rate of production of the Al-doped TiO2 nanopowder was estimated as 400 g h-1.

  20. Aerogel processing of MTi 2O 5 (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sn) compositions using single source precursors: synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Kapoor; S. Uma; S. Rodriguez; K. J. Klabunde

    2005-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor photocatalysts based on TiO2 (band gap of 3.2eV) are normally used to destroy organics under UV irradiation. Currently we have been focused on the aerogel synthesis of nanocrystalline photocatalysts that will destroy organic compounds such as acetaldehyde using visible and UV radiations. Herein we report the results of our attempts to synthesize mixed metal oxides of the type

  1. Acid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 from titanate nanotubes: influence of acids on the photodegradation of gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunyang; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    In order to efficiently remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from indoor air, one-dimensional titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) were hydrothermally treated to prepare TiO2 nanocrystals with different crystalline phases, shapes and sizes. The influences of various acids such as CH3COOH, HNO3, HCl, HF and H2SO4 used in the treatment were separately compared to optimize the performance of the TiO2 nanocrystals. Compared with the strong and corrosive inorganic acids, CH3COOH was not only safer and more environmentally friendly, but also more efficient in promoting the photocatalytic activity of the obtained TiO2. It was observed that the anatase TiO2 synthesized in 15 mol/L CH3COOH solution exhibited the highest photodegradation rate of gaseous toluene (94%), exceeding that of P25 (44%) by a factor of more than two. The improved photocatalytic activity was attributed to the small crystallite size and surface modification by CH3COOH. The influence of relative humidity (20%-80%) on the performance of TiO2 nanocrystals was also studied. The anatase TiO2 synthesized in 15 mol/L CH3COOH solution was more tolerant to moisture than the other TiO2 nanocrystals and P25. PMID:25597682

  2. Synthesis and characterization of the Pd/InVO 4-TiO 2 co-doped thin films with visible light photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Lei; Xu, Mingxia; Fang, Haibo

    2006-12-01

    Novel Pd/InVO 4-TiO 2 thin films with visible light photocatalytic activity were synthesized from the Pd and InVO 2 co-doped TiO 2 sol via sol-gel method. The photocatalytic activities of Pd/InVO 4-TiO 2 thin films were investigated based on the oxidative decomposition of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results indicate that the Pd/InVO 4-TiO 2 thin films are compact, uniform and consist of sphere nanoparticles with diameters about 80-100 nm. The UV-vis spectra show that the Pd/InVO 4-TiO 2 thin films extend the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region. XPS results reveal that doped Pd exist in the form of metallic palladium. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrate that Pd doping can effectively enhance the photocatalytic activities of InVO 4-TiO 2 thin films in decomposition of aqueous methyl orange under visible light irradiation. It has been confirmed that Pd/InVO 4-TiO 2 thin films could be excited by visible light ( E < 3.2 eV) due to the existence of the Pd and InVO 4 doped in the films.

  3. A facile method for synthesis of N-doped TiO2 nanooctahedra, nanoparticles, and nanospheres and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jimin; Zhao, Guoyan; Shi, Yunfeng; Yang, Hao; Li, Yaxiao; Zhu, Gaigai; Mao, Yanjun; Sa, Rongjian; Wang, Weiming

    2013-05-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanooctahedra, nanoparticles and nanospheres were successfully synthesized through nitrification of the corresponding TiO2 nanostructures in the presence of ammonia gas at 700 °C for 30 min. The crystal phase and compositions of N-doped TiO2 samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The product morphology was characterized with scanning microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-vis absorption results show that all the as-synthesized N-doped TiO2 samples present red-shift absorption up to ?410 nm, which can be ascribed to the addition energy level between TiO2 valence and conducion band. Surface areas of all samples were measured through nitrogen absorption-desorption isothermal. In order to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 samples, photodecomposition for methyl orange (MO) was performed under UV-vis light irradiation for 30 min, indicating that N-doped TiO2 nanooctahedra with the exposed {1 0 1} crystallized surfaces show good photocatalytic behavior in comparison with other samples.

  4. Applications of TiO 2 Photocatalysis for Air Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Beeldens; Luigi Cassar; Yoshihiko Murata

    \\u000a A system consisting of TiO2 and cement has recently been studied within the framework of a strategy for alleviating environmental pollution through the\\u000a use of construction materials containing photocatalysts. This technology for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants\\u000a is aimed at maintaining the aesthetic characteristics of concrete structures, particularly those based on white cement. The\\u000a main reason for the discoloration

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Inorganic Mesostructured Composite Photocatalyst for Water Purification: An Insight Into the Synthesis Fundamentals, Reaction, and Binding Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Nan Chong; Bo Jin

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the sol-gel synthesis of an inorganic mesostructured composite photocatalyst for application in water purification. The fundamentals for each synthesis step on the final Ti-content, anatase-to-rutile composition, bonding structure and mechanism to kaolinite, shape, surface area, and size control were described. In addition, various advanced microscopic techniques were used to characterize and validate the physical and chemical properties

  6. Preparation of mesoporous TiO2/CNT nanocomposites by synthesis of mesoporous titania via EISA and their photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, K.; Thennarasu, S.; Rajesh, R.; Abirami, R.; Balkis Ameen, K.; Ramasubbu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Stabilized mesoporous TiO2 was synthesized by evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) method and mechanically incorporated into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with different ratios. The physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites (mesoporous TiO2/SWCNT) materials were investigated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy measurements. The catalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 and nanocomposites were assessed by examining the degradation of rhodamine B as model aqueous solution under visible light. CNTs are facilitating the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 in the degradation of rhodamine B efficiently.

  7. Photocatalytic decomposition of bisphenol A in water using composite TiO2-zeolite sheets prepared by a papermaking technique.

    PubMed

    Fukahori, Shuji; Ichiura, Hideaki; Kitaoka, Takuya; Tanaka, Hiroo

    2003-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst and zeolite adsorbent were made into a paper-like composite by a papermaking technique using pulp and ceramic fibers as sheet matrix. The photocatalytic performance for the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) dissolved in water was investigated under UV irradiation. The TiO2 sheet prepared was easier to handle than the original TiO2 powders in aqueous media. The TiO2 sheet could decompose the BPA under UV irradiation, although at a lower degradation efficiency than the TiO2 suspension. The TiO2-free zeolite sheet could not remove the BPA from water completely because of its adsorption equilibrium. Furthermore, the composite TiO2-zeolite sheets exhibited a higher efficiency for BPA removal than the zeolite-free TiO2 sheets, the efficiency of the former being equivalent to that of the TiO2 suspension. The enhancement in removal efficiency was not attributed to the simple adsorption of BPA on zeolite but rather to the synergistic effect obtained through the combined use of TiO2 photocatalyst and zeolite adsorbent in the paper-like composite sheet, which is believed to accelerate the BPA photodegradation in water. PMID:12666940

  8. Preparation of highly photocatalytic active nano-sized TiO2 particles via ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, J C; Yu, J; Ho, W; Zhang, L

    2001-10-01

    A novel method for preparing highly photoactive nano-sized TiO2 photocatalysts with anatase and brookite phases has been developed by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisoproproxide in pure water or a 1:1 EtOH-H2O solution under ultrasonic irradiation; the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 particles prepared by this method exceeded that of Degussa P25. PMID:12240230

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2(B) nanowires with ultrahigh surface area and their fast charging and discharging properties in Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianming; Wan, Wang; Zhou, Henghui; Li, Jingjian; Xu, Dongsheng

    2011-03-28

    We first report a facile hydrothermal route for preparing TiO(2)(B) nanowires with ultrahigh surface area, up to 210 m(2) g(-1). Due to the 1D structure, high BET surface area and shorter b-and c-axis channel across the nanowires, the obtained TiO(2)(B) nanowire was shown to be a good anode material for lithium-ion batteries, especially on the fast charging and discharging performance. PMID:21298139

  10. Synthesis of hybrid TiO 2 nanoparticles with well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tert-butyldimethylsilyl methacrylate) via the RAFT process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Giang Ngo; Christine Bressy; Christine Leroux; André Margaillan

    2009-01-01

    Surface of titania nanoparticles (TiO2) was modified by a coupling agent as 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) to form TiO2-MPS polymerizable particles. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl methacrylate (MASi) were radically polymerized through the immobilized vinyl bond on the surface in the presence of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate using 2,2?-azobisisobutylnitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed

  11. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kiran; Singh, R P; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has both anatase and rutile phases while only an anatase phase was found in Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The decreased band-gap energy of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The rate of recombination and transfer behaviour of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (3% and 7%) was investigated against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria. As a result, the viability of all three microorganisms was reduced to zero at 60 mg/30 mL culture in the case of both (3% and 7% doping) concentrations of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Annealed TiO2 showed zero viability at 80 mg/30 mL whereas doped Ag-TiO2 7% showed zero viability at 40 mg/30 mL culture in the case of P. aeruginosa only. PMID:23844339

  12. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe3O4/TiO2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min(-1) and turnover frequency is 5457 h(-1). PMID:25665732

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic properties of nanoclustered P-doped TiO2 films deposited by advanced atmospheric plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Kee; Elliott, C Michael; Ansari, S G

    2012-09-01

    A facile preparation of P-doped TiO2 nanoclusters onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by an advanced atmospheric plasma jet (AAP jet) is reported here. Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) were used as precursors. Radio frequencies were used to generate plasma at fix powder with Argon as carrier gas. Films were deposited at 500 degrees C for 10 minutes. For comparison, as-prepared, annealed and deposited at 500 degrees C samples were studied for chemical/physical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Optical properties were studied by using UV-Vis spectroscopy which indicated a reduction in optical band with P-doping. The rhodamine B (Rh-B) degradation by P-doped TiO2 deposited at 500 degrees C showed enhanced degradation efficiency than that of annealed TiO2. The suggested deposition method appears to be suitable for the synthesis of photocatalyst with proper control over dopants. PMID:23035425

  14. Visible-Light-Driven Oxidation of Primary C–H Bonds over CdS with Dual Co-catalysts Graphene and TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Quan; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Selective activation of primary C–H bonds for fine chemicals synthesis is of crucial importance for the sustainable exploitation of available feedstocks. Here, we report a viable strategy to synthesize ternary GR-CdS-TiO2 composites with an intimate spatial integration and sheet-like structure, which is afforded by assembling two co-catalysts, graphene and TiO2, into the semiconductor CdS matrix with specific morphology as a visible light harvester. The GR-CdS-TiO2 composites are able to serve as a highly selective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for oxidation of saturated primary C–H bonds using benign oxygen as oxidant under ambient conditions. This work demonstrates a wide, promising scope of adopting co-catalyst strategy to design more efficient semiconductor-based photocatalyst toward selective activation of C–H bonds using solar light and molecular oxygen. PMID:24264835

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of a novel BiErWO6 photocatalyst with wide spectral responsive property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wang, Wenzhong; Zhou, Yu

    2014-11-01

    To overcome the drawback of low solar energy utilization rate brought by general photocatalysts, a novel BiErWO6 photocatalyst with wide spectral responsive property was designed and synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the phase structure and the photocatalytic activities of the products were investigated. Due to the wide spectral absorption range, the as-prepared BiErWO6 photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic performance in degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light. Moreover, the BiErWO6 photocatalyst also exhibited high photocatalytic activity under a green LED (? = 520 nm) irradiation. This work provided a new concept for rational design and development of high-performance photocatalysts.

  16. The effects of the bacterial interaction with visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst on the bactericidal performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Liang Cheng; Der-Shan Sun; Wen-Chen Chu; Yao-Hsuan Tseng; Han-Chen Ho; Jia-Bin Wang; Pei-Hua Chung; Jiann-Hwa Chen; Pei-Jane Tsai; Nien-Tsung Lin; Mei-Shiuan Yu; Hsin-Hou Chang

    2009-01-01

    Bactericidal activity of traditional titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst is effective only upon irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the potential applications of TiO2 for use in our living environments. Recently carbon-containing TiO2 was found to be photoactive at visible-light illumination that affords the potential to overcome this problem; although, the bactericidal activity of these photocatalysts is relatively lower than conventional

  17. First-principles study of Cu-doping and oxygen vacancy effects on TiO2 for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huamin; Yu, Xiaohui; McLeod, John A.; Sun, Xuhui

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of Cu-doped TiO2-x using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that Cu doping creates an empty impurity band lying above the valence band of TiO2, which bridges most of the gap between the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum in undoped TiO2. The results also show that oxygen vacancies produce a similar effect and that Cu-doping can increase the stability of oxygen vacancies. We propose that Cu-doped TiO2-x improves light harvesting and could be a promising visible-light photocatalyst.

  18. The effect of TiO2 nanostructures on self-degrading polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-03-01

    Waste polyurethane foams are becoming a serious environmental problem due to their low degradation rates upon exposure to the environment. By adding TiO2 nanostructures as a photocatalyst, we can simultaneously enhance mechanical properties during use for higher performance applications, while enhancing degradation when exposed to light when placed in landfills. In this work, we integrated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles into polyurethane foams using a unique bifunctional monomer approach and studied the photodegradation ability and mechanism in a weathering chamber simulating natural environmental conditions. We found that the TiO2 nanoparticles increased the degradation rate in a significant manner showing the utility of this approach.

  19. Enzymatic hydrogen production by light-sensitized anodized tubular TiO 2 photoanode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanghyun Bae; Eunjung Shim; Jaekyung Yoon; Hyunku Joo

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary experiments with a slurry system of enzyme and powdery photocatalyst mixed in one compartment suggested that the electron transfer from light-sensitized photocatalyst to enzyme is the rate-determining step. Hence, in this study an anodized tubular TiO2 electrode (ATTE) on a titanium substrate was examined as a photoanode in an anodic cell for enzymatic hydrogen production in a cathodic cell.

  20. Diatom-templated TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity: biomimetics of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiao; Chen, Daomei; Li, Yongli; Shao, Junlong; Xie, Jiao; Sun, Yuejuan; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2013-11-01

    The siliceous frustules with sophisticated optical structure endow diatoms with superior solar light-harvesting abilities for effective photosynthesis. The preserved frustules of diatom ( Cocconeis placentula) cells, as biophotonic crystals, were thus employed as both hard templates and silicon resources to synthesize TiO2 photocatalyst. Characterizations by a combination of physicochemical techniques proved that the bio-inspired sample is TiO2-coated SiO2 with biogenic C self-doped in. It was found that the synthesized composites exhibited similar morphologies to the original diatom templates. In comparison with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, the C-doped TiO2/SiO2 catalyst exhibited more light absorption in the visible region and higher photocatalytic efficiency for photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light due to the biomorphic hierarchical structures, TiO2 coating and C-doping.

  1. Beta zeolite supported sol-gel TiO2 materials for gas phase photocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Lafjah, Mama; Djafri, Fatiha; Bengueddach, Abdelkader; Keller, Nicolas; Keller, Valérie

    2011-02-28

    Beta zeolite supported sol-gel TiO(2) photocatalytic materials were prepared according to a sol-gel route in which high specific surface area Beta zeolite powder was incorporated into the titanium isopropoxide sol during the course of the sol-gel process. This led to an intimate contact between the zeolite surface and the TiO(2) precursors, and resulted in the anchorage of large amounts of dispersed TiO(2) nanoparticles and in the stabilization of TiO(2) in its anatase form, even for high TiO(2) wt. contents and high calcination temperatures. Taking the UV-A photocatalytic oxidation of methanol as gas phase target reaction, high methanol conversions were obtained on the Beta zeolite supported TiO(2) photocatalysts when compared to bulk sol-gel TiO(2), despite lower amounts of TiO(2) within the photoactive materials. The methanol conversion was optimum for about 40 wt.% TiO(2) loading and calcination temperatures of 500-600°C. PMID:21177024

  2. Room temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline anatase sols and preparation of uniform nanostructured TiO2 thin films: optical and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseingholi, M.; Pazouki, M.; Hosseinnia, A.; Aboutalebi, S. H.

    2011-02-01

    Transparent TiO2 thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates via the sol-gel method using a nanocrystalline TiO2 sol solution prepared at room temperature employing the dip-coating method. The effects of pH on crystallinity, particle size and stability of the synthesized TiO2 sols were investigated, systematically. TiO2 thin films were thickened by means of a sequential dip-coating process. The TiO2 films were transparent and exhibited proper adherence. The effects of thickness and annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of the thin films were evaluated. The prepared powder was crystalline without any thermal treatment. The crystallite size of the particles (anatase) was in the range 4.2-12.1 nm depending on the initial pH value. Although only the anatase phase was observed at room temperature and 400 °C, a further increase in annealing temperature up to 700 °C resulted in the formation of the rutile phase. Even at high annealing temperatures, fairly smooth and homogeneous surfaces with no cracks and pores were observed. It was demonstrated that the films were transparent in the visible region with characteristic absorption in the UV region. Band gap of the as-deposited film was estimated to be 3.34 eV and was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature.

  3. CCMR: Synthesis of Nanosized Titanium-Chromium nitride Powders by Ammonolysis of Co-precipitated TiO2/Cr2O3 Precursors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hernández Rivera, Mayra

    2010-08-15

    Nanocrystalline bimetallic metal nitride, Ti0.5Cr0.5N was synthesized by ammonolysis at 800°C for 14 hours of the nanozide TiO2/Cr2O3 precursor powder. TiO2/Cr2O3 nanopowder resulting from the coprecipitation method. The precursor and the resulting nitrides were characterized by X-Ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion stability was analyzed by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the precursor solution contains TiO2 and K2CrO7. The final product is TiN and CrN with an average particle size of 30nm.

  4. A novel approach for the synthesis of visible-light-active nanocrystalline N-doped TiO2 photocatalytic hydrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Jiang, Peng; Shao, Wei-Na; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Wen-Bin

    2014-07-01

    A visible-light-active nitrogen doped nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) hydrosol was prepared by precipitation-peptization method and following with hydrothermal crystallization at 110 °C holding for 6 h. XPS results show that nitrogen ions have been doped into the TiO2 lattice successfully and the UV-Vis absorption spectra indicate that the light absorption edge of the N-doped TiO2 has been red-shifted into visible light region. The photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 thin film prepared from the synthesized hydrosol was evaluated by photodegrading the gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) under visible light irradiation. The photodegradation ratio of HCHO reached up to 90% within 24 h and the degradation ratio was stable for ten degradation cycles, indicating the prepared hydrosol has good reusable performance in photodegrading gaseous pollutants.

  5. Mechanism of simulated solarlight-induced photocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid on sulfur doped TiO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiankun Ren; Guoqing Liu; Panying Peng; Yuping Wang

    2011-01-01

    The photodegradation of 5-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid (HNSA) was investigated with the TiO2 and sulfur doped TiO2 (S\\/TiO2) photocatalysts under the irradiation of the ultraviolet light (UV) and the simulated solar light. The S\\/TiO2 photocatalyst was found to be highly effective for the HNSA photodegradation both under the UV light or the simulated solar light irradiation. Especially, using various analysis methods, the

  6. Electron transfers in a TiO2-containing MOR zeolite: synthesis of the nanoassemblies and application using a probe chromophore molecule.

    PubMed

    Legrand, A; Moissette, A; Hureau, M; Casale, S; Massiani, P; Vezin, H; Mamede, A S; Batonneau-Gener, I

    2014-07-14

    New assemblies constituted by a microporous matrix of mordenite (MOR) zeolite on which TiO2 nanoclusters are deposited were synthesized using ionic oxalate complexes and TiCl3 titanium precursors. The samples were used to investigate the transfer of electrons produced by spontaneous or photo-induced ionization of a guest molecule (t-stilbene, t-St) occluded in the porous volume towards the conduction band of a conductive material placed nearby, in the pores or at least close to their entrance. The reaction mechanisms were compared in these Ti-rich solids and in a Ti-free mordenite sample. The characterization by XRD, N2 physisorption, TEM, XPS and DRIFT spectroscopy of the supramolecular TiO2/MOR systems before t-St adsorption showed the preservation of the crystalline structure after Ti addition and thermal activation treatments. They also revealed that titanium is mainly located at the external surface of the zeolite grains, in the form of highly dispersed and/or aggregated anatase. After incorporation of the guest molecule in the new assemblies, diffuse reflectance UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies indicate that the electron transfer processes are similar with and without TiO2 but strongly stabilized t-St?(+) radicals are detected in the TiO2-MOR samples whereas such species were never detected earlier in TiO2-free mordenite using these techniques. The stabilization process is found to be more efficient in the sample prepared with TiCl3 as the precursor than with titanium oxalates. It is proposed that the proximity of TiO2 with the formed t-St?(+) radicals provokes the stabilization of the radical through capture of the ejected electron by the semi-conductor and that confinement effects can also play a role. PMID:24866869

  7. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ?O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. PMID:25497036

  8. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method of preparation of TiO 2 nano-particles: Characterization, properties and 4-chlorophenol removal application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Neppolian; Q. Wang; H. Jung; H. Choi

    2008-01-01

    Nano-size TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel and ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel methods using two different sources of ultrasonicator, i.e., a bath type and tip type. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by BET, XRD and TEM analyses and the photocatalytic properties of the TiO2 catalysts prepared by three different methods were compared. The intrinsic and extrinsic properties of TiO2,

  10. Samarium-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles with improved photocatalytic performance for elimination of gaseous organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianting; Chen, Xiaomiao; Liu, Yu; Gong, Wei; Peng, Zhenshan; Cai, Tiejun; Luo, Lianjing; Deng, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 doped with different amounts of Sm were prepared via a sol-gel route with Pluronic P123 as template. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 sorption experiments, etc. The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous TiO2 was tested in elimination of gaseous methanol and acetone. The Sm doped mesoporous TiO2 have higher activity than those of the commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25) and Sm doped TiO2 counterparts without mesopore structure under ultraviolet light irradiation. A possible mechanism was proposed to account for the high photocatalytic activity of the Sm doped mesoporous TiO2. The superior activity of the Sm doped mesoporous TiO2 may be attributed to the synergic effect of the high surface area, mesopore structure and doped Sm species.

  11. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of TiO2-WO3 heterostructures for the catalytic degradation of Tergitol (NP-9) in water.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Sambandam; Wu, Jerry J

    2014-07-01

    TiO2-WO3 heterostructures were synthesized at room temperature, ambient pressure, and short reaction time via a sonochemical approach. TEM and EDX images show that the prepared TiO2-WO3 heterostructures consist of globular agglomerates (?250 nm in diameter) composed of very small (<5 nm) dense particles (WO3) dispersed inside the globules. The observed less intense monoclinic WO3 diffraction peak (around 2?=22° belonging to (001) plane) and the high intense hexagonal WO3 diffraction peak (around 2?=28° belonging to (200) plane) in XRD indicate that there may be phase transition occurring due to the formation of intimate bond between TiO2 and WO3. In addition, the formation of such new phase was also observed from Raman spectra with a new peak at 955 cm(-1), which is due to the symmetric stretching of W=O terminal. The catalytic activity of TiO2-WO3 heterostructures was tested for the degradation of wastewater pollutant containing Tergitol (NP-9) by a process combined with ozonation and it showed two-fold degradation rate compared with ozone process alone. PMID:24491600

  12. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2 from small-molecule amine systems and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Nan; Niu, Jun-Jian; Li, Yuan; Wu, Guo-Lin; Yu, Xiao-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanopowders have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothennal route under soft-chemistry conditions (150 degrees, 8 h) without high-temperature calcination using seven different types of nitrogen dopants: methylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, ethylenediamine, triethylamine, triethanolamine and ammonia. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isothenns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to analyse the as-synthesized TiO2 powders. The results indicated that nitrogen was doped effectively and the structure and morphology of the titania samples were strongly influenced by the nitrogen sources. Among the investigated nitrogen sources, the diethylamine system was clearly superior to the other small-molecule amine or ammonia systems due to the broad-spectrum response (between 400 and 700 nm) of the interstitial nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanopowders. The diethylamine N-doped TiO2 had the largest pore volume (0.39 ml x g(-1)) and showed a well-aligned anatase phase. The visible-light photocatalytic degradation of liquid X-3B used as a probe reaction demonstrated that the removal rate over the diethylamine material reached 99.7% in 90 min. PMID:24617053

  13. Synthesis of Z-scheme g-C3N4-Ti(3+)/TiO2 material: an efficient visible light photoelectrocatalyst for degradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenjuan; Murugananthan, Muthu; Zhang, Yanrong

    2015-04-14

    In this study, a photocatalytic material g-C3N4-Ti(3+)/TiO2 nanotube arrays was prepared by a facile and viable approach involving a heat treatment followed by an electrochemical reduction step, and it was characterized using instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic efficiency of the as-prepared samples towards treating aqueous solution contaminated with phenol was systematically evaluated by a photoelectrocatalytic method and found to be highly dependent on the content of the g-C3N4. At the optimal content of g-C3N4, the apparent photocurrent density of g-C3N4-Ti(3+)/TiO2 was four times higher than that of the pristine TiO2 under visible-light illumination. The enhanced photoelectrocatalytic behavior observed for g-C3N4-Ti(3+)/TiO2 was ascribed to a cumulative impact of both g-C3N4 and Ti(3+), which enhances the photoresponsive behavior of the material into the visible region and facilitates the effective charge separation of photoinduced charge carriers. PMID:25744448

  14. Photodegradation of oxytetracycline in aqueous by 5A and 13X loaded with TiO2 under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun; Deng, Huiping; Li, Yuan; Liu, Zhenzhong

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalysis degradation, mineralization and detoxification of oxytetracycline (OTC) in aqueous were investigated by 5A and 13X zeolite with nano-TiO(2) loaded under UV light. The composite photocatalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning (FESEM) technologies. The adsorption isotherms of OTC by 5A and 13X with different pH are evaluated. The results show that 654 and 1497 mg/g OTC of saturation adsorption capacity is reached by 5A and 13X at pH 7, respectively. Then the effect of TiO(2) with 5A and 13X support and different wt% of TiO(2) over the support on the resultant OTC removal, net photocatalytic degradation and influence factors such as TiO(2) loading, initial pH, concentration of OTC and adding anion on degradation are investigated. The 15 wt% TiO(2)/5A and 10 wt% TiO(2)/13X photocatalysts are found optimum for OTC removal and degradation in aqueous. The mineralization was measured by total organic carbon (TOC) while combined toxicity change during OTC degradation was tested with standardized bioluminescence assay of inhibition rate on Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Q67). The results suggest that TiO(2)/5A and TiO(2)/13X composite systems are effective photocatalysts for treatment of OTC in aqueous. PMID:20034739

  15. Pulsed laser ablation induced enhancement of TiO2 photocatalytic effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Takahashi; M. Obara

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of photocatalyst. TiO2 is a most attractive because of its stability to acid, base and organic solvent. It is used to purify organic pollutants in water and air, in order to clean cigarette's tar, and to sterilize bacteria. This study may enhance the photocatalytic

  16. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals in different basic pHs and their applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anajafi, Z.; Marandi, M.; Taghavinia, N.

    2015-06-01

    In this research TiO2 nanocrystals with sizes about 11-70 nm were grown by hydrothermal method. The process was performed in basic autoclaving pH in the range of 8.0-12.0. The synthesized anatase phase TiO2 nanocrystals were then applied in the phtoanode of the dye sensitized solar cells. It was shown that the final average size of the nanocrystals was larger when the growth was carried out in higher autoclaving pHs. The photoanodes made of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared in the pHs of 8.0 and 9.0 represented low amounts of dye adsorption and light scattering. The performance of the corresponding dye sensitized solar cells was also not acceptable. Nevertheless, the energy conversion efficiency was better for the state of pH of 9.0. For the photoanodes made of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared at autoclaving pH of 10.0, the dye adsorption and light scattering were quite higher. The photovoltaic characteristics of the best cell in this state were 15.25 mA/cm2, 740 mV, 0.6 and 6.8% for the short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency, respectively. The photoanodes composed of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared in autoclaving pHs of 11.0 and 12.0 demonstrated lower amount of dye adsorption and higher light scattering. This was quite considerable for the state of pH of 12.0. The energy conversion efficiencies were consequently decreased compared to that of the pH of 10.0. The optimum situation was finally discussed based on the nanocrystals size and its influence on the sensitization and light harvesting efficiency.

  18. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Delgado, N A; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Maya-Treviño, L; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Guzman-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol-gel method with two different percentages of WO3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO2 was also prepared by sol-gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DRUV-vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSABET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO3/TiO2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO3/TiO2) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO2. The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO3/TiO2, respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO3/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO3/TiO2 and bare TiO2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO3/TiO2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability. PMID:23993423

  19. TiO2 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenylarsonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Cai, Yong; O’Shea, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Phenyl substituted arsenic compounds are widely used as feed additives in the poultry industry and have become a serious environmental concern. We have demonstrated that phenylarsonic acid (PA) is readily degraded by TiO2 photocatalysis. Application of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model for the initial stages of the TiO2 photocatalysis of PA yields an apparent rate constant (kr) of 2.8 µmol/L·min and the pseudo-equilibrium constant (K) for PA is 34 L/mmol. The pH of the solution influences the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of PA due to the surface charge of TiO2 photocatalyst and speciation of PA. Phenol, catechol and hydroquinone are observed as the predominant products during the degradation. The roles of reactive oxygen species, •OH, 1O2, O2?• and hVB+ were probed by adding appropriate scavengers to the reaction medium and the results suggest that •OH plays a major role in the degradation of PA. By-products studies indicate the surface of the catalyst plays a key role in the formation of the primary products and the subsequent oxidation pathways leading to the mineralization to inorganic arsenic. TiO2 photocatalysis results in the rapid destruction of PA and may be attractive for the remediation of a variety of organoarsenic compounds. PMID:20473340

  20. Effective nitrogen doping into TiO2 (N-TiO2) for visible light response photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Niimi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Muneaki; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    The thickness-controlled TiO2 thin films are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These samples function as photocatalysts under UV light irradiation and the reaction rate depends on the TiO2 thickness, i.e., with an increase of thickness, it increases to the maximum, followed by decreasing to be constant. Such variation of the reaction rate is fundamentally explained by the competitive production and annihilation processes of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 films, and the optimum TiO2 thickness is estimated to be ca. 10nm. We also tried to dope nitrogen into the effective depth region (ca. 10nm) of TiO2 by an ion implantation technique. The nitrogen doped TiO2 enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. XANES and XPS analyses indicated two types of chemical state of nitrogen, one photo-catalytically active N substituting the O sites and the other inactive NOx (1?x?2) species. In the valence band XPS spectrum of the high active sample, the additional electronic states were observed just above the valence band edge of a TiO2. The electronic state would be originated from the substituting nitrogen and be responsible for the band gap narrowing, i.e., visible light response of TiO2 photocatalysts. PMID:25670537

  1. New Paradigms for Active Site Engineering in Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein Shapiro, Daniel

    The common trends in the synthesis of new TiO2 photocatalysts are based on the premise that increasing the area of high index facets results in higher photocatalytic activity. Nevertheless, there exist a number of catalysts, that, due to their peculiar morphology which does not mirror the crystal symmetry, possess sites or properties which fall outside of the realm of this general paradigm. A new universe of possibilities becomes available by considering structures which have been deposited under conditions very far from equilibrium (i.e. plasmas), or which have received a post-synthesis process that alters the energetics or geometries of the sites. A new framework for understanding these materials and tools to categorize the types of sites they present is not yet in place. In this Thesis we consider three types of systems and with each one introduce a new concept in the synthesis of materials that could open research directions that transcend and complete the limitations of the single-crystal framework. We introduce the concept of parent morphologies for TiO2 nanorods that are produced by collapsing a nanotube structure. We analyze in detail the properties of acetaldehyde adsorption at environmentally relevant pressures setting the stage for practical applications, and use HRTEM to reveal the orientation of the crystallite within the rod. We show that a unique structure results from this procedure yielding (100) rods. We discuss the use of parent structures with different crystal orientations as a viable route to produce highly energetic metastable configurations. Next, we discuss the interaction between crystal domains in TiO2 thin films. We introduce the use of X-ray goniometry to analyze the degree of crystallite orientation in films deposited with magnetron sputtering, constituting the first analysis of crystallite orientation in TiO2 films for photocatalysis. We find the degree of orientation to be an excellent predictor of reactivity. We investigate organic-semiconductor active sites with the third system, TiO2 surfaces functionalized with salicylate derivatives. We analyze the adsorption of CO2 and track the electron dynamics using EPR. We demonstrate that the adsorption of CO2 creates a surface state and postulate its importance in the charge transfer to CO2.

  2. Sol–gel auto-combustion synthesis of samarium-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Xiao; Zhichun Si; Zhiming Yu; Guanzhou Qiu

    2007-01-01

    High photocatalytic activity of Sm3+-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline under visible light has been successfully prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion technique. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed a slight shift to longer wavelengths and an extension of the absorption in the visible region for almost all the samarium-doped samples,

  3. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nano powder and study of their gas sensing performance using thick film resistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Gaikwad; Gotan H. Jain

    2011-01-01

    Nano size TiO2 powder with anatase and rutile structure was prepaired by a sol-gel method using TiCl4 ethanol solution. The TiCl4 acts as precursor in this reaction. The obtained product with grain size 2.80 nm. The obtained product consist of both rutile and anatase phases. These phase formed after drying of gel at 80°C.The proportion of anatase to rutile was

  4. A maskless synthesis of TiO2-nanofiber-based hierarchical structures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures with secondary growth have been successfully synthesized on electrospun nanofibers via surfactant-free hydrothermal route. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on the secondary nanostructures has been studied. The synthesized nanostructures comprise electrospun nanofibers which are polycrystalline with anatase phase and have single crystalline, rutile TiO2 nanorod-like structures growing on them. These secondary nanostructures have a preferential growth direction [110]. UV–vis spectroscopy measurements point to better dye loading capability and incident photon to current conversion efficiency spectra show enhanced light harvesting of the synthesized hierarchical structures. Concomitantly, the dye molecules act as spacers between the conduction band electrons of TiO2 and holes in the hole transporting medium, i.e., spiro-OMeTAD and thus enhance open circuit voltage. The charge transport and recombination effects are characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. As a result of improved light harvesting, dye loading, and reduced recombination losses, the hierarchical nanofibers yield 2.14% electrochemical conversion efficiency which is 50% higher than the efficiency obtained by plain nanofibers. PMID:24410851

  5. Synthesis of high-quality brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with specific facets exposed: tuning catalysts from inert to highly reactive.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haifeng; Li, Liping; Zhao, Minglei; Huang, Xinsong; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Guangshe; Yu, Richeng

    2012-05-23

    The brookite phase of TiO(2) is hardly prepared and rarely studied in comparison with the common anatase and rutile phases. In addition, there exist immense controversies over the cognition of the light-induced liveliness of this material. Here, a novel, low-basicity solution chemistry method was first used to prepare homogeneous high-quality brookite TiO(2) single-crystalline nanosheets surrounded with four {210}, two {101}, and two {201} facets. These nanosheets exhibited outstanding activity toward the catalytic degradation of organic contaminants superior even to that of Degussa P25, due to the exposure of high-energy facets and the effective suppression of recombination rates of photogenerated electrons and holes by these facets as the oxidative and reductive sites. In contrast, irregularly faceted phase-pure brookite nanoflowers and nanospindles were inactive in catalytic reactions. These results demonstrate that the photocatalytic activity of brookite TiO(2) is highly dependent upon its exposed facets, which offers a strategy for tuning the catalysts from inert to highly active through tailoring of the morphology and surface structure. PMID:22559221

  6. Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Geometries of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohestani, Hassan; Sadrnezhaad, Sayed Khatiboleslam

    2015-05-01

    Photocatalysts that are used for waste water treatment are often suspended in the waste water during processing and then must be removed from the water after treatment. To reduce the post-degradation expenses and time, separation is facilitated by an immobilization process. The effect of immobilized TiO2 geometries on the photocatalytic behavior of the photocatalyst is investigated in this work. Powder, fiber, film, and network-shaped TiO2 nanocatalysts were produced by using different templates. The cellulose fiber and ceramic templates were used as substrates for fiber and film/network geometry production. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. The photocatalytic performance was determined by methyl orange degradation and cyanide photo-oxidation under ultraviolet irradiation. From the SEM images, the size range of the TiO2 particles in the film and in the network geometries were 20-60 nm. The nanoparticles had covered the surface of the substrate, uniformly. Removal of the cellulose substrate by heat treatment yielded hollow TiO2 fibers with diameters of 0.5-1 µm and lengths of 30 µm. The efficiencies of both photocatalytic reactions were obtained in the following order: powder > network > film > fiber geometry. The rate constant of the dye degradation reaction using powder catalyst was 0.0118 min-1. For network catalyst, it was 0.0083 min-1. Corresponding results for cyanide disinfection were 0.0055 and 0.0046 min-1. Although powder samples had higher rate constants, network geometry was preferred due to its higher immobility.

  7. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic performance of TiO 2/Ce xZr 1- xO 2 toward the oxidation of gaseous benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jun bo; Ma, Di; He, Xi yang; Li, Jian zhang; Chen, Yao qiang

    2010-02-01

    Increasing environmental pollution caused by the volatile organic compounds due to their toxicity makes their removal imperative. So it is crucial to develop processes which can degrade these compounds effectively. The paper demonstrates that the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 toward the decomposition of gaseous benzene in a batch reactor can be greatly enhanced by loading TiO 2 onto the surface of Ce xZr 1- xO 2 ( x ? 0.25) using sol-gel technology. This research investigated the relationship between x amount and the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and XPS analyses. The specific surface area of photocatalyst decreases as x decreases. XRD results reveal the no peaks of titania were detected. Among the five catalysts prepared, only the binding energy values of Ti2p 3/2 of TiO 2/Ce 0.5Zr 0.5O 2 shift toward lower value. The order of photocatalytic activity is TiO 2/Ce 0.5Zr 0.5O 2 > TiO 2/Ce 0.75Zr 0.25O 2 > TiO 2/CeO 2 ? TiO 2/Ce 0.25Zr 0.75O 2 > TiO 2/ZrO 2 ? TiO 2. The mechanism role of Ceria-Zirconia mixed oxides in photocatalytic reaction was speculated.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and activity of an immobilized photocatalyst: natural porous diatomite supported titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; de Godoi, Fernanda Condi; Sun, Zhiming; Zeng, Qingcong; Zheng, Shuilin; Frost, Ray L

    2015-01-15

    Diatomite, a porous non-metal mineral, was used as support to prepare TiO2/diatomite composites by a modified sol-gel method. The as-prepared composites were calcined at temperatures ranging from 450 to 950 °C. The characterization tests included X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. The XRD analysis indicated that the binary mixtures of anatase and rutile exist in the composites. The morphology analysis confirmed the TiO2 particles were uniformly immobilized on the surface of diatom with a strong interfacial anchoring strength, which leads to few drain of photocatalytic components during practical applications. In further XPS studies of hybrid catalyst, we found the evidence of the presence of Ti-O-Si bond and increased percentage of surface hydroxyl. In addition, the adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2/diatomite composites were evaluated by studying the degradation kinetics of aqueous Rhodamine B under UV-light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The preferable removal efficiency was observed in composites by 750 °C calcination, which is attributed to a relatively appropriate anatase/rutile mixing ratio of 90/10. PMID:25454443

  9. Optimization and characterization of transparent photocatalytic TiO2 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Redouan Boughaled; Sebastian Schlichting; Henrik Ehlers; Detlev Ristau; Inga Bannat; Michael Wark

    2008-01-01

    The term photocatalysis is used to describe a photon-driven catalytic process. Titanium dioxide is a well-known photocatalyst in such fields as self-cleaning material and anti-microbial effects. Besides these photocatalytic applications, TiO2 is a widely-used high index material for optical thin films. In the present investigation, the photocatalytic activity of transparent TiO2 thin films was optimized to achieve multifunctional high precision

  10. Synergistic effect of the combination of immobilized TiO2, UVA and ozone on the decomposition of dichloroacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mehrjouei; Siegfried Müller; Detlev Möller

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation system (TiO2\\/UVA\\/O3) was evaluated on the degradation and mineralization of dichloroacetic acid as a contaminant in aqueous solutions by means of a planar reactor. The commercial product “Pilkington Active glass” was used as the immobilized TiO2 photocatalyst and it was irradiated by near UV light in this study. The synergistic interaction between ozone

  11. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Water Using Photocatalysis with Fixed TiO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Yu Chen; Li-Chun Wu; Hsuan-Yu Chen; Ying-Chien Chung

    2010-01-01

    Photocatalytic activity in titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been extensively studied because of its potential use in sterilization, sanitation, and remediation applications. The\\u000a aim of the study reported here was to assess the feasibility of “fixed” TiO2 as the photocatalyst for inactivating pathogenic bacteria selected, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, from a water stream. The investigation was undergone in a properly

  12. Photocatalytic Property of TiO2-Vermiculite Composite Nanofibers via Electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Hu, Meiling; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yangai; Wu, Xiaowen; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Meng; Huang, Zhaohui

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most common photocatalysts. In this study, TiO2-vermiculite composite nanofibers with a mesh structure and a diameter of approximately 300 nm were prepared via sol-gel approach combined with electrospinning technique. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, etc. The photocatalytic property was also evaluated. The TiO2-vermiculite composite nanofibers annealed at 550 °C for 3 h exhibited the best absorption and photo-degradation ability for the treatment of methylene blue. The results implied that the combination of mineral vermiculite powders with TiO2 enhanced the absorption-degradation performance of the as-prepared photocatalytic materials, consequently promoting the materials' ability to degrade methylene blue. PMID:26130024

  13. Preparation and characterization of N-TiO2 photocatalyst with high crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Binyu; Lau, Woon Ming; Yang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study reports the synthesis, characterization and environmental applications of nitrogen doped TiO2 photocatalyst in the form of powder and film. N-TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized via the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide using urea as the nitrogen source. The crystalline structure, particle size and specific surface area of the resultant N-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The results showed that a mixture of anatase and brookite phases was formed at pH 1 after annealing the powder at 450?° C for 4 h, in contrast to a pure anatase phase at pH 3. UV-vis spectral characterization showed that the absorption region of the as-prepared N-TiO2 was extended to the visible light region. Stable sols could be achieved by controlling the molar ratio of water-to-titanium precursor and pH of the sols. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison to the standard commercial photocatalyst Evonik-Degussa P25 and home-made bare TiO2 nanoparticles, the N-TiO2 particles exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The visible light induced photocatalytic inactivation of the obtained nanopowders and nanofilms on bacteria (Escherichia coli) was evaluated. The N-TiO2 nanomaterials showed higher bactericidal activity under visible light irradiation.

  14. Preparation and characterization of N-TiO2 photocatalyst with high crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binyu; Lau, Woon Ming; Yang, Jun

    2013-08-23

    This study reports the synthesis, characterization and environmental applications of nitrogen doped TiO2 photocatalyst in the form of powder and film. N-TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized via the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide using urea as the nitrogen source. The crystalline structure, particle size and specific surface area of the resultant N-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The results showed that a mixture of anatase and brookite phases was formed at pH 1 after annealing the powder at 450 ° C for 4 h, in contrast to a pure anatase phase at pH 3. UV-vis spectral characterization showed that the absorption region of the as-prepared N-TiO2 was extended to the visible light region. Stable sols could be achieved by controlling the molar ratio of water-to-titanium precursor and pH of the sols. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison to the standard commercial photocatalyst Evonik-Degussa P25 and home-made bare TiO2 nanoparticles, the N-TiO2 particles exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The visible light induced photocatalytic inactivation of the obtained nanopowders and nanofilms on bacteria (Escherichia coli) was evaluated. The N-TiO2 nanomaterials showed higher bactericidal activity under visible light irradiation. PMID:23892455

  15. [Study on oxidant strengthening photocatalytic degradation of DMF over TiO2 fiber catalyst].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Zhu-Hong; Zheng, Zhong; He, Ming; Feng, Xin; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Qiu-Ming; Xu, Hong-Lin; Que, Zi-Long

    2006-01-01

    Oxidant strengthening the degradation of DMF aqueous solution was investigated when TiO2 fiber is used as the photocatalyst. When the UV light was absent, ozone per se could not make DMF degrade, which proves that DMF is a stable substance. But ozone could increase obviously photocatalytic degradation rate of DMF in O3/TiO2 (F). Under the same reaction condition, photocatalytic degradation rate and speed of DMF in O3/TiO2 (F) was almost 1.5 times and 2 times higher than that in air/ TiO2 (F) and H2O2/TiO2 (F) respectively. COD analysis showed DMF was almost mineralized completely when the reaction was carried out for 120 min. Through Hinsberg test secondary amine was proved as one of intermediates in the process of DMF photocatalytic degradation. Rise of pH value of reaction solution also showed that amine was produced in the photocatalytic reaction process. Degradation speed of DMA in O3/TiO2 (F) was higher than that in air/TiO2 (F). The increasing degradation rate and speed of DMF was mainly caused by fast degradation of secondary amine in the process of DMF photocatalytic degradation in O3/TiO2 (F). PMID:16599119

  16. Thermodynamically driven one-dimensional evolution of anatase TiO2 nanorods: one-step hydrothermal synthesis for emerging intrinsic superiority of dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiazang; Yang, Hong Bin; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Bin

    2014-10-29

    In photoelectrochemical cells, there exists a competition between transport of electrons through the porous semiconductor electrode toward the conducting substrate and back-reaction of electrons to recombine with oxidized species on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which determines the charge collection efficiency and is strongly influenced by the density and distribution of electronic states in band gap and architectures of the semiconductor electrodes. One-dimensional (1D) anatase TiO2 nanostructures are promising to improve charge transport in photoelectrochemical devices. However, the conventional preparation of 1D anatase nanostructures usually steps via a titanic acid intermediate (e.g., H2Ti3O7), which unavoidably introduces electronic defects into the host lattice, resulting in undesired shielding of the intrinsic role of dimensionality. Here, we manage to promote the 1D growth of anatase TiO2 nanostructures by adjusting the growth kinetics, which allows us to grow single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanorods through a one-step hydrothermal reaction. The synthesized anatase nanorods possess a lower density of trap states and thus can simultaneously facilitate the diffusion-driven charge transport and suppress the electron recombination. Moreover, the electronically boundary free nanostructures significantly enhance the trap-free charge diffusion coefficient of the anatase nanorods, which enables the emergence of the intrinsic superiority of dimensionality. By virtue of these merits, the anatase nanorods synthesized in this work take obvious advantages over the conventional anatase counterparts in photoelectrochemical systems (e.g., dye-sensitized solar cells) by showing more efficient charge transport and collection and higher energy conversion efficiency. PMID:25290360

  17. Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7 on TiO 2 Films Prepared from Various Powder Catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zlámal; J. Krýsa; J. Jirkovský

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of using particulate layers in water and air cleaning is in the combination of two important features in photocatalysis:\\u000a high surface area of powder particles and immobilization of photocatalyst. The present paper deals with the preparation of\\u000a particulate TiO2 layers using three different techniques: sedimentation, electrophoresis and dip-coating and different particulate photocatalyst\\u000a namely P25 (Degussa) and anatase Ti1

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, photodegradation kinetics and photocatalytic activity of novel photocatalyst ZnBiYO4.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanbing; Luan, Jingfei

    2015-03-01

    ZnBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiYO4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance. ZnBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure with space group I41/A. The lattice parameters for ZnBiYO4 were a=b=11.176479Å and c=10.014323Å. The band gap of ZnBiYO4 was estimated to be 1.58eV. The photocatalytic activity of ZnBiYO4 was assessed by photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results showed that ZnBiYO4 had higher catalytic activity compared with N-doped TiO2 under the same experimental conditions using visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with ZnBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.01575 and 0.00416min(-1) for ZnBiYO4 and N-doped TiO2, respectively. After visible light irradiation for 220min with ZnBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of methyl orange were observed. The reduction of total organic carbon, formation of inorganic products, SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of methyl orange during the photocatalytic process. The intermediate products were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ZnBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be used to solve other environmental chemical pollution problems. PMID:25766013

  19. Review of the progress in preparing nano TiO2: an important environmental engineering material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; He, Yiming; Lai, Qinghua; Fan, Maohong

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 nanomaterial is promising with its high potential and outstanding performance in photocatalytic environmental applications, such as CO2 conversion, water treatment, and air quality control. For many of these applications, the particle size, crystal structure and phase, porosity, and surface area influence the activity of TiO2 dramatically. TiO2 nanomaterials with special structures and morphologies, such as nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoflowers are thus synthesized due to their desired characteristics. With an emphasis on the different morphologies of TiO2 and the influence factors in the synthesis, this review summarizes fourteen TiO2 preparation methods, such as the sol-gel method, solvothermal method, and reverse micelle method. The TiO2 formation mechanisms, the advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods, and the photocatalytic environmental application examples are proposed as well. PMID:25458670

  20. Remediation of 17-?-ethinylestradiol aqueous solution by photocatalysis and electrochemically-assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 electrodes irradiated by a solar simulator.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Haroldo G; Ferreira, Leticia H; Bertazzoli, Rodnei; Longo, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 electrodes, irradiated by a solar simulator in configurations for heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) and electrochemically-assisted HP (EHP), were used to remediate aqueous solutions containing 10 mg L(-1) (34 ?mol L(-1)) of 17-?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), active component of most oral contraceptives. The photocatalysts consisted of 4.5 ?m thick porous films of TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 (molar ratio W/Ti of 12%) deposited on transparent electrodes from aqueous suspensions of TiO2 particles and WO3 precursors, followed by thermal treatment at 450 (°)C. First, an energy diagram was organized with photoelectrochemical and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy data and revealed that EE2 could be directly oxidized by the photogenerated holes at the semiconductor surfaces, considering the relative HOMO level for EE2 and the semiconductor valence band edges. Also, for the irradiated hybrid photocatalyst, electrons in TiO2 should be transferred to WO3 conduction band, while holes move toward TiO2 valence band, improving charge separation. The remediated EE2 solutions were analyzed by fluorescence, HPLC and total organic carbon measurements. As expected from the energy diagram, both photocatalysts promoted the EE2 oxidation in HP configuration; after 4 h, the EE2 concentration decayed to 6.2 mg L(-1) (35% of EE2 removal) with irradiated TiO2 while TiO2/WO3 electrode resulted in 45% EE2 removal. A higher performance was achieved in EHP systems, when a Pt wire was introduced as a counter-electrode and the photoelectrodes were biased at +0.7 V; then, the EE2 removal corresponded to 48 and 54% for the TiO2 and TiO2/WO3, respectively. The hybrid TiO2/WO3, when compared to TiO2 electrode, exhibited enhanced sunlight harvesting and improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in higher performance for removing this contaminant of emerging concern from aqueous solution. PMID:25238917

  1. Bactericidal effects and mechanisms of visible light-responsive titanium dioxide photocatalysts on pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liou, Je-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of visible light-responsive titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) photocatalysts. These photocatalysts have a range of applications including disinfection, air and water cleaning, deodorization, and pollution and environmental control. Titanium dioxide is a chemically stable and inert material, and can continuously exert antimicrobial effects when illuminated. The energy source could be solar light; therefore, TiO(2) photocatalysts are also useful in remote areas where electricity is insufficient. However, because of its large band gap for excitation, only biohazardous ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation can excite TiO(2), which limits its application in the living environment. To extend its application, impurity doping, through metal coating and controlled calcination, has successfully modified the substrates of TiO(2) to expand its absorption wavelengths to the visible light region. Previous studies have investigated the antibacterial abilities of visible light-responsive photocatalysts using the model bacteria Escherichia coli and human pathogens. The modified TiO(2) photocatalysts significantly reduced the numbers of surviving bacterial cells in response to visible light illumination. They also significantly reduced the activity of bacterial endospores; reducing their toxicity while retaining their germinating abilities. It is suggested that the photocatalytic killing mechanism initially damages the surfaces weak points of the bacterial cells, before totally breakage of the cell membranes. The internal bacterial components then leak from the cells through the damaged sites. Finally, the photocatalytic reaction oxidizes the cell debris. In summary, visible light-responsive TiO(2) photocatalysts are more convenient than the traditional UV light-responsive TiO(2) photocatalysts because they do not require harmful UV light irradiation to function. These photocatalysts, thus, provide a promising and feasible approach for disinfection of pathogenic bacteria; facilitating the prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:22678625

  2. Controllable hydrothermal synthesis of rutile TiO2 hollow nanorod arrays on TiCl4 pretreated Ti foil for DSSC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Min; Zhang, Yulan; Long, Lizhen; Li, Xinjun

    2014-11-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays (TNRs) were achieved by hydrothermal process on TiCl4 pretreated Ti foil. Subsequently, TNRs were hydrothermally etched in HCl solution to form hollow TiO2 nanorod arrays (H-TNRs). The TiCl4 pretreatment plays key roles in enhancement of Ti foil corrosion resistance ability and crystal nucleation introduction for TNRs growth. TNRs with desired morphology can be obtained by controlling TiCl4 concentration and the amount of tetrabutyl titanate (TTB) accordingly. TNRs with the length of ~1.5 ?m and diameter of ~200 nm, obtained on 0.15 M TiCl4 pretreated Ti foil with 0.6 mL TTB, exhibits relatively higher photocurrent. The increased pore volume of the H-TNRs has contributed to the increased surface area which is benefit for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) application. And the 180 °C-H-TNRs photoanode obtained from the 0.15-TiCl4-TNRs sample demonstrated 128.9% enhancement of photoelectric efficiency of DSSC compared to that of the original TNR photoanode.

  3. Facile solvothermal synthesis of cube-like Ag@AgCl: a highly efficient visible light photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lei; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhai, Yueming; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a stable and highly efficient plasmonic photocatalyst, Ag@AgCl, with cube-like morphology, has been successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. Using methylene dichloride as chlorine source in the synthesis can efficiently control the morphology of Ag@AgCl, due to the low release rate of chloride ions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra were used to characterize the obtained product. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained product was evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation, and it was found, interestingly, that Ag@AgCl exhibits high visible light photocatalytic activity and good stability.In this paper, a stable and highly efficient plasmonic photocatalyst, Ag@AgCl, with cube-like morphology, has been successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. Using methylene dichloride as chlorine source in the synthesis can efficiently control the morphology of Ag@AgCl, due to the low release rate of chloride ions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra were used to characterize the obtained product. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained product was evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation, and it was found, interestingly, that Ag@AgCl exhibits high visible light photocatalytic activity and good stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the AgCl samples synthesized by changing the addition amount of PVP and AgNO3. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10247h

  4. Inactivation and mineralization of aerosol deposited model pathogenic microorganisms over TiO2 and Pt/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kozlova, E A; Safatov, A S; Kiselev, S A; Marchenko, V Yu; Sergeev, A A; Skarnovich, M O; Emelyanova, E K; Smetannikova, M A; Buryak, G A; Vorontsov, A V

    2010-07-01

    Air disinfection from bacteria and viruses by means of photocatalytic oxidation is investigated with microorganisms loaded over photocatalysts' films from aerosols. Deposition method and equipment have been developed to load Mycobacterium smegmatis , Bacillus thuringiensis , vaccinia virus, and influenza A (H3N2) virus on slides with undoped TiO(2) and platinized sulfated TiO(2) (Pt/TiO(2)). Inactivation dynamics was measured under UVA irradiation and in the dark. About 90% inactivation is reached in 30 min irradiation on TiO(2) and from 90 to 99.8% on Pt/TiO(2). The first-order inactivation rate coefficient ranged from 0.18 to 0.03 min(-1), over Pt/TiO(2) being higher than on TiO(2) for all microorganisms except Bacillus thuringiensis. The photocatalytic mineralization of Bacillus thuringiensis was performed on TiO(2) and Pt/TiO(2) with different photocatalyst and microorganism loadings. Completeness of mineralization depended on the TiO(2) to bacteria mass ratio. The rate of the photocatalytic carbon dioxide production grows with both the cell mass increase and the photocatalyst mass increase. Pt/TiO(2) showed increased rate of mineralization as well as of the inactivation likely due to a better charge carrier separation in the doped semiconductor photocatalyst. The results demonstrate that photocatalytic filters with deposited TiO(2) or Pt/TiO(2) are able to inactivate aerosol microorganisms and completely decompose them into inorganic products and Pt/TiO(2) provides higher disinfection and mineralization rates. PMID:20521809

  5. The effect of TiO2 nanoflowers as a compact layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Srinivasa; Durga, I Kanaka; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata Tulasivarma, Chebrolu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-07-01

    Currently, TiO2 on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate is the most commonly used type of photoelectrode in high-efficiency quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of TiO2 photoelectrodes is limited because of higher charge recombination and lower QD loading on the TiO2 film. This article describes the effect of a TiO2 compact layer on a TiO2 film to enhance the performance of QDSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on an FTO substrate by the doctor-blade method and then the TiO2 compact layer was successfully fabricated on the surface of the nanoparticles by a simple hydrothermal method. QDSSCs were made using these films as photoelectrodes with NiS counter electrodes. Under one sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)), the QDSSCs showed PCEs of 2.19 and 2.93% for TCL1 and TCL2 based photoelectrodes, which are higher than the 1.33% value obtained with bare TiO2. The compact-layer-coated film electrodes provide a lower charge-transfer resistance and higher light harvesting. The compact layer on the TiO2 film is a more efficient photocatalyst than pure TiO2 film and physically separates the injected electrons in the TiO2 from the positively charged CdS QD/electrolyte. PMID:26102365

  6. Tunable synthesis of single-crystalline-like TiO2 mesocrystals and their application as effective scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Cao, Kun; Wang, Hongju; Wang, Fujuan; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Guo, Yuming; Jiang, Kai

    2015-10-15

    Single-crystalline-like TiO2 mesocrystals (TMCs) with spherical and spindle-like shapes were selectively prepared in acetic acid system using benzoic acid as structural directing regent. It was found that the intermediate butyl-benzoic acid could interval the oriented assembly of the primary nanoparticles as porogen and shape regulator, which results in spherical TMCs with greater pore size distribution compared with the spindle-like TMCs. When used as scattering layer in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the spherical TMCs with long-range ordered stacking pattern results in characteristic photonic reflection, which enhances the scattering effect of the photoanode and leads to a high short circuit current density of 16.6mAcm(-2). Therefore, Cell-spherical TMCs demonstrated a high power conversion efficiencies of 8.10%, indicating substantial improvements compared with Cell-spindle-like TMCs (7.58%) and Cell-nanoparticle (6.59%). PMID:26117293

  7. Sono-chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction for the synthesis of CdS quantum dots onto mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Geon Yang; Sohn, Sang Ho

    2015-07-01

    Aiming at high efficiency of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) with CdS quantum dots (QDs)/mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) photoanodes, physical properties of CdS QDs/mp-TiO2 grown by sono-chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SC-SILAR) process were studied. It is found that SC-SILAR process has less growth time and larger absorbance of CdS QDs besides a uniform penetration into mp-TiO2 films, compared with the conventional SILAR process. Experimental results show that SC-SILAR is an effective method for growing CdS QDs with high efficiency due to an extra sono-chemical energy of acoustic cavitation.

  8. Fabrication of plasmonic AgBr/Ag nanoparticles-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays and their enhanced photo-conversion and photoelectrocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingyao; Qiao, Jianlei; Jin, Rencheng; Xu, Xiaohui; Gao, Shanmin

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic photosensitizer AgBr/Ag nanospheres supported on TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) are prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique followed by photoreduction methods. The structural and surface morphological properties of AgBr/Ag nanoparticles sensitized TiO2 NTs and their photoelectrochemical performance are investigated and discussed. A detailed formation mechanism of the TiO2 NTs/AgBr/Ag is proposed. The TiO2 NTs/AgBr/Ag exhibit excellent photocurrent and photoelectrocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation. Efficient utilization of solar energy to create electron-hole pairs is attributed to the significant visible light response and surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. This finding indicates that the high photosensitivity of the TiO2 NTs-based surface plasmon resonance materials could be applied toward the development of new plasmonic visible-light-sensitive photovoltaic fuel cells and photocatalysts.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites and their application as photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Md Ahsan; Shahadat, Md Tusan; Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Mahmood, Abu Jafar

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposite ZnO-TiO2 powders of varying ZnO/TiO2 molar ratios have been prepared from their salt/compound by heating at 600°C and 900°C and characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanosized powders can decolorize/degrade brilliant golden yellow (BGY), an azo dye extensively used in textile industries, in water under solar irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as photocatalyst loading, molar ratio of ZnO/TiO2, pH of the solution, initial dye concentration, and irradiation time on the photodecolorization have been investigated. ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite (6 g/L) in the molar ratio of 1:1 or 3:1, prepared at 900°C, can efficiently decolorize about 98% of 20 mg/L BGY at pH of about 7 by 2-h illumination in sunlight. The initial dye decolorization follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Finally, trial experiments were done using real textile wastewater to find out the effectiveness of the photocatalysts to a more complex system.

  10. Linear correlation between inactivation of E. coli and OH radical concentration in TiO 2 photocatalytic disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Cho; Hyenmi Chung; Wonyong Choi; Jeyong Yoon

    2004-01-01

    The biocidal action of the TiO2 photocatalyst has been now well recognized from massive experimental evidences, which demonstrates that the photocatalytic disinfection process could be technically feasible. However, the understanding on the photochemical mechanism of the biocidal action largely remains unclear. In particular, the identity of main acting photooxidants and their roles in the mechanism of killing microorganisms is under

  11. Photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds using TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jnug; Lin, Chi-Hsiang

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using TiO2 catalyst fabricated by the Submerged Arc Nanoparticle Synthesis System (SANSS). TiO2 catalyst was employed to decompose volatile organic compounds and compare with Degussa-P25 TiO2 in terms of decomposition efficiency. In the electric discharge manufacturing process, a Ti bar, applied as the electrode, was melted and vaporized under high temperature. The vaporized Ti powders were then rapidly quenched under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions in deionized water, thus nucleating and forming nanocrystalline powders uniformly dispersed in the base solvent. The average diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles in the deionized water were Anatase type TiO2. It was found that gaseous toluene exposed to UV irradiation produced intermediates that were even harder to decompose. After 60-min photocomposition, Degussa-P25 TiO2 reduced the concentration of gaseous toluene to 8.18% while the concentration after decomposition by SANSS TiO2 catalyst dropped to 0.35%. Under UV irradiation at 253.7 +/- 184.9 nm, TiO2 prepared by SANSS can produce strong chemical debonding energy, thus showing great efficiency, superior to that of Degussa-P25 TiO2, in decomposing gaseous toluene and its intermediates. PMID:17654970

  12. A comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in premixed and diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hsiao-Kang; Yang, Hsiung-An

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have been shown that synthesis of titania (TiO2) crystalline phase purity could be effectively controlled by the oxygen concentration through titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) via premixed flame from a Bunsen burner. In this study, a modified Hencken burner was used to synthesize smaller TiO2 nanoparticles via short diffusion flames. The frequency of collisions among particles would decrease and reduce TiO2 nanoparticle size in a short diffusion flame height. The crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The characteristic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized from a modified Hencken burner were compared with the results from a Bunsen burner and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25). The results showed that the average particle size of 6.63 nm from BET method was produced by a modified Hencken burner which was smaller than the TiO2 in a Bunsen burner and commercial TiO2. Moreover, the rutile content of TiO2 nanoparticles increased as the particle collecting height increased. Also, the size of TiO2 nanoparticles was highly dependent on the TTIP loading and the collecting height in the flame.

  13. Doping mode, band structure and photocatalytic mechanism of B-N-codoped TiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jixiang; Wang, Enjun; Chen, Yongmei; Yang, Wensheng; Yao, Jianghong; Cao, Yaan

    2011-06-01

    The photocatalyst B and N codoped TiO 2 (B-N-TiO 2) was prepared via the sol-gel method by using boric acid and ammonia as B and N precursors. The doping mode, band structure and photocatalytic mechanism of B-N-TiO 2 were investigated well and elucidated in detail. B-N-TiO 2 showed the narrowed band gap and thus extended the optical absorption due to interstitial N and [NOB] species in the TiO 2 crystal lattice. The coexistence of interstitial N and [NOB] species in the TiO 2 crystal lattice and surface NO x species allowed the more efficient utilization of visible light. Simultaneously, interstitial [NOB] and N species and surface B 2O 3 and NO x species facilitated the separation of photo generated electrons and holes and suppress their recombination effectively. Hence, B-N-TiO 2 showed a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2, N-doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2) and B-doped TiO 2 (B-TiO 2) under both UV and visible light irradiation.

  14. Optical properties and structure of the TiN-nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buha, J.

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most versatile photocatalysts, TiO2 is suitable for numerous environmental and energy-related applications, however its efficiency is limited by its wide band gap. Doping with anions such as nitrogen has been successful in extending the TiO2 solar absorption into the visible spectrum, although the exact nature and optimal level of N doping are still debated. Present study shows that excessive and mostly substitutional N doping can result in an in situ formation of nanocomposite structure consisting of TiN nano-crystals embedded in the N-doped anatase TiO2, in addition to effectively doping TiO2 by adding electronic states at the valence band edge thereby narrowing its band gap, as reported before. The metal-semiconductor interfaces in the thin film induce local band bending in the N-doped TiO2 phase and this may assist in separating the photogenerated charge carriers. The possible interplay between the two phases is discussed. Very low levels of N doping were found not to have any impact on the band gap of TiO2.

  15. First-principles study on transition metal-doped anatase TiO2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The electronic structures, formation energies, and band edge positions of anatase TiO2 doped with transition metals have been analyzed by ab initio band calculations based on the density functional theory with the planewave ultrasoft pseudopotential method. The model structures of transition metal-doped TiO2 were constructed by using the 24-atom 2?×?1?×?1 supercell of anatase TiO2 with one Ti atom replaced by a transition metal atom. The results indicate that most transition metal doping can narrow the band gap of TiO2, lead to the improvement in the photoreactivity of TiO2, and simultaneously maintain strong redox potential. Under O-rich growth condition, the preparation of Co-, Cr-, and Ni-doped TiO2 becomes relatively easy in the experiment due to their negative impurity formation energies, which suggests that these doping systems are easy to obtain and with good stability. The theoretical calculations could provide meaningful guides to develop more active photocatalysts with visible light response. PMID:24472374

  16. Photodegradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate using immobilized nano-sized TiO2 as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Xie, Q; Hu, B Q; Zhao, X L

    2014-01-01

    Two immobilized nano-sized TiO2 catalysts, TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC) and TiO2/silica gel (SG) (TiO2/SG), were prepared by the sol-gel method, and their use in the photocatalytic degradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate under UV irradiation was investigated. The influences of the catalyst dosage, the initial solution pH, H2O2 addition and the reuse of the catalysts were evaluated. The degradation of organic matter was assessed based on the decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the leachate. The results indicated that the degradation of the COD obeyed first-order kinetics in the presence of both photocatalysts. The degradation rate of COD was found to increase with increasing catalyst dosage up to 9 g/L for TiO2/AC and 6 g/L for TiO2/SG, above which the degradation began to attenuate. Furthermore, the degradation rate first increased and then decreased as the solution pH increased from 2 to 14, and the degradation rate increased as the amount of H2O2 increased to 2.93 mM, after which it remained constant. No obvious decrease in the rate of COD degradation was observed during the first four repeated uses of the photocatalysts, indicating that the catalysts could be recovered and reused. Compared with TiO2/AC, TiO2/SG exhibited higher efficiency in photocatalyzing the degradation of COD in garbage leachate. PMID:24647187

  17. Photocatalytic process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas by TiO2-polyacrylonitrile nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunyan; Ran, Xu; Hu, Jianglei; Shao, Changlu

    2013-10-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully fabricated on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers via the coupling of electrospinning and hydrothermal pathway. A straightforward photocatalysis oxidation process has been developed for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas using the TiO2-PAN photocatalyst. Also, the influences of some important operating parameters, such as titanium loading content of catalyst, flue gas humidity, flue gas flow, and inlet flue gas temperature on removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were investigated. The results demonstrated that removal efficiencies of 99.3% for SO2 and 71.2% for NO were attained under the following optimal experiment conditions: titanium loading content, 6.78 At %; gas flow rate, 200 mL/min; flue gas humidity, 5%; inlet flue gas temperature, 40 °C. Furthermore, the presumed reaction mechanism of SO2 and NO removal using TiO2-PAN photocatalyst under UV light was proposed. PMID:24024677

  18. TiO2 embedded in carbon submicron-tablets: synthesis from a metal-organic framework precursor and application as a superior anode in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peiyu; Lang, Junwei; Liu, Dongxia; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-07-01

    Rutile TiO2 embedded in carbon submicron-tablets (TiO2/C) with a "blueberry muffin" morphology was fabricated via a two-step pyrolysis from a metal-organic framework precursor. Such a unique structure of the TiO2/C submicron-tablets provides the ideal anode characteristics (high reversible capacity, superior rate capability and excellent long-term cycling stability) for fast rechargeable lithium ion batteries. PMID:25813272

  19. Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide over ZnFe2O4/TiO2 nanobelts heterostructure in cyclohexanol.

    PubMed

    Song, Guixian; Xin, Feng; Yin, Xiaohong

    2015-03-15

    A series of ZnFe2O4/TiO2 heterostructure photocatalysts with different mass percentages of ZnFe2O4 were synthesized through hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, and UV-vis DRS techniques. It is observed that ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles grew on the TiO2 nanobelts, and the obtained nanocomposites have ordered nanobelt structure with a high crystallinity. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were tested by photocatalytic reduction of CO2 in cyclohexanol under UV light (main wave length at 360nm) irradiation. The experimental results showed that the main products were cyclohexanone (CH) and cyclohexyl formate (CF). Compared with pure TiO2 and ZnFe2O4 samples, the obtained ZnFe2O4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed much higher photocatalytic performance. The loading amount of ZnFe2O4 was an important factor affecting the generation yields of the products. When the loading amount of ZnFe2O4 reached 9.78%, the ZnFe2O4/TiO2 heterostructure sample displayed the highest activity. The Z-scheme system reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the photocatalytic activity of the ZnFe2O4/TiO2 heterostructure sample. PMID:25514648

  20. Carbon coating stabilized Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Gao; Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Meiming; Zhu, Weidong; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-07-28

    Self-doping by Ti(3+) is a useful method to expand the light response of TiO2 into the visible light region. However, to obtain a stable Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 seems to be a challenge due to the easy oxidation of Ti(3+) during the heterogeneous reaction. Here, we propose a simple carbon coating route to stabilize the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2, in which both the Ti(3+) and precursor of the carbon coating layer were in situ formed from the hydrothermal hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide. The carbon coated Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 exhibited excellent stability for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, the proposed stabilizing mechanism is that the conductive carbon coating layer as a barrier layer prevents the H2O and O2 from diffusing into the surface of the photocatalyst, which can oxidize the surface O vacancies and Ti(3+) in TiO2. Our findings offer a simple route to prepare a highly stable TiO2-based photocatalyst with visible light response. PMID:26098384

  1. Degradation of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) by TiO 2 Photocatalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Chien Chung; Chih-Yu Chen

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in solution using titanium dioxide (TiO2) was analyzed in this study. It was found that DEHP was completely removed in the solution after 150 min irradiation. The\\u000a effect of different factors, such as photocatalyst amount, DEHP concentration, light intensity, pH, and temperature on photocatalytic\\u000a degradation was investigated. The degradation mechanism of DEHP with proton

  2. Comparative activity of TiO2 microspheres and P25 powder for organic degradation: Implicative importance of structural defects and organic adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Liu, Hong; Liu, Yuan; He, Guang'an; Jiang, Chengchun

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 microspheres have been employed as a promisingly new photocatalyst for water and wastewater treatment. P25 TiO2 is commonly employed and its properties are well established as photocatalyst. In this study, photocatalytic activities of the two TiO2 samples are compared by degrading sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), phenol, and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under 365 nm UV illumination in a suspension system at neutral pH and associated optimized TiO2 dosages. The results showed that the three organic compounds unexceptionally degraded more rapidly on P25 than on TiO2 microspheres in terms of the concentration-time curves and total organic carbon removals at 120 min. This might me attributed the presence of oxygen vacancies and Ti(III) defects already present on P25 as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, implying that the defects played an important role for the enhancement of the charge transfer step as rate-determining step. The degradations of three organic compounds on P25 and TiO2 microspheres could be well described by the first-order rate equation, while the degradation kinetics of SSA on TiO2 microspheres was quite different. The difference was ascribed to the medium adsorption ability of SSA on the TiO2 surface.

  3. Photocatalysis and the origin of life: Synthesis of nucleoside bases from formamide on TiO2(001) single surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, S. D.; Idriss, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the conversion of a large fraction of formamide (NH2CHO) to high-molecular-weight compounds attributed to nucleoside bases on the surface of a TiO2 (001) single crystal in ultra-high vacuum conditions. If true, we present previously unreported evidence for making biologically relevant molecules from a C1 compound on any single crystal surface in high vacuum and in dry conditions. An UV light of 3.2 eV was necessary to make the reaction. This UV light excites the semiconductor surface but not directly the adsorbed formamide molecules or the reaction products. There thus is no need to use high energy in the form of photons or electrical discharge to make the carbon–carbon and carbon–nitrogen bonds necessary for life. Consequently, the reaction products may accumulate with time and may not be subject to decomposition by the excitation source. The formation of these molecules, by surface reaction of formamide, is proof that some minerals in the form of oxide semiconductors are active materials for making high-molecular-weight organic molecules that may have acted as precursors for biological compounds required for life in the universe. PMID:16423899

  4. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of pure and manganese doped TiO2 nanoparticles--a new NLO active material.

    PubMed

    Praveen, P; Viruthagiri, G; Mugundan, S; Shanmugam, N

    2014-01-01

    Pure and Manganese (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) doped titanium di-oxide (Mn-TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The preparation of pure and Mn doped TiO2 nanoparticles were achieved by tetra-isopropyl orthotitanate and 2-propanol as common starting materials and the products were annealed at 450°C and 750°C to get anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-VIS-Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test. XRD patterns confirmed the crystalline nature and tetragonal structure of synthesized materials. The functional groups present in the samples were identified by FTIR study. The allowed direct and indirect band gap energies, as well as the crystallite sizes of obtained nanoparticles were calculated from DRS analysis. Microstructures and elemental identification were done by SEM with EDX analysis. The existence of SHG signals was observed using Nd: YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The products were found to be transparent in the entire visible region with cut-off wavelengths within the UV region confirms its suitability for device fabrications. PMID:24374482

  5. Photocatalytic NOx abatement: the role of the material supporting the TiO2 active layer.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudia L; Pirola, Carlo; Selli, Elena; Biella, Serena

    2012-04-15

    The importance of the choice of a suitable substrate as supporting material for photoactive TiO(2), either in the form of powders or thin films or in photoactive paints, is frequently disregarded. In this paper four different supports (stainless steel, sand-blasted stainless steel, Teflon and glass) are object of investigation. The final aim is to verify the presence of interactions between the photocatalyst (AEROXIDE(®) TiO(2) P25 by Evonik Degussa Corporation) and the support, directly involved in the photocatalytic activity in the NO(x) abatement. The characterization results have been correlated with the photoactivity of the different samples. In particular, a coating of about 6-9 ?m seems to allow a photocatalytic result free from any positive or negative interference with the supporting material, therefore giving reliable results about the photoactivity of the TiO(2) under investigation. PMID:22119301

  6. TiO2-graphene nanocomposites. UV-assisted photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Williams, Graeme; Seger, Brian; Kamat, Prashant V

    2008-07-01

    Graphene oxide suspended in ethanol undergoes reduction as it accepts electrons from UV-irradiated TiO(2) suspensions. The reduction is accompanied by changes in the absorption of the graphene oxide, as the color of the suspension shifts from brown to black. The direct interaction between TiO(2) particles and graphene sheets hinders the collapse of exfoliated sheets of graphene. Solid films cast on a borosilicate glass gap separated by gold-sputtered terminations show an order of magnitude decrease in lateral resistance following reduction with the TiO(2) photocatalyst. The photocatalytic methodology not only provides an on-demand UV-assisted reduction technique but also opens up new ways to obtain photoactive graphene-semiconductor composites. PMID:19206319

  7. A novel route for the synthesis of piperazine from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine over composite photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, K V; Kandavelu, V; Srinivas, B; Subrahmanyam, M; Thampi, K Ravindranathan

    2003-11-01

    Semiconductor loaded zeolite composite catalysts (5 wt% TiO2/Hbeta) have been used to photocatalytically synthesize piperazine from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine with yields up to 59.0 mol%. PMID:14649821

  8. The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotube doping on the CO gas sensitivity of TiO2 xerogel composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Ha, Tae-Jung; Hong, Min-Hee; Park, Chang-Sun; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    A simple sol-gel method was applied for the synthesis of 0.01 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-doped TiO2 xerogel composite film. The film's CO gas sensing properties were then evaluated. Doped MWCNTs were coated with TiO2 and distributed on a TiO2 xerogel matrix. The TiO2 xerogel showed an anatase structure after heat treatment at 450 °C under vacuum. The specific surface area of the composite material was larger than the pure TiO2 xerogel material. The CO gas sensitivity of the MWCNTs(0.01 wt%)-doped TiO2 xerogel composite film was found to be seven times higher than that of pure TiO2 xerogel film and to have good stability. This higher gas-sensing property of the composite film was due to both an increase of specific surface area and the n-p junction structure of the TiO2 xerogel coated on MWCNTs. The electrons generated from TiO2 after adsorption of CO gas induces electron transfer from the TiO2 to the MWCNTs. This induces a characteristic change in the MWCNTs from p-type to n-type, and the resistance of MWCNTs-doped TiO2 xerogel composite sensor is therefore decreased.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nano-CuO and CuO/TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiep Nguyen, Thi; Loan Nguyen, Thu; Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2013-06-01

    CuO nanocrystals were prepared by thermal decomposition of Cu-oxalate at 400 °C then CuO/TiO2 core/shell nanocrystals were formed via the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TIP) on the surface of CuO nanocrystals. The characteristics of the synthesized nanocrystals were systematically studied using appropriate techniques, namely the morphology by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the crystalline structure by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The structure, shape and size of the CuO and CuO/TiO2 nanocrystals could be tuned by changing various technological parameters: (i) the reaction/growth time (from several minutes to several hours), (ii) reaction temperature (from room temperature to 90 °C) and (iii) the molar ratios of the precursors. The results showed that the reaction temperature and the molar ratio of the precursors play important roles in controlling the morphology and size of both CuO and CuO/TiO2 nanocrystals. With increasing reaction temperature, nano-CuO evolved from spherical shaped nanoparticles to microspheres. By shelling the large-bandgap TiO2 layers on CuO nanocrystals, the core/shell structure is formed and the narrow-bandgap nano-CuO core is expected to be resistant to photocorrosion.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Rutile-Type TiO2 Doped with Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryba, B.; Orlikowski, J.; Wróbel, R. J.; Przepiórski, J.; Morawski, A. W.

    2015-03-01

    Visible-light active photocatalysts were prepared by doping Cu-TiO2 through the sol-gel method. The influence of the preparation conditions such as pH of sol-gel solution and calcination temperature on the properties of TiO2-Cu was investigated. The presence of Cu caused reduction of band-gap energy, which was more visible in the rutile-type TiO2. Low pH of sol-gel solution such as pH 1.5 favorized formation of rutile during calcination and caused slower growth of the crystallites with increasing temperature of calcination in comparison with sol-gel prepared at pH 3. XPS measurements showed that Cu was placed mostly on the surface of TiO2. For sample calcined at 600 °C, the surface concentration of copper was 1.1 wt.%. The presence of both, rutile phase and Cu, increased adsorption of phenol and facilitated its photocatalytic decomposition. Moreover, reduced band-gap energy in rutile-type TiO2-Cu photocatalyst enabled phenol decomposition under visible light.

  11. Photo-catalyzed degradation of p-nitrophenol employing TiO2 and UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Shintre, Surabhi N; Thakur, Pragati R

    2008-10-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis on metal oxide semiconductor particles is an advanced oxidation technology (AOT), which has been effective means of removing organic pollutants from water streams as it utilizes ultraviolet light with semiconductors acting as photocatalyst and leads to complete mineralization of pollutants to environmentally harmless compounds. In the present investigation, the photo-catalyzed degradation studies of p-Nitrophenol (PNP) were carried out in laboratory scale immersion well UV photo-reactor using semiconductor photo-catalyst TiO2 in suspension. For this purpose, low pressure 12 W mercury lamp was used and the effect of (i) time of irradiation, (ii) dose of TiO2, (iii) initial concentration of PNP and (iv) the addition of H2O2 to the system was studied to arrive at optimum process parameters for the complete degradation and decolorization of PNP. Simple UV irradiation could not achieve significant degradation of PNP. But UV+aeration+TiO2+ H2O2 combination achieved almost complete degradation of PNP. The spectrophotometric analysis showed that the rate of degradation of PNP was very fast in initial two hours and the maximum degradation was achieved in 5 hours. The degradation was found to increase in the order UV < UV + aeration < UV + aeration + TiO2 < UV + aeration + TiO2+ H2O2, and the degradation was found to be almost 100% for UV + aeration + TiO2 + H2O2, 91% for UV + aeration + TiO2, 43% for UV + aeration and only 26% for UV irradiation. PMID:19697765

  12. Fabrication of TiO2 Colloidal Crystal Films and Characterization of Their Photocatalytic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei [Zaozhuang University, People's Republic of China; Wang, Feng [Zaozhuang University, People's Republic of China; Wang, Wei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We have studied hydrolysis of organic alkyltitanate compounds and optimized reaction condition for synthesis of monodisperse titania (TiO2 colloidal particles with controlled size from nanometer to submicron. The synthesized TiO2 colloidal particles were further surface-modified with hydrophobic silane coupling agent. With the monodisperse hydrophobic particles, we fabricated TiO2 colloidal crystal thin films through transferring self-assembled colloidal crystal monolayer from water surface onto solid substrates. The TiO2 colloidal crystal films exhibit enhanced interaction with visible light. Consequently, in comparison with plain TiO2 particle thin film, the thin film with colloidal crystal structure shows enhanced photocatalytic activity, as evaluated through photodegradation of organic dye methyl orange in solution under simulated solar light.

  13. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of carbon nitride and sulfur-doped carbon nitride heterojunction nanosheets: An efficient heterojunction photocatalyst for photoelectrochemical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hua Bing; Chen, Jiazang; Miao, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Summary A biomolecule-assisted pyrolysis method has been developed to synthesize sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride (CNS) nanosheets. During the synthesis, sulfur could be introduced as a dopant into the lattice of carbon nitride (CN). Sulfur doping changed the texture as well as relative band positions of CN. By growing CN on preformed sulfur-doped CN nanosheets, composite CN/CNS heterojunction nanosheets were constructed, which significantly enhanced the photoelectrochemical performance as compared with various control counterparts including CN, CNS and physically mixed CN and CNS (CN+CNS). The enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of CN/CNS heterojunction nanosheets could be ascribed to the efficient separation of photoexcited charge carriers across the heterojunction interface. The strategy of designing and preparing CN/CNS heterojunction photocatalysts in this work can open up new directions for the construction of all CN-based heterojunction photocatalysts. PMID:24991514

  14. The synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a solvent-thermal process followed by the calcination with thiourea at an optimum heat treatment temperature. Under current experimental conditions, the optimum heat treatment temperature was found at 300°C, which successfully introduced nitrogen and sulfur dopants into the anatase lattice to replace a small portion of oxygen atoms while preserving the geometry of these anatase TiO2 nanocrystals to maintain a high percentage of {001} facets. These nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals demonstrated a largely enhanced light absorption in the whole visible-light range and exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance than both P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high percentage of {001} facets under visible-light illumination. PMID:23095371

  15. Assembly of CeO2-TiO2 nanoparticles prepared in room temperature ionic liquid on graphene nanosheets for photocatalytic degradation of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Setayesh, S Rahman; Habibi-Yangjeh, A; Hormozi-Nezhad, M R; Gholami, M R

    2012-01-15

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel process using 2-hydroxylethylammonium formate as room-temperature ionic liquid and calcined at different temperatures (500-700°C). CeO(2)-TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide with CeO(2)-TiO(2) nanoparticles in aqueous solution of ethanol. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared techniques. The results demonstrate that the room-temperature ionic liquid inhibits the anatase-rutile phase transformation. This effect was promoted by addition of CeO(2) to TiO(2). The addition of graphene to CeO(2)-TiO(2) nanoparticles enhances electron transport and therefore impedes the charge recombination of excited TiO(2). The photodegradation results of the pollutants in aqueous medium under UV irradiation revealed that CeO(2)-TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposites exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than CeO(2)-TiO(2) and pure TiO(2). The photocatalytic activity of CeO(2)-TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposites decreases with additional increasing of the graphene content. Moreover, comparison of the photocatalytic activities of CeO(2)-TiO(2)-graphene with the other CeO(2)-TiO(2)-carbon demonstrates that CeO(2)-TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposites have the highest photocatalytic activity due to their unique structure and electronic properties. Chemical oxygen demand for solutions of the pollutants gave a good idea about mineralization of them. PMID:22104082

  16. Modulation of pore sizes of titanium dioxide photocatalysts by a facile template free hydrothermal synthesis method: implications for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny; Wu, Chia-Ming; Koodali, Ranjit T

    2015-02-25

    Mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared in ethanol media by using relatively green, template free sol-gel technique. A mild hydrothermal treatment procedure was employed to tune the pore sizes of the materials. Comprehensive techniques that include powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area analysis, electron microscopy, FT-IR, TGA, and ?-potential measurements were used to characterize the titania materials. Porosity (pore size and pore volume) of the materials were found to be key factors for the variation in the rate of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B; in addition to specific surface area, and surface hydroxyl groups. An increase in porosity permits effective transport of the dye molecules resulting in an increase in the rate of the degradation in materials having larger pores. A detailed electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study was carried out for selected materials to identify photodegraded intermediates and products formed during the degradation of rhodamine B. In addition, experiments were also carried out to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In summary, this work provides a simple way to tune pore sizes without the use of any template and an insight into the influence of pore size for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B. PMID:25633643

  17. Photocatalytic enhancement of hybrid C3N4/TiO2 prepared via ball milling method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Mo; Zhu, Yongfa

    2015-02-01

    C3N4/TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance were prepared by a facile ball milling method. A layered structure of g-C3N4 was formed on the surface of TiO2. The mechanochemical process can promote the dispersion of C3N4 on the surface of TiO2 particles, to form a single layer hybrid structure and a multi-layer core-shell structure. The photocatalytic activities of C3N4/TiO2 under visible and UV light irradiation were 3.0 and 1.3 times those of pure g-C3N4 and TiO2, respectively. Under visible light and UV irradiation, the photocurrent response was up to 2.5 times and 1.5 times as high as that of the pure TiO2 and C3N4, respectively. The evident performance enhancement of g-C3N4-TiO2 was mainly attributed to high separation and migration efficiency of electron-hole pairs. PMID:25553728

  18. Tricrystalline TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity and durability for removing volatile organic compounds from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunyang; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    It is important to develop efficient and economic techniques for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. Heterogeneous TiO2-based semiconductors are a promising technology for achieving this goal. Anatase/brookite/rutile tricrystalline TiO2 with mesoporous structure was synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal route in the presence of HNO3. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in air under UV light illumination. The results show that tricrystalline TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity and durability toward gaseous toluene than bicrystalline TiO2, due to the synergistic effects of high surface area, uniform mesoporous structure and junctions among mixed phases. The tricrystalline TiO2 prepared at RHNO3=0.8, containing 80.7% anatase, 15.6% brookite and 3.7% rutile, exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, about 3.85-fold higher than that of P25. The high activity did not significantly degrade even after five reuse cycles. In conclusion, it is expected that our study regarding gas-phase degradation of toluene over tricrystalline TiO2 will enrich the chemistry of the TiO2-based materials as photocatalysts for environmental remediation and stimulate further research interest on this intriguing topic. PMID:26040745

  19. Investigation on a novel ZnO/TiO2-B photocatalyst with enhanced visible photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Di; Yu, Yanlong; Zhang, Peng; Yuan, Jing; Cao, Yongqiang; Cao, Yaan; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-04-01

    A new type of composite photocatalysts (ZnO/TiO2-B) with Zinc oxide nanoparticles dispersed on boron doped titanium dioxide was prepared via a sol-gel method. The as-prepared powders were characterized by HRTEM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis DRS, and PL techniques. The results reveal that B3+ ions are doped into the TiO2 lattice in interstitial mode, while ZnO nanoparticles are dispersed on the surface of TiO2. The absorption of photocatalysts was extended into visible light region and the photogenerated electrons and holes were separated efficiently. Hence, ZnO/TiO2-B composite photocatalyst exhibits much better photocatalytic activity than those of pure TiO2 and TiO2-B on photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation.

  20. TiO2 nanofibre assisted photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, A; Ghaneian, M T; Taghavinia, N; Aminian, M K; Hashemian, S J

    2009-03-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) dye has been studied using TiO2 nanofibre as the photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. Titanium dioxide nanofibre was prepared using a templating method with tetraisopropylorthotitanate as a precursor. The experiments were carried out in the presence of the TiO2 nanofibre, and the effects of pH and electron acceptors on the degradation process were investigated. In order to observe the quality of the aqueous solution, chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements were also carried out before and after the treatments. The photocatalytic decomposition of RB19 was most efficient in acidic solution. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide and potassium persulphate, as electron acceptors, into illuminated TiO2 nanofibre suspensions, a synergistic effect was observed leading to an enhancement of the decolorization. From experimental results, under the condition of 1 g TiO2 nanofibre l(-1), pH 3, and UVC light irradiation, decolorization would be complete in two hours. A significant decrease in the COD values was observed, which clearly indicates that the photocatalytic method offers good potential for the removal of RB19 from aqueous solution. The kinetic of photocatalytic removal of RB19 followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. These results suggest that TiO2 nanofibres with UV photocatalysis can be envisaged as a method for the treatment of coloured wastewaters, in particular in textile industries. PMID:19438055

  1. Controlling surface defects and photophysics in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Llansola-Portoles, Manuel J; Bergkamp, Jesse J; Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Sherman, Benjamin D; Kodis, Gerdenis; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2014-11-13

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used for photocatalysis and solar cell applications, and the electronic structure of bulk TiO2 is well understood. However, the surface structure of nanoparticulate TiO2, which has a key role in properties such as solubility and catalytic activity, still remains controversial. Detailed understanding of surface defect structures may help explain reactivity and overall materials performance in a wide range of applications. In this work we address the solubility problem and surface defects control on TiO2 nanoparticles. We report the synthesis and characterization of ?4 nm TiO2 anatase spherical nanoparticles that are soluble and stable in a wide range of organic solvents and water. By controlling the temperature during the synthesis, we are able to tailor the density of defect states on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting parameters such as size, shape, core crystallinity, and solubility. The morphology of both kinds of nanoparticles was determined by TEM. EPR experiments were used to characterize the surface defects, and transient absorption measurements demonstrate the influence of the TiO2 defect states on photoinduced electron transfer dynamics. PMID:25109403

  2. Experimental study of the visible-light photocatalytic activity of oxygen-deficient TiO2 prepared with Ar/H2 plasma surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takuma; Yazawa, Shota; Araki, Shota; Kogoshi, Sumio; Katayama, Noboru; Kudo, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen-deficient TiO2 (TiO2?x) has been proposed as a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst. TiO2?x thin films were prepared by Ar/H2 plasma surface treatment, applying varying levels of microwave input power and processing times. The highest visible light photocatalytic activity was observed when using an input power of 200 W, a plasma processing time of 10 min, and a 1:1 \\text{Ar}:\\text{H}2 ratio, conditions that generate an electron temperature of 5.7(±1.0) eV and an electron density of 8.5 × 1010 cm?3. The maximum formaldehyde (HCHO) removal rate of the TiO2?x film was 2.6 times higher than that obtained from a TiO2?xNx film under the same test conditions.

  3. Controlling the synthetic pathways of TiO2-derived nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, San Hua; Ji, Wei; Lin, Jianyi

    2007-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-derived nanostructured materials, including layered protonic trititanate (H2Ti3O7), metal-ion exchangeable titanate (Na(x)H(2-x)Ti3O7), TiO2(B) and anatase nanotubes and TiO2-anatase nanowires, was conducted. Nanoscaled tubular structures were found to be already present in the samples derived from prolonged hydrothermal process of bulk anatase TiO2 and could be converted to various types of nanotubes, nanowires or nanorodes by post-synthesis treatments. 0.1 M HCI acid wash and air annealing were the two key parameters to select the types of nanotubes/nanowires as the final products. XRD, Raman, TG, and XPS core level and valence band studies were carried out to elucidate our proposed synthetic pathways. PMID:18019163

  4. Composite TiO2/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D.; Vaimakis, T.; Trapalis, C.

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO2 in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO2). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al3+ and Ca2+ intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO2 and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania under both types of irradiation. Significant visible light activity was recorded for the composites containing urea-modified titania that was accredited to the N-doping of the semiconductor. Among the different substrates, the hydrotalcite caused highest increase in the NOx removal, while among the intercalation ions the Ca2+ was more efficient. The results were related to the improved dispersion of the TiO2 and the synergetic activity of the substrates as NOx adsorbers.

  5. Hydrothermal and microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir K. Ivanov; Alexey S. Shaporev; Felix Yu. Sharikov; Alexander Ye. Baranchikov

    2007-01-01

    Novel methods of highly dispersed ZnO powder synthesis based on microwave heating of salt mixtures as well as low temperature microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of zinc hydroxide were developed. It was shown that the obtained powders possess high photocatalytic activity in a model reaction of methyl orange photodegradation.

  6. Photocatalysis of Thin Films of TiO2 on Al2O3 Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbay, David; Luttrell, Timothy; Batzill, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has grown to be one of the most promising photocatalysts in recent years because of extensive applications in renewable and clean energy. The rise in demand for these new energies has driven an increase in research on metal oxides and their properties. Our interest in growing the rutile structure of TiO2 stems from its lower excitation energy (3.0 eV) when compared to anatase (3.2 eV), which indicates it has better activity in the visible portion of the spectrum. It has been shown that sapphire (Al2O3) substrates are conducive to epitaxial rutile growth. In this study, we measured the photocatalytic activity of thin films of TiO2 on r-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) substrates. We used PLD and MBE to grow the films, which were characterized using XPS and AFM. Photoactivity was measured via the decomposition of methyl orange on the film's surface using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The decomposition of this organic compound is driven by oxidation-reduction reactions on the surface of the TiO2 film. From this, we calculated the charge carrier diffusion length and compared it to that of anatase. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has grown to be one of the most promising photocatalysts in recent years because of extensive applications in renewable and clean energy. The rise in demand for these new energies has driven an increase in research on metal oxides and their properties. Our interest in growing the rutile structure of TiO2 stems from its lower excitation energy (3.0 eV) when compared to anatase (3.2 eV), which indicates it has better activity in the visible portion of the spectrum. It has been shown that sapphire (Al2O3) substrates are conducive to epitaxial rutile growth. In this study, we measured the photocatalytic activity of thin films of TiO2 on r-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) substrates. We used PLD and MBE to grow the films, which were characterized using XPS and AFM. Photoactivity was measured via the decomposition of methyl orange on the film's surface using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The decomposition of this organic compound is driven by oxidation-reduction reactions on the surface of the TiO2 film. From this, we calculated the charge carrier diffusion length and compared it to that of anatase. Funding provided by NSF Grant DMR-1004873

  7. In situ growth of TiO2 nanocrystals on g-C3N4 for enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Lingzhi; Liu, Yongdi; Lei, Juying; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-06-24

    Well dispersed TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) facets were successfully grown in situ on g-C3N4 through a facial solvothermal method. The resultant TiO2/g-C3N4 composites exhibit remarkably higher efficiency for photocatalytic degradation of phenol as compared to pure catalysts (g-C3N4 or TiO2) or mechanically mixed TiO2/g-C3N4. The optimal composite with 11.2 wt% TiO2 showed the highest degradation rate constant, which is 2.8 times that of pure g-C3N4, 2.2 times that of pure TiO2, and 1.4 times that of mechanically mixed TiO2/g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is mainly attributed to the effective charge separation derived from two aspects: (1) well matched energy levels between TiO2 and g-C3N4 and (2) a uniform and close contact between TiO2 and g-C3N4 that resulted from the in situ growth of highly dispersed TiO2 nanocrystals. The TiO2/g-C3N4 hybrid material prepared in this study is expected to provide a good foundation for the further design and synthesis of advanced TiO2/g-C3N4-based functional materials, and the in situ growth method developed is hopeful to provide a new strategy for the synthesis of other semiconductor-modified g-C3N4 materials. PMID:26077198

  8. Enhanced TiO2 Photocatalytic Processing of Organic Wastes for Green Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udom, I.; Goswami, D. Y.; Ram, M. K.; Stefanakos, E. K.; Heep, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; McNatt, J. S.; Jaworske, D. A.; Jones, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of transition metal co-catalysts on the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 was investigated. Ruthenium (Ru), palladium, platinum, copper, silver, and gold, were loaded onto TiO2 powders (anatase and mixed-phase P25) and screened for the decomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) under broad-band irradiation. The morphology and estimated chemical composition of photocatalysts were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Brunhauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis measured mass-specific surface area(s). X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to confirm the identity of titania phase(s) present. The BET surface area of anatase TiO2/Ru 1% (9.2 sq m/gm) was one of the highest measured of all photocatalysts prepared in our laboratory. Photolyses conducted under air-saturated and nitrogen-saturated conditions revealed photodegradation efficiencies of 85 and 2 percent, respectively, after 60 min compared to 58 percent with no catalyst. The cause of low photocatalytic activity under an inert atmosphere is discussed. TiO2/Ru 1% showed a superior photocatalytic activity relative to P25-TiO2 under broad-band irradiation. A potential deployment of photocatalytic technologies on a mission could be a reactor with modest enhancement in solar intensity brought about by a trough-style reactor, with reactants and catalyst flowing along the axis of the trough and therefore being illuminated for a controlled duration based on the flow rate.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye on TiO2/activated carbon composite material.

    PubMed

    Andriantsiferana, C; Mohamed, E F; Delmas, H

    2014-01-01

    A sequential adsorption/photocatalytic regeneration process to remove tartrazine, an azo-dye in aqueous solution, has been investigated. The aim ofthis work was to compare the effectiveness of an adsorbent/photocatalyst composite-TiO2 deposited onto activated carbon (AC) - and a simple mixture of powders of TiO2 and AC in same proportion. The composite was an innovative material as the photocatalyst, TiO2, was deposited on the porous surface ofa microporous-AC using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition in fluidized bed. The sequential process was composed of two-batch step cycles: every cycle alternated a step of adsorption and a step of photocatalytic oxidation under ultra-violet (365 nm), at 25 degreeC and atmospheric pressure. Both steps, adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation, have been investigated during four cycles. For both materials, the cumulated amounts adsorbed during four cycles corresponded to nearly twice the maximum adsorption capacities qmax proving the photocatalytic oxidation to regenerate the adsorbent. Concerning photocatalytic oxidation, the degree of mineralization was higher with the TiO2/AC composite: for each cycle, the value of the total organic carbon removal was 25% higher than that obtained with the mixture powder. These better photocatalytic performances involved better regeneration than higher adsorbed amounts for cycles 2, 3 and 4. Better performances with this promising material - TiO2 deposited onto AC - compared with TiO2 powder could be explained by the vicinity of photocatalytic and AC adsorption sites. PMID:24600875

  10. Enhanced degradation of organic pollutant 4-chlorophenol in water by non-thermal plasma process with TiO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Long Hao; Ming-Hua Zhou; Yi Zhang; Le-Cheng Lei

    2006-01-01

    The combined application of TiO2 photocatalyst and pulsed high-voltage electrical discharge process for the degradation of organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP) in aqueous solution was tentatively investigated. The optimum conditions for 4-CP removal were applied voltage at 14 kV, electrode distance at 2 cm, pH at 6.5 (close to neutral solution), TiO2 concentration at 50 mg\\/L, gas source O2 at 100 L\\/h, and hybrid corona-streamer

  11. Facile synthesis of 3D few-layered MoS2 coated TiO2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for stable and high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Guo, Lichao; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2015-07-23

    Uniform transition metal sulfide deposition on a smooth TiO2 surface to form a coating structure is a well-known challenge, caused mainly due to their poor affinities. Herein, we report a facile strategy for fabricating mesoporous 3D few-layered (<4 layers) MoS2 coated TiO2 nanosheet core-shell nanocomposites (denoted as 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2) by a novel two-step method using a smooth TiO2 nanosheet as a template and glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (<4 layers) MoS2 onto the TiO2 can remarkably enhance the structure stability and effectively shortens the transfer paths of both lithium ions and electrons, while the strong synergistic effect between MoS2 and TiO2 can significantly facilitate the transport of ions and electrons across the interfaces, especially in the high-rate charge-discharge process. Moreover, the facile fabrication strategy can be easily extended to design other oxide/carbon-sulfide/oxide core-shell materials for extensive applications. PMID:26165623

  12. A novel plasma reactor for NOx control using photocatalyst and hydrogen peroxide injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Ha Kim; Kazuhiko Tsunoda; Shinji Katsura; Akira Mizuno

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a new type of plasma reactor combining discharge plasma with photocatalyst (TiO2) which can improve the performance of NOx removal. We also find that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very effective additive in this plasma catalytic reactor. NOx was effectively oxidized to HNO3 on TiO2 catalyst and trapped on the catalyst surface. Specific energy consumption of

  13. A simple approach to reactivate silver-coated titanium dioxide photocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhi Zhang; Jimmy C. Yu

    2005-01-01

    Deactivated silver-coated TiO2 photocatalyst can be easily reactivated by ambient light illumination. The process converts Ag0 to Ag(I) in the form of Ag2O. When the activated catalyst is used in photocatalysis, Ag(I) would be eventually reduced to Ag0 forming fresh non-aggregated silver nanoparticles on TiO2. The presence of some transitory Ag+ ions during photocatalysis can help to oxidize species adsorbed

  14. Preparation of mesoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, K. Stanly; Abraham, P. A.; Panicker, N. Rani; Pramanik, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) introduced by Prof.M.Gratzel is a low cost alternative to the existing silicon based solar cells. Solar light conversion efficiency of the current DSSC can be further improved by replacing the conventional anatase TiO2 having lesser surface area with mesoporous high surface area anatase TiO2. This paper describes the sol-gel synthesis of mesoporous high surface area nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 by the controlled hydrolysis and condensation of titanium isopropoxide followed by heat treatment. XRD reveals that xerogel heat treated at 500°C is phase pure anatase. Crystallite size of prepared anatase TiO2 calculated using Scherrer equation was found to be 15 nm. BET analysis of prepared anatase TiO2 exhibited relatively high specific surface area of 97 m2/g, which is found to be almost double to that of the anatase TiO2 generally used for DSSC photo anode fabrication. The pore size distribution (BJH plot) also revealed the mesoporous nature of prepared anatase TiO2 having an average pore size of 7.4 nm.

  15. Water-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles via a biphasic solvothermal reaction method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A biphasic solvothermal reaction method has been used for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). In this method, hydrolysis and nucleation occur at the interface of organic phase (titanium (IV) n-propoxide and stearic acid dissolved in toluene) and water phase (tert-butylamine dissolved in water) resulting in the nucleation of the stearic acid-capped TiO2 NPs. These NPs are hydrophilic due to hydrophobic stearic acid ligands and could be dispersed in toluene, but not in water. These stearic acid-capped TiO2 NPs were surface-modified with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in order to make them water soluble. The resultant TiO2 NPs were easily redispersed in water without any noticeable aggregation. The Rietveld profile fitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the TiO2 NPs revealed highly crystalline anatase structure. The average crystallite size of TiO2 NPs was calculated to be 6.89 nm, which agrees with TEM results. These results have important implications for the use of TiO2 in biomedical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:24289214

  16. Noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalyst: hydrogen doped semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiangchao; Dai, Ying; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2014-01-01

    The unique capacity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) offers a new opportunity to overcome the limited efficiency of semiconductor photocatalyst. Here we unravel that LSPR, which usually occurs in noble metal nanoparticles, can be realized by hydrogen doping in noble-metal-free semiconductor using TiO2 as a model photocatalyst. Moreover, its LSPR is located in infrared region, which supplements that of noble metal whose LSPR is generally in the visible region, making it possible to extend the light response of photocatalyst to infrared region. The near field enhancement is shown to be comparable with that of noble-metal nanoparticles, indicating that highly enhanced light absorption rate can be expected. The present work can provide a key guideline for the creation of highly efficient noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalysts and have a much wider impact in infrared bioimaging and spectroscopy where infrared LSPR is essential. PMID:24496400

  17. TiO2-graphene oxide nanocomposite as advanced photocatalytic materials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene oxide composites with photocatalysts may exhibit better properties than pure photocatalysts via improvement of their textural and electronic properties. Results TiO2-Graphene Oxide (TiO2 - GO) nanocomposite was prepared by thermal hydrolysis of suspension with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and titania peroxo-complex. The characterization of graphene oxide nanosheets was provided by using an atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. The prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity, X-ray Diffraction, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. UV/VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band-gap energies. From the TiO2 - GO samples, a 300??m thin layer on a piece of glass 10×15 cm was created. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared layers was assessed from the kinetics of the photocatalytic degradation of butane in the gas phase. Conclusions The best photocatalytic activity under UV was observed for sample denoted TiGO_100 (k?=?0.03012?h-1), while sample labeled TiGO_075 (k?=?0.00774?h-1) demonstrated the best activity under visible light. PMID:23445868

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-C hybrid aerogels for methylene blue degradation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xia; Lu, Wencong; Zhang, Rui; Pan, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-based TiO2 composites have many advantages as photocatalysts. However, they suffer from low light efficiency due to the low contrast of TiO2 with carbon. We synthesized a novel type of anatase-type TiO2-C hybrid aerogel by a one-pot sol-gel method, which shows a photocatalytic activity for methylene degradation up to 4.23 times that of P25, a commercial photocatalyst from Degussa Inc. The hybrid aerogels are prepared from TiCl4 and resorcinol–furfural, and have a tunable macropore size from 167 to 996 nm. They are formed of submicrometer particles that consist of interwoven anatase and carbon nanoparticles. The anatase nanoparticles have a size of 8–9?nm and a tunable oxygen vacancy from 7.2 to 18.0%. The extremely high activity is ascribed to the large light absorption caused by macropore scattering and oxygen vacancies in the anatase. These findings may open up a new avenue and stimulate further research to improve photocatalytic performance. PMID:24145581

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-C hybrid aerogels for methylene blue degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xia; Lu, Wencong; Zhang, Rui; Pan, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Carbon-based TiO2 composites have many advantages as photocatalysts. However, they suffer from low light efficiency due to the low contrast of TiO2 with carbon. We synthesized a novel type of anatase-type TiO2-C hybrid aerogel by a one-pot sol-gel method, which shows a photocatalytic activity for methylene degradation up to 4.23 times that of P25, a commercial photocatalyst from Degussa Inc. The hybrid aerogels are prepared from TiCl4 and resorcinol-furfural, and have a tunable macropore size from 167 to 996 nm. They are formed of submicrometer particles that consist of interwoven anatase and carbon nanoparticles. The anatase nanoparticles have a size of 8-9 nm and a tunable oxygen vacancy from 7.2 to 18.0%. The extremely high activity is ascribed to the large light absorption caused by macropore scattering and oxygen vacancies in the anatase. These findings may open up a new avenue and stimulate further research to improve photocatalytic performance.

  20. TiO2 nanoparticles versus TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites: a comparative study of photo catalysis on acid red 88.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, K; Venckatesh, Rajendran; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rajiv, P

    2014-07-15

    A novel, simple, less time-consuming and cost-effective wet chemical technique was used to synthesis TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites using Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor relatively at low temperature in acidic pH. Titania sol was prepared by hydrolysis of TTIP and was mixed with silicic acid and tetrahydrofuran mixture. The reaction was carried out under vigorous stirring for 6h and dried at room temperature. The resulting powders were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The grain size of the particles was calculated by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology and chemical composition was determined from scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, metal oxide stretching was confirmed from FT-IR spectroscopy, band gap was calculated using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Surface area of the composite as calculated by BET analyzer and it was found to be 65 and 75 m(2)/g for TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 respectively. The photocatalytic experiments were performed with aqueous solution of acid red 88 with TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 batch studies for 4h irradiation, direct photolysis of TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 contributed 94.2% and 96.5% decomposition in solar radiation for the optimized concentration of acid red 88. PMID:24682063

  1. Synthesis, photovoltaic performances and TD-DFT modeling of push-pull diacetylide platinum complexes in TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Sébastien; Caro, Bertrand; Robin-Le Guen, Françoise; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A; Wojcik, Laurianne; Le Poul, Nicolas; Planchat, Aurélien; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Jacquemin, Denis; Odobel, Fabrice

    2014-08-01

    In this joint experimental-theoretical work, we present the synthesis and optical and electrochemical characterization of five new bis-acetylide platinum complex dyes end capped with diphenylpyranylidene moieties, as well as their performances in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Theoretical calculations relying on Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and a range-separated hybrid show a very good match with experimental data and allow us to quantify the charge-transfer character of each compound. The photoconversion efficiency obtained reaches 4.7% for 8e (see TOC Graphic) with the tri-thiophene segment, which is among the highest efficiencies reported for platinum complexes in DSCs. PMID:24837848

  2. Synthesis, loading control and applications of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrilium as a solar photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercher Perez, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    The technologies or processes of oxidation outpost that uses like energy the solar radiation for the degradation of polluting agents, suppose a novel alternative with important economic and environmental advantages. A proof of it has been the spectacular development which they have been these applications at world-wide level in the last years old, as well as the interest that the subject in international the scientific community has provoked. 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio by its singularity in this field has been chosen for this thesis the cation. It has been left from a study about the fotocatalitica activity of this cation, from the salt of hidrogenosulfato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio and of the salt of tetrafluorborato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio, when they act in homogenous phase on polluting agents, derivatives of dissolved fenolicos compounds in residual coming from the industry. In the first stage of the study I confirm the degradativo power of this cation but nevertheless a series of disadvantages in homogena phase was detected, had to the chemical characteristics of this organic species: hidrolitica opening of the ring and impossibility of reusability. With the purpose of correcting these problems it has been investigated and developed different methods from synthesis, in which this cation is supported in inorganic materials, concretely: silica gel, zeolites and sepiolitas. It has been come to the study, of individual form, the parameters that influence of significant form in the yield of the different processes and also has been verified the fotocatalitica activity of the new synthesized materials. In the developed methods it has been managed to totally control the amount of cation supported in the chosen materials and of this form to be able to know the effectiveness his activity like fotocatalizador in heterogenous phase. It is possible to emphasize, that the proposed procedures of synthesis, are quite simple and fast in his execution. The made studies have been carried out on scale laboratory, trying to follow future investigations in plant pilot industrial level, like also, is tried to investigate the development of synthesis methods using the cation 2,4,6-trifeniltiopirilio for the obtaining of new heterogenous materials, with fotocataliticas properties.

  3. Phthalocyanine/chitosan-TiO2 photocatalysts: Characterization and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, A.; Boufi, S.; Bouattour, S.

    2015-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used as a template to prepare a hybrid chitosan-phthalocyanine-TiO2 (PC/CS-TiO2) photocatalyst at room temperature without any calcination treatment. The as-prepared hybrid photocatalyst (PC/CS-TiO2) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results of the photodegradation of aniline, used as a model pollutant, revealed that the hybrid photocatalyst (PC/CS-TiO2) exhibited a photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced activity of the hybrid catalyst is attributed to the cooperative role of the three components of the photocatalyst; chitosan as a template for the immobilization crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles, phthalocyanine that promote the light absorption in the visible range and TiO2 acting as an acceptor of electrons generated by the photons absorption to produce superoxide radicals.

  4. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of a TiO2/nylon-6 electrospun nanocomposite mat containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Nam, Ki Taek; Baek, Woo-Il; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-15

    Silver-impregnated TiO(2)/nylon-6 nanocomposite mats exhibit excellent characteristics as a filter media with good photocatalytic and antibacterial properties and durability for repeated use. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully embedded in electrospun TiO(2)/nylon-6 composite nanofibers through the photocatalytic reduction of silver nitrate solution under UV-light irradiation. TiO(2) NPs present in nylon-6 solution were able to cause the formation of a high aspect ratio spider-wave-like structure during electrospinning and facilitated the UV photoreduction of AgNO(3) to Ag. TEM images, UV-visible and XRD spectra confirmed that monodisperse Ag NPs (approximately 4 nm in size) were deposited selectively upon the TiO(2) NPs of the prepared nanocomposite mat. The antibacterial property of a TiO(2)/nylon-6 composite mat loaded with Ag NPs was tested against Escherichia coli, and the photoactive property was tested against methylene blue. All of the results showed that TiO(2)/nylon-6 nanocomposite mats loaded with Ag NPs are more effective than composite mats without Ag NPs. The prepared material has potential as an economically friendly photocatalyst and water filter media because it allows the NPs to be reused. PMID:21429663

  5. Photocatalytic Degradation of DIPA Using Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Chong, Fai Kait; Man, Zakaria B.; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Shariff, Azmi M.

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI) method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25) as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C) for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (86.82%). According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion. PMID:25105158

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of DIPA using bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Nadia; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Chong, Fai Kait; Man, Zakaria B; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Shariff, Azmi M

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI) method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25) as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C) for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (86.82%). According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion. PMID:25105158

  7. Origin of the visible-light photoactivity of NH3-treated TiO2: Effect of nitrogen doping and oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yilin; Cao, Xiaoxin; Lin, Bizhou; Gao, Bifen

    2013-01-01

    N-doped and oxygen-deficient TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by heating commercial TiO2 in NH3 atmosphere, followed by a postcalcination process. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-sorption BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Elemental analysis (EA), UV/vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Electron spin resonance (ESR) and Photoluminescence (PL). It shows that the NH3-heat-treatment of TiO2 resulted in not only nitrogen doping but also creation of oxygen vacancies with optical absorption in visible-light region. The postcalcination achieved several beneficial effects including dramatic removal of surface amino species, a rapid decrease in surface Ti3+ species, and a low recombination rate of photogenerated carriers on the co-doped TiO2. The photocatalytic measurement was carried out by the degradation of gas-phase benzene under visible light irradiation. At steady state, the photocatalytic conversion rate of benzene over the postannealed catalyst was 35.8%, accompanied by the yield of 115 ppmv CO2, which was much higher than that on the NH3-treated TiO2 before postcalcination or the H2-treated TiO2 catalysts. Results show that the visible-light activity of the NH3-treated TiO2 is attributed to a synergistic effect of substitutional nitrogen species and oxygen vacancies in TiO2.

  8. Capacitive and Oxidant Generating Properties of Black-Colored TiO2 Nanotube Array Fabricated by Electrochemical Self-Doping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choonsoo; Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Jaehan; Kim, Jiye; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-15

    Recently, black-colored TiO2 NTA (denoted as black TiO2 NTA) fabricated by self-doping of TiO2 NTA with the amorphous phase led to significant success as a visible-light-active photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity is largely attributed to a higher charge carrier density as an effect of electrochemical self-doping resulting in a higher optical absorbance and lower transport resistance. Nevertheless, the potential of black TiO2 NTA for other electrochemical applications, such as a supercapacitor and an oxidant-generating anode, has not been fully investigated. Here, we report the capacitive and oxidant generating properties of black TiO2 NTA. The black TiO2 NTA exhibited significantly a high value for areal capacitance with a good rate capability and novel electrocatalytic activity in generating (•)OHs and Cl2 compared to pristine TiO2 NTA with the anatase phase. This study suggests that the black TiO2 NTA be applied as a supercapacitor and an oxidant generating anode. PMID:25793300

  9. Rational design of 3D dendritic TiO2 nanostructures with favorable architectures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziqi; Kim, Jung Ho; Zhao, Yue; Bijarbooneh, Fargol; Malgras, Victor; Lee, Youngmin; Kang, Yong-Mook; Dou, Shi Xue

    2011-12-01

    Controlling the morphology and size of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanostructures is crucial to obtain superior photocatalytic, photovoltaic, and electrochemical properties. However, the synthetic techniques for preparing such structures, especially those with complex configurations, still remain a challenge because of the rapid hydrolysis of Ti-containing polymer precursors in aqueous solution. Herein, we report a completely novel approach-three-dimensional (3D) TiO(2) nanostructures with favorable dendritic architectures-through a simple hydrothermal synthesis. The size of the 3D TiO(2) dendrites and the morphology of the constituent nano-units, in the form of nanorods, nanoribbons, and nanowires, are controlled by adjusting the precursor hydrolysis rate and the surfactant aggregation. These novel configurations of TiO(2) nanostructures possess higher surface area and superior electrochemical properties compared to nanoparticles with smooth surfaces. Our findings provide an effective solution for the synthesis of complex TiO(2) nano-architectures, which can pave the way to further improve the energy storage and energy conversion efficiency of TiO(2)-based devices. PMID:22040365

  10. Ni/Ti layered double hydroxide: synthesis, characterization and application as a photocatalyst for visible light degradation of aqueous methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Priyadarshi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-04-21

    Visible light responsive 2?:?1 Ni/Ti layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized by a single step hydrothermal route using commercially available Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, TiCl4 and urea. The material exhibited significant absorption in the visible range with a very narrow band gap (2.68 eV). This could be attributed to structural defects as confirmed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. FT-IR, TGA, DTA, DSC, HR-TEM and SEM-EDX measurements yielded information about structural aspects, thermal stability and surface morphology. Surface and pore characteristics of the material were obtained from the BET isotherm for N2 adsorption at 77 K. Zeta potential measurements were used to characterize the electrical properties of the surface while XPS revealed changes in surface states and oxygen deficiencies. The material was found to be an excellent photocatalyst for the degradation of aqueous methylene blue in visible light. The photocatalytic properties of the material were explained on the basis of the narrow band gap, the high surface area and the presence of surface defects. The photocatalytic activity improved in alkaline media [pH 11.0, catalyst load 15 mg in 200 ml dye solution, dye concentration 1 × 10(-6) M (= 0.3198 mg L(-1))] due to the electrostatic attractions between the dye cations and the negative charges on the Ni/Ti LDH surface. The catalytic activity was found to be higher than the common commercial catalysts like ZnO, ZnS, NiO, TiO2 and Degussa P25. The catalytic activity was retained even after five methylene blue degradation cycles, demonstrating that the LDH could be an important addition to the field of wastewater treatment. PMID:25763803

  11. Fine route for an efficient removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by zeolite-supported TiO2.

    PubMed

    Shankar, M V; Anandan, S; Venkatachalam, N; Arabindoo, B; Murugesan, V

    2006-05-01

    Zeolites HY, Hbeta and HZSM-5 with different physico-chemical properties were chosen as support for TiO2 to illustrate their adsorption, dispersion and electronic structure in photocatalysis. The extent of TiO2 loading was monitored by XRD and BET surface area measurements. The adsorption capacity of HY zeolite was found to be high and hence chosen for further modification to continue the investigation. Photodegradation kinetics were carried out with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in aqueous solution. The extent of 2,4-D degradation on TiO2/HY loading revealed the importance of adsorption in photocatalysis. Mineralisation studies on all three zeolites with 1 wt.% TiO2 loading demonstrated the good dispersion properties of TiO2/HY. Its photocatalytic activity was found to be excellent with formulated 2,4-D. Comparison of relative photonic efficiencies demonstrated that supported photocatalysts exhibited higher activity than some of the commercial photocatalysts. The high activity of supported TiO2 is due to synergistic effects of improved adsorption of 2,4-D and efficient delocalisation of photogenerated electrons by zeolite support. PMID:16289243

  12. Cu doped TiO2/GF for photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli in bioaerosols under visible light irradiation: Application and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the role of Cu as a doping agent to enhance photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in Cu-doped TiO2/glass fibers (Cu-TiO2/GF) used for disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in aerosols under visible light irradiation. Glass fiber was used as a substrate to immobilize TiO2 for disinfection of E. coli in bioaerosols. Cu in the prepared photocatalyst acted as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of TiO2. Cu dopants increased the electron-hole pair separation efficiency, inhibited their recombination leading to a lifetime increase of the generated electrons, and thus improved photocatalytic activity even under visible light irradiation. Cu also defected the TiO2 lattice by producing Ti3+ ions, which can increase the electron-hole separation capacity of the photocatalyst, thereby increasing photocatalytic capacity. The optimal Cu content in Cu/TiO2 to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was 5 wt.%. Among three humidity conditions (dry (40 ± 5%), moderate (60 ± 5%) and humid (80 ± 5%)), the moderate condition showed the highest disinfection efficiency of E. coli. When the 5% Cu-TiO2/GF was used under a moderate level of humidity, the highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of E. coli were identified as 87.8% and 23 CFU/s cm2, respectively.

  13. Photocatalytic removal of C.I. Basic Red 46 on immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: Artificial neural network modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Khataee

    2009-01-01

    C.I. Basic Red 46, commonly used as a textile dye, was photocatalytically removed using supported TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by a 30 W UV?C lamp in a batch reactor. The investigated photocatalyst was industrial Degussa P25 (crystallite mean size 21 nm) immobilized on glass beads by a heat attachment method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques.

  14. Study of photoreduction of CO2 on yttrium and copper co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Runzhi Pan; Xin Tan; Tao Yu

    2011-01-01

    Yttrium and copper co-doped TiO2 catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method. The photocatalysts were characterized by means of XRD. By co-doping of Y 3+ and Cu 2+ not only could restrain the growth in size and aggregation of the nanoparticles, but also could effectively inhibit phase transformation from anatase phase to rutile. The reduction of CO2 showed that the nano

  15. Bifunctional TiO2 Catalysts for Efficient Cr(VI) Photoreduction Under Solar Light Irradiation Without Addition of Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fu-cheng; Wang, Wen-dong; Huang, Wei-xin

    2012-04-01

    Bifunctional TiO2 photocatalysts co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur were prepared by the controlled thermal decomposition of ammonium titanyl sulfate precursor. They have both photocatalytic activity and Brønsted acidity, and thus are active in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) under solar light irradiation without the addition of acids. The activity is superior to that of Degussa P25 in the acidified suspension at the same pH adjusted by H2SO4.

  16. Effect of Ni and TiO2 on hydrogen generation from aqueous solution with non-thermal plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P V Kostyuk; J Y Park; S B Han; S H Park

    2008-01-01

    Research was performed to increase the efficiency of a plasma reactor for the H2 yield. Ni as a transitional metal catalyst and TiO2 as a photocatalyst were utilized for the generation of H2 from an aqueous solution. The composition of aqueous solution, discharge properties and electrode geometry affected H2 generation. It was found that the hollow type electrode configuration allowed

  17. Novel TiO 2 thin films\\/glass fiber photocatalytic reactors in the removal of bioaerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Hsing Lin; Jyh-Wei Lee; Chen-Yu Chang; Yu-Jie Chang; Yao-Chuan Lee; Mei-Yin Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic disinfection of aerosolized Escherichia coli, a pathogenic microorganism was investigated. The air disinfection system is a novel TiO2 thin films\\/glass reactor filter and ultraviolet (UV) radiation air purification system, operating at a flow rate of 20L\\/min. A special glass fiber reactor design allowed the UV lamp to be located in the center of the reactor. The photocatalyst reactor

  18. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of TiN/F-TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Shifu, Chen; Yunguang, Yang; Wei, Liu

    2011-02-28

    In this paper, F-TiO(2) and TiN/F-TiO(2) nanoparticle photocatalysts were prepared by ball milling. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technique (TA-PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the F-TiO(2) was much higher than that of TiO(2), and the photocatalytic activity of the TiN/F-TiO(2) was much higher than that of TiO(2) and F-TiO(2) under UV light irradiation. The optimum percentage of doped TiN is 0.2 wt.%. Compared with pure TiO(2), the photoabsorption wavelength range of the TiN/F-TiO(2) and F-TiO(2) photocatalysts red shifts and improves the utilization of the total spectrum. The effect of ball milling time on the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was also investigated. The optimum ball milling time is 12 h. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts were also discussed. PMID:21215517

  19. Synergistic effect of the combination of immobilized TiO2, UVA and ozone on the decomposition of dichloroacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mehrjouei, Mohammad; Müller, Siegfried; Möller, Detlev

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation system (TiO(2)/UVA/O(3)) was evaluated on the degradation and mineralization of dichloroacetic acid as a contaminant in aqueous solutions by means of a planar reactor. The commercial product "Pilkington Active™ glass" was used as the immobilized TiO(2) photocatalyst and it was irradiated by near UV light in this study. The synergistic interaction between ozone and the photoactivated TiO(2) surface was discussed and highlighted. Furthermore, the influences of initial concentration and temperature on the degradation rate of dichloroacetic acid and the ozone consumption level during the oxidation process were investigated. The concentrations of dichloroacetic acid and chloride anions produced during degradation were measured using ion chromatography. The mineralization of dichloroacetic acid was evaluated by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements. The degradation of dichloroacetic acid by photocatalytic ozonation showed good agreement with the kinetics of first-order reactions with respect to dichloroacetic acid. PMID:22506699

  20. Fabrication of TiO2 film with different morphologies on Ni anode and application in photoassisted water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongbo; Chen, Aiping; Lv, Hui; Dong, Haijun; Chang, Ming; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-02-01

    The anode of an alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis was modified by TiO2 photocatalysts with different morphologies. The water electrolysis was coupled with photocatalytic decomposition of water by irradiation of UV light on the modified anode. And a feasible process for the hydrogen production of water electrolysis assisted by photocatalysis (WEAP) was proposed and experimentally confirmed. The results show that the highly ordered, vertically oriented tubular arrays structure on Ni anode surface has better hydrogen production performance than random TiO2. In WEAP process, the maximum rate of hydrogen production is 2.77 ml/(h*cm2) when the anode modified by ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, compared to traditional alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis with Ni anode, H2-production rate increased by 139%.

  1. Plasmon enhanced visible light photocatalysis for TiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, A M; Larrosa, I; Dunn, S

    2015-08-01

    A photocatalyst consisting of nanostructured Pd photochemically deposited on 20 nm TiO2 displays a reaction half-life for rhodamine b decolourisation of 0.5 minute compared to the 9.4 minutes for unmodified P25 under identical reaction conditions. We associate this increased decolourisation rate to the increase in solar light harvesting which we have measured at 8% due to a significant red shift in the absorption profile of the catalyst. We relate the increased absorption of light with a visible active plasmon effect that is associated with the Pd nanostructures on the TiO2. This overall red-shift in the light harvesting for the catalyst leads to photocatalytic activity for excitations up to 600 nm. PMID:26149082

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of AZO dyes by supported TiO2 + UV in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C; Wang, L; Kong, L; Yang, X; Wang, L; Zheng, S; Chen, F; MaiZhi, F; Zong, H

    2000-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation performance of photocatalysts TiO2 supported on 13-X, Na-Y, 4A zeolites with different loading content was evaluated using the photocatalytic oxidation of dyes direct fast scarlet 4BS and acid red 3B in aqueous medium. The results showed that the best reaction dosage of TiO2-zeolite catalysts is about 2 g/l and the photocatalytic kinetics follows first order for all supported catalysts. The photocatalytic activity order of the three series catalysts is 13X type >Y type >4A type. The physical state of titanium dioxide on the supports is evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and FTIR. PMID:11057591

  3. Synthesis and characterization of F-N-W-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with enhanced visible light response

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoliang, E-mail: sxl071932@126.com [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China) [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Qin, Haibo; Yang, Xingyong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Qiaoxin [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China) [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Anatase F-N-W-codoped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a sol–gel-hydrothermal method. ? Under visible illumination, carbon removal rate of RB reached 94% using F-7NW-TiO{sub 2}. ? F, N and W dopants narrowed band gap and lowed charge pairs recombination rate. ? There were W{sub x}Ti{sub 1?x}O{sub 2}, O-Ti-N and valence variation of W ions existing. -- Abstract: Anatase F-N-W-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully prepared by a method combining sol–gel with hydrothermal treatment. Effects of F, N and W ion dosage concentration on the crystallinity, morphology, grain size and chemical status of the photocatalyst were investigated. The results showed that the F-7NW-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst composed of uniform ellipsoidal particles around 20 nm in length and 10 nm in width, and the photocatalyst displayed enhanced visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activities. Using the photocatalyst and under visible irradiation for 1.5 h, the decoloration percent of RB and carbon removal rate were about 98% and 94% respectively, which were much higher than that of commercial P25, TiO{sub 2}, N-W-TiO{sub 2} and F-TiO{sub 2}. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity of F-7NW-TiO{sub 2} might result from narrowing the band gap and lowing charge pairs recombination rate for the W{sub x}Ti{sub 1?x}O{sub 2}, O-Ti-N and valence variation of W ions existing.

  4. A new dielectric ta-C film coating of Ag-nanoparticle hybrids to enhance TiO2 photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fanxin; Tang, Chaojun; Wang, Zhenlin; Sui, Chenghua; Ma, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated a novel method to enhance TiO2 photocatalysis by adopting a new ultrathin tetrahedral-amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on Ag nanoparticles to create strong plasmonic near-field enhancement. The result shows that the decomposition rate of methylene blue on the Ag/10 Å ta-C/TiO2 composite photocatalyst is ten times faster than that on a TiO2 photocatalyst and three times faster than that on a Ag/TiO2 photocatalyst. This can be ascribed to the simultaneous realization of two competitive processes: one that excites the surface plasmons (SPs) of the ta-C-film/Ag-nanoparticle hybrid and provides a higher electric field near the ta-C/TiO2 interface compared to Ag nanoparticles alone, while the other takes advantage of the dense diamond-like ta-C layer to help reduce the transfer of photogenerated electrons from the conduction band of TiO2 to the metallic surface, since any electron transfer will suppress the excitation of SP modes in the metal nanoparticles.

  5. Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of Crystal Violet in UV-illuminated sol-gel derived nanocrystalline TiO2 suspensions.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaar, S; Porkodi, K

    2005-08-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 ultrafine powder (Ti-SG) 100% anatase phase prepared by the sol-gel method was used as a photocatalyst in the decomposition reaction of a basic dye, Crystal Violet (hexamethyl-p-rosaniline chloride), in water under UV light irradiation. Optimization of the photocatalyst's performance as a function of irradiation time, catalyst concentration, and solution pH was performed. The photoactivity was greatly dependent on the solution pH and it was effective for Crystal Violet to be degraded under basic conditions. The extent of photooxidation or -reduction of CV was discussed in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Results also indicated that the proper addition of H2O2 could improve the degradation rate, but excess H2O2 quenched the formation of OH*. Textural and photocatalytic characteristics of sol-gel derived TiO2 (Ti-SG) were compared with those of commercial P25, TiO2. The relative photonic efficiency of sol-gel derived TiO2 was found to be 2.77 with reference to phenol. PMID:15927578

  6. Open-circuit voltage improvement by using TiO2 nanotubes as a working electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. D. Li; D. W. Zhang; Z. Sun; Y. W. Chen; S. M. Huang

    2008-01-01

    The titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiNTs) were directly fabricated from commercial P25 TiO2 via alkali hydrothermal transformation. The optimized synthesis, thermal and hydrothermal stability, and consequent optical properties of the titanate nanotubes were systematically studied. The TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were constructed with films made of grown TiO2 nanotubes as working electrodes. The

  7. TiO2\\/AC Composites for Synergistic Adsorption-Photocatalysis Processes: Present Challenges and Further Developments for Water Treatment and Reclamation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teik-Thye Lim; Pow-Seng Yap; Madhavi Srinivasan; Anthony G. Fane

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide supported on activated carbon, or TiO2\\/AC composite, exhibits bifunctionality of adsorption and photocatalysis in synergism. The authors review the TiO2\\/AC synthesis techniques, characteristics, and performances in removing organic pollutants in water. Practical issues pertinent to applications of the TiO2\\/AC composite in water treatment and reclamation are discussed. These include dispersing the particles and recovering from the product water,

  8. nanocrystallites condensed in vapor-phase for photocatalyst applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Yagi, Nobuyasu; Nakagou, Riki; Sugimura, Akira; Umezu, Ikurou

    2014-10-01

    We have synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystallites by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in oxygen (O2) background gas for photocatalyst applications. Varying O2 background gas pressure or substrate target distance ( D TS), it was possible to change weight fraction of anatase phase in the anatase/rutile mixture from 0.2 to 1.0. Porosity of the deposited TiO2 films increased with increasing and D TS. Relation between the process parameters and the formed crystal phases was explained from the point of cooling process in vapor-phase. Furthermore, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was performed as post-annealing, suppressing sintering of the nanocrystallites. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 nanocrystallites depended on the RTA temperature and following crystallinity restoring as well as the crystal phase: anatase or rutile.

  9. Efficiency enhancements in Ag nanoparticles-SiO2-TiO2 sandwiched structure via plasmonic effect-enhanced light capturing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    TiO2-SiO2-Ag composites are fabricated by depositing TiO2 films on silica substrates embedded with Ag nanoparticles. Enhancement of light absorption of the nanostructural composites is observed. The light absorption enhancement of the synthesized structure in comparison to TiO2 originated from the near-field enhancement caused by the plasmonic effect of Ag nanoparticles, which can be demonstrated by the optical absorption spectra, Raman scattering investigation, and the increase of the photocatalytic activity. The embedded Ag nanoparticles are formed by ion implantation, which effectively prevents Ag to be oxidized through direct contact with TiO2. The suggested incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures shows a great potential application in a highly efficient photocatalyst and ultra-thin solar cell. PMID:23402586

  10. Template-free synthesis of cube-like Ag/AgCl nanostructures via a direct-precipitation protocol: highly efficient sunlight-driven plasmonic photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingshan; Chen, Penglei; Ma, Wanhong; Lei, Bin; Liu, Minghua

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report that cube-like Ag/AgCl nanostructures could be facilely fabricated in a one-pot manner through a direct-precipitation protocol under ambient conditions, wherein no additional issues such as external energy (e.g., high temperature or high pressure), surfactants, or reducing agents are required. In terms of using sodium chloride (NaCl) as chlorine source and silver acetate (CH?COOAg) as silver source, it is disclosed that simply by adding an aqueous solution of NaCl into an aqueous solution of CH?COOAg, Ag/AgCl nanostructures with a cube-like geometry, could be successfully formulated. We show that thus-formulated cube-like Ag/AgCl nanospecies could be used as high-performance yet durable visible-light-driven or sunlight-driven plasmonic photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) pollutants. Compared with the commercially available P25-TiO?, and the Ag/AgCl nanospheres previously fabricated via a surfactant-assisted method, our current cube-like Ag/AgCl nanostructures could exhibit much higher photocatalytic performance. Our template free protocol might open up new and varied opportunities for an easy synthesis of cube-like Ag/AgCl-based high-performance sunlight-driven plasmonic photocatalysts for organic pollutant elimination. PMID:23138343

  11. Molecular-Level Insights into Photocatalysis from Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2013-06-12

    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has grown considerably in the decades since Fujishima and Honda's ground-breaking publications of photoelectrochemistry on TiO2. Numerous review articles continue to point to both progress made in the use of heterogeneous materials (such as TiO2) to perform photoconversion processes, and the many opportunities and challenges in heterogeneous photocatalysis research such as solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. The past decade has also seen an increase in the use of molecular-level approaches applied to model single crystal surfaces in an effort to obtain new insights into photocatalytic phenomena. In particular, scanning probe techniques (SPM) have enabled researchers to take a ‘nanoscale’ approach to photocatalysis that includes interrogation of the reactivities of specific sites and adsorbates on a model photocatalyst surface. The rutile TiO2(110) surface has become the prototypical oxide single crystal surface for fundamental studies of many interfacial phenomena. In particular, TiO2(110) has become an excellent model surface for probing photochemical and photocatalytic reactions at the molecular level. A variety of experimental approaches have emerged as being ideally suited for studying photochemical reactions on TiO2(110), including desorption-oriented approaches and electronic spectroscopies, but perhaps the most promising techniques for evaluating site-specific properties are those of SPM. In this review, we highlight the growing use of SPM techniques in providing molecular-level insights into surface photochemistry on the model photocatalyst surface of rutile TiO2(110). Our objective is to both illustrate the unique knowledge that scanning probe techniques have already provided the field of photocatalysis, and also to motivate a new generation of effort into the use of such approaches to obtain new insights into the molecular level details of photochemical events occurring at interfaces. Discussion will start with an examination of how scanning probe techniques are being used to characterize the TiO2(110) surface in ways that are relevant to photocatalysis. We will then discuss specific classes of photochemical reaction on TiO2(110) for which SPM has proven indispensible in providing unique molecular-level insights, and conclude with discussion of future areas in which SPM studies may prove valuable to photocatalysis on TiO2. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. I.L. was partially supported by a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Chemical Imaging Initiative project. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  12. HF-free synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanosheets with largely exposed and clean {001} facets and their enhanced rate performance as anodes of lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xun-Liang; Hu, Ming; Huang, Rong; Jiang, Ji-Sen

    2014-11-12

    An interface between toluene and water was utilized to synthesize ca. 10 nm thick of anatase TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) with 82% exposure of {001} facets. In this procedure, highly corrosive and toxic HF, which was generally used to prepare TiO2 NSs with largely exposed high energy facets, was avoided. Furthermore, the surfaces of the NSs were quite clean as suggested by XPS analysis. Serving as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, these as-prepared anatase TiO2 NSs manifested a low initial irreversible capacity loss (12.5% at 1 C), an excellent capacity retention at 10 C charge-discharge rate (101.9 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles), and enhanced rate performance at 0.5-10 C current rates in compared with Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Their excellent electrochemical performances were mainly derived from the large proportion of {001} exposed facets and a very short diffusion pathway, which allowed fast and efficient Li(+) transportation in the electrodes. PMID:25295712

  13. Oxidative degradation of industrial wastewater using spray deposited TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 bilayered thin films.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Pathan, H M; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2014-12-01

    The Fe2O3, Au:Fe2O3, TiO2/Fe2O3 and TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin films are successfully prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at an optimised substrate temperature of 400 °C and 470 °C, respectively onto amorphous and F:SnO2 coated glass substrates. The effect of TiO2 layer onto photoelectrochemical (PEC), structural, optical and morphological properties of Fe2O3, Au:Fe2O3, TiO2/Fe2O3 and TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin films is studied. The PEC characterization shows that, maximum values of short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc = 185 ?A and Voc = 450 mV) are at 38 nm thickness of TiO2. Deposited films are polycrystalline with a rhombohedral and anatase crystal structure having (104) preferred orientation. SEM and AFM images show deposited thin films are compact and uniform with seed like grains. The photocatalytic activities of the large surface area (64 cm(2)) TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalysts were evaluated by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of industrial wastewater under sunlight light irradiation. The results show that the TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalyst exhibited about 87% and 94% degradation of pollutant in sugarcane and textile industrial wastewater, respectively. The significant reduction in COD and BOD values from 95 mg/L to 13 mg/L and 75 mg/L to 11 mg/L, respectively was also observed. PMID:25463684

  14. Degradation of dyestuff wastewater using visible light in the presence of a novel nano TiO2 catalyst doped with upconversion luminescence agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wen, Fu-yu; Zhang, Zhao-hong; Zhang, Xiang-dong; Pan, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Lei; Xu, Liang; Kang, Ping-li; Zhang, Peng

    2005-01-01

    A new upconversion luminescence agent, 40CdF2 x 60BaF2 x 0.8Er2O3, was synthesized and its fluorescent spectra were determined. This upconversion luminescence agent can emit five upconversion fluorescent peaks shown in the fluorescent spectra whose wavelengths are all below 387 nm under the excitation of 488 nm visible light. This upconversion luminescence agent was mixed into nano rutile TiO2 powder by ultrasonic and boiling dispersion and the novel doped nano TiO2 photocatalyst utilizing visible light was firstly prepared. The doped TiO2 powder was charactered by XRD and TEM and its photocatalytic activity was tested through the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange as a model compound under the visible light irradiation emitted by six three basic color lamps. In order to compare the photocatalytic activities, the same experiment was carried out for undoped TiO2 powder. The degradation ratio of methyl orange in the presence of doped nano TiO2 powder reached 32.5% under visible light irradiation at 20 h which was obviously higher than the corresponding 1.64% in the presence of undoped nano TiO2 powder, which indicate the upconversion luminescence agent prepared as dopant can effectively turn visible lights to ultraviolet lights that are absorbed by nano TiO2 particles to produce the electron-cavity pairs. All the results show that the nano rutile TiO2 powder doped with upconversion luminescence agent is a promising photocatalyst using sunlight for treating the industry dye wastewater in great force. PMID:16312992

  15. Photoelectrochemistry on Ru(II)-2,2'-bipyridine-phosphonate-derivatized TiO2 with the I3-/I- and quinone/hydroquinone relays. Design of photoelectrochemical synthesis cells.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Laurie A; Serron, Scafford A; Wen, Xingu; Hornstein, Brooks J; Dattelbaum, D M; Schoonover, J R; Meyer, Thomas J

    2005-03-21

    Photocurrent measurements have been made on nanocrystalline TiO2 surfaces derivatized by adsorption of a catalyst precursor, [Ru(tpy)(bpy(PO3H2)2)(OH2)]2+, or chromophore, [Ru(bpy)2 (bpy(PO3H2)2)]2+ (tpy is 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and bpy(PO3H2)2 is 2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-diphosphonic acid), and on surfaces containing both complexes. This is an extension of earlier work on an adsorbed assembly containing both catalyst and chromophore. The experiments were carried out with the I3-/I- or quinone/hydroquinone (Q/H2Q) relays in propylene carbonate, propylene carbonate-water mixtures, and acetonitrile-water mixtures. Electrochemical measurements show that oxidation of surface-bound Ru(III)-OH2(3+) to Ru(IV)=O(2+) is catalyzed by the bpy complex. Addition of aqueous 0.1 M HClO4 greatly decreases photocurrent efficiencies for adsorbed [Ru(tpy)(bpy(PO3H2)2)(OH2)]2+ with the I3-/I- relay, but efficiencies are enhanced for the Q/H2Q relay in both propylene carbonate-HClO4 and acetonitrile-HClO4 mixtures. The dependence of the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) on added H2Q in 95% propylene carbonate and 5% 0.1 M HClO4 is complex and can be interpreted as changing from rate-limiting diffusion to the film at low H2Q to rate-limiting diffusion within the film at high H2Q. There is no evidence for photoelectrochemical cooperativity on mixed surfaces containing both complexes with the IPCE response reflecting the relative surface compositions of the two complexes. These results provide insight into the possible design of photoelectrochemical synthesis cells for the oxidation of organic substrates. PMID:15762737

  16. Effect of transition metal doping under reducing calcination atmosphere on photocatalytic property of TiO2 immobilized on SiO2 beads.

    PubMed

    Chand, Rumi; Obuchi, Eiko; Katoh, Katsumi; Luitel, Hom Nath; Nakano, Katsuyuki

    2013-07-01

    TiO2 immobilized on SiO2 (TiO2/SiO2) have been prepared by sol-gel method and various ions of transition metals (Cr3+, Co2+ Ni2+, CU2+, and Zn2+) were doped on the photocatalyst using wet impregnation method under reducing calcination atmosphere. The photocatalytic activity of metal doped TiO2/SiO2 towards phenol degradation under black light irradiation were investigated and compared with undoped TiO2/SiO2. The results showed that the photoresponse of Cu2+ and Zn2+ doped TiO2/SiO2 were larger than undoped TiO2/SiO2, indicating that the photogenerated carriers were separated more efficiently in Cu2+ and Zn2+ doped TiO2/SiO2. The reactivity was in the order of Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Cr3+ > Co2+. The different photoreactivity was ascribed to combine effect of the different ionic radii and photocorrison tendency of the dopants. The sample was also characterized by surface analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph/electron dispersive X-ray analyzer and UV-Vis absorption spectrum. PMID:24218855

  17. Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx over TiO2/HZSM-5 catalysts in the presence of water vapor: Effect of hydrophobicity of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gaofei; Hu, Yun; Jiang, Shumei; Wei, Chaohai

    2012-07-15

    TiO(2) hybridized with HZSM-5 zeolites photocatalysts were prepared by a simple solid state dispersion method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photocatalytic oxidation of NO(x) over TiO(2)/HZSM-5 having different Si/Al ratios was carried out under various levels of humidity and different pre-adsorption times in dark. The TiO(2)/HZSM-5 composite catalysts exhibited higher NO conversion and lower NO(2) formation than pure TiO(2). Pre-adsorption with water vapor and the high humidity during the photoreaction were harmful to the reactivity of TiO(2) hybridized with hydrophilic HZSM-5 zeolite. However, the photocatalytic reactivity of TiO(2) hybridized with hydrophobic zeolite varied little with increase in humidity. The results indicated that the high photocatalytic reactivity of TiO(2)/HZSM-5 catalysts is largely depended on the hydrophobicity of the zeolites. PMID:22579762

  18. Nano-photocatalysts in microfluidics, energy conversion and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jemish; Jang, Seungwook; Soler, Lluís; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Sánchez, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out on photocatalytic materials in recent years as photocatalytic reactions offer a promising solution for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. Currently available commercial photocatalysts still lack efficiency and thus are economically not viable for replacing traditional sources of energy. This article focuses on recent developments in novel nano-photocatalyst materials to enhance photocatalytic activity. Recent reports on optofluidic systems, new synthesis of photocatalytic composite materials and motile photocatalysts are discussed in this article. PMID:25902335

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of dyestuff wastewater with Zn(2+)-TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Sui, Guozhe; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinlong; Jia, Lihua; Lv, Jun

    2013-06-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Zn(2+)-TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite has been prepared by a sol-gel method, which is used for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Congo red (CR) as the probe dyestuff that are notorious organic compounds present in dyes wastewater. The prepared samples are characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It is found that the nanocomposite of Zn(2+)-TiO2-SiO2 exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity under both UV light and visible light irradiation as compared with Degussa P25, Zn(2+)-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2. The photodegradation efficiencies of RhB (5 mg/L) and CR (10 mg/L) can reach above 90% and 83% for 1.5 h visible light irradiation, respectively. Synergetic effect between Zn(2+)-SiO2-doping not only inhibit the crystal growth and anatase-to-rutile transformation of TiO2 nanocatalyst, but also extend the light response to the visible region, which provides a good way and material in the degradation field of dyes wastewater. PMID:23862435

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 film for DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Bin; Park, Dong-Won; Jeun, Joon-Pyo; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Nho, Young-Chang; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    iO2 has been widely utilized for various industrial applications such as photochemical cells, photocatalysts, and electrochromic devices. The crystallinity and morphology of TiO2 films play a significant role in determining the overall efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this study, the preparation of nanostructured TiO2 films by electron beam irradiation and their characterization were investigated for the application of DSSCs. TiO2 films were exposed to 20-100 kGy of electron beam irradiation using 1.14 MeV energy acceleration with a 7.46 mA beam current and 10 kGy/pass dose rates. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. After irradiation, each TiO2 film was tested as a DSSC. At low doses of electron beam irradiation (20 kGy), the energy conversion efficiency of the film was approximately 4.0% under illumination of simulated sunlight with AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2). We found that electron beam irradiation resulted in surface modification of the TiO2 films, which could explain the observed increase in the conversion efficiency in irradiated versus non-irradiated films.

  1. UV-switchable polyoxometalate sandwiched between TiO2 and metal nanoparticles for enhanced visible and solar light photococatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew; Bhargava, Suresh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2011-08-01

    To improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO(2)-based nanomaterials, we demonstrate a facile, generalized, highly localized reduction approach to the decoration of TiO(2)-polyoxometalate composites with a range of metal nanoparticles including Cu, Ag, Pt, and Au. The synthesis of nanocomposite photococatalysts reported in this study has been achieved by utilizing the unique ability of the TiO(2)-bound PTA (phosphotungstic acid) molecules (a polyoxometalate, POM) to act as a highly localized UV-switchable reducing agent that specifically reduces metal ions to their nanoparticulate forms directly and only onto the TiO(2) surface. This leads to the metal contaminant-free synthesis of TiO(2)-PTA-metal nanocomposites, which is a significant advantage of the proposed approach. The study further demonstrates that polyoxometalates are regenerable photoactive molecules with outstanding electron-transfer ability and the deposition of metal nanoparticles on the TiO(2)-PTA cocatalytic surface can have a dramatic effect on increasing the overall photocatalytic performance of the composite system. Moreover, it is observed that the photococatalytic performance of the TiO(2)-PTA-metal nanoparticles can be fine tuned by choosing the composition of metal nanoparticles in the nanocomposite. Interestingly, the photococatalysts reported here are found to be active under visible and simulated solar-light conditions. The underlying reaction mechanism for enhanced solar-light photococatalysis has been proposed. PMID:21711019

  2. Titania/CnTAB Nanoskeleton as adsorbent and photocatalyst for removal of alkylphenols dissolved in water.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Toshio; Da Loves, Albar; Okada, Tomohiko; Mishima, Shozi

    2013-03-15

    We report here on the removal of alkylphenols (phenol, 4-n-propylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) dissolved in water using the composite particles of nanocrystalline titania and alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (CnH2n+1N(CH3)3Br, CnTAB; n=12, 14, 16 and 18) (named as TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton) as adsorbents and photocatalysts. In particular, the adsorption of alkylphenols onto TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton in water was investigated in terms of hydrophobic interaction between alkylphenols and CnTAB, surface area, pore structure and crystal size of TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton. We revealed that CnTAB incorporated in the TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton promotes the adsorption of alkylphenols onto TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton due to the hydrophobic interaction between alkylphenols and CnTAB. On the other hand, the surface area, pore structure and crystal size of TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton did not affect the adsorption of alkylphenols onto TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton. We also found that the alkylphenols dissolved in water were completely removed by the combination of adsorption and photocatalytic degradation by the TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton under UV irradiation. These results prove that the TiO2/CnTAB Nanoskeleton acts as in tandem an adsorbent and a photocatalyst for removal of alkylphenols dissolved in water. PMID:23419907

  3. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with nanoporous TiO 2 and TPD dyes: Analysis of penetration behavior and I–V characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sule Erten-Ela; Johannes Brendel; Mukundan Thelakkat

    2011-01-01

    We present the synthesis, electrochemical properties and device-based investigation of triphenylene diamine (TPD) sensitizer with an extended ? system consisting of donor, electron conducting and anchoring group for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using blocking TiO2 electrodes, nanoporous TiO2 electrodes and the organic hole-transporting medium, HTM (spiro-OMeTAD) in a fluorine doped tin oxide\\/blocking TiO2\\/nanoporous TiO2\\/TPDs\\/hole

  4. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Erdemoglu, Sema; Ozmen, Nesrin; Asilturk, Meltem

    2015-08-01

    The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO2. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO2 increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2-4h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO2 and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn-doped TiO2 should be considered due to nanomaterial applications and for spilled nanoparticles in an aquatic ecosystem. Also, the risk of nanoparticles should be considered using indicator reference biochemical markers to verify the environmental health impacts. PMID:26037099

  5. Persistent fluorescence-assisted TiO?-xNy-based photocatalyst for gaseous acetaldehyde degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Yin, Shu; Wang, Yuhua; Sato, Tsugio

    2012-07-17

    Photocatalytic technologies were utilized to develop an environment-friendly system that is capable of removing and oxidizing organic pollutants from an air stream. A series of long-afterglow phosphors emitting long lifetime fluorescence was adapted to prepared TiO(2)-based composite photocatalysts for the photodegradation of gas-phase acetaldehyde. Although the photocatalytic reaction by an undoped titania (Degussa P25) was stopped immediately after turning off the irradiation light, the long-afterglow phosphor/nitorogen-doped TiO(2) (TiO(2-x)N(y)) composites maintained the acetaldehyde photodegradation ability even after turning off the light for a long time. This novel photocatalytic property may be attributed to the presence of the long-afterglow phosphor, which can reserve the light energy and generate the persistent fluorescence afterward as the light source for the photocatalytic reaction with the visible-light responsive TiO(2-x)N(y). The substitution of the undoped TiO(2) with TiO(2-x)N(y) was essential to use the fluorescence as a light source for photocatalysis. Such a self-fluorescence-assisted system could enhance the performance of photocatalysts for environmental cleanup. PMID:22681563

  6. TiO2-B nanosheets/anatase nanocrystals co-anchored on nanoporous graphene: in situ reduction-hydrolysis synthesis and their superior rate performance as an anode material.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoji; Hu, Xianluo; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Ze; Hu, Pei; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-27

    A unique hybrid, TiO2-B nanosheets/anatase nanocrystals co-anchored on nanoporous graphene sheets, can be synthesized by a facile microwave-induced in situ reduction-hydrolysis route. The as-formed nanohybrid has a hierarchically porous structure, involving both mesopores of approximately 4?nm and meso-/macropores of 30-60?nm in the graphene sheets, and a large surface area. Importantly, electrodes composed of the nanohybrid exhibit superior rate capability (160?mA?h?g(-1) at ca. 36?C; 154?mA?h?g(-1) at ca. 72?C) and excellent cyclability. The synergistic effects of conductive graphene with numerous nanopores and the pseudocapacitive effect of ultrafine TiO2-B nanosheets and anatase nanocrystals endow the hybrid a superior rate capability. PMID:24375595

  7. Magnetically separable hybrid CdS-TiO2-Fe3O4 nanomaterial: Enhanced photocatalystic activity under UV and visible irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xiaofang; Hong, Kunquan; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2013-09-01

    Magnetically separable photocatalyst of TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a microwave heating method. The products exhibit enhanced photocatalystic activity which is more efficient than that of pure CdS and Degussa P25 TiO2 toward the degradation of RhB under both UV and visible irradiation. This is attributed to the charge separation and transformation from CdS to TiO2. The hysteresis loop of TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite indicates an excellent magnetic property with the saturated magnetization of 9 emu/g. We also show the fast magnetic separation behaviour of the TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite to remove and recycle the photocatalyst from the solution. These indicate TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite is an effective and convenient recyclable photocatalyst.

  8. Synthesis of sheet conductive layers on the surface of some insulator ceramics (TiO2, ZrO2, HfO2) by multipulse CO2-laser irradiation in an ammonia atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ursu; I. N. Mihailescu; Leona C. Nistor; V. S. Teodorescu; A. M. Prokhorov; V. I. Konov; P. I. Nikitin; S. A. Uglov

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that by multipulse TEA-CO2 laser irradiation of some insulator ceramic samples (TiO2, ZrO2, HfO2) in an ammonia atmosphere, surface layers are synthesized exhibiting a complicated morphology and having a complex structure containing, beside metallic nitrides, nonstoichiometric oxygen-depleted oxides, oxinitrides, etc. Such layers have a diminished sheet resistance, and display good conduction characteristics.

  9. Distinct Structural Behavior and Transport of TiO2 Nano- and Nanostructured Particles in Sand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental impact of TiO2 particles along with other widely-used nanomaterials as a new class of contaminants has recently emerged. Due to the lack of detailed information and proper understanding of their properties as a result of synthesis (nanoparticles vs nanost...

  10. Visible light activated TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose nanocatalyst to destroy organic contaminants in water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hybrid TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose (MC) nanophotocatalyst was prepared in situ by a facile and simple synthesis utilizing benign precursors such as MC and TiCl4. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, XPS, BET surface area analyzer, UV?vis DRS and TGA. Surfac...

  11. Functionalization of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes with Pd nanoparticles for photocatalytic decomposition of dyes under solar light illumination.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-10-01

    Self-organized, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method are functionalized with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm size. A simple incipient wetness method is adopted to distribute the Pd nanoparticles uniformly throughout the TiO2 nanotubular surface. This functionalized material is found to be an excellent heterogeneous photocatalyst that can decompose nonbiodegradable azo dyes (e.g., methyl red and methyl orange) rapidly (150-270 min) and efficiently (100%) under ambient conditions using simulated solar light in the absence of any external oxidative radicals such as hydrogen peroxide. PMID:18729485

  12. P25-graphene hydrogels: room-temperature synthesis and application for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2012-02-29

    Herein we report a room-temperature synthesis of chemically bonded TiO2 (P25)-graphene composite hydrogels and their use as high performance visible light photocatalysts. The three-dimensional (3D) TiO2-carbon composite exhibits a significant enhancement in the reaction rate in the decontamination of methylene blue, compared to the bare P25. The 3D P25-graphene hydrogel is much easier to prepare and apply as a macroscopic device, compared to the 2D P25-graphene sheets. This work could provide new insights into the room-temperature synthesis of graphene-based materials. As a kind of the novel 3D graphene-based composite, the obtained high performance P25-graphene gel could be widely used in the environmental protection issues. PMID:22264584

  13. Designed synthesis of a novel BiVO?-Cu?O-TiO? as an efficient visible-light-responding photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huimin; Liu, Jinlong; Li, Jun; Li, Yaping; Wang, Xipeng; Zhang, Yaqian; Jiang, Jianbo; Chen, Shanyong; Zhao, Chao; Qian, Dong

    2015-04-15

    A novel visible-light-responding BiVO4-Cu2O-TiO2 ternary heterostructure composite was successfully fabricated via the preparation of BiVO4-TiO2 followed by coupling with Cu2O through facile wet chemistry methods based on the strategy of energy gap engineering. The as-fabricated composite was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Benefited from the rational design and construction, BiVO4-Cu2O-TiO2 exhibits a significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible-light irradiation as compared with Cu2O and Cu2O-TiO2. Specifically, under the irradiation with an ordinary 9 W energy-saving fluorescent lamp for 8h, the photocatalytic degradation ratio of RhB for 5 wt%BiVO4-40 wt%Cu2O-TiO2 reaches 97.8%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BiVO4-Cu2O-TiO2 can be ascribed to the matched band edge positions of BiVO4, Cu2O and TiO2, the heterojunction formations among them as well as the lower charge transfer resistance, favoring the separation of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. A possible mechanism of the visible-light photocatalytic degradation of RhB is also proposed. PMID:25585288

  14. TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

    2014-07-01

    We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures. PMID:24876070

  15. TiO2 nanofibrous interface development for Raman detection of environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maznichenko, D.; Selvaganapathy, P. R.; Venkatakrishnan, K.; Tan, B.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor development has been reliant on planar Au and Ag nanoparticle research. The current findings explored a unique 3-D network of crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles linked as nanofibers. In addition to the favorability of using TiO2 for chemical and bio-molecular sensing, the nanofiber network provides molecular diffusion control and an increased confocal volume signal. Controlled femtosecond laser synthesis is also demonstrated that directly impacts surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of two common environmentally harmful chemicals: bisphenol A and diclofenac sodium salt. These findings assert that 3-D nanofibrous network porosity optimization is crucial for Raman monitoring of drinking water.

  16. Photocatalytic behaviour of metal-loaded TiO 2 aqueous dispersions and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellardita, M.; Addamo, M.; Di Paola, A.; Palmisano, L.

    2007-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles loaded with Ce, Co, Eu, Sm, W and Yb species were prepared by coprecipitation in mild conditions using TiCl 4 as precursor with the aim to enhance the photocatalytic activity, especially under visible light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (SSA) determination and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the powders of pure and loaded TiO 2 was investigated by employing the photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol as probe reaction in a liquid-solid system. Loading with suitable amounts of W, Co and Sm resulted in a significant improvement of the photoreactivity of TiO 2. This beneficial effect was attributed to an increased separation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Some samples were more photoactive than commercial powders employed in the same experimental conditions. Films of TiO 2 loaded with the metals that yielded the best photocatalytic responses were prepared by the dip-coating technique. The photoactivity of the films was tested by evaluating the rate of degradation of 2-propanol in a gas-solid system. An enhancement of the photocatalytic efficiency was obtained in the presence of W and Sm.

  17. Titamium oxide (TiO2) assisted photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Madhu, G M; Raj, M A Lourdu Antony; Pai, K Vasantha Kumar

    2009-03-01

    The aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) has been subjected to Photocatalytic degradation by UV radiation in presence of TiO2 photo-catalyst containing different concentrations of H2O2. The experiments conducted at different dye concentrations (12 and 20 ppm), catalyst loading, pH and H2O2 dosage (1-10 ml l(-1)), revealed that the degradation rate is strongly influenced by respective experimental parameters. However the influence of catalyst alone is not predominant in degradation. The decolorization of dye proceed to near completeness when H2O2 is used. The best degradation results are observed at 0.1 wt% of catalyst loading at pH 2 for TiO2/UV system. It has been found that the optimum concentration of H2O2 for 12 ppm and 20 ppm amount of the dye was 2 ml l(-1) for UV/H2O2 system. The kinetic of degradation of the dye followed the pseudo first order rate. The degradation studies using TiO2/UV/H2O2 system, indicates enhancement in the degradation rate of the dye compared to that of UV/H2O2 system alone. PMID:20121028

  18. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of boron- and cerium-codoped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-hai; Tang, Xin-hu; Liang, Jie-rong; Tan, Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    Boron- and cerium-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using modified sol-gel reaction process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), particle size distribution (PSD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of dye Acid Red B (ARB). The results showed that the prepared photocatalysts were mixed oxides mainly consisting of titania, ceria, and boron oxide. The structure of TiO2 could be transformed from amorphous to anatase and then to rutile by increasing calcination temperature; the transformation being accompanied by the growth of particle size without any obvious change in phase structure of CeO2. The XPS of B(1.6)Ce(1.0)-TiO2 prepared at 500 degrees C showed that a few boron atoms were incorporated into titania and ceria lattice, whereas others existed as B2O3. Cerium ions existed in two states, Ce3+ and Ce4+, and the atomic ratio of Ce3+/Ce4+ was 1.86. When boron and cerium were doped, the UV-Vis adsorption band wavelength showed an obvious shift toward the visible range (< or =526 nm). As the atomic ratio of Ce/Ti increased to 1.0, the absorbance edge wavelength increased to 481 nm. The absorbance edge wavelength decreased for higher cerium doping levels (Ce/Ti = 2.0). The particles size ranged from 122 to 255 nm with a domain at 168 nm (39.4%). The degradation of ARB dye indicated that the photocatalytic activities of boron- and cerium-codoped TiO2 were much higher than those of P25 (a standard TiO2 powder). The activities increased as the boron doping increased, whereas decreased when the Ce/Ti atomic ratio was greater than 0.5. The optimum atomic ratio of B/Ti and Ce/Ti was 1.6 and 0.5, respectively. PMID:17913160

  19. Enhancing the surface properties of the immobilized Degussa P-25 TiO2 for the efficient photocatalytic removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawi, M. A.; Zain, Salmiah Md.

    2012-06-01

    A method has been developed for enhancing the surface properties of immobilized Degussa P-25 TiO2 nanoparticles on glass plate supports with excellent photocatalytic activity. The immobilization technique utilized a dip-coating method involving a coating solution containing Degussa P-25 TiO2 particles, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) in a mixture of toluene and dichloromethane. The optimum ratio of ENR/PVC blend was found to be 1:2. Immobilization process of the composite appeared to reduce the specific surface area by at least half of the pristine P-25 TiO2 particles. However, a systematic removal of ENR-50 additive via a 5 h photocatalytic process enabled the immobilized photocatalyst (P-25TiO2/ENR/PVC/5 h) to regenerate the surface area to within 86% of the pristine P-25 TiO2 particles, produce bigger pore volume and smaller particle size. The enhanced surface properties of the immobilized P-25/ENR/PVC/5 h photocatalyst system generated a photocatalytic performance as good as the slurry method of the P-25 TiO2 nanoparticles for the photocatalytic degradation of MB dye in aqueous solution. The immobilized P-25TiO2/ENR/PVC/5 h catalyst plate was also found to be highly reusable up to at least 10 runs without losing its photocatalytic efficiency. Above all, the system could avoid tedious filtration step of the treated water as normally observed with the aqueous slurry system.

  20. Enhance the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic contaminants in water by incorporating TiO2 with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Pan, Jill Ruhsing; Huang, Chihping; Su, Yu-Chun; Juang, Ya-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) has become the most popular photocatalyst in treating persistent organic pollutants. The main disadvantage of TiO(2) is the diminishing photocatalytic activity over time due to the electron-hole pair recombination. Many studies have aimed to prolong the photocatalytic life of TiO(2). Among them, incorporation of zero-valent iron (ZVI) is one of the approaches. In this study, a novel nano TiO(2)/Fe(0) composite (NTFC) was synthesized from a nano neutral TiO(2) sol and a nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), both prepared in our laboratory. The structure, composition and physical property of the NTFC are characterized. The photocatalytic activity of the NTFC was evaluated by the reductive decolourization of an azo dye, Acid Black-24 (AB-24), and was found superior to those of nZVI and nano neutral TiO(2) sol. Evidence suggests that the enhanced activity of NTFC is highly correlated to the ratio of ferrous to ferric ion in the system. The quantities of ferrous and ferric ions in the nZVI and NTFC systems were monitored separately. In the nZVI system, the concentration of ferric ions decreased significantly with time while a high level of ferrous ions was maintained in the NTFC suspension. The ferrous/ferric ratio of the NTFC suspension was substantially increased after irradiation by UV. Evidence from EPR analysis suggests that the excited electrons in the conduction band of the TiO(2) can be trapped by the half reaction of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), reducing the probability of electron-electron hole pair recombination and sustaining the catalytic life of TiO(2). Corrosion tests further proved that by incorporating TiO(2) with zero-valent iron the surface oxidation of nZVI can be effectively prevented. PMID:19896167

  1. Degradation of Glyphosate in Soil Photocatalyzed by Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 under Solar Light

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Ji, Fangying; Fan, Zihong; He, Li

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared via a sol-gel method, and Fe3O4 particles were used as the core of the colloid. Diffraction peaks of Fe3O4 crystals are not found by XRD characterization, indicating that Fe3O4 particles are well encapsulated by SiO2. FTIR characterization shows that diffraction peaks of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds become obvious when the Fe3O4 loading is more than 0.5%. SEM characterization indicates that agglomeration occurs in the Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst, whereas photocatalysts modified by Fe3O4/SiO2 present excellent visible light absorption performance and photocatalytic activity, especially when the Fe3O4 loading is 0.5%. Photocatalytic degradation of glyphosate in soil by these photocatalysts under solar irradiation was investigated. Results show that 0.5% Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 has the best photocatalytic activity. The best moisture content of soil is 30%?50%. Degradation efficiency of glyphosate reaches 89% in 2 h when the dosage of photocatalyst is 0.4 g/100 g (soil), and it increased slowly when more photocatalyst was used. Soil thickness is a very important factor for the photocatalytic rate. The thinner the soil is, the better the glyphosate degradation is. Degradation of glyphosate is not obviously affected by sunlight intensity when the intensity is below 6 mW/cm2 or above 10 mW/cm2, but it is accelerated significantly when the sunlight intensity increases from 6 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2. PMID:21695039

  2. A new application of photocatalysts: synthesis of nano-sized metal and alloy catalysts by a photo-assisted deposition method.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohsuke; Araki, Takashi; Takasaki, Tomoya; Shironita, Sayoko; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2009-05-01

    Supported Pd catalysts were synthesized using various semiconductor materials by a photo-assisted deposition method under UV-light irradiation. The Pd precursor was deposited and partially reduced by the direct interaction with the photo-excited state of the semiconductor materials, and subsequently transformed into metal particles by H(2) reduction. CO adsorption and Pd K-edge XAFS measurements demonstrated that the mean diameter of the deposited Pd particles can be controlled by the type of employed semiconductor materials. The catalytic activities in the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) using H(2) and O(2) gases under atmospheric pressure were strongly dependent on the type of supports. Here, the use of TiO(2) comprising a mixed phase of anatase and rutile was the most efficient based on the amount of Pd. The photo-assisted deposition also provides a simple and straightforward method to synthesize PdAu alloy nanoparticles. For the structural model of PdAu nanoparticles, we suggest that most of the Au atoms are preferentially located in the core region, whereas the Pd atoms are preferentially located in the shell region. The PdAu/TiO(2) catalysts prepared by the photo-assisted deposition method were shown to perform significantly better than the pure Pd/TiO(2) catalysts. PMID:19424538

  3. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets shows high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lisha; Yang, Lingxia; Tao, Xi; Su, Kunpeng; Wang, Hongbo; Xi, Junhua; Ji, Zhenguo

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we report a novel synthesis of nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant highly active {1 1 1} facets by a simple one-step hydrothermal route with the assistance of NH4F and HF. In this progress, the exposed crystal facets of TiO2 can been directly tuned by controlling the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-. When the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-reach 1:2, nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets can be obtained. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with exposed {1 0 1} or {0 0 1} facets will be prepared when there is only ammonia or HF added respectively. Such nano-TiO2 with exposed highly active {1 1 1} facets has large specific surface area and shows excellent photocatalytic activity: as much as 2-3 times than that of TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets and commercial Degussa P25 which confirms the {1 1 1} facets have higher photocatalytic activity than {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets. The higher photocatalytic activity of {1 1 1} facets can be ascribed to the fact that all Ti and O atoms on the surface are unsaturated Ti5c, Ti3c and O2c modes which produces a higher adsorption and degradation ability. The present work demonstrates a explore of hydrothermal synthetic method for controlling preparation of nano-materials.

  4. Nanostructure and charge transfer in Bi2S3-TiO2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijing; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Qingfei; Zhong, Xinhua

    2014-05-01

    Interfacial nanostructures in Bi2S3-TiO2 nanorod-nanoparticle heterostructures with a change of coupling mode have been engineered. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visual light absorption spectroscopy. By means of in situ growth of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surfaces of Bi2S3 nanorods in one pot, heterostructures with high-quality interfaces were obtained in which the {105} facet of anatase TiO2 selectively coupled with the {010} facet of orthorhombic Bi2S3 nanorods without any crystal defects, showing the epitaxial relationship of Bi2S3 {011} // TiO2 {101}. By means of a two-step method, TiO2 nanoparticles also could be grown on the {310} facet of the pre-prepared Bi2S3 nanorods to form heterostructures but with interfacial defects. Charge transfer in the interface-different heterostructures was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation. The defect-free interfaces favored electron-hole separation and transfer, resulting in improved photocatalytic activity. The current structural characterization and interface engineering should be expanded to other heterostructures when studying the relationship between synthesis, interfacial structure, and photocatalytic or photovoltaic applications.

  5. Stable TiO 2 dispersions for nanocoating preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Veronovski; P. Andreozzi; C. La Mesa; M. Sfiligoj-Smole

    2010-01-01

    In this research the preparation and characterization of titanium (TiO2) coated self-cleaning cellulose materials starting from TiO2 P25 powder (Degussa, Germany) was studied. The aim of the research was to decrease high aggregation of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, using surfactant species as dispersant and\\/or stabilisers (considering the balance between repulsive and attractive forces), in view of the fact that TiO2 nanoparticles,

  6. Time- and energy-efficient solution combustion synthesis of binary metal tungstate nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abegayl; Janáky, Csaba; Samu, Gergely F; Huda, Muhammad N; Sarker, Pranab; Liu, J Ping; van Nguyen, Vuong; Wang, Evelyn H; Schug, Kevin A; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2015-05-22

    In the search for stable and efficient photocatalysts beyond TiO2 , the tungsten-based oxide semiconductors silver tungstate (Ag2 WO4 ), copper tungstate (CuWO4 ), and zinc tungstate (ZnWO4 ) were prepared using solution combustion synthesis (SCS). The tungsten precursor's influence on the product was of particular relevance to this study, and the most significant effects are highlighted. Each sample's photocatalytic activity towards methyl orange degradation was studied and benchmarked against their respective commercial oxide sample obtained by solid-state ceramic synthesis. Based on the results herein, we conclude that SCS is a time- and energy-efficient method to synthesize crystalline binary tungstate nanomaterials even without additional excessive heat treatment. As many of these photocatalysts possess excellent photocatalytic activity, the discussed synthetic strategy may open sustainable materials chemistry avenues to solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. PMID:26018624

  7. Ruthenium sensitizers with a hexylthiophene-modified terpyridine ligand for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis, photo- and electrochemical properties, and adsorption behavior to the TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-02-11

    Two novel ruthenium sensitizers with a hexylthiophene-modified terpyridine ligand (TUS-35 and TUS-36) were synthesized to improve the molar absorptivity of the previously reported ruthenium sensitizer (TBA)[Ru{4'-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-4,4?-dicarboxyterpyridine}(NCS)3], TBA = tetrabutylammonium (TUS-21). A relatively strong absorption appeared at ?380 nm, and the molar absorption coefficient at the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band decreased in TUS-35 by introducing a 2-hexylthiophene unit to the 5-position of the terpyridine-derived ligand. For comparison, a relatively strong absorption was observed at ?350 nm without decreasing the molar absorption coefficient at the MLCT band in TUS-36 by introducing a 2-hexylthiophene unit to the 4-position of the terpyridine-derived ligand. On the other hand, the energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of these two sensitizers were found to be almost equal to those of TUS-21. The adsorption behavior of TUS-35 and TUS-36 was similar to that of (TBA)[Ru{4'-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)terpyridine}(NCS)3] (TUS-20), which binds to the TiO2 surface by using the 3,4-dicarboxyphenly unit, rather than that of TUS-21, which adsorbs to the TiO2 photoelectrode using one of the carboxyl groups at the terminal pyridines of the terpyridine-derived ligand. Therefore, TUS-35 and TUS-36 are considered to bind to the TiO2 surface by using the 3,4-dicarboxyphenly unit just like TUS-20. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with TUS-35 and TUS-36 showed a relatively lower conversion efficiency (6.4% and 5.7%, respectively) compared to the DSC with TUS-21 (10.2%). Open-circuit photovoltage decay and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that the promoted charge recombination and/or charge transfer of the injected electrons in the TiO2 photoelectrode is a main reason for the inferior performances of TUS-35 and TUS-36. PMID:25587752

  8. Visible light photoactivity of TiO2 loaded with monometallic (Au or Pt) and bimetallic (Au/Pt) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go??biewska, Anna; Lisowski, Wojciech; Jarek, Marcin; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Zieli?ska-Jurek, Anna; Zaleska, Adriana

    2014-10-01

    TiO2 modified with monometallic (Au or Pt) and bimetallic (Au/Pt) nanoparticles have been prepared using a water-in-oil microemulsion system (water/AOT/cyclohexane) followed by calcination step. The effect of metal ratio, reducing agent type (NaBH4 or N2H4), TiO2 matrix type (P-25, ST-01, TiO-5, TiO2 nanotubes or TiO2 obtained by TIP hydrolysis) as well as calcination temperature (from 350 to 650 °C) were systematically investigated. Obtained photocatalysts were characterized by UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET surface area measurements, scanning transmission microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activity under visible light (? > 420 nm) has been estimated in phenol degradation reaction in aqueous phase. The results showed that phenol degradation rate under visible light in the presence of TiO2 loaded with Au/Pt nanoparticles differed from 0.7 to 2.2 ?mol dm-3 min-1 for samples prepared using different reducing agent. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) favors formation of smaller Au/Pt nanoparticles and higher amount gold in Au/Pt is in the form of electronegative species (Au?-) resulted in higher photoactivity. TiO2 obtained by TIP hydrolysis in microemulsion system seems to be the best support for Au/Pt nanoparticles from all among investigated matrix. It was also observed that enhancement of calcination temperature from 450 to 650 °C resulted in rapid drop of Au/Pt-TiO2 photoactivity under visible light due to surface area shrinkage, crystal structure change and probably change in Au/Pt nanoparticles morphology.

  9. Pt deposited TiO2 catalyst fabricated by thermal decomposition of titanium complex for solar hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Le, Thanh Son; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2014-12-01

    C, N codoped TiO2 catalyst has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of a novel water-soluble titanium complex. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of the synthesized TiO2 catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the Pt deposited TiO2 catalysts synthesized at different temperatures was evaluated by means of hydrogen evolution reaction under both UV-vis and visible light irradiation. The investigation results reveal that the photocatalytic H2 evolution rate strongly depended on the crystalline grain size as well as specific surface area of the synthesized catalyst. Our studies successfully demonstrate a simple method for the synthesis of visible-light responsive Pt deposited TiO2 catalyst for solar hydrogen production.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of New Photocatalyst ZnBiSbO4 under Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jingfei; Chen, Mengjing; Hu, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnBiSbO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiSbO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and UV-visible spectrometer. ZnBiSbO4 crystallized with a pyrochlore-type structure and a tetragonal crystal system. The band gap of ZnBiSbO4 was estimated to be 2.49 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine was realized under visible light irradiation with ZnBiSbO4 as a catalyst compared with nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and CdBiYO4. The results showed that ZnBiSbO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with N-TiO2 or CdBiYO4 for the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine under visible light irradiation. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42? and NO3?, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of indigo carmine during the photocatalytic process. One possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of indigo carmine was obtained. The phytotoxicity of the photocatalytic-treated indigo carmine (IC) wastewater was detected by examining its effect on seed germination and growth. PMID:24879521

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst ZnBiSbO4 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jingfei; Chen, Mengjing; Hu, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnBiSbO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiSbO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and UV-visible spectrometer. ZnBiSbO4 crystallized with a pyrochlore-type structure and a tetragonal crystal system. The band gap of ZnBiSbO4 was estimated to be 2.49 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine was realized under visible light irradiation with ZnBiSbO4 as a catalyst compared with nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and CdBiYO4. The results showed that ZnBiSbO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with N-TiO2 or CdBiYO4 for the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine under visible light irradiation. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of indigo carmine during the photocatalytic process. One possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of indigo carmine was obtained. The phytotoxicity of the photocatalytic-treated indigo carmine (IC) wastewater was detected by examining its effect on seed germination and growth. PMID:24879521

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic production of molecular hydrogen on TiO(2) modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Tarek A; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2009-05-01

    Titanium dioxide was modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites through the in situ simultaneous reduction of Pt(iv) and the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomers at ambient temperature. The modified powders were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (DF-STEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and by the determination of the BET surface area by nitrogen adsorption. Photocatalytic hydrogen production tests were performed employing 75 ml aqueous solution containing 2250 mumol methanol as the sacrificial electron donor. The obtained results show that 0.5 and 1.0 wt% Pt and polypyrrole, respectively, are the optimum ratios for high photocatalytic H(2) production rates. The amount of H(2) evolved during 5 h of UV-vis illumination of the suspension of Pt-polypyrrole modified TiO(2) powder is three times higher than that obtained with Pt-loaded TiO(2) prepared by a photochemical deposition method. The photonic efficiencies of the H(2) production employing 75 ml aqueous solution containing 370 mmol methanol were calculated to be 10.6 +/- 0.5 and 4.5 +/- 0.2% for TiO(2) modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites and for Pt-loaded TiO(2) prepared by a photochemical deposition method, respectively. A synergistic effect between Pt nanoparticles and polypyrrole leading to a better separation of the charge carriers is proposed to explain the enhanced reactivity of the newly synthesized photocatalyst. PMID:19424543

  13. Mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals grown in situ on graphene aerogels for high photocatalysis and lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bocheng; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-04-23

    TiO2/graphene composites have been well studied as a solar light photocatalysts and electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Recent reports have shown that ultralight 3D-graphene aerogels (GAs) can better adsorb organic pollutants and can provide multidimensional electron transport pathways, implying a significant potential application for photocatalysis and LIBs. Here, we report a simple one-step hydrothermal method toward in situ growth of ultradispersed mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) facets on GAs. This method uses glucose as the dispersant and linker owing to its hierarchically porous structure and a high surface area. The TiO2/GAs reported here exhibit a highly recyclable photocatalytic activity for methyl orange pollutant and a high specific capacity in LIBs. The strong interaction between TiO2 and GAs, the facet characteristics, the high electrical conductivity, and the three-dimensional hierarchically porous structure of these composites results in highly active photocatalysis, a high rate capability, and stable cycling. PMID:24712676

  14. ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF TIO 2 DERIVED NANOBELTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cadavid; R. F. Egerton; M. Malac; M. S. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    TiO2-based nanostructures are considered good candidates for a number of applications in numerous fields as environmental decontamination, photocatalysis, electrocatalytic storage, solar cells, antibacterial agent, etc (1-3). These applications are based on their electronic properties and high surface area which need to be characterized. Titania derived nanobelts are sensitive to electron beam irradiation requiring to assess the conditions under which the

  15. Electrical, optical and photocatalytic properties of polyethylene glycol-assisted sol-gel synthesized Mn-doped TiO2/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Vinayagamoorthy, P.; Jayabharathi, J.

    2013-12-01

    Spherically shaped Mn-doped TiO2/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4,000 or 20,000 as template. The powder X-ray diffractograms and energy dispersive X-ray, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectra confirm the ZnO shell in the synthesized core-shell nanoparticles. The charge-transfer resistance of the core-shell nanoparticles is less than that of pristine ZnO nanoparticles. The synthesized Mn-doped TiO2/ZnO nanoparticles are better photocatalysts than Mn-doped TiO2.

  16. Preparation and photocatalytic behavior of MoS2 and WS2 nanocluster sensitized TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wingkei; Yu, Jimmy C; Lin, Jun; Yu, Jiaguo; Li, Puishan

    2004-07-01

    A new approach has been developed for the fabrication of visible light photocatalysts. Nanoclusters of MoS2 and WS2 are coupled to TiO2 by an in situ photoreduction deposition method taking advantage of the reducing power of the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 particles. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the visible light photocatalytic activity of the powders. The blue shift in the absorption onset confirms the size quantization of MS2 nanoclusters, which act as effective and stable sensitizers, making it possible to utilize visible light in photocatalysis. Quantum size effects alter the energy levels of the conduction and valence band edges in the coupled semiconductor systems, which favors the interparticle electron transfer. In addition, the coupled systems are believed to act in a cooperative manner by increasing the degree of charge carrier separation, which effectively reduces recombination. PMID:16459602

  17. Photoreduction of CO2 using copper-decorated TiO2 nanorod films with localized surface plasmon behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jeannie Z. Y.; Fernández, Yolanda; Liu, Dong; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes; Bian, Juncao; Zhang, Xiwen

    2012-04-01

    This Letter shows the activity of a novel metal/semiconductor photocatalyst for reducing CO2 to CH4 in the presence of H2O under UV-light irradiation. This composite is prepared on a transparent conductive substrate by an hydrothermal method for depositing TiO2 nanorod films, and then loaded with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) by an electrochemical method. The plasmonic properties of Cu NPs greatly enhance the resulting photoactivity with respect to that of pure TiO2 nanorod films. The final CH4 production rate observed (?2.91 ppm/gcatal. h) represents an improvement compared to specific values reported by other authors using conventional titania-based catalysts.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine in wastewater by using a new class of whey-stabilized nanocrystalline TiO2 and ZnO.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Daghrir, R; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y; Drogui, P

    2014-07-01

    Nanoscale photocatalysts have attracted much attention due to their high surface area to volume ratios. However, due to extremely high reactivity, TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles prepared using different methods tend to either react with surrounding media or agglomerate, resulting in the formation of much larger flocs and significant loss in reactivity. This work investigates the photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), a persistent pharmaceutical compound from wastewater (WW) using TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles prepared in the presence of a water-soluble whey powder as stabilizer. The TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles prepared in the presence of whey stabilizer displayed much less agglomeration and greater degradation power than those prepared without a stabilizer. Higher photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine was observed (100%) by using whey stabilized TiO2 nanoparticles with 55 min irradiation time as compared to ZnO nanoparticles (92%). The higher degradation of CBZ in wastewater by using TiO2 nanoparticles as compared to ZnO nanoparticles was due to formation of higher photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power of TiO2. The photocatalytic capacity of ZnO anticipated as similar to that of TiO2 as it has the same band gap energy (3.2 eV) as TiO2. However, in the case of ZnO, photocorrosion frequently occurs with the illumination of UV light and this phenomenon is considered as one of the main reasons for the decrease of ZnO photocatalytic activity in aqueous solutions. Further, the estrogenic activity of photocatalyzed WW sample with CBZ and its by-products was carried out by yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay method. Based upon the YES test results, none of the samples showed estrogenic activity. PMID:24727044

  19. Well-dispersed Pt nanocrystals on the heterostructured TiO2/SnO2 nanofibers and the enhanced photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Heterostructured TiO2/SnO2 nanofibers deposited with ultrafine Pt nanocrystals (Pt-TiO2/SnO2) were prepared by combining electrospinning and polyol reduced method. The samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. The results indicated that heterojunctions formed between TiO2 fibers and SnO2 fibers in the side-by-side structure with Pt nanocrystals in a crystallite size of 4.5 nm uniformly deposited on them. The Pt-TiO2/SnO2 nanofibers photocatalysts possessed large surface-exposure area, broadened spectral response range, stable recyclability, and efficient charge-separation properties. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of Pt-TiO2/SnO2 for the degradation of methylene blue was much higher than that of bare TiO2 and SnO2 nanofibers, which could be ascribed to the formation of heterojunctions in the TiO2/SnO2 nanofibers and the rapid transportation of electrons to the surface assisted by Pt nanocrystals. The results presented herein provide new insights into heterostructured materials as high-performance photocatalysts and their potential use in environmental protection.

  20. Photocatalytic oxidation technology for humic acid removal using a nano-structured TiO2/Fe2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Qiao, S; Sun, D D; Tay, J H; Easton, C

    2003-01-01

    A novel TiO2 coated haematite photocatalyst was prepared and used for removal of colored humic acids from wastewater in an UV bubble photocatalytic reactor. XRD analysis confirmed that nano-size anatase crystals of TiO2 were formed after calcination at 480 degrees C. SEM results revealed that nano-size particles of TiO2 were uniformly coated on the surface of Fe2O3 to form a bulk of nano-structured photocatalyst Fe2O3/TiO2. The porous catalyst had a BET surface area of 168 m2/g. Both the color and total organic carbon (TOC) conversion versus the residence time were measured at various conditions. The effects of pH value, catalyst loaded, initial humic acid concentration and reaction temperature on conversion were monitored. The experimental results proved that the photocatalytic oxidation process was not temperature sensitive and the optimum catalyst loading was found to be 0.4 g/l. Degradation and decolorization of humic acids have higher efficiency in acidic medium and at low initial humic acid concentration. The new catalyst was effective in removing TOC at 61.58% and color400 at 93.25% at 180 minutes illumination time and for 20 mg/l neutral humic acid aqueous solution. The kinetic analysis showed thatthe rate of photocatalytic degradation of humic acids obeyed the first order reaction kinetics. PMID:12578197