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Sample records for tio2 solar cell

  1. Doping of TiO2 for sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Roose, Bart; Pathak, Sandeep; Steiner, Ullrich

    2015-11-21

    This review gives a detailed summary and evaluation of the use of TiO2 doping to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells. Doping has a major effect on the band structure and trap states of TiO2, which in turn affect important properties such as the conduction band energy, charge transport, recombination and collection. The defect states of TiO2 are highly dependent on the synthesis method and thus the effect of doping may vary for different synthesis techniques, making it difficult to compare the suitability of different dopants. High-throughput methods may be employed to achieve a rough prediction on the suitability of dopants for a specific synthesis method. It was however found that nearly every employed dopant can be used to increase device performance, indicating that the improvement is not so much caused by the dopant itself, as by the defects it eliminates from TiO2. Furthermore, with the field shifting from dye sensitized solar cells to perovskite solar cells, the role doping can play to further advance this emerging field is also discussed. PMID:26314371

  2. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2016-02-01

    TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO2 require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO2 electron transport layers and TiO2 scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO2 were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO2 nanoparticles

  3. Polymer TiO2 solar cells: TiO2 interconnected network for improved cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, C. C.; Djurisic, A. B.; Wang, H.; Man, K. K. Y.; Chan, W. K.; Xie, M. H.; Leung, Y. H.; Pandey, A.; Nunzi, J.-M.; Chui, P. C.

    2006-02-01

    A titanium dioxide porous network structure was synthesized using a poly(styrene-block-polyethylene oxide) diblock copolymer template. The influence of the titanium precursor concentration and annealing temperature on the obtained morphology was studied. Heterojunction solar cells consisting of TiO2 porous network structure and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) were fabricated. The influence of the MEH-PPV layer thickness and device architecture on the solar cell performance was investigated. For an optimized device structure, a short-circuit current as high as 3.3 mA cm-2 is obtained under simulated solar illumination with an air mass AM 1.5 filter. The improved higher short-circuit current compared to other reports on MEH-PPV /TiO2 heterojunction cells can be attributed to improved morphology of the TiO2 layer.

  4. Quantum Dot TiO2-Ge Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Carena; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kauzlarich, Susan; Carter, Sue

    2014-03-01

    Colloidal germanium (Ge) quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive solar materials due to their low toxicity compared to Pb- or Cd- based nanocrystals (NC), low cost, and optimal, tunable bandgap for both increased IR response and potential power conversion efficiency (η) boosts from Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG). We report on the successful fabrication and characterization of spun-cast donor/acceptor type TiO2-Ge CQD solar cells utilizing Ge colloidal quantum dots (CQD) synthesized via a facile microwave method as the active layer. We find that our Ge QD size performance-related trends are similar to other QD systems studied. Additionally, our best heterojunction devices achieved short circuit currents (JSC) of 450 μA and open circuit voltages (VOC) of 0.335 V, resulting in η = 0.022 %. While this represents significant increases over previous Ge CQD PV (85 % over hybrid Ge-P3HT PV, 350 % over Ge NC PV), our photocurrents are still much lower than other NC systems. Analysis of intensity-dependent J-V characteristics reveal that our currents are limited by a space-charge region that forms leading to unbalanced charge extraction. We conclude by discussing a variety of film treatments and device structures we have tested to increase JSC.

  5. Natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods assembly of broccoli shape based solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yuvapragasam, Akila; Muthukumarasamy, N; Agilan, S; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Senthil, T S; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2015-07-01

    TiO2 nanorods based thin films with rutile phase have been synthesized using template free low temperature hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the prepared TiO2 samples were made of TiO2 nanorods and the nanorods had arranged by itself to form a broccoli like shape. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared TiO2 samples exhibit rutile phase. The grown TiO2 nanorods had been sensitized using the flowers of Sesbania (S) grandiflora, leaves of Camellia (C) sinensis and roots of Rubia (R) tinctorum. Dye sensitized solar cells had been fabricated using the natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods based thin film photoelectrode and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current density were found to lie in the range of 0.45-0.6 V and 5.6-6.4 mA/cm(2) respectively. The photovoltaic performance of all the fabricated natural dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells indicate that natural dyes have the potential to be used as effective sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:25974906

  6. Inverted polymer solar cells with employing of electrochemical-anodizing synthesized TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi, Dafeh; Hamed, Fatehy

    2016-04-01

    An inverted structure of polymer solar cells based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with using thin films of TiO2 nanotubes and nanoparticles as an efficient cathode buffer layer is developed. A total of three cells employing TiO2 thin films with different thickness values are fabricated. Two cells use layers of TiO2 nanotubes prepared via self-organized electrochemical-anodizing leading to thickness values of 203 and 423.7 nm, while the other cell uses only a simple sol–gel synthesized TiO2 thin film of nanoparticles with a thickness of 100 nm as electron transport layer. Experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 nanotubes with these thickness values are inefficient as the power conversion efficiency of the cell using 100-nm TiO2 thin film is 1.55%, which is more than the best power conversion efficiency of other cells. This can be a result of the weakness of the electrochemical anodizing method to grow nanotubes with lower thickness values. In fact as the TiO2 nanotubes grow in length the series resistance (R s) between the active polymer layer and electron transport layer increases, meanwhile the fill factor of cells falls dramatically which finally downgrades the power conversion efficiency of the cells as the fill factor falls.

  7. Formation of Tio2 Thin Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Application Using Electrophoresis Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadi, Ratno; Akbar, Zico Alaia; Wargadipura, Agus Hadi S.; Gunlazuardi, Jarnuzi

    2010-10-01

    One of important processes on the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is formation of TiO2 thin film. Thickness of TiO2 thin film is needed to be controlled in order to obtain optimum TiO2 thickness. Electrophoresis deposition is simple method for thin film deposition which enable us to control the thickness of thin film. In this work, the formation of TiO2 thin film on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass using electrophoresis deposition is numerically and experimentally studied. We have succeeded to control the thickness of TiO2 thin film by changing of electrophoresis applied voltage and deposition time. In the experiment, TiO2 particles were suspended into isopropyl alcohol solution. Mg(NO3)2 was added to the solution in order to obtain the stable solution for electrophoresis. We found numerically that the Mg(NO3)2 in the range from 10-6 M to 10-4 M, is appropriate condition for the electrophoresis deposition. Using this method, we have fabricated DSSC device and study the effect of TiO2 thickness on DSSCs characteristic. Our results shows that the electrophoresis is not only essential for DSSC application but also for the other devices with a given thickness of TiO2 film.

  8. N-Ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhagar, P.; Asokan, K.; Ito, E.; Kang, Yong Soo

    2012-03-01

    Hierarchical nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) clumps were fabricated using electrostatic spray with subsequent nitrogen-ion doping by an ion-implantation technique for improvement of energy conversion efficiency for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). CdSe quantum dots were directly assembled on the produced N-ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes by chemical bath deposition, and their photovoltaic performance was evaluated in a polysulfide electrolyte with a Pt counter electrode. We found that the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrodes was improved by nearly 145% upon N-ion implantation. The efficiency improvement seems to be due to (1) the enhancement of electron transport through the TiO2 layer by inter-particle necking of primary TiO2 particles and (2) an increase in the recombination resistance at TiO2/QD/electrolyte interfaces by healing the surface states or managing the oxygen vacancies upon N-ion doping. Therefore, N-ion-doped photoanodes offer a viable pathway to develop more efficient QD or dye-sensitized solar cells.Hierarchical nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) clumps were fabricated using electrostatic spray with subsequent nitrogen-ion doping by an ion-implantation technique for improvement of energy conversion efficiency for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). CdSe quantum dots were directly assembled on the produced N-ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes by chemical bath deposition, and their photovoltaic performance was evaluated in a polysulfide electrolyte with a Pt counter electrode. We found that the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrodes was improved by nearly 145% upon N-ion implantation. The efficiency improvement seems to be due to (1) the enhancement of electron transport through the TiO2 layer by inter-particle necking of primary TiO2 particles and (2) an increase in the recombination resistance at TiO2/QD/electrolyte interfaces by healing the surface states or managing the oxygen vacancies upon N-ion doping. Therefore, N-ion-doped photoanodes offer a viable pathway to develop more efficient QD or dye-sensitized solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of SRIM 2008 simulation, optical absorption, and Bode plots. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11953f

  9. Improving the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by TiO2-graphene nanocomposite photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Umer; Ahmed, Shakeel; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Harrabi, Khalil

    2015-08-01

    Nanocomposite photoanodes were prepared by addition of graphene (GR) micro-platelets to TiO2 nanoparticulate paste. TiO2/graphene based DSSCs were fabricated using Z907 photosensitizer. Transmission electron microscope was used to confirm the presence of graphene in composite films after heating at 450 °C for 30 min. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent-voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements were conducted to characterize the DSSCs. The results show that the photo conversion efficiency is highly dependent on the concentration of graphene in the photoanode. Under an optimal conditions, solar cell based on graphene/TiO2 shows power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.03%, which is about 26% greater than the cell based on pristine TiO2 electrode (3.20%). A density functional theory was used to compute the band gap of TiO2 and graphene-TiO2 nano clusters.

  10. TiO2 Sub-microsphere Film as Scaffold Layer for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Yong; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-03-30

    TiO2 sub-microspheres composed of anatase granular-like nanocrystallines with an average diameter ∼250 nm are synthesized using sol-gel method and employed as the scaffold layer for efficient mesocopic perovskite solar cells. Compared with mesoporous TiO2 films composed of ∼18 nm nanoparticles, the sub-microsphere films show superior light-trapping characteristics and significantly improve the light-harvesting capability of the solar cells. In addition, the charge-transport performance is also dramatically improved according to the transient photocurrent decay despite there being no significant difference in the perovskite layer surface morphology. As a result, an average power conversion efficiency of 15% with a highly uniform distribution is achieved for the solar cells with TiO2 sub-microsphere films, 12% higher than those with TiO2 nanoparticle films. The combination of light-harvesting capability and fast charge transfer make the TiO2 sub-microsphere film a good candidate as the scaffold layer for efficient perovskite solar cells. PMID:26953635

  11. N-Ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sudhagar, P; Asokan, K; Ito, E; Kang, Yong Soo

    2012-04-01

    Hierarchical nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) clumps were fabricated using electrostatic spray with subsequent nitrogen-ion doping by an ion-implantation technique for improvement of energy conversion efficiency for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). CdSe quantum dots were directly assembled on the produced N-ion-implanted TiO(2) photoanodes by chemical bath deposition, and their photovoltaic performance was evaluated in a polysulfide electrolyte with a Pt counter electrode. We found that the photovoltaic performance of TiO(2) electrodes was improved by nearly 145% upon N-ion implantation. The efficiency improvement seems to be due to (1) the enhancement of electron transport through the TiO(2) layer by inter-particle necking of primary TiO(2) particles and (2) an increase in the recombination resistance at TiO(2)/QD/electrolyte interfaces by healing the surface states or managing the oxygen vacancies upon N-ion doping. Therefore, N-ion-doped photoanodes offer a viable pathway to develop more efficient QD or dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:22371010

  12. Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ta-Chuan; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The main purposes of this study are replacing conventional hydro-thermal method by microwave heating using water as reaction medium to rapidly synthesize TiO2.Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was hydrolyzed in water. The solution is subsequently processed with microwave heating for crystal growth. The reaction time could be shortened into few minutes. Then we chose different acids as dispersion agents to prepare TiO2 paste for investigating the effects of dispersion on the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photovoltaic performance of the microwave-assisted synthesized TiO2 achieved power conversion efficiency of 6.31% under AM 1.5 G condition (100 mW/cm2). This PCE value is compatible with that of the devices made from commercial TiO2.

  13. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  14. Microstructure design of nanoporous TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell modules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linhua; Dai, Songyuan; Weng, Jian; Xiao, Shangfeng; Sui, Yifeng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Shuanghong; Kong, Fantai; Pan, Xu; Liang, Linyun; Wang, Kongjia

    2007-01-18

    The optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells, especially the design of nanoporous TiO2 film microstructure, is an urgent problem for high efficiency and future commercial applications. However, up to now, little attention has been focused on the design of nanoporous TiO2 microstructure for a high efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell modules. The optimization and design of TiO2 photoelectrode microstructure are discussed in this paper. TiO2 photoelectrodes with three different layers, including layers of small pore size films, larger pore size films, and light-scattering particles on the conducting glass with the desirable thickness, were designed and investigated. Moreover, the photovoltaic properties showed that the different porosities, pore size distribution, and BET surface area of each layer have a dramatic influence on short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor of the modules. The optimization and design of TiO2 photoelectrode microstructure contribute a high efficiency of DSC modules. The photoelectric conversion efficiency around 6% with 15 x 20 cm2 modules under illumination of simulated AM1.5 sunlight (100 mW/cm2) and 40 x 60 cm2 panels with the same performance tested outdoor have been achieved by our group. PMID:17214486

  15. Anatase TiO2 nanotubes as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif; Que, Wenxiu; He, Zuoli

    2014-02-01

    To achieve higher power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, anatase TiO2 nanotubes anodized and transferred onto fluorine doped tin oxide glass. This technique is a promising candidate to improve the efficiency due to its outstanding properties, such as high light scattering effect, high surface-to-volume ratio, which result in enhancing light harvesting, minimum trapping sites, and low recombination rate. In this review, the structure, fabrication, and property of the TiO2 nanotube photoanode is compared with other photoanodes. In addition, the integration of a heterojunction and other advancements into the TiO2 nanotubes for getting better performance is also briefly discussed. PMID:24749414

  16. Electrodeposited Ultrathin TiO2 Blocking Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tzu-Sen; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition (ED) of ultrathin, compact TiO2 blocking layers (BLs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is evaluated. This bottom-up method allows for controlling the morphology and thickness of TiO2 films by simply manipulating deposition conditions. Compared with BLs produced using the spin-coating (SC) method, BLs produced using ED exhibit satisfactory surface coverage, even with a film thickness of 29 nm. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry shows that an ED BL suppresses interfacial recombination more profoundly than an SC BL does, consequently improving the photovoltaic properties of the PSC significantly. A PSC equipped with an ED TiO2 BL having a 13.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated.

  17. Electrodeposited Ultrathin TiO2 Blocking Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Tzu-Sen; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition (ED) of ultrathin, compact TiO2 blocking layers (BLs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is evaluated. This bottom-up method allows for controlling the morphology and thickness of TiO2 films by simply manipulating deposition conditions. Compared with BLs produced using the spin-coating (SC) method, BLs produced using ED exhibit satisfactory surface coverage, even with a film thickness of 29 nm. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry shows that an ED BL suppresses interfacial recombination more profoundly than an SC BL does, consequently improving the photovoltaic properties of the PSC significantly. A PSC equipped with an ED TiO2 BL having a 13.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated. PMID:26526771

  18. Electrodeposited Ultrathin TiO2 Blocking Layers for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tzu-Sen; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition (ED) of ultrathin, compact TiO2 blocking layers (BLs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is evaluated. This bottom-up method allows for controlling the morphology and thickness of TiO2 films by simply manipulating deposition conditions. Compared with BLs produced using the spin-coating (SC) method, BLs produced using ED exhibit satisfactory surface coverage, even with a film thickness of 29 nm. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry shows that an ED BL suppresses interfacial recombination more profoundly than an SC BL does, consequently improving the photovoltaic properties of the PSC significantly. A PSC equipped with an ED TiO2 BL having a 13.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated. PMID:26526771

  19. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 barrier layers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yichen; Klankowski, Steven; Yang, Yiqun; Li, Jun

    2014-07-01

    A TiO2 barrier layer is critical in enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Two methods to prepare the TiO2 barrier layer on fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) surface were systematically studied in order to minimize electron-hole recombination and electron backflow during photovoltaic processes of DSSCs. The film structure and materials properties were correlated with the photovoltaic characteristics and electrochemical properties. In the first approach, a porous TiO2 layer was deposited by wet chemical treatment of the sample with TiCl4 solution for time periods varying from 0 to 60 min. The N719 dye molecules were found to be able to insert into the porous barrier layers. The 20 min treatment formed a nonuniform but intact TiO2 layer of ∼100-300 nm in thickness, which gave the highest open-circuit voltage VOC, short-circuit photocurrent density JSC, and energy conversion efficiency. But thicker TiO2 barrier layers by this method caused a decrease in JSC, possibly limited by lower electrical conductance. In the second approach, a compact TiO2 barrier layer was created by sputter-coating 0-15 nm Ti metal films on FTO/glass and then oxidizing them into TiO2 with thermal treatment at 500 °C in the air for 30 min. The dye molecules were found to only attach at the outer surface of the barrier layer and slightly increased with the layer thickness. These two kinds of barrier layer showed different characteristics and may be tailored for different DSSC studies. PMID:24927111

  20. Eosin yellowish dye sensitized TiO2 solar cell with PEG/PEO/LiI/I2 as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanmani, S. S.; Umapathy, S.; Ramachandran, K.

    2012-06-01

    Eosin Yellowish dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) and nanowires (NW) are employed as photo anodes in dye sensitized solar cells with PEO/PEG/LiI/I2 as electrolyte. Material characterization by XRD and SEM confirms the formation of anatase phased TiO2 NP and NW. Effective quenching of UV emission in TiO2 NW than NP is a consequence of reduction in recombination rate, which directly favours for better solar conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of TiO2 NW with an overall conversion efficiency of 0.31 % is better than NP, which is the outcome of improved electron transport in NW.

  1. TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures: Hydrothermal fabrication and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yang, Jin; Sun, Wentao; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Arrays of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures that consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase branches were hydrothermally fabricated and employed as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Each hierarchical nanostructure array was attained in two steps. First, a primary nanorod array was synthesized in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and tetrabutyl titanate (C16H36O4Ti); subsequently, secondary branches were grown on the nanorods in aqueous solutions of ammonium hexafluorotitanate ((NH4)2TiF6) and boric acid (H3BO3). The secondary anatase branches filled part of the space among the primary rutile nanorods and gave rise to a larger surface area. Light-harvesting capability of the DSSCs with TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures as photoanodes was appreciably improved because more dye molecules could be loaded on the photoanodes and more light could be scattered inside the DSSCs. Therefore, the conversion efficiencies of the DSSCs were doubled by replacing the photoanode of primary TiO2 nanorod array with the photoanodes of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructure arrays. Furthermore, in order to reach a compromise between the photoanode surface area and the inter-nanorod space volume, the growth time of the secondary TiO2 anatase branches was optimized.

  2. 50 nm sized spherical TiO2 nanocrystals for highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Sang Do; Ojha, Devi Prashad; You, Ji Su; Lee, Joori; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2015-05-01

    Single crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with spherical morphology are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction under basic conditions. TiO2 NPs, selectively controlled to the sizes of 30, 40, 50, and 65 nm, are then applied to a mesoporous photoelectrode of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. In particular, a spherical TiO2 NP of 50 nm size (NP50) offers the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.19%, with JSC of 21.58 mA cm-2, VOC of 1049 mV, and FF of 0.759 while the enhancement of PCE mainly arises from the increase of VOC and FF. Furthermore, the fabricated photovoltaic devices exhibit reproducible PCE values and very little hysteresis in their J-V curves. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurement and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of the photocurrent indicate that the device employing NP50 exhibits the longest electron lifetime although the electron injection from perovskite to TiO2 is less efficient than the devices with smaller TiO2 NPs. The extended electron lifetime is attributed to the suppression of electron recombination due to optimized mesopores generated by the spherical NP50.

  3. 50 nm sized spherical TiO2 nanocrystals for highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sang Do; Ojha, Devi Prashad; You, Ji Su; Lee, Joori; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2015-05-21

    Single crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with spherical morphology are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction under basic conditions. TiO2 NPs, selectively controlled to the sizes of 30, 40, 50, and 65 nm, are then applied to a mesoporous photoelectrode of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. In particular, a spherical TiO2 NP of 50 nm size (NP50) offers the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.19%, with JSC of 21.58 mA cm(-2), VOC of 1049 mV, and FF of 0.759 while the enhancement of PCE mainly arises from the increase of VOC and FF. Furthermore, the fabricated photovoltaic devices exhibit reproducible PCE values and very little hysteresis in their J-V curves. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurement and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of the photocurrent indicate that the device employing NP50 exhibits the longest electron lifetime although the electron injection from perovskite to TiO2 is less efficient than the devices with smaller TiO2 NPs. The extended electron lifetime is attributed to the suppression of electron recombination due to optimized mesopores generated by the spherical NP50. PMID:25916796

  4. An efficient photoanode consisting of TiO2 nanoparticle-filled TiO2 nanotube arrays for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Quantong; Li, Siqian; Wang, Yi; Ye, Cong; Ruterana, Pierre; Wang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    An efficient photoanode consisting of TiO2 nanoparticle-filled TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays is prepared by a sol-gel process through hydrolysis and condensation of titaniumtetrachloride in an aqueous medium containing alcohol and ammonia. By introducing the TiO2 nanoparticles of proper particle size ∼20 nm into TNT arrays, the surface area, dye adsorption, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are significantly improved (up to 107% enhancement on PCE). Particularly, the addition of alcohol and ammonia in TiO2 sol results in more hydroxyl groups chemisorbed onto the surface of the photoanodes, which is favorable for achieving large amount of dye adsorption. The influence of sol-treating time on the microstructure, morphology of photoanodes and the corresponding photovoltaic performance of DSSCs are investigated. It is found that immersing the TNT arrays into TiO2 sol for 0.5-2 h gives PCE of DSSC higher than 9.6%, and the highest PCE of 9.86% is achieved in DSSC when treating the TNT arrays with TiO2 sol for 2 h.

  5. Hydrothermal Etching Treatment to Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays for Improving the Efficiency of CdS-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingshu; Liu, Rong; Tong, Yuzhu; Chen, Shuhuang; Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Baoyuan; Xu, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were directly grown on an F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate without any seed layer by hydrothermal route. For a larger surface area, the second-step hydrothermal treatment in hydrochloric acid was carried out to the as-prepared TiO2 NRAs. The results showed that the center portion of the TiO2 nanorods were dissolved in the etching solution to form a nanocave at the initial etching process. As the etching time extended, the tip parts of the nanocave wall split into lots of nanowires with a reduced diameter, giving rise to a remarkable increase of specific surface area for the TiO2 NRAs. The TiO2 films after etching treatment were sensitized by CdS quantum dots (QDs) to fabricate quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), which exhibited a significant improvement in the photocurrent density in comparison with that of the un-treated device, this mainly attributed to the enhancement of QD loading and diffused reflectance ability. Through modifying the etching TiO2 films with TiCl4, a relatively high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.14 % was obtained after optimizing the etching time. PMID:26754938

  6. Hydrothermal Etching Treatment to Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays for Improving the Efficiency of CdS-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jingshu; Liu, Rong; Tong, Yuzhu; Chen, Shuhuang; Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Baoyuan; Xu, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were directly grown on an F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate without any seed layer by hydrothermal route. For a larger surface area, the second-step hydrothermal treatment in hydrochloric acid was carried out to the as-prepared TiO2 NRAs. The results showed that the center portion of the TiO2 nanorods were dissolved in the etching solution to form a nanocave at the initial etching process. As the etching time extended, the tip parts of the nanocave wall split into lots of nanowires with a reduced diameter, giving rise to a remarkable increase of specific surface area for the TiO2 NRAs. The TiO2 films after etching treatment were sensitized by CdS quantum dots (QDs) to fabricate quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), which exhibited a significant improvement in the photocurrent density in comparison with that of the un-treated device, this mainly attributed to the enhancement of QD loading and diffused reflectance ability. Through modifying the etching TiO2 films with TiCl4, a relatively high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.14 % was obtained after optimizing the etching time.

  7. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes infiltrated by TiO2 nanoparticles using a dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Tsai, Keng-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Vittal, R.; Wu, Chun-Guey; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    An efficient back-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is made with a flexible Ti-foil based photoanode composed of a composite TiO2 film with TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP). The composite TiO2 film is fabricated through a novel dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis (DRH) process by inserting TiO2 into TNT and sintering the product to form TNP inside TNT. By directly placing TiO2 nanoparticles into TNT, the former grow internally from the base of TNT to occupy it completely. This solves previous problems of incomplete filling of TNP into TNT, which used partial penetration of TiCl4 reactant from the top of the TNT. In the present case, the TNP are grown from the base of TNT. A DSSC containing TNT and TNP prepared in this way shows a photoelectric efficiency of 6.45%, which is much higher than that (4.21%) of a DSSC with untreated TNT. The films are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The improvement in the photoelectric efficiency is explained by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis, and UV-absorption spectra analysis.

  8. Preparation of flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ren; Wang, Hsiu-Hsuan; Lin, Chia-Feng; Su, Chaochin

    2014-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polymer substrates have drawn great attention due to its lightweight, flexibility and advantages in commercial applications. However, the thermal instability of polymer substrates limits the process temperature to below 150 °C. In order to assure high and firm interparticle connection between TiO2 nanocrystals (TiO2-NC) and polymer substrates, the post-treatment of flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes (F-TiO2-PE) by mechanical compression was employed. In this work, Degussa P25 TiO2-NC was mixed with tert-butyl alcohol and DI-water to form TiO2 paste. F-TiO2-PE was then prepared by coating the TiO2 paste onto ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using doctor blade followed by low temperature sintering at 120 °C for 2 hours. To study the effect of mechanical compression, we applied 50 and 100 kg/cm2 pressure on TiO2/PET to complete the fabrication of F-TiO2-PE. The surface morphology of F-TiO2-PE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The resultant F-TiO2-PE sample exhibited a smooth, crack-free structure indicating the great improvement in the interparticle connection of TiO2-NC. Increase of compression pressure could lead to the increase of DSSC photoconversion efficiency. The best photoconversion efficiency of 4.19 % (open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.79 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) = 7.75 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) = 0.68) was obtained for the F-TiO2-PE device, which showed great enhancement compared with the F-TiO2-PE cell without compression treatment. The effect of compression in DSSC performance was vindicated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement.

  9. Water-soluble polythiophene/nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Qiquan; McLeskey, James T.

    2005-04-01

    We report the characteristics of polymer/nanocrystalline solar cells fabricated using an environmentally friendly water-soluble polythiophene and TiO2 in a bilayer configuration. The cells were made by dropping the polymer onto a TiO2 nanocrystalline film and then repeatedly sweeping a clean glass rod across the polymer as it dried. The devices showed an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V, a short circuit current density of 0.35mA/cm2, a fill factor of 0.4, and an energy conversion efficiency of 0.13%. The water-soluble polythiophene showed significant photovoltaic behavior and the potential for use in solar cells.

  10. Yttrium-substituted nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes for perovskite based heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Peng; Domanski, Anna L.; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Berger, Rüdiger; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Dar, M. Ibrahim; Moehl, Thomas; Tetreault, Nicolas; Gao, Peng; Ahmad, Shahzada; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of Y3+-substituted TiO2 (0.5%Y-TiO2) in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells, consisting of CH3NH3PbI3 as the light harvester and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material. A power conversion efficiency of 11.2% under simulated AM 1.5 full sun illumination was measured. A 15% improvement in the short-circuit current density was obtained compared with pure TiO2, due to the effect of Y3+ on the dimensions of perovskite nanoparticles formed on the semiconductor surface, showing that the surface modification of the semiconductor is an effective way to improve the light harvesters' morphology and electron transfer properties in the solid-state mesoscopic solar cells.We report the use of Y3+-substituted TiO2 (0.5%Y-TiO2) in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells, consisting of CH3NH3PbI3 as the light harvester and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material. A power conversion efficiency of 11.2% under simulated AM 1.5 full sun illumination was measured. A 15% improvement in the short-circuit current density was obtained compared with pure TiO2, due to the effect of Y3+ on the dimensions of perovskite nanoparticles formed on the semiconductor surface, showing that the surface modification of the semiconductor is an effective way to improve the light harvesters' morphology and electron transfer properties in the solid-state mesoscopic solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Paste preparation; the HRTEM micrograph of dark coloured individual nanoparticles deposited on TiO2; histogram plots of solar cell performance parameters for 15 cells based on TiO2; the Nyquist plot of the device without Y at 500 mV forward bias. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05884k

  11. Wire-shaped perovskite solar cell based on TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Kulkarni, Sneha A.; Li, Zhen; Xu, Wenjing; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Zhang, Sam; Cao, Anyuan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a wire-shaped perovskite solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays is demonstrated for the first time by integrating a perovskite absorber on TNT-coated Ti wire. Anodization was adopted for the conformal growth of TNTs on Ti wire, together with the simultaneous formation of a compact TiO2 layer. A sequential step dipping process is employed to produce a uniform and compact perovskite layer on top of TNTs with conformal coverage as the efficient light absorber. Transparent carbon nanotube film is wrapped around Ti wire as the hole collector and counter electrode. The integrated perovskite solar cell wire by facile fabrication approaches shows a promising future in portable and wearable textile electronics.

  12. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Mesoporous TiO2 Nanocomposite Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Gill Sang; Song, Young Hyun; Jin, Young Un; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kang, Bong Kyun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Cho, In Sun; Yoon, Dae Ho; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-10-28

    We report on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/mesoporous (mp)-TiO2 nanocomposite based mesostructured perovskite solar cells that show an improved electron transport property owing to the reduced interfacial resistance. The amount of rGO added to the TiO2 nanoparticles electron transport layer was optimized, and their impacts on film resistivity, electron diffusion, recombination time, and photovoltaic performance were investigated. The rGO/mp-TiO2 nanocomposite film reduces interfacial resistance when compared to the mp-TiO2 film, and hence, it improves charge collection efficiency. This effect significantly increases the short circuit current density and open circuit voltage. The rGO/mp-TiO2 nanocomposite film with an optimal rGO content of 0.4 vol % shows 18% higher photon conversion efficiency compared with the TiO2 nanoparticles based perovskite solar cells. PMID:26445167

  13. Wire-shaped perovskite solar cell based on TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Li, Zhen; Xu, Wenjing; Batabyal, Sudip K; Zhang, Sam; Cao, Anyuan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-05-20

    In this work, a wire-shaped perovskite solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays is demonstrated for the first time by integrating a perovskite absorber on TNT-coated Ti wire. Anodization was adopted for the conformal growth of TNTs on Ti wire, together with the simultaneous formation of a compact TiO2 layer. A sequential step dipping process is employed to produce a uniform and compact perovskite layer on top of TNTs with conformal coverage as the efficient light absorber. Transparent carbon nanotube film is wrapped around Ti wire as the hole collector and counter electrode. The integrated perovskite solar cell wire by facile fabrication approaches shows a promising future in portable and wearable textile electronics. PMID:27070991

  14. Effect of anodic TiO2 powder as additive on electron transport properties in nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Jung; Yu, Wen-Yueh; Chien, Shu-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Highly crystalline anodic TiO2 (AO-TiO2) powder was obtained by grinding of annealed TiO2 nanotube arrays grown using anodization of Ti foil. The influence of AO-TiO2 as additive in nanocrystalline TiO2 film on electron transport properties affecting the performance of these dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the open-circuit voltage decay technique under AM 1.5 illumination. As a result of the enhanced charge-collection and light harvesting efficiencies, an increase of above 20% in photocurrent density was observed after the addition of AO-TiO2.

  15. Improved efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells applied with nanostructured N-F doped TiO2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuming; Xue, Hongbin; Wang, Hongjun; Kou, Huizhi; Wang, Jichao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2012-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated with N-F-doped TiO2 electrodes. The XRD pattern of the N-F-doped TiO2 is almost the same as that of pure TiO2, showing that N and F doping has little influence on the formation of anatase titania. The influence of dopant N and F on band energetics and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes were investigated. Compared with pure TiO2 electrodes, the Efb of N-F-doped TiO2 electrodes shifted a little in electrolytes containing LiClO4. However the total trap densities were remarkably decreased as TiO2 electrodes were doped with N and F. Finally the N-F-doped TiO2 electrodes were sensitized with N3 and their photoelectrochemical properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of N3 sensitized N-F-doped TiO2 electrodes was 8.61% under irradiation of 100 mW cm-2 white light, about 17.1% higher than that of a pure TiO2 electrode.

  16. TiO2-nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells containing fluorescent material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong-Rae; Lee, Young-Joon; Park, Hun; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Won-Youl

    2013-05-01

    We fabricated a dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with TiO2 nanotube arrays obtained by anodization of Ti foil. Vertical structure of TiO2 nanotube arrays is very attractive due to a high electron transfer from dye to electrode. To improve the power conversion efficiency, fluorescent material, F-6377, was applied in TiO2-nanotube-based DSCs to use a light spectrum efficiently. Fluorescent material was absorbed the different wavelength of 460 nm from the light absorbed by N719 dye. Fluorescent material to emit the absorbed light energy provided an additional light for dye in DSCs and additional electrons was generated. Thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by anodic oxidation was 15 microm. N719 dye and 13(-)/l(-) electrolyte were used to fabricate the DSCs. The short circuit current densities (J(sc)) and the power conversion efficiency in DSCs with fluorescent were 10.8 mA/cm2 and 2.48%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was observed to understand an electron transfer and life time. PMID:23858885

  17. Quantitative electron tomography investigation of a TiO2 based solar cell photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divitini, G.; Abrusci, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Snaith, H.; Ducati, C.

    2014-06-01

    The development of efficient thin film solar cells requires a deep knowledge of the nanoscale morphology of the active layers. While conventional investigation is usually limited to 2D information, here we use electron tomography to unravel a complex particle network in a non-ambiguous, 3D reconstruction. We present our study of a dye sensitised solar cell, based on a nanostructured TiO2 photoanode produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and displaying a hierarchical, quasi-1D arrangement. We prepare the sample for electron tomography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling to obtain a micro-pillar, instead of a conventional TEM lamella. This approach has the advantage of allowing higher quality tomographic reconstructions of complex morphologies due to the increased tilt range available and the constant thickness of the section. We analyse the resulting reconstruction to quantitatively investigate the geometry of the TiO2 network. We compare the findings with a photoanode based on a conventional TiO2 paste, determining the anisotropy of the PLD-grown film. To complement our nanoscale TEM characterization, we also employ FIB tomography, to obtain a complete structural characterisation of the photoanode at different length scales.

  18. Aggregated TiO2 Based Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Zimin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun

    2013-11-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconducting oxides have attracted great attention for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), but the overall performance is still quite limited as compared to TiO2 nanocrystalline DSCs. Here, we report the synthesis of aggregated TiO2 based nanotubes with controlled morphologies and crystalline structures to obtain an overall power conversion efficiency of 9.9% using conventional dye without any additional chemical treatment steps. The high efficiency is attributed to the unique aggregate structure for light harvesting, optimized high surface area, and good crystallinity of the nanotube aggregates obtained through proper thermal annealing. This study demonstrates that high efficiency DSCs can be obtained with 1D nanomaterials, and provides lessons on the importance of optimizing both the nanocrystalline structure and the overall microscale morphology.

  19. Nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Jin, Young Sam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Joon; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 films were prepared on glass substrates using the sol-gel process for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The TiO2 sol was prepared using hydrolysis/polycondensation. Titanium (IV) Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and Nitric acid (HNO3) was used as a catalyst for the peptization. The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared materials were characterized by XRD, and an SEM. The observations confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the TiO2. The reaction parameters, such as the catalyst concentrations, the calcination time, and the calcination temperature were varied during the synthesis in order to achieve nanosize TiO2 particles. The prepared TiO2 particles were coated onto FTO glass using a screen printing technique. The prepared TiO2 films were characterized by UV-vis. The TiO2 particles calcinated at low temperatures showed an anatase phase they grew into a rutile phase when the calcination temperature increased. The size and structure of the TiO2 particles were adjusted to specific surface areas. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the DSSC was highly affected by the properties of the TiO2 particles. PMID:22409037

  20. Effective antireflection coating based on TiO2-SiO2 mixture for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanov, S. Kh.; Dyskin, V. G.; Dzhanklych, M. U.; Kulagina, N. A.

    2013-03-01

    A mixed alloy of TiO2 and SiO2 has been obtained using a 3-kW solar furnace. Films of the TiO2-SiO2 alloy applied onto a surface of glass and silicon plates exhibit high strength and adhesion, are transparent in the spectral range of sensitivity of solar cells, and can be used as effective antireflection coatings. It is established that adding TiO2 to SiO2 improves the optical properties of oxide coatings.

  1. Electron transport in electrospun TiO2 nanofiber dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Teng, Tai-Hou; Jose, Rajan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-07-01

    In this study dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were fabricated using electrospun TiO2 nanofibers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay were used to analyze electron transport in electrospun nanofibers and determine their applicability in DSCs. The polycrystalline nature and random web structure of the nanofibers exhibit effective electron diffusion coefficients close to that of high efficiency nanoparticle cells. The electron lifetime was, however, low due to the presence of a large number of surface traps despite the presence of a space-charge recombination barrier.

  2. Hydrothermal Fabrication of Hierarchically Anatase TiO2 Nanowire arrays on FTO Glass for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Lei, Bing-Xin; Rao, Hua-Shang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Wang, Yu-Fen; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical anatase TiO2 nano-architecture arrays consisting of long TiO2 nanowire trunk and numerous short TiO2 nanorod branches on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide glass are successfully synthesized for the first time through a facile one-step hydrothermal route without any surfactant and template. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the hierarchical anatase TiO2 nano-architecture array photoelectrode of 18 μm in length shows a power conversion efficiency of 7.34% because of its higher specific surface area for adsorbing more dye molecules and superior light scattering capacity for boosting the light-harvesting efficiency. The present photovoltaic performance is the highest value for the reported TiO2 nanowires array photoelectrode. PMID:23443301

  3. Opto-electronic properties of a TiO2/PS/mc-Si heterojunction based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janene, N.; Ghrairi, N.; Allagui, A.; Alawadhi, H.; Khakani, M. A. El; Bessais, B.; Gaidi, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we show the results of our investigation on the photoelectric properties of heterojunction solar cells based on Au/PS/mc-Si/Al and Au/TiO2/PS/mc-Si/Al structures. Porous silicon (PS) were prepared by an electrochemical etching process with different values of current density. The surface porosity was found to increase with the increase of current density. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit 80 nm TiO2 thin films. Surface morphology and structural properties of TiO2/PS were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An enhancement of the electrical properties of the TiO2/PS/mc-Si heterojunction was observed after coating with TiO2. As a consequence, the solar cell efficiencies increased from 1.4% for the uncoated PS/mc-Si structure to 5% for the TiO2 coated one. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the passivation effect of TiO2 through the improvement of the elaborated cells' electron lifetime and the formation of a TiO2/PS/Au heterojunction with the appearance of a second semi-circle in the Nyquist plot.

  4. Al2O3 Doping of TiO2 electrodes and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. DSSCs have been extensively researched over the past decades as cheaper alternatives to silicon solar cells due to their high energy-conversion efficiency and their low production cost. However, some problems need to be solved in order to enhance the efficiency of DSSCs. In particular, the electron recombination that occurs due to the contact between the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and a redox electrolyte is one of the main limiting factors of efficiency. In this work, we report for the first time the improvement of the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs by doping TiO2 with Al2O3. DSSCs were constructed using composite particles of Al2O3-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles. The DSSCs using Al2O3 showed the maximum conversion efficiency of 6.29% due to effective electron transport. DSSCs based on Al2O3-doped TiO2 films showed better photovoltaic performance than cells fabricated with only TiO2 nanoparticles. This result is attributed to the prevention of electron recombination between electrons in the TiO2 conduction band with holes in the dye or the electrolyte. There mechanism is suggested based on impedance results, which indicated improved electron transport at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface.

  5. TiO2 micro-flowers composed of nanotubes and their application to dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 micro-flowers were made to bloom on Ti foil by the anodic oxidation of Ti-protruding dots with a cylindrical shape. Arrays of the Ti-protruding dots were prepared by photolithography, which consisted of coating the photoresists, attaching a patterned mask, illuminating with UV light, etching the Ti surface by reactive ion etching (RIE), and stripping the photoresist on the Ti foil. The procedure for the blooming of the TiO2 micro-flowers was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) as the anodizing time was increased. Photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were fabricated using TiO2 micro-flowers. Bare TiO2 nanotube arrays were used for reference samples. The short-circuit current (Jsc) and the power conversion efficiency of the DSCs based on the TiO2 micro-flowers were 4.340 mA/cm2 and 1.517%, respectively. These values of DSCs based on TiO2 micro-flowers were higher than those of bare samples. The TiO2 micro-flowers had a larger surface area for dye adsorption compared to bare TiO2 nanotube arrays, resulting in improved Jsc characteristics. The structure of the TiO2 micro-flowers allowed it to adsorb dyes very effectively, also demonstrating the potential to achieve higher power conversion efficiency levels for DSCs compared to a bare TiO2 nanotube array structure and the conventional TiO2 nanoparticle structure. PMID:24565201

  6. TiO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Cathode Using Recycle Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daut, I.; Fitra, M.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Irwan, Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposed an alternative source of carbon material from recycled battery for the fabrication of cathode of a dye sensitized solar cell. Carbon from recycle battery is extracted and used to fabricate the cathode part of a dye sensitized solar cell by using TiO2 as the anode. The both anode and cathode is fabricated on a 6 × 2cm2 indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and then tested under the solar irradiance of 693.69 w/m2 and average temperature 44.4 oC. Result shows that by using carbon from a recycle battery a Voc of 0.333V and short circuit current of 166.04 μA is produce.

  7. Tailoring the interface using thiophene small molecules in TiO2/P3HT hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Flavio S; Clifford, John N; Palomares, Emilio; Nogueira, Ana F

    2012-09-14

    In this paper we focus on the effect of carboxylated thiophene small molecules as interface modifiers in TiO(2)/P3HT hybrid solar cells. Our results show that small differences in the chemical structure of these molecules, for example, the presence of the -CH(2)- group in the 2-thiopheneacetic acid (TAA), can greatly increase the TiO(2) surface wettability, improving the TiO(2)/polymer contact. This effect is important to enhance exciton splitting and charge separation. PMID:22842849

  8. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-type solar cells with Nb-doped TiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Jo; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 using Nb-doped TiO2 as an electron-transporting layer were fabricated and characterized. Nb-doped TiO2 layer showed an improvement of the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency using Ti0.95Nb0.05O2.

  9. Nb doping of TiO2 nanotubes for an enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Kim, Doohun; Jha, Himendra; Lee, Kiyoung; Paul, Jonathan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2011-02-21

    Nb-doped TiO(2) nanotube (with C(Nb) < 1 wt%) layers were successfully fabricated by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of Ti-Nb alloys. When used in dye-sensitized solar cells the efficiency enhanced by up to 30% compared to non-doped TiO(2) nanotubes. IMVS measurements indicate the beneficial effect to be due to lower recombination losses. PMID:21184009

  10. Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Weitse; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Hettick, Mark; Cheng, Lungteng; Chan, Shengwen; Chen, Yunfeng; Zeng, Yuping; Zheng, Maxwell; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Chiang, Chien-Chih; Javey, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The non-toxic and wide bandgap material TiO2 is explored as an n-type buffer layer on p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layer for thin film solar cells. The amorphous TiO2 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition process at low temperatures shows conformal coverage on the CIGS absorber layer. Solar cells from non-vacuum deposited CIGS absorbers with TiO2 buffer layer result in a high short-circuit current density of 38.9 mA/cm2 as compared to 36.9 mA/cm2 measured in the reference cell with CdS buffer layer, without compromising open-circuit voltage. The significant photocurrent gain, mainly in the UV part of the spectrum, can be attributed to the low parasitic absorption loss in the ultrathin TiO2 layer (~10 nm) with a larger bandgap of 3.4 eV compared to 2.4 eV of the traditionally used CdS. Overall the solar cell conversion efficiency was improved from 9.5% to 9.9% by substituting the CdS by TiO2 on an active cell area of 10.5 mm2. Optimized TiO2/CIGS solar cells show excellent long-term stability. The results imply that TiO2 is a promising buffer layer material for CIGS solar cells, avoiding the toxic CdS buffer layer with added performance advantage. PMID:26526426

  11. Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Weitse; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Hettick, Mark; Cheng, Lungteng; Chan, Shengwen; Chen, Yunfeng; Zeng, Yuping; Zheng, Maxwell; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Chiang, Chien-Chih; Javey, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The non-toxic and wide bandgap material TiO2 is explored as an n-type buffer layer on p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layer for thin film solar cells. The amorphous TiO2 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition process at low temperatures shows conformal coverage on the CIGS absorber layer. Solar cells from non-vacuum deposited CIGS absorbers with TiO2 buffer layer result in a high short-circuit current density of 38.9 mA/cm(2) as compared to 36.9 mA/cm(2) measured in the reference cell with CdS buffer layer, without compromising open-circuit voltage. The significant photocurrent gain, mainly in the UV part of the spectrum, can be attributed to the low parasitic absorption loss in the ultrathin TiO2 layer (~10 nm) with a larger bandgap of 3.4 eV compared to 2.4 eV of the traditionally used CdS. Overall the solar cell conversion efficiency was improved from 9.5% to 9.9% by substituting the CdS by TiO2 on an active cell area of 10.5 mm(2). Optimized TiO2/CIGS solar cells show excellent long-term stability. The results imply that TiO2 is a promising buffer layer material for CIGS solar cells, avoiding the toxic CdS buffer layer with added performance advantage. PMID:26526426

  12. Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Weitse; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Hettick, Mark; Cheng, Lungteng; Chan, Shengwen; Chen, Yunfeng; Zeng, Yuping; Zheng, Maxwell; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Chiang, Chien-Chih; Javey, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The non-toxic and wide bandgap material TiO2 is explored as an n-type buffer layer on p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layer for thin film solar cells. The amorphous TiO2 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition process at low temperatures shows conformal coverage on the CIGS absorber layer. Solar cells from non-vacuum deposited CIGS absorbers with TiO2 buffer layer result in a high short-circuit current density of 38.9 mA/cm2 as compared to 36.9 mA/cm2 measured in the reference cell with CdS buffer layer, without compromising open-circuit voltage. The significant photocurrent gain, mainly in the UV part of the spectrum, can be attributed to the low parasitic absorption loss in the ultrathin TiO2 layer (~10 nm) with a larger bandgap of 3.4 eV compared to 2.4 eV of the traditionally used CdS. Overall the solar cell conversion efficiency was improved from 9.5% to 9.9% by substituting the CdS by TiO2 on an active cell area of 10.5 mm2. Optimized TiO2/CIGS solar cells show excellent long-term stability. The results imply that TiO2 is a promising buffer layer material for CIGS solar cells, avoiding the toxic CdS buffer layer with added performance advantage.

  13. Double-layer coating of SrCO3/TiO2 on nanoporous TiO2 for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2012-01-14

    Surface modification plays a crucial role in improving the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), but the reported surface treatments are in general superior to the untreated TiO(2) but inferior to the typical TiCl(4)-treated TiO(2) in terms of solar cell performance. This work demonstrates a two-step treatment of the nanoporous titania surface with strontium acetate [Sr(OAc)(2)] and TiCl(4) in order, each step followed by sintering. An electronically insulating layer of SrCO(3) is formed on the TiO(2) surface via the Sr(OAc)(2) treatment and then a fresh TiO(2) layer is deposited on top of the SrCO(3) layer via the TiCl(4) treatment, corresponding to a double layer of Sr(OAc)(2)/TiO(2) coated on the TiO(2) surface. As compared to the typical TiCl(4)-treated DSSC, the Sr(OAc)(2)-TiCl(4) treated DSSC improves short-circuit photocurrent (J(sc)) by 17%, open-circuit photovoltage (V(oc)) by 2%, and power conversion efficiency by 20%. These results indicate that the Sr(OAc)(2)-TiCl(4) treatment is better than the often used TiCl(4) treatment for fabrication of efficient DSSCs. Charge density at open circuit and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy reveal that the two electrodes show almost same conduction band level but different electron diffusion coefficient and charge recombination rate constant. Owing to the blocking effect of the SrCO(3) layer on electron recombination with I(3)(-) ions, the charge recombination rate constant of the Sr(OAc)(2)-TiCl(4) treated DSSC is half that of the TiCl(4)-treated DSSC, accounting well for the difference of their V(oc). The improved J(sc) is also attributed to the middle SrCO(3) layer, which increases dye adsorption and may improve charge separation efficiency due to the blocking effect of SrCO(3) on charge recombination. PMID:22108906

  14. Brookite TiO2 nanoparticle films for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Magne, Constance; Cassaignon, Sophie; Lancel, Gilles; Pauporté, Thierry

    2011-09-12

    Brookite TiO(2) nanoparticles have been synthesized at low temperature by a soft solution growth method and have been used as building blocks to prepare pure brookite nanoparticle porous films. The film brookite structure was confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. By spectrophotometry, it was shown that the films had a direct band gap of 3.4 eV. After sensitization by the N719 dye, efficient cells have been produced. A best overall conversion efficiency of 5.97%, without a scattering layer, was found for the larger TiO(2) starting nanoparticles. The cell open-circuit voltage was improved compared with that of anatase cells and a lower electron diffusion coefficient was found in the photoanodes made of smaller brookite particles. Lanthanum-doped brookite nanoparticle films were also studied. They showed a marked decreased in the amount of dye loading, and hence, the solar cells had a reduced current density that was not compensated for by the increased open-circuit voltage of the cells. PMID:21751330

  15. Hyperbranched quasi-1D TiO2 nanostructure for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Passoni, Luca; Grancini, Giulia; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Li Bassi, Andrea; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2015-04-15

    The performance of hybrid solar cells is strongly affected by the device morphology. In this work, we demonstrate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/TiO2 hybrid solar cell where the TiO2 photoanode comprises an array of tree-like hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures self-assembled from the gas phase. This advanced architecture enables us to increase the power conversion efficiency to over 1%, doubling the efficiency with respect to state of the art devices employing standard mesoporous titania photoanodes. This improvement is attributed to several peculiar features of this array of nanostructures: high interfacial area; increased optical density thanks to the enhanced light scattering; and enhanced crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) inside the quasi-1D nanostructure. PMID:25822757

  16. Microscopy of hierarchically organized TiO2 photoelectrode for dye solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandar, A.; Mohamed, N. M.

    2015-07-01

    Research on improving the performance of dye solar cells has various aspects of the device being investigated. This paper analyzes the deliberately hierarchized photoelectrode configuration for DSC applications to improve the performance of DSCs. Multiple layers of differently composed TiO2 particle types namely aggregates and nanoparticles were deposited to form a photoelectrode with thickness of about 12 µm. The photoelectrodes were assembled into working DSCs with an active area of 1 cm2. Measurement for solar power conversion performance was measured under 1 sun at AM1.5 spectrum simulated sunlight. Electron microscopy for photoelectrode analysis was conducted using Field Emission Scattering Electron Microscopy with enhanced resolution. External Quantum Efficiency was measured using a purpose built instrument. Kinetics were investigated using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement with a potentiostat. The best performing DSC is of the hierarchically organized photoelectrode with a photoconversion efficiency of 4.58%, an increase of 14% in comparison to the reference samples with fully aggregates configuration. Short circuit current density, Jsc increases by about 2.223 mA cm-2 relative to the blanks. The electron microscopy confirmed expected thickness at around 10 µm and layers forming the photoelectrode being hierarchically deposited with ˜20 nm TiO2 nanoparticles and 450 nm TiO2 aggregates mixture composition. EQE improved especially for visible region of 500-550 nm light wavelengths with 12 % increase in the response of in that region. Improvement to the diffusion coefficient as measured by the EIS contributed to the performance increase of the photoelectrode configuration under investigation.

  17. Enhancing the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by adding diatom frustules into TiO2 working electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Der-Ray; Jiang, Yan-Jang; Liou, Run-Lin; Chen, Chih-Han; Chen, Yi-An; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2015-08-01

    In this study, diatom frustules were added into TiO2 paste to prepare a TiO2-diatom paste mixture. Spin-coating and high-temperature sintering techniques were then used to fabricate working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Mixing the diatom frustules with the TiO2 paste improved the light-trapping effect and scattering properties of the incident light in the TiO2-diatom working electrodes, thereby enhancing the power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. In this study, a high-speed centrifugal processing technology and sedimentation-rate separation techniques were first used to obtain the diatom frustules, which were then mixed with the TiO2 paste at a weight ratio of 1:50; a spin-coating technique was then used to fabricate the working electrodes. Finally, a high-temperature sintering process (500 °C) was performed. In this study, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and a surface profiler and spectrometer were used to analyze the characteristics of the working electrodes. The TiO2 or TiO2-diatom working electrodes were prepared under various spin-coating conditions for fabricating and analyzing the characteristics of the DSSCs. The results indicated that under identical conditions, the power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs was 3.81% when coated three times with a conventional TiO2 paste, and 5.26% when coated once with the TiO2-diatom paste before being coated twice again with the TiO2 paste, indicating a 38% increase in efficiency.

  18. Integration of TiO2 nanotube arrays into solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandara, J.; Shankar, K.; Basham, J.; Wietasch, H.; Paulose, M.; Varghese, O. K.; Grimes, C. A.; Thelakkat, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this investigation, transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared on a FTO substrate are employed as 1D nanostructures providing elongated direct pathways for electron transport and collection in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (SDSC). Donor-antenna (D-A) dyes provide an exciting route for improving the light harvesting efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells owing to their high molar extinction coefficients and the effective spatial separation of charges in the charge-separated state. Hence in this study we fabricated SDSC devices with different thicknesses of transparent TiO2 nanotube array electrodes sensitized with Ru-(II)-donor-antenna dye and spiro-OMeTAD as a hole conductor. At AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2 illumination intensity, a power conversion efficiency of 1.94% was achieved when the TiO2 nanotubes are initially subjected to TiCl4 treatment. Furthermore, a linear increase in the cell current without loss in fill factor is observed for increasing length of TiO2 nanotubes. The structural and morphological characteristics of the transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays as well as the optimal conditions for the fabrication of SDSCs with transparent TiO2 nanotubes on FTO glass are reported.

  19. CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nano-branched TiO2 arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nano-branched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) by a facile, two-step wet chemical synthesis process at low temperature. The length of the nanobranches was tailored by controlling the growth time, after which CdS quantum dots were deposited on the nano-branched TiO2 arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The photovoltaic properties of the CdS-sensitized nano-branched TiO2 solar cells were studied systematically. A short-circuit current intensity of approximately 7 mA/cm2 and a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 0.95% were recorded for cells based on optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays, indicating an increase of 138% compared to those based on unbranched TiO2 nanorod arrays. The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged surface area provided by the nanobranches and better electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunks. PMID:24597830

  20. Surfactant free most probable TiO2 nanostructures via hydrothermal and its dye sensitized solar cell properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Kim, Hyungjin; Shim, Chang Su; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-10-01

    Tailoring the nano-morphology and nano-architecture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most important task in the third generation solar cells (Dye sensitized solar cells/Quantum dot sensitized solar cells) (DSSCs/QDSSCs). In this article we present complete study of surfactant free synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures by a simple and promising hydrothermal route. The plethora of nanostructures like nanoparticles clusters, 1D tetragonal nanorods, 3D dendrites containing nanorods having <30 nm diameter and 3D hollow urchin like have been synthesized. These nanostructures possess effective large surface area and thus useful in DSSCs. In the present work, 7.16% power conversion efficiency has been demonstrated for 3D dendritic hollow urchin like morphology. Our synthetic strategy provides an effective solution for surfactant free synthesis of efficient TiO2 nanoarchitectures.

  1. Surfactant free most probable TiO2 nanostructures via hydrothermal and its dye sensitized solar cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Kim, Hyungjin; Shim, Chang Su; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Tailoring the nano-morphology and nano-architecture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most important task in the third generation solar cells (Dye sensitized solar cells/Quantum dot sensitized solar cells) (DSSCs/QDSSCs). In this article we present complete study of surfactant free synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures by a simple and promising hydrothermal route. The plethora of nanostructures like nanoparticles clusters, 1D tetragonal nanorods, 3D dendrites containing nanorods having <30 nm diameter and 3D hollow urchin like have been synthesized. These nanostructures possess effective large surface area and thus useful in DSSCs. In the present work, 7.16% power conversion efficiency has been demonstrated for 3D dendritic hollow urchin like morphology. Our synthetic strategy provides an effective solution for surfactant free synthesis of efficient TiO2 nanoarchitectures. PMID:24141599

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of rutile-anatase TiO2 nanobranched arrays for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Soon Jin; Im, Hyo Been; Nam, Jung Eun; Kang, Jin Kyu; Hwang, Taek Sung; Yi, Kwang Bok

    2014-11-01

    Rutile-anatase TiO2 nanobranched arrays were prepared in two sequential hydrothermal-synthesis steps. The morphologies and crystalline nanostructures of the samples were investigated by controlling growth time and the concentration of the titanium precursor. All samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that treating the surfaces of rutile TiO2 nanorods with aqueous TiCl4 solutions allows the anatase TiO2 nanobranches to grow perpendicular to the main rutile TiO2 nanorods attached to the FTO glass. Irregularly shaped, dense TiO2 structures formed in the absence of TiCl4 treatment. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 3.45% was achieved using 2.3 μm tall TiO2 nanobranched arrays in a dye-sensitized solar cell. This value is significantly higher than that observed for pure rutile TiO2 nanorods.

  3. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  4. Synthesis of CdSe-TiO2 nanocomposites and their applications to TiO2 sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyoung; Choi, Sungbum; Noh, Junhong; Yoon, Sunghun; Lee, Sangwook; Noh, Taehoon; Frank, Arthur J; Hong, Kugsun

    2009-05-01

    CdSe-TiO(2) nanocomposites were synthesized via aminolysis of Ti-oleate complexes in the presence of CdSe nanocrystals, and their application as sensitizers for TiO(2) solar cells was investigated. The formation of CdSe-TiO(2) nanocomposites was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The emission spectrum of CdSe-TiO(2) nanocomposites revealed photoinduced charge separation at the CdSe-TiO(2) interface of the composite. The photocurrent-voltage properties of CdSe-TiO(2)-sensitized TiO(2) particle films compared favorably with those of CdSe-sensitized TiO(2) films. Evidence was also found indicating that the TiO(2) component of the composite protects CdSe against degradation during film annealing. PMID:19249822

  5. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere applied for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A mesoscopic nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere has been developed for a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell [DSSC]. Compared with the undoped TiO2 sphere, the quasi-solid-state DSSC based on the nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere shows more excellent photovoltaic performance. The photoelectrochemistry of electrodes based on nitrogen-doped and undoped TiO2 spheres was characterized with Mott-Schottky analysis, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which indicated that both the quasi-Fermi level and the charge transport of the photoelectrode were improved after being doped with nitrogen. As a result, a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.01% was obtained for the quasi-solid-state DSSC. PMID:22115421

  6. Optimizing the performance of TiO2/P3HT hybrid solar cell by effective interfacial modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Juan; Hao, Yan Zhong; Lv, Hai Jun; Sun, Bao; Li, Ying Pin; Guo, Zhi Min

    2016-01-01

    Interface control is an important approach in polymer based solar cells because the interface properties on bulk heterojunction can govern the device performance. We select an organic triphenylamine-type sensitizer to tune the interfacial characters in TiO2 nanorod array/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid solar cell device. In addition to physically improving the compatibility between TiO2 nanorod and polymer contact junction, the introduction of modifier reduces the charge recombination, prolongs the electron lifetime, and thus optimizes the device performance.

  7. Mechanism of Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based TiO2 Films Treated by Titanium Tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Long-Yue; Dai, Song-Yuan; Wang, Kong-Jia; Pan, Xu; Shi, Cheng-Wu; Guo, Li

    2004-09-01

    Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells can be improved by treating the nanoporous TiO2 films with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution. We explore the reason why the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells is enhanced by this method. It is found that the effect of TiCl4 treatment not only reduces the films surface area and improves the electronic contact, but also enhances the binding of N719 with the TiO2 films surface.

  8. Facile and effective synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 spheres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meidan; Chen, Chang; Lv, Miaoqiang; Zheng, Dajiang; Guo, Wenxi; Lin, Changjian

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crystalline anatase TiO2 hierarchical spheres were successfully derived from Ti foils via a fast, template-free, low-temperature hydrothermal route followed by a calcination post-treatment. These dandelion-like TiO2 spheres are composed of numerous ultrathin nanoribbons, which were subsequently split into fragile nanoflakes as a result of the decomposition of Ti-complex intermediates to TiO2 and H2O at high temperature. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing such hierarchically structured TiO2 spheres as the photoanodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 8.50%, yielding a 28% enhancement in comparison with that (6.64%) of P25-based DSSCs, which mainly benefited from the enhanced capacity of dye loading in combination with effective light scattering and trapping from hierarchical architecture.Three-dimensional (3D) crystalline anatase TiO2 hierarchical spheres were successfully derived from Ti foils via a fast, template-free, low-temperature hydrothermal route followed by a calcination post-treatment. These dandelion-like TiO2 spheres are composed of numerous ultrathin nanoribbons, which were subsequently split into fragile nanoflakes as a result of the decomposition of Ti-complex intermediates to TiO2 and H2O at high temperature. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing such hierarchically structured TiO2 spheres as the photoanodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 8.50%, yielding a 28% enhancement in comparison with that (6.64%) of P25-based DSSCs, which mainly benefited from the enhanced capacity of dye loading in combination with effective light scattering and trapping from hierarchical architecture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FESEM images of samples prepared in other control experiments and a cross-sectional view of the three films. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01604h

  9. Conical islands of TiO2 nanotube arrays in the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong-Rae; Park, Hun; Choi, Won-Youl

    2015-01-01

    Ti conical island structures were fabricated using photolithography and the reactive ion etching method. The resulting conical island structures were anodized in ethylene glycol solution containing 0.25 wt% NH4F and 2 vol% H2O, and conical islands composed of TiO2 nanotubes were successfully formed on the Ti foils. The conical islands composed of TiO2 nanotubes were employed in photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). DSC photoelectrodes based on planar Ti structures covered with TiO2 nanotubes were also fabricated as a reference. The short-circuit current (J sc) and efficiency of DSCs based on the conical island structures were higher than those of the reference samples. The efficiency of DSCs based on the conical island structures reached up to 1.866%. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage (V oc) decay measurements, DSCs based on the conical island structures exhibited a lower charge transfer resistance at the counter cathode and a longer electron lifetime at the interface of the photoelectrode and electrolyte compared to the reference samples. The conical island structure was very effective at improving performances of DSCs based on TiO2 nanotubes. Graphical AbstractConical islands of TiO2 nanotube arrays are fabricated by an anodizing process with Ti protruding dots which have a conical shape. The conical islands are applied for use in DSC photoelectrodes. DSCs based on the conical islands of TiO2 nanotube arrays have the potential to achieve higher efficiency levels compared to DSCs based on normal TiO2 nanotubes and TiO2 nanoparticles because the conical islands of TiO2 nanotube arrays enlarge the surface area for dye adsorption. PMID:25852360

  10. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  11. Enhanced photovoltaic performance in TiO2/P3HT hybrid solar cell by interface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duofa, Wang; Haizheng, Tao; Xiujian, Zhao; Meiyan, Ji; Tianjin, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    A TiO2/P3HT hybrid solar cell was fabricated by infiltrating P3HT into the pores of TiO2 nanorod arrays. To further enhance the photovoltaic performance, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid was employed to modify the interface of TiO2/P3HT before P3HT was coated. Results revealed that the interface treatment significantly enhances the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The efficiency of the hybrid solar cells reaches 0.28% after interface modification, which is three times higher compared with the un-modified one. We find that except for the increased exciton dissociation efficiency recognized by the previous reports, the suppressing of electron back recombination is another important factor leading to the enhanced photovoltaic performance.

  12. Comparison of electrode structures and photovoltaic properties of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with TiO2 and Nb, Ge, Zr-added TiO2 composite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Shinya; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Eu, Seunghun; Oguro, Akane; Kang, Soonchul; Matano, Yoshihiro; Shishido, Tetsuya; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2006-12-19

    Electrode structures and photovoltaic properties of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with TiO2 and Nb-, Ge-, and Zr-added TiO2 composite electrodes were examined to disclose the effects of partial substitution of Ti atom by the other metals in the composite electrodes. The TiO2 and Nb-, Ge-, and Zr-added TiO2 composite electrodes were prepared by sol-gel process using laurylamine hydrochloride as a template for the formation of micellar precursors yielding well-defined mesoporous nanocrystalline structures, as in the cases of the formation of silica and titania tubules and nanoparticles by the templating mechanism. The TiO2 and Nb-, Ge-, and Zr-added TiO2 composite electrodes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and impedance measurements. The TiO2 anatase nanocrystalline structure is retained after doping a small amount (5 mol %) of Nb, Ge, or Zr into the TiO2 structure, suggesting the homogeneous distribution of the doped metals with replacing Ti atom by the doped metal. The power conversion efficiency of the porphyrin-sensitized solar cells increases in the order Zr-added TiO2 (0.8%) < Nb-added TiO2 (1.2%) < TiO2 (2.0%) < Ge-added TiO2 cells (2.4%) under the same conditions. The improvement of cell performance of the Ge-added TiO2 cell results from the negative shift of the conduction band of the Ge-added TiO2 electrode. The Ge-added TiO2 cell exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency of 3.5% when the porphyrin was adsorbed onto the surface of the Ge-added TiO2 electrode with a thickness of 4 microm in MeOH for 1 h. PMID:17154633

  13. Growth of seaweed-like TiO2 nanoarrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Hari; Jiang, Lei; Fu, Wuyou; Yuan, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Zongrui

    2010-10-01

    Seaweed-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoarrays (STNAs) were grown on the surface of a titanium (Ti) sheet by hydrogen peroxide sculpture at low temperature. After calcination, the STNA transformed to highly crystalline anatase phase and exhibited a vertically standing structure, with an average length of 1.35-2.12 μm, leaves breadth of about 30-80 nm, and leaves thickness of about 10-15 nm. STNA-electrode dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) fabricated with dye C106 achieved an efficiency of 3.2% under irradiation of 100 mWcm‒2 air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) sunlight. Further research showed that the STNA-electrode DSC has much lower recombination rate (Kr) and longer electron life time (τn), thus making this STNA a potential candidate of electrode for fabricating high performance DSC.

  14. Improvement in performances of dye-sensitized solar cell with SiO2-coated TiO2 photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Varishetty Madhu; Shimomura, Masaru; Murakami, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    The pure TiO2 and the nano-porous SiO2-coated TiO2 (STO) films were deposited on the FTO substrates by spray technique for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). XRD pattern shows the pure TiO2 and STO films exhibits the same structure. We found that there is no much difference in dye absorption between the STO and the pure TiO2 films. The electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that insulating nature of the porous SiO2 increases surface resistance of the TiO2 film and supresses back transfer of the photogenerated electrons to the electrolyte. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveal that the surface morphology and the existence of SiO2 layer on the surface of the TiO2 films, respectively. The photoelectrochemical results show that the short-circuit photocurrent (J(SC)) increased from 16.73 mA cm(-2) to 18.31 mA cm(-2) and the open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) value changed from 0.71 V to 0.74 V for the STO films. The efficiency of cell has been greatly improved from 8.25 to 9.3%. PMID:22523998

  15. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes aggregates produced by hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiufan; Sun, Xiaonan; Liu, Anping; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, detailed structural characterization of aggregated TiO2 nanotubes and the application of such aggregated TiO2 nanotubes as photoelectrodes in solar cells (dye sensitized DSCs). A maximum overall conversion efficiency of 7.9% has been achieved, which use conventional dyes without any additional chemical treatments under circumstances of an open-circuit voltage of 710 mV, a short-circuit current density of 16.8mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 66%. This impressive performance is believed to attribute to the micron-sized aggregate structure which may be favorable for light harvesting, the desired high specific surface area and pure anatase phase for dye absorption. This significant improvement in the conversion efficiency indicates that DSCs based on aggregated TiO2 nanotubes are a promising alternative to semiconductor-based solar cells.

  16. Improve efficiency of perovskite solar cells by using Magnesium doped ZnO and TiO2 compact layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baktash, Ardeshir; Amiri, Omid; Sasani, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Here the effect of Magnesium doped TiO2 and ZnO as hole blocking layers (HBLs) are investigated by using solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS). The Impact of Magnesium concentration into the TiO2 and ZnO and effect of operating temperature on the performance of the perovskite solar cell are investigated. Best cell performance for both TiO2 and ZnO HBLs (with cell efficiencies of 19.86% and 19.57% respectively) are concluded for the doping level of 10% of Mg into the structure of HBLs. Increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K are decreased the performance of the perovskite solar cell with both pure and Mg-doped HBLs. However, the cells with pure ZnO layer and with Zn0.9 Mg0.1O layer show the highest (with a decline of 8.88% in efficiency) and the lowest stability (with a decline of 50.49% in efficiency) at higher temperatures respectively. Moreover, the cell with Ti0.9 Mg0.1O2 layer shows better stability (with 21.85% reduction in efficiency) than the cell with pure TiO2 compact layer (with 23.28% reduction in efficiency) at higher operating temperatures.

  17. Electrospun hierarchical TiO2 nanorods with high porosity for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Teng-Long; Fan, Jie; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-09-25

    Ultraporous anatase TiO2 nanorods with a composite structure of mesopores and macropores fabricated via a simple microemulsion electrospinning approach were first used as photoanode materials for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The special multiscale porous structure was formed by using low-cost paraffin oil microemulsion droplets as the soft template, which can not only provide enhanced adsorption sites for dye molecules but also facilitate the electrolyte diffusion. The morphology, porosity, and photovoltaic and electron dynamic characteristics of the porous TiO2 nanorod based DSSCs were investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 sorption measurements, current density-voltage (J-V) curves, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS), and open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements. The results revealed that, although fewer amounts of dyes were anchored on the porous TiO2 nanorod films, they exhibited stronger light scattering ability, fast electrolyte diffusion, and extended electron lifetime compared to the commercial P25 nanoparticles. A power conversion efficiency of 6.07% was obtained for the porous TiO2 nanorod based DSSCs. Moreover, this value can be further improved to 8.53% when bilayer structured photoanode with porous TiO2 nanorods acting as the light scattering layer was constructed. This study demonstrated that the porous TiO2 nanorods can work as promising photoanode materials for DSSCs. PMID:23962052

  18. The effect of dye-sensitized solar cell based on the composite layer by anodic TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-12-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a three-step anodization process. Although the use of a one-dimensional structure provides an enhanced photoelectrical performance, the smaller surface area reduces the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of DSSCs constructed with a multilayer photoelectrode made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanotube arrays. We fabricated the novel multilayer photoelectrode via a layer-by-layer assembly process and thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on the sample efficiency. The DSSC with a four-layer photoelectrode exhibited a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.22% because of effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface.

  19. The effect of dye-sensitized solar cell based on the composite layer by anodic TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a three-step anodization process. Although the use of a one-dimensional structure provides an enhanced photoelectrical performance, the smaller surface area reduces the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of DSSCs constructed with a multilayer photoelectrode made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanotube arrays. We fabricated the novel multilayer photoelectrode via a layer-by-layer assembly process and thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on the sample efficiency. The DSSC with a four-layer photoelectrode exhibited a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.22% because of effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. PMID:25593557

  20. The effect of dye-sensitized solar cell based on the composite layer by anodic TiO2 nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a three-step anodization process. Although the use of a one-dimensional structure provides an enhanced photoelectrical performance, the smaller surface area reduces the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of DSSCs constructed with a multilayer photoelectrode made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanotube arrays. We fabricated the novel multilayer photoelectrode via a layer-by-layer assembly process and thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on the sample efficiency. The DSSC with a four-layer photoelectrode exhibited a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.22% because of effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. PMID:25593557

  1. Ultra-High Speed Fabrication of TiO2 Photoanode by Flash Light for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a new way to fabricate nanoporous TiO2 photoanode by flash light is demonstrated. TiO2 nanoparticles are sintered on FTO glass by flash light irradiation at room temperature in ambient condition, which is dramatically simple, ultrahigh speed and one-shot large area fabrication process compared to a conventional high temperature (120 °C) thermal sintering process. The effect of the flash light conditions (flash light energy, pulse numbers and pulse duration) on the nanostructures of sintered TiO2 layer, was studied and discussed using several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as SEM, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. The sintered TiO2 photoanodes by flash light were used in DSSC and its performance were compared with that of DSSC fabricated by conventional thermal sintering process. It was found that a flash light sintered TiO2 photoanode has efficiency which is similar to that of the thermal sintered photoanode. It is expected that the newly developed flash light sintering technique of TiO2 nanoparticles would be a strong alternative to realize the room temperature and in-situ sintering of photoanode fabrication for outdoor solar cell fabrication. PMID:26373072

  2. Influence of TiO2 coating thickness on energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, In-Kyu; Song, Yo-Seung; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were synthesized using a 0.25 cm2 area TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod layer as an electrode and platinum (Pt) as a counter electrode. The TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod layer was prepared by spin coating and spray coating on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass, respectively. The Pt counter electrode and the ruthenium dye anchored electrode were then assembled as a function of thickness of the TiO2 nanorod layer in a range of 8 to 30 µm. The best photovoltaic performance was observed in the case of a DSSC consisting of a 600 nm thick TiO2 nanoparticle layer and a 20 µm thick TiO2 nanorod layer: a short circuit current density of 11.54 mA·cm-2, open circuit voltage of 0.72V, fill factor of 61.2%, and energy conversion efficiency of 5.07%. A TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle electrode layer with good adhesion was successfully fabricated.

  3. High efficiency dye-sensitized solar cell based on novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle bilayer electrode

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Hoda; Lan, Zhang; Li, Qinghua; Wu, Jihuai

    2010-01-01

    High light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved by applying novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle (NR/NP) bilayer electrode in the N719 dye-sensitized solar cells. The short-circuit current density (JSC), the open-circuit voltage (VOC), the fill factor (FF), and the overall efficiency (η) were 14.45 mA/cm2, 0.756 V, 0.65, and 7.1%, respectively. The single-crystalline TiO2 NRs with length 200–500 nm and diameter 30–50 nm were prepared by simple hydrothermal methods. The dye-sensitized solar cells with pure TiO2 NR and pure TiO2 NP electrodes showed only a lower light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.4% and 5.8%, respectively, compared with single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. This can be attributed to the new NR/NP bilayer design that can possess the advantages of both building blocks, ie, the high surface area of NP aggregates and rapid electron transport rate and the light scattering effect of single-crystalline NRs. PMID:24198470

  4. Preparation of TiO2 nanotube/nanoparticle composite particles and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs] was enhanced by combining the use of TiO2 nanotubes [TNTs] and nanoparticles. TNTs were fabricated by a sol-gel method, and TiO2 powders were produced through an alkali hydrothermal transformation. DSSCs were constructed using TNTs and TiO2 nanoparticles at various weight percentages. TNTs and TiO2 nanoparticles were coated onto FTO glass by the screen printing method. The DSSCs were fabricated using ruthenium(II) (N-719) and electrolyte (I3/I3-) dyes. The crystalline structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and using a scanning electron microscope. The absorption spectra were measured using an UV-Vis spectrometer. The incident photocurrent conversion efficiency was measured using a solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). The DSSCs based on TNT/TiO2 nanoparticle hybrids showed better photovoltaic performance than cells made purely of TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:22222095

  5. Enhancement of TiO2 nanoparticle properties and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.; Lira-Cantú, Mónica; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-04-01

    A low-temperature hydrothermal process developed to synthesizes titania nanoparticles with controlled size. We investigate the effects of modifier substances, urea, on surface chemistry of titania (TiO2) nanopowder and its applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Treating the nanoparticles with a modifier solution changes its morphology, which allows the TiO2 nanoparticles to exhibit properties that differ from untreated TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained TiO2 nanoparticle electrodes characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM/HRTEM, UV-VIS Spectroscopy and FTIR. Experimental results indicate that the effect of bulk traps and the surface states within the TiO2 nanoparticle films using modifiers enhances the efficiency in DSSCs. Under 100-mW cm-2 simulated sunlight, the titania nanoparticles DSSC showed solar energy conversion efficiency = 4.6 %, with V oc = 0.74 V, J sc = 9.7324 mA cm-2, and fill factor = 71.35.

  6. A study of TiO2/carbon black composition as counter electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a systematic approach of TiO2/carbon black nanoparticles with respect to the loading amount in order to optimize the catalytic ability of triiodide reduction for dye-sensitized solar cells. In particular, the cell using an optimized TiO2 and carbon black electrode presents an energy conversion efficiency of 7.4% with a 5:1 ratio of a 40-nm TiO2 to carbon black. Based on the electrochemical analysis, the charge-transfer resistance of the carbon counter electrode changed based on the carbon black powder content. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry study show lower resistance compared to the Pt counter electrode. The obtained nanostructures and photo electrochemical study were characterized. PMID:23672498

  7. Electrophoretic deposited TiO(2) pigment-based back reflectors for thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bills, Braden; Morris, Nathan; Dubey, Mukul; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-02-01

    Highly reflective coatings with strong light scattering effect have many applications in optical components and optoelectronic devices. This work reports titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) pigment-based reflectors that have 2.5 times higher broadband diffuse reflection than commercially produced aluminum or silver based reflectors and result in efficiency enhancements of a single-junction amorphous Si solar cell. Electrophoretic deposition is used to produce pigment-based back reflectors with high pigment density, controllable film thickness and site-specific deposition. Electrical conductivity of the pigment-based back reflectors is improved by creating electrical vias throughout the pigment-based back reflector by making holes using an electrical discharge / dielectric breakdown approach followed by a second electrophoretic deposition of conductive nanoparticles into the holes. While previous studies have demonstrated the use of pigment-based back reflectors, for example white paint, on glass superstrate configured thin film Si solar cells, this work presents a scheme for producing pigment-based reflectors on complex shape and flexible substrates. Mechanical durability and scalability are demonstrated on a continuous electrophoretic deposition roll-to-roll system which has flexible metal substrate capability of 4 inch wide and 300 feet long. PMID:25836255

  8. Directly patterned TiO2 nanostructures for efficient light harvesting in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Sanjay K.; Rizzoli, Rita; Desta, Derese; Jeppesen, Bjarke R.; Bellettato, Michele; Samatov, Ivan; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Johannsen, Sabrina R.; Neuvonen, Pekka T.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pereira, Rui N.; Pedersen, Kjeld; Balling, Peter; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2015-09-01

    A novel, scalable, and low-cost strategy for fabricating sub-wavelength scale hierarchical nanostructures by direct patterning of TiO2 nanoparticles on glass substrates is reported. Two nanostructural designs of light-trapping back-surface reflectors (BSR) have been fabricated for increasing the photon-harvesting properties of thin-film solar cells: a quasi-periodic nano-crater design and a random nano-bump design. The efficient light-scattering properties of the nano-crater design over a broad wavelength range are demonstrated by the measured haze factor being larger than 40% at wavelengths (~700 nm) near the band edge of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H-based n-i-p solar cell fabricated with an only ~200 nm thick absorber layer on the nano-crater BSR shows a short-circuit current density (J sc) of ~16.1 mA cm-2 representing a 28% enhancement compared to the cell deposited on a non-textured flat substrate. Measurements of the external quantum efficiency of the cell fabricated on the quasi-periodic nano-crater surface at long wavelengths, λ  >  700 nm, demonstrate an increase of a factor of 5 relative to that of a flat reference solar cell. The theoretical modeling results of optical absorption corroborate well with the experimental findings and are used to identify the volumes of strong optical absorption in the a-Si:H active layer of the textured BSR devices.

  9. TiO2 nanocrystals coated rutile nanorod microspheres as the scattering layers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mengyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong

    2013-12-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals were deposited on the rutile TiO2 nanorod microspheres (NCRNMs) via the controlled hydrolysis and condensation of titanium (IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (TALH) in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). The anatase TiO2 nanocrystals prevented the growth of rutile TiO2 nanorod microspheres from sintering process. By coating of anatase nanocrystals, the decreasing of specific surface area of rutile TiO2 nanorod microspheres (RNMs) were efficiently inhibited. The specific surface area of NCRNM was 47.0 m2/g after sintering at 500 °C,which was 50% increment compared to RNM. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using the semitransparent underlayers and NCRNM scattering layers as the photoanodes. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis showed the DSSCs in the presence of NCRNMs adsorbed more dye molecules while kept a high light-harvesting efficiency. The cell covered with the NCRNM scattering layer had the efficiency of 7.33%, which was 20% increment compared to that of the absence one.

  10. Improvement in performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with porous TiO2 electrodes using squid ink particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Toshihiko; Nagai, Sakura; Ogasawara, Kou; Minato, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Mitsuo; Ueno, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    A potentially appealing alternative to the traditional fabrication process of TiO2 film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was presented by utilizing water-soluble TiO2 composite pastes containing size-controlled ink particles (SIPs) isolated from the squid. The mixture ratios of SIPs in the paste formulations affected the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The highest PCE was achieved when the mixture ratio of SIPs was 20%. The process is highly reproducible and leads to a 35% increase in PCE compared with that in the DSSC without SIP addition. The utilization of SIPs in the fabrication of TiO2 film electrodes enhanced the performance of DSSCs.

  11. Optimization of the TiO2-surface modification temperature for performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyung; Bae, Jae Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Do Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo

    2014-08-01

    A nanoporous TiO2 electrode was modified with magnesium salts (MSs), MgCO3 and Mg(CH3COO)2, by simple dip coating process at varied temperatures, and then applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When the surface treatment was conducted at 40 °C, the DSSC with MS-modified TiO2 layer showed an increase in short circuit current (JSC) and open circuit voltage (VOC), resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 8.52%, compared to that (7.02%) of reference device with bare TiO2. The improved JSC value was attributed to the increased dye adsorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dark current-voltage studies revealed that the VOC enhancement was caused by the suppression of charge recombination between injected electrons and I3(-) ions. PMID:25936010

  12. Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing TiO2 Nanostructured Photoanodes with Different Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro

    CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) were synthesized by adsorbing CdSe QDs onto TiO2 nanostructured electrodes with different morphologies, i.e., nanoparticles, nanotubes, and inverse opals. The optical absorption, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the QDSCs were characterized and the dependences of these properties on the QD deposition time and the TiO2 nanostructure are discussed. To improve the photovoltaic performance of the CdSe QDSCs, surface passivation with a ZnS coating was introduced and Cu2S counter electrodes were applied. All aspects of the photovoltaic performance, including the short-circuit photocurrent density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency, were found to be significantly improved by the surface modification with ZnS. For the counter electrode, the Cu2S electrode was demonstrated to be more efficient than platinum against the polysulfide electrolytes usually used as redox couples in CdSe QDSCs. Moreover, CdS QD adsorption on the TiO2 electrodes prior to CdSe QD adsorption also resulted in better solar cell performance. In addition, we found that the morphology of the TiO2 electrodes had a great influence on the photovoltaic properties of the QDSCs. Finally, a power conversion efficiency as high as 4.9% was achieved for a combined CdS/CdSe QDSC under solar illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  13. Photovoltaic study of dye sensitized solar cells based on TiO2, ZnO:Al3+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Godoy, H. E.; Rodríguez-Rojas, R. A.; Castañeda-Contreras, J.; Marañón-Ruiz, V. F.; Pérez-Ladrón de Guevara, H.; López-Luke, T.; De la Rosa-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    A technique to fabricate dye (rhodamine B) sensitized solar cells based on Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are reported. The TiO2 was synthesized using the sol-gel method and the ZnO was synthesized by hydrolysis method to obtain nanoparticles of ~ 5 nm and 150 nm respectively. ZnO was doped with Al3+ in order to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency to promote the electrons mobility. The photovoltaic conversion characterization of films of TiO2, ZnO and ZnO:Al3+ nanoparticles is also reported. The generated photocurrent was measured by two methods; one of those uses a three electrode electrochemical cell and the other use an electronic array where the cells were exposed to UV lamp and the sun light. The role of the TiO2, ZnO and Al3+ doped ZnO nanoparticles is discussed to obtain a better efficiency in the generation of photocurrent (PC). The results exhibited by the electrochemical cell method, efficiencies of 0.55 (PC=187 μA/cm2) and 0.22 (PC=149 μA/cm2) for TiO2 and undoped ZnO respectively. However, when ZnO is doped with Al3+ at the higher concentration the efficiency was 0.44. While using the electronic array the results exhibited efficiencies of 0.31 (PC=45 μA/cm2) and 0.09 (PC=16 μA/cm2) for TiO2 and undoped ZnO respectively. However, when ZnO is doped with Al3+ at the higher concentration the efficiency was 0.44 and 0.48 for electrochemical cell and electronic array respectively. This shows that Al3+ enhances the photogenerated charge carriers increasing the mobility of electrons.

  14. Recombination reduction on lead halide perovskite solar cells based on low temperature synthesized hierarchical TiO2 nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Solís de la Fuente, Mauricio; Sanchez, Rafael S; Recalde, Ileana B; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Rincón, Marina E; Mora-Seró, Iván

    2016-03-17

    Intensive research on the electron transport material (ETM) has been pursued to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and decrease their cost. More importantly, the role of the ETM layer is not yet fully understood, and research on new device architectures is still needed. Here, we report the use of three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 with a hierarchical architecture based on rutile nanorods (NR) as photoanode material for PSCs. The proposed hierarchical nanorod (HNR) films were synthesized by a two-step low temperature (180 °C) hydrothermal method, and consist of TiO2 nanorod trunks with optimal lengths of 540 nm and TiO2 nanobranches with lengths of 45 nm. Different device configurations were fabricated with TiO2 structures (compact layer, NR and HNR) and CH3NH3PbI3, using different synthetic routes, as the active material. PSCs based on HNR-CH3NH3PbI3 achieved the highest power conversion efficiency compared to PSCs with other TiO2 structures. This result can be ascribed mainly to lower charge recombination as determined by impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, we have observed that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite deposited by the two-step route shows higher efficiency, surface coverage and infiltration within the structure of 3D HNR than the one-step CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. PMID:26616491

  15. Shell-in-Shell TiO2 hollow microspheres and optimized application in light-trapping perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongxia; Ruan, Peng; Bao, Zhongqiu; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced light scattering ability were synthesized via a facile one step hydrothermal process. The diameter of the microsphere is about 1.5 μm, the core of the unique shell-in-shell structure is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of about 15 nm, while the shell is constructed with ∼50 nm TiO2 nanocubes. The hollow space between the outer shell and the inner shell is about 230 nm. The formation mechanism of the unique shell-in-shell structure is interpreted. The design and the optimized application of shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres in the light-trapping perovskite solar cells are also investigated. Owing to the light scattering properties of the shell-in-shell structure of the hollow microsphere, the optimized photoelectrode exhibits an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.29% using perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 as the sensitizer. The shell-in-shell hollow TiO2 microsphere shows a 21.2% increase in conversion efficiency when compared with P25 nanoparticels photoanode. The conversion efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the increase of short-current density induced by the light scattering effect.

  16. Controllable preparation of TiO2 nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2015-08-01

    TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO2 nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO2 nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO2 nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO2 NWAs (with a length of about 14 μm) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved.

  17. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing'Ao

    2015-07-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756?V, JSC of 14.80?mA/cm2, FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764?V, JSC of 6.86?mA/cm2, FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption.

  18. NiO-decorated mesoporous TiO2 flowers for an improved photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jian; Chen, Angran; Cui, Houlei; Xie, Yian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-02-21

    Reducing light-induced e-h recombination is important for a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC); the p-type NiO component in TiO2-NiO nanoparticles was reported to significantly decrease charge recombination, but its photovoltaic efficiency remains below 4% owing to a small surface area. In this work, we used a one-pot self-assembly process to fabricate flower-like mesoporous TiO2 decorated by NiO oxides, employing a pluronic polymer P123 as a structure directing and pore forming agent. The flower-like porous TiO2-NiO nanoparticles (F-TiO2-NiO NPs), possessing a high BET surface of 130 m(2) g(-1), are first used as a photoanode in DSSCs. These hybrid nanoparticles, decorated with NiO islands, are beneficial for improving photocurrent by increasing dye absorption and suppressing electron-hole recombination. The optimized F-TiO2-NiO NP anode (10 μm thick) achieved a power conversion efficiency of 8.20%, which is 26% and 47% higher than pristine flower-like TiO2 and commercially available P25 anodes, respectively. This efficiency is the highest among the reported TiO2-NiO hybrid anodes. PMID:25600889

  19. Effect of TiO2 Particle Size on the Performance of Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-yu; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Yang, O-bong

    2015-09-01

    The size TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled by changing the concentration of titanium tetraisopropanolate (TTIP) and utilized as light scattering particles in the efficient flexible photoelectrodes for flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The flexible photoelectrodes were prepared by TiO2 nanoparticles (-25 nm) paste with different concentrations of ethanolic TTIP solution. The addition of TTIP produced the bigger TiO2 nanoparticles, which significantly enhanced the dye absorption of flexible TiO2 photoelectrode. The fabricated flexible DSSCs showed the reasonable conversion efficiency of 2.50% with short circuit current (J(sc)) of 6.3 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.720 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.55. The improvement in photovoltaic performance with 25 wt% TTIP might due to uniform distribution of small TiO2 nanoparticles over the big particles to lead the enhancement in the surface area, resulting in the high dye absorption and light harvesting efficiency. PMID:26716227

  20. Sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical spheres for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bing-Xin; Zeng, Li-Li; Zhang, Ping; Qiao, He-Kang; Sun, Zhen-Fan

    2014-05-01

    The sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical spheres are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using polyethylene glycol 600 as stabilized reagent, (NH4)2TiF6 and urea as starting materials at 180 °C. The characterizations show that the TiO2 hierarchical sphere has well-defined pyramid-shaped crystal facets. The as-prepared TiO2 hierarchical spheres are crystalline of the anatase phase, with a diameter of about 2-4 μm and a surface area of 36.846 m2 g-1. The optical investigation evidences that the sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical sphere film exhibits a prominent light scattering effect at a wavelength range of 600-800 nm due to the unique hierarchical morphology. Furthermore, the sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical spheres are deposited as the scattering layer to balance the dye adsorption and light scattering effect in DSSCs and a 7.20% solar energy conversion efficiency is demonstrated, indicating an improvement compared with the P25 cell (6.68%). Based on the optical and electrochemical investigations, the high conversion efficiency is mainly due to the effective suppression of the back reaction of the injected electron with the I3- in the electrolyte and excellent light scattering ability.

  1. Hierarchically structured microspheres for high-efficiency rutile TiO(2)-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Meidan; Zheng, Dajiang; Wang, Mengye; Chen, Chang; Liao, Wenming; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-02-26

    Peachlike rutile TiO2 microsphere films were successfully produced on transparent conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate via a facile, one-pot chemical bath route at low temperature (T = 80-85 °C) by introducing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as steric dispersant. The formation of TiO2 microspheres composed of nanoneedles was attributed to the acidic medium for the growth of 1D needle-shaped building blocks where the steric interaction of PEG reduced the aggregation of TiO2 nanoneedles and the Ostwald ripening process. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled by employing these complex rutile TiO2 microspheres as photoanodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.55%. It was further improved to a considerably high efficiency of 5.25% upon a series of post-treatments (i.e., calcination, TiCl4 treatment, and O2 plasma exposure) as a direct consequence of the well-crystallized TiO2 for fast electron transport, the enhanced capacity of dye loading, the effective light scattering, and trapping from microstructures. PMID:24467178

  2. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756 V, JSC of 14.80 mA/cm2, FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764 V, JSC of 6.86 mA/cm2, FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption. PMID:26190140

  3. Characterization of sprayed TiO2 on ITO substrates for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, A; Dhanapandian, S; Manoharan, C; Sridhar, R

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films had been deposited with various substrate temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique onto ITO substrates. All films exhibited polycrystalline nature with the preferred orientation along (101) plane. At the substrate temperature 450 °C, the film favored the formation of anatase phase. The higher substrate temperature (475 °C) favored the appearance of rutile structure. The SEM image of the film at substrate temperature (Ts=450 °C) showed high structural quality with the porous nature. The typical AFM image of TiO2 film deposited at the substrate temperature, 450 °C depicted the regular arrangement of fine closely packed tetragonal structured grains. The transmittance of the spectra exhibited above 85% with energy band gap of 3.6 eV. From the study of photoluminescence, the emission at 417 nm, 437 nm and with weak emission at 551 nm was observed, which confirmed the lesser defects in the samples. The electrical resistivity was found to be 6.856×10(1) Ω cm for the substrate temperature 450 °C. The efficiency of anatase TiO2 photoelectrode deposited at the substrate temperature 450 °C based cell was much higher than the efficiency of TiO2 photoelectrode deposited at the substrate temperature 475 °C based cell. PMID:26004100

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanoparticles/nanobelts double-layered film with improved photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiajie; Li, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Wenyuan; Miao, Yucong; Zhang, Yaojia; Hu, Junhua; Shao, Guosheng

    2014-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using double layers of nano-structured TiO2 films as photoanodes. Different anode architectures of double-layered TiO2 films were fabricated in order to study the structural effect of photoanodes on the solar cell efficiency. The performances of DSSCs based on composite photoanodes in the forms of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanobelts (TiO2 P-B), TiO2 nanoparticles/nanoparticles (TiO2 P-P), TiO2 nanobelts/nanobelts (TiO2 B-B) double-layered electrodes with the same film thicknesses were studied in detail, and their corresponding efficiencies were 4.81%, 3.55% and 0.36%. The work shows that significant improvement of efficiency can be achieved through combined enhancement in optical scattering using the TiO2 nanobelts and high dye absorbing capacity of the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  5. Effect of TiO2 nanotubes with TiCl4 treatment on the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meen, Teen-Hang; Jhuo, Yi-Ting; Chao, Shi-Mian; Lin, Nung-Yi; Ji, Liang-Wen; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Chen, Wen-Ray; Water, Walter; Huang, Chien-Jung

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we used the electrochemical anodization to prepare TiO2 nanotube arrays and applied them on the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. In the field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis, the lengths of TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by electrochemical anodization can be obtained with approximately 10 to 30 μm. After titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment, the walls of TiO2 nanotubes were coated with TiO2 nanoparticles. XRD patterns showed that the oxygen-annealed TiO2 nanotubes have a better anatase phase. The conversion efficiency with different lengths of TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes is 3.21%, 4.35%, and 4.34% with 10, 20, and 30 μm, respectively. After TiCl4 treatment, the efficiency of TiO2 nanotube photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cell can be improved up to 6.58%. In the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the value of R k (charge transfer resistance related to recombination of electrons) decreases from 26.1 to 17.4 Ω when TiO2 nanotubes were treated with TiCl4. These results indicate that TiO2 nanotubes treated with TiCl4 can increase the surface area of TiO2 nanotubes, resulting in the increase of dye adsorption and have great help for the increase of the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  6. Effect of TiO2 nanotubes with TiCl4 treatment on the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meen, Teen-Hang; Jhuo, Yi-Ting; Chao, Shi-Mian; Lin, Nung-Yi; Ji, Liang-Wen; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Chen, Wen-Ray; Water, Walter; Huang, Chien-Jung

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the electrochemical anodization to prepare TiO2 nanotube arrays and applied them on the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. In the field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis, the lengths of TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by electrochemical anodization can be obtained with approximately 10 to 30 μm. After titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment, the walls of TiO2 nanotubes were coated with TiO2 nanoparticles. XRD patterns showed that the oxygen-annealed TiO2 nanotubes have a better anatase phase. The conversion efficiency with different lengths of TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes is 3.21%, 4.35%, and 4.34% with 10, 20, and 30 μm, respectively. After TiCl4 treatment, the efficiency of TiO2 nanotube photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cell can be improved up to 6.58%. In the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the value of Rk (charge transfer resistance related to recombination of electrons) decreases from 26.1 to 17.4 Ω when TiO2 nanotubes were treated with TiCl4. These results indicate that TiO2 nanotubes treated with TiCl4 can increase the surface area of TiO2 nanotubes, resulting in the increase of dye adsorption and have great help for the increase of the conversion efficiency of DSSCs. PMID:23092158

  7. The effect of TiO2 nanoflowers as a compact layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Srinivasa; Durga, I Kanaka; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata Tulasivarma, Chebrolu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-07-28

    Currently, TiO2 on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate is the most commonly used type of photoelectrode in high-efficiency quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of TiO2 photoelectrodes is limited because of higher charge recombination and lower QD loading on the TiO2 film. This article describes the effect of a TiO2 compact layer on a TiO2 film to enhance the performance of QDSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on an FTO substrate by the doctor-blade method and then the TiO2 compact layer was successfully fabricated on the surface of the nanoparticles by a simple hydrothermal method. QDSSCs were made using these films as photoelectrodes with NiS counter electrodes. Under one sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)), the QDSSCs showed PCEs of 2.19 and 2.93% for TCL1 and TCL2 based photoelectrodes, which are higher than the 1.33% value obtained with bare TiO2. The compact-layer-coated film electrodes provide a lower charge-transfer resistance and higher light harvesting. The compact layer on the TiO2 film is a more efficient photocatalyst than pure TiO2 film and physically separates the injected electrons in the TiO2 from the positively charged CdS QD/electrolyte. PMID:26102365

  8. Perovskite solar cell based on network nanoporous layer consisted of TiO2 nanowires and its interface optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Hong; Ke, Weijun; Wang, Jing; Liu, Qin; Wan, Jiawei; Yang, Guang; Fang, Guojia

    2015-09-01

    Anatase TiO2 film with 3D network nanoporous structure consisted of 1D nanowires is obtained on SnO2:F (FTO) glass substrate by in-situ hydrothermal synthesis and applied in mesoporous perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell. A thin Ti film is deposited on FTO substrate by magnetron sputtering before the hydrothermal treatment with sodium hydroxide solution. Then, a layer of network nanoporous TiO2 (NT) film is formed. The efficiency of perovskite solar cell based on this 3D structure with one-step sintering can be optimized to 9.19%. The NT film consisted of 1D TiO2 nanowires is beneficial to the transmission of charge carriers and the infiltration of hole transport material. And this one-step sintering process can reduce the interface defects and enhance the fill factor of the device. Then, we further optimize the surface of NT layer through TiCl4 post-treatment. The post-treatment can optimize the carrier separation and the deposition of perovskite layer, thus improving the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of perovskite solar cell. As a result, the value of Jsc gets an enhancement of 45.63% and the efficiency of perovskite solar cell reaches up to 12.78%.

  9. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. PMID:24107414

  10. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  11. Effect of TiO2 rutile nanorods on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the electron transport on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells, one-dimensional rutile nanorods were prepared using electrospun TiO2 nanofibers. The grain size of the nanorods increased with increasing temperature. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed reduced interface resistance of the cells with the one-dimensional rutile nanorods due to the improved electron transport and the enhanced electrolyte penetration. Intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy showed that the one-dimensional rutile nanorods provided the electrons with a moving pathway and suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electrons. However, an excessive quantity of rutile nanorods created an obstacle to the electrons moving in the TiO2 thin film. The photoelectrode with 7 wt.% rutile nanorods optimized the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:23331863

  12. 3-D TiO2 nanoparticle/ITO nanowire nanocomposite antenna for efficient charge collection in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gill Sang; Lee, Sangwook; Noh, Jun Hong; Chung, Hyun Suk; Park, Jong Hoon; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2014-05-01

    TiO2 nanoparticle (NP)/ITO nanowire (NW) nanocomposites for use as photoelectrode materials were fabricated to improve the charge collection efficiency in solid state dye sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). The average current density for ss-DSSCs containing TiO2 NP/ITO NW arrays was 7.2 mA cm-2 that was 98% higher than that for the conventional TiO2 NP ss-DSSCs. The intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) studies exhibited that the electron diffusion length of TiO2 NP/ITO-NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs was in the range of 4.3-5.6 μm, longer than that of TiO2 NP solar cells (2.6-4.1 μm). The longer diffusion length was responsible for the boosted current densities of TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs. We also employed the TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite photoelectrode to inorganic-organic perovskite solar cells whose energy conversion efficiency was 7.5%.TiO2 nanoparticle (NP)/ITO nanowire (NW) nanocomposites for use as photoelectrode materials were fabricated to improve the charge collection efficiency in solid state dye sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). The average current density for ss-DSSCs containing TiO2 NP/ITO NW arrays was 7.2 mA cm-2 that was 98% higher than that for the conventional TiO2 NP ss-DSSCs. The intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) studies exhibited that the electron diffusion length of TiO2 NP/ITO-NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs was in the range of 4.3-5.6 μm, longer than that of TiO2 NP solar cells (2.6-4.1 μm). The longer diffusion length was responsible for the boosted current densities of TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs. We also employed the TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite photoelectrode to inorganic-organic perovskite solar cells whose energy conversion efficiency was 7.5%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of a 3-D TiO2 nanoparticle (NP)/ITO nanowire (NW) nanocomposite photoelectrode, photovoltaic properties, J-V curves for the best performance cells, and the plot of dye loading vs. active layer thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00621f

  13. Niobium Doping Effects on TiO2 Mesoscopic Electron Transport Layer-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gill Sang; Seong, Won Mo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Byeong Jo; Park, Nam-Gyu; Hong, Kug Sun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-07-20

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the most promising candidates as next-generation solar energy conversion systems. To design a highly efficient PSC, understanding electronic properties of mesoporous metal oxides is essential. Herein, we explore the effect of Nb doping of TiO2 on electronic structure and photovoltaic properties of PSCs. Light Nb doping (0.5 and 1.0 at %) increased the optical band gap slightly, but heavy doping (5.0 at %) distinctively decreased it. The relative Fermi level position of the conduction band is similar for the lightly Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) and the undoped TiO2 whereas that of the heavy doped NTO decreased by as much as ∼0.3 eV. The lightly doped NTO-based PSCs exhibit 10 % higher efficiency than PSCs based on undoped TiO2 (from 12.2 % to 13.4 %) and 52 % higher than the PSCs utilizing heavy doped NTO (from 8.8 % to 13.4 %), which is attributed to fast electron injection/transport and preserved electron lifetime, verified by transient photocurrent decay and impedance studies. PMID:25891531

  14. One-step growth of well-aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxu; Tang, Qunwei; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xinghui; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-02-01

    We present here the feasibility of growing well-aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays by a dc reactive magnetron sputtering strategy for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. These flexible devices yield an efficiency of 5.3% in comparison to 1.2% from traditional TiO2 nanoparticles by a low-temperature technique. PMID:25531300

  15. Ag nanoparticle-deposited TiO2 nanotube arrays for electrodes of Dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Go; Ohmi, Hayato; Tan, Wai Kian; Lockman, Zainovia; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2015-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells composed of a photoanode of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-deposited TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated. The TNT arrays were prepared by anodizing Ti films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Efficient charge transportation through the ordered nanostructure of TNT arrays should be carried out compared to conventional particulate TiO2 electrodes. However, it has been a big challenge to grow TNT arrays on FTO glass substrates with the lengths needed for sufficient light-harvesting (tens of micrometers). In this work, we deposited Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the wall of TNT arrays to enhance light-harvesting property. Dye-sensitized solar cells with these Ag NP-deposited TNT arrays yielded a higher power conversion efficiency (2.03 %) than those without Ag NPs (1.39 %).

  16. Enhanced electronic properties in mesoporous TiO2 via lithium doping for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Fabrizio; Abate, Antonio; Correa Baena, Juan Pablo; Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Im, Sang Hyuk; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Hagfeldt, Anders; Graetzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies with their extraordinary progress in efficiency and the simple processes required to produce them. However, the frequent presence of a pronounced hysteresis in the current voltage characteristic of these devices arises concerns on the intrinsic stability of organo-metal halides, challenging the reliability of technology itself. Here, we show that n-doping of mesoporous TiO2 is accomplished by facile post treatment of the films with lithium salts. We demonstrate that the Li-doped TiO2 electrodes exhibit superior electronic properties, by reducing electronic trap states enabling faster electron transport. Perovskite solar cells prepared using the Li-doped films as scaffold to host the CH3NH3PbI3 light harvester produce substantially higher performances compared with undoped electrodes, improving the power conversion efficiency from 17 to over 19% with negligible hysteretic behaviour (lower than 0.3%).

  17. Enhanced electronic properties in mesoporous TiO2 via lithium doping for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Fabrizio; Abate, Antonio; Correa Baena, Juan Pablo; Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Im, Sang Hyuk; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Hagfeldt, Anders; Graetzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies with their extraordinary progress in efficiency and the simple processes required to produce them. However, the frequent presence of a pronounced hysteresis in the current voltage characteristic of these devices arises concerns on the intrinsic stability of organo-metal halides, challenging the reliability of technology itself. Here, we show that n-doping of mesoporous TiO2 is accomplished by facile post treatment of the films with lithium salts. We demonstrate that the Li-doped TiO2 electrodes exhibit superior electronic properties, by reducing electronic trap states enabling faster electron transport. Perovskite solar cells prepared using the Li-doped films as scaffold to host the CH3NH3PbI3 light harvester produce substantially higher performances compared with undoped electrodes, improving the power conversion efficiency from 17 to over 19% with negligible hysteretic behaviour (lower than 0.3%). PMID:26758549

  18. Enhanced electronic properties in mesoporous TiO2 via lithium doping for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Fabrizio; Abate, Antonio; Correa Baena, Juan Pablo; Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Im, Sang Hyuk; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Hagfeldt, Anders; Graetzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies with their extraordinary progress in efficiency and the simple processes required to produce them. However, the frequent presence of a pronounced hysteresis in the current voltage characteristic of these devices arises concerns on the intrinsic stability of organo-metal halides, challenging the reliability of technology itself. Here, we show that n-doping of mesoporous TiO2 is accomplished by facile post treatment of the films with lithium salts. We demonstrate that the Li-doped TiO2 electrodes exhibit superior electronic properties, by reducing electronic trap states enabling faster electron transport. Perovskite solar cells prepared using the Li-doped films as scaffold to host the CH3NH3PbI3 light harvester produce substantially higher performances compared with undoped electrodes, improving the power conversion efficiency from 17 to over 19% with negligible hysteretic behaviour (lower than 0.3%). PMID:26758549

  19. Universal Features of Electron Dynamics in Solar Cells with TiO2 Contact: From Dye Solar Cells to Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Todinova, Anna; Idígoras, Jesús; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Anta, Juan A

    2015-10-01

    The electron dynamics of solar cells with mesoporous TiO2 contact is studied by electrochemical small-perturbation techniques. The study involved dye solar cells (DSC), solid-state perovskite solar cells (SSPSC), and devices where the perovskite acts as sensitizer in a liquid-junction device. Using a transport-recombination continuity equation we found that mid-frequency time constants are proper lifetimes that determine the current-voltage curve. This is not the case for the SSPSC, where a lifetime of ∼1 μs, 1 order of magnitude longer, is required to reproduce the current-voltage curve. This mismatch is attributed to the dielectric response on the mid-frequency component. Correcting for this effect, lifetimes lie on a common exponential trend with respect to open-circuit voltage. Electron transport times share a common trend line too. This universal behavior of lifetimes and transport times suggests that the main difference between the cells is the power to populate the mesoporous TiO2 contact with electrons. PMID:26704621

  20. Enhanced electron transport in mesoporous TiO2 films modified by sol-gel necking for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    An, Sang-Yeop; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Chel-Jong; Kim, Hyunsoo; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2012-04-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 films modified via sol-gel necking were fabricated by dispersing Ti tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP; 8 to 16 wt% over TiO2) with TiO2 nanoparticles in isopropyl alcohol. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with 13 wt% TTIP-modified TiO2 film exhibited significantly improved overall energy conversion efficiency, despite having less adsorbed dye when compared with DSSCs with untreated and TiCl4 post-treated TiO2 films. The improvement can be attributed to the sol-gel necking (or interconnection) between the nanoparticles which leads to a much faster electron transport and a suppression of the recombination (or back electron transfer) between the TiO2 and electrolyte. PMID:22849132

  1. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cell based on ultrathin 2D TiO2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Putao; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yan; Qin, Yiying; Sun, Xiao Wei; Li, Wenqin; Wang, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanostructures with a thickness of ∼5 nm and a specific surface area of 257.3 m2 g-1 were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The 2D TiO2 nanostructures and P25 nanoparticles were introduced as scattering layer and underlayer to construct a bi-layer photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The as-prepared DSSC exhibits an enhanced power conversion efficiency (5.14%), which is 23.9% higher than that of pure P25 DSSC (4.15%). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicates that DSSC based on P25-2D TiO2 nanostructures shows a longer life time and a larger recombination resistance. The enhanced photovoltaic properties are attributed to the excellent light scattering capability and high capacity for dye adsorption of 2D TiO2 nanostructures, which makes them a promising candidate as an efficient scattering layer in high-performance DSSCs.

  2. Bilayer inverse opal TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells via post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ju-Hwan; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2011-05-17

    We investigated the formation of bilayer inverse opal TiO(2) (io-TiO(2)) structures via post-treatment with a TiO(2) precursor solution and characterized the photovoltaic performances of the resulting electrodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. The post-treatment of TiO(2) inverse opals in a precursor solution grew rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles on anatase crystalline phase io-TiO(2) surfaces, resulting in anatase/rutile bilayer structures. We achieved a maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 4.6% using a 25 ?m thick electrode formed with the post-treated io-TiO(2) under simulated AM 1.5 light. This efficiency represents a 183% improvement over the non-post-treated io-TiO(2) electrodes. The shell thickness was controlled by the post-treatment time. The effects of shell thickness on photovoltaic performance were investigated by measuring the morphologies and electrochemical impedance of the post-treated io-TiO(2). We found that post-treatment up to a certain period of time increased the surface area and electron lifetime, but further treatment resulted in decreased area and saturated lifetimes. The optimal post-treatment time was identified, and the optimal io-TiO(2) electrodes were characterized. PMID:21488619

  3. Conical islands of TiO2 nanotube arrays in the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Rae; Park, Hun; Choi, Won-Youl

    2015-02-01

    Ti conical island structures were fabricated using photolithography and the reactive ion etching method. The resulting conical island structures were anodized in ethylene glycol solution containing 0.25 wt% NH4F and 2 vol% H2O, and conical islands composed of TiO2 nanotubes were successfully formed on the Ti foils. The conical islands composed of TiO2 nanotubes were employed in photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). DSC photoelectrodes based on planar Ti structures covered with TiO2 nanotubes were also fabricated as a reference. The short-circuit current ( J sc) and efficiency of DSCs based on the conical island structures were higher than those of the reference samples. The efficiency of DSCs based on the conical island structures reached up to 1.866%. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage ( V oc) decay measurements, DSCs based on the conical island structures exhibited a lower charge transfer resistance at the counter cathode and a longer electron lifetime at the interface of the photoelectrode and electrolyte compared to the reference samples. The conical island structure was very effective at improving performances of DSCs based on TiO2 nanotubes.

  4. Performance and stability studies of inverted polymer solar cells with TiO2 film as a buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ruixiang; Yang, Feng; Ouyang, Xinhua; Liu, Ying; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ge, Ziyi

    2014-02-01

    TiO2 based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag presented excellent air stabilities,; the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices exhibited only 15 % decay as compared to the highest value while being exposed in air-condition for more than 20 days. Interestingly, an overall enhancement of PCE from 3.5 % to 3.9 % was observed while the PSCs were exposed in air-condition up to 3 days; the improvement of performance was attributed to the TiO2 films' oxygen and water protection effect and the oxidation of Ag, which will benefit to form an effective work function match with the HOMO of P3HT leading to improved ohmic contact. However, the performance slowly decreased when the exposure time remains longer due to the physical adsorbed oxygen. UV-ozone treatment on the TiO2 films' leads to the formation of a metal-deficient oxide that results in a decreased PCE for the devices. Finally, X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the compositional changes of the TiO2 films while they were exposed in air-condition or treated by UV-ozone.

  5. Effects of compression at elevated temperature for electrophorically deposited TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamimul Haque Choudhury, Md.; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of commercially available nanometer-sized titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (anatase, ST01) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates. The rate of cathodic electrophoretic deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle agglomerates and the density of the obtained films were explored as a function of the applied electric field, keeping optimized suspension compositions, such as the particle concentration and the type of solvent. Optimized deposition conditions were found to result in homogeneous, well-controlled, mesoporous TiO2 thick-film photoanodes. Compression of the prepared glass substrate TiO2 photoanode at elevated temperature was commenced as a promising postdeposition surface treatment. The photovoltaic performance characteristics of DSSC prepared by this method were found to be considerably improved compared with those of DSSCs prepared by high-temperature postannealing and compression at room temperature. Surface morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and significant improvement was observed after compression as well as compression at elevated temperature.

  6. Bilayer hollow/spindle-like anatase TiO2 photoanode for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanxi; Zhu, Xunjin; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-03-01

    Derived from a hollow TiO2 nanoparticle (HNP) as underlayer and a TiO2 spindle (SP) as light scattering overlayer, a new bilayer single-crystalline photoanode (HNP/SP) is fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The prepared bilayer TiO2 photoanode and two comparative HNP/HNP and SP/SP ones are fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. An overall photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.65% has been achieved for HNP/SP DSSC, which is 25% higher than that of HNP/HNP DSSC, and also far superior to that of SP/SP or conventional P25 DSSC. The improved photovoltaic performance of HNP/SP DSSC is attributed to the synergic effects, i.e. the single-crystalline bilayer structure favoring for rapid interfacial electron transport, the relatively large specific surface area of HNP for effective dye adsorption, and the 1D geometry of single-crystalline TiO2 spindles for direct electron transport pathway and strong light scattering effect.

  7. Copper and nitrogen doping on TiO2 photoelectrodes and their functions in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Yong; Kim, Chan-Soo; Okuyama, Kikuo; Lee, Hye-Moon; Jang, Hee-Dong; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Oh

    2016-02-01

    The influence of Cu doping on the function of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) dependent on Cu/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes was examined. Cu/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes with diverse Cu concentration were synthesized using the sol-gel process. Upon adequate addition of Cu, the nanoparticles exhibited small particle sizes, high surface area, and a significant red alteration of their absorption to the visible region in relation to Degussa P25 nanomaterials. Furthermore, the traces of Cu/N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the charge transfer and reduced the charge recombination. The addition of sufficient Cu and N increased the surface area, elevating the dye adsorption degree, and decreasing the level of electron recombination. A DSSC fabricated with a 1 mM Cu/N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles accomplished 11.35% of the highest power conversion efficiency, with a short-circuit current of 22.5 mA/cm2. The energy conversion efficiency of this photoelectrode was approximately 37% greater than that of the control, Degussa P25. The increased energy efficiency can be resulted from the extension in surface area, which enabled larger dye charging amount, and the deduction in charge recombination, which accelerated the charge transfer.

  8. Contributions of Ag Nanowires to the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency Enhancement of TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyu; She, Guangwei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Mu, Lixuan; Wang, Xuesong; Shi, Wensheng

    2015-09-01

    Ag nanowires (AgNWs) were employed in mesoporous TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The possible reasons for PCE improvement, i.e., improvement in electron transport and light harvesting due to light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect of AgNWs are investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) study proved that addition of AgNWs can enhance the conductivity of TiO2 thin film photoanode, which is an important reason for the increase of photocurrent. Furthermore, through the comparison experiments as well as the UV-Vis absorption and IPCE characterization, contributions of the light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect to the enhancement of light harvest, and thus PCE of the DSSCs were demonstrated. It was found that fast electron transport of AgNWs played more important role for the PCE improvement than the light harvest enhancement due to light scattering and plasmonic effect. Based on these investigations, the AgNWs modified TiO2 thin film DSSCs were optimized. After integrating AgNWs into the photoanode, the photocurrent increased significantly and PCE increased -50% comparing with the pure TiO2-based DSSCs. PMID:26716285

  9. Preferred Molecular Orientation of Coumarin 343 on TiO2 Surfaces: Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    McCree-Grey, Jonathan; Cole, Jacqueline M; Evans, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The dye···TiO2 interfacial structure in working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is known to influence its photovoltaic device performance. Despite this, direct and quantitative reports of such structure remain sparse. This case study presents the application of X-ray reflectometry to determine the preferred structural orientation and molecular packing of the organic dye, Coumarin 343, adsorbed onto amorphous TiO2. Results show that the dye molecules are, on average, tilted by 61.1° relative to the TiO2 surface, and are separated from each other by 8.2 Å. These findings emulate the molecular packing arrangement of a monolayer of Coumarin 343 within its crystal structure. This suggests that the dye adsorbs onto TiO2 in one of its lowest energy configurations; that is, dye···TiO2 self-assembly is driven more by thermodynamic rather than kinetic means. Complementary DSC device tests illustrate that this interfacial structure compromises photovoltaic performance, unless a suitably sized coadsorbant is interdispersed between the Coumarin 343 chromophores on the TiO2 surface. PMID:26159229

  10. Dual Functional TiO2-Au Nanocomposite Material for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Pandikumar, A; Suresh, S; Murugesan, S; Ramaraj, R

    2015-09-01

    Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite ((TiO2-Au)(nps)) materials dispersed in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer electrolyte are employed as solid-state electrolytes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing nanocrystalline TiO2 nanoparticle (P25) or (P25-Au)(nps) thin film photoanode adsorbed with a near-IR dye sensitizer, nickel-phthalocyanine (NiPcTs). The photocurrent-photovoltage characteristics of the DSSCs are evaluated under standard AM 1.5 G simulated solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The (TiO2-Au)(nps) nanocomposite material incorporated into the PDDA polymer electrolyte promotes interfacial charge transfer process, reduces crystallinity of the polymer electrolyte and enhances mobility of the /-/I3- redox couple, which are resulted in -6-fold increase in the overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency when compared to the unmodified polymer electrolyte based DSSC. When the P25 photoanode is replaced with the (P25-Au)(nps) photoanode, a further 8-fold increase in the overall energy conversion efficiency is achieved, owing to the increas in the charge transport through the photoanode. The photovoltaic performance of the present DSSC configuration is also compared with that of a cell sensitized by using standard N719 dye. PMID:26716269

  11. Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3: role of interconnectivity of TiO2 in charge collection.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Kim, Hui-Seon; Jang, In-Hyuk; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-03-17

    Perovskite solar cells with high power conversion efficiency usually employ mesoporous TiO2, however the role of the TiO2 layer has not been clearly resolved. Here we prepared MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3 to investigate the role of the mesoporous TiO2 layer. The Al2O3 content was varied from 0% (pure TiO2) to 100% (pure Al2O3) with nominal composition of (1 - x)TiO2 + xAl2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The photocurrent density and fill factor decreased as Al2O3 content increased, whereas the open-circuit voltage was hardly changed. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) was less quenched as the Al2O3 content increased due to its non-electron-injecting characteristics, where a decrease in PL intensity with increasing TiO2 content was correlated to an increase in photocurrent. Electron injection to TiO2 was also evidenced by time-resolved PL and time-limited photocurrent measurements, where interconnection of TiO2 particles played an important role in charge collection. The slight change in voltage with Al2O3 content was explained by balancing the Fermi position due to a trade-off between charge recombination and the Fermi level. The results observed from the admixture mesoporous layer comprising electron-injecting and electron-non-injecting oxides suggest that electron-injection characteristics play an important role in determining photovoltaic parameters. PMID:26583830

  12. Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3: role of interconnectivity of TiO2 in charge collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Kim, Hui-Seon; Jang, In-Hyuk; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite solar cells with high power conversion efficiency usually employ mesoporous TiO2, however the role of the TiO2 layer has not been clearly resolved. Here we prepared MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3 to investigate the role of the mesoporous TiO2 layer. The Al2O3 content was varied from 0% (pure TiO2) to 100% (pure Al2O3) with nominal composition of (1 - x)TiO2 + xAl2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The photocurrent density and fill factor decreased as Al2O3 content increased, whereas the open-circuit voltage was hardly changed. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) was less quenched as the Al2O3 content increased due to its non-electron-injecting characteristics, where a decrease in PL intensity with increasing TiO2 content was correlated to an increase in photocurrent. Electron injection to TiO2 was also evidenced by time-resolved PL and time-limited photocurrent measurements, where interconnection of TiO2 particles played an important role in charge collection. The slight change in voltage with Al2O3 content was explained by balancing the Fermi position due to a trade-off between charge recombination and the Fermi level. The results observed from the admixture mesoporous layer comprising electron-injecting and electron-non-injecting oxides suggest that electron-injection characteristics play an important role in determining photovoltaic parameters.

  13. Effect of nitrogen doping on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells composed of mesoporous TiO2 photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ki Heon; Yun, Tae Kwan; Hong, Jin-Yeon; Bae, Jae Young; Huh, Seong; Won, Yong Sun

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous TiO2 (NMP TiO2) nanoparticles are synthesized using a soft triblock copolymer template by TiCl4 hydrolysis with ammonia water and applied to the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The large surface area of a TiO2 mesoporous structure is favorable for dye uptake, and nitrogen doping of TiO2 is expected to increase the charge transport in the photoelectrode as well as the scattering of visible light. Structural characterizations for NMP TiO2 nanoparticles by XRD, XPS, BET, and BJH analyses revealed successful synthesis. However, the photovoltaic performances of the DSSCs prepared from NMP TiO2 were not improved, as had been expected: the photo-conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs from undoped mesoporous TiO2 (MP TiO2) was 4.69%, an improvement over the 4.15% with the application of P25 TiO2, but the efficiency of DSSCs from NMP TiO2 decreased to 3.2-3.6%. The measured amounts of adsorbed dye showed that nitrogen doping did not significantly affect dye adsorption. Therefore, it can be concluded that nitrogen doping increases isotropic charge transport in a TiO2 nanoparticle to promote charge recombination into an electrolyte, despite its advantages. The full benefits of nitrogen doping may be obtained through measures such as the deposition of a thin barrier layer of oxide onto the TiO2 surface to prevent charge recombination during charge transport in the TiO2 network. PMID:25971066

  14. Effect of TiCl4 Post-Treatment on the Embedded-Type TiO2 Nanotubes Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Sung, Shi-Joon; Heo, Young-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the embedded-type TiO2 nanotubes (NT)-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The TiO2 nanoparticles layer formed on TiO2 NTs surface by TiCl4 post-treatment showed different morphologies depending on TiCl4 treatment temperature. These different morphologies influenced the cell efficiency of TiO2 NT-DSSCs. The TiO2 NT treated with TiCl4 at 50 °C exhibited a rougher surface than that treated at 70 °C. The rough surface of the TiO2 NT improved the charge exchange between the dye and electrolyte. The TiO2 NT treated with TiCl4 at 50 °C showed better fill factor and cell efficiency than that treated at 70 °C. The TiCl4 post-treatment of TiO2 NT was effective at conditions of low temperature and long times. The TiO2 NT-DSSCs with TiCl4 post-treatment at 50 °C for 1.5 h showed an efficiency of 6.52%. PMID:26726426

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells. PMID:24488679

  16. Recombination reduction on lead halide perovskite solar cells based on low temperature synthesized hierarchical TiO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A.; Solís de La Fuente, Mauricio; Sanchez, Rafael S.; Recalde, Ileana B.; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J.; Rincón, Marina E.; Mora-Seró, Iván

    2016-03-01

    Intensive research on the electron transport material (ETM) has been pursued to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and decrease their cost. More importantly, the role of the ETM layer is not yet fully understood, and research on new device architectures is still needed. Here, we report the use of three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 with a hierarchical architecture based on rutile nanorods (NR) as photoanode material for PSCs. The proposed hierarchical nanorod (HNR) films were synthesized by a two-step low temperature (180 °C) hydrothermal method, and consist of TiO2 nanorod trunks with optimal lengths of 540 nm and TiO2 nanobranches with lengths of 45 nm. Different device configurations were fabricated with TiO2 structures (compact layer, NR and HNR) and CH3NH3PbI3, using different synthetic routes, as the active material. PSCs based on HNR-CH3NH3PbI3 achieved the highest power conversion efficiency compared to PSCs with other TiO2 structures. This result can be ascribed mainly to lower charge recombination as determined by impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, we have observed that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite deposited by the two-step route shows higher efficiency, surface coverage and infiltration within the structure of 3D HNR than the one-step CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite.Intensive research on the electron transport material (ETM) has been pursued to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and decrease their cost. More importantly, the role of the ETM layer is not yet fully understood, and research on new device architectures is still needed. Here, we report the use of three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 with a hierarchical architecture based on rutile nanorods (NR) as photoanode material for PSCs. The proposed hierarchical nanorod (HNR) films were synthesized by a two-step low temperature (180 °C) hydrothermal method, and consist of TiO2 nanorod trunks with optimal lengths of 540 nm and TiO2 nanobranches with lengths of 45 nm. Different device configurations were fabricated with TiO2 structures (compact layer, NR and HNR) and CH3NH3PbI3, using different synthetic routes, as the active material. PSCs based on HNR-CH3NH3PbI3 achieved the highest power conversion efficiency compared to PSCs with other TiO2 structures. This result can be ascribed mainly to lower charge recombination as determined by impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, we have observed that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite deposited by the two-step route shows higher efficiency, surface coverage and infiltration within the structure of 3D HNR than the one-step CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06692a

  17. Efficient CdPbS quantum dots-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Shu, Ting; Zhou, Zi-Ming; Wang, Heng; Liu, Guang-Hui; Xiang, Peng; Rong, Yao-Guang; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Han, Hong-Wei

    2011-11-01

    CdPbS quantum dots-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode was prepared using chemical bath codeposition technique by dipping TiO2 film into a 0.5 M Cd(NO3)2-Pb(NO3)2 solution (molar ratio 9:1) and a 0.5 M Na2S methanol solution. The CdPbS quantum dots have the size about 4 to 6 nm and distribute homogeneously in the TiO2 film. The as-prepared electrode showed improved absorption spectra. The assembled quantum dots-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) yielded a power conversion efficiency (nu) of 1.88% and a short-circuit current of 15.28 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 illumination of 100 mW/cm2, far outperformed the single PbS, CdS QDSSC and the nu increased 49.2% than coupled PbS/CdS QDSSC. The solar cell presented IPCE peak value of 45.7% and the effective photovoltaic range covers the visible region and near infrared region. PMID:22413263

  18. Carbonate Doping in TiO2 Microsphere: The Key Parameter Influencing Others for Efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Seddigi, Zaki S; Ahmed, Saleh A; Sardar, Samim; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Four key parameters namely light trapping, density of light harvesting centre, photoinduced electron injection and electron transport without self-recombination are universally important across all kinds of solar cells. In the present study, we have considered the parameters in the context of a model Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Our experimental studies reveal that carbonate doping of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres (doped MS) makes positive influence to all the above mentioned key parameters responsible for the enhanced solar cell efficiency. A simple method has been employed to synthesize the doped MS for the photoanode of a N719 (ruthenium dye)-based DSSC. A detail electron microscopy has been used to characterize the change in morphology of the MS upon doping. The optical absorption spectrum of the doped MS reveals significant shift of TiO2 (compared to that of the MS without doping) towards maximum solar radiance (~500 nm) and the excellent scattering in the entire absorption band of the sensitizing dye (N719). Finally, and most importantly, for the first time we have demonstrated that the solar cells with doped MS offers better efficiency (7.6%) in light harvesting compared to MS without doping (5.2%) and also reveal minimum self recombination of photoelectrons in the redox chain. PMID:26984765

  19. Carbonate Doping in TiO2 Microsphere: The Key Parameter Influencing Others for Efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddigi, Zaki S.; Ahmed, Saleh A.; Sardar, Samim; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Four key parameters namely light trapping, density of light harvesting centre, photoinduced electron injection and electron transport without self-recombination are universally important across all kinds of solar cells. In the present study, we have considered the parameters in the context of a model Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Our experimental studies reveal that carbonate doping of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres (doped MS) makes positive influence to all the above mentioned key parameters responsible for the enhanced solar cell efficiency. A simple method has been employed to synthesize the doped MS for the photoanode of a N719 (ruthenium dye)-based DSSC. A detail electron microscopy has been used to characterize the change in morphology of the MS upon doping. The optical absorption spectrum of the doped MS reveals significant shift of TiO2 (compared to that of the MS without doping) towards maximum solar radiance (~500 nm) and the excellent scattering in the entire absorption band of the sensitizing dye (N719). Finally, and most importantly, for the first time we have demonstrated that the solar cells with doped MS offers better efficiency (7.6%) in light harvesting compared to MS without doping (5.2%) and also reveal minimum self recombination of photoelectrons in the redox chain.

  20. Carbonate Doping in TiO2 Microsphere: The Key Parameter Influencing Others for Efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Seddigi, Zaki S.; Ahmed, Saleh A.; Sardar, Samim; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Four key parameters namely light trapping, density of light harvesting centre, photoinduced electron injection and electron transport without self-recombination are universally important across all kinds of solar cells. In the present study, we have considered the parameters in the context of a model Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Our experimental studies reveal that carbonate doping of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres (doped MS) makes positive influence to all the above mentioned key parameters responsible for the enhanced solar cell efficiency. A simple method has been employed to synthesize the doped MS for the photoanode of a N719 (ruthenium dye)-based DSSC. A detail electron microscopy has been used to characterize the change in morphology of the MS upon doping. The optical absorption spectrum of the doped MS reveals significant shift of TiO2 (compared to that of the MS without doping) towards maximum solar radiance (~500 nm) and the excellent scattering in the entire absorption band of the sensitizing dye (N719). Finally, and most importantly, for the first time we have demonstrated that the solar cells with doped MS offers better efficiency (7.6%) in light harvesting compared to MS without doping (5.2%) and also reveal minimum self recombination of photoelectrons in the redox chain. PMID:26984765

  1. Mesoporous TiO2 Bragg Stack Templated by Graft Copolymer for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Daeyeon; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-01-01

    Organized mesoporous TiO2 Bragg stacks (om-TiO2 BS) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index organized mesoporous TiO2 (om-TiO2) films were prepared to enhance dye loading, light harvesting, electron transport, and electrolyte pore-infiltration in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The om-TiO2 films were synthesized via a sol-gel reaction using amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM as templates. To generate high and low index films, the refractive index of om-TiO2 film was tuned by controlling the grafting ratio of PVC-g-POEM via atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A polymerized ionic liquid (PIL)-based DSSC fabricated with a 1.2-μm-thick om-TiO2 BS-based photoanode exhibited an efficiency of 4.3%, which is much higher than that of conventional DSSCs with a nanocrystalline TiO2 layer (nc-TiO2 layer) (1.7%). A PIL-based DSSC with a heterostructured photoanode consisting of 400-nm-thick organized mesoporous TiO2 interfacial (om-TiO2 IF) layer, 7-μm-thick nc-TiO2, and 1.2-μm-thick om-TiO2 BS as the bottom, middle and top layers, respectively, exhibited an excellent efficiency of 7.5%, which is much higher than that of nanocrystaline TiO2 photoanode (3.5%). PMID:24980936

  2. Mesoporous TiO2 Bragg Stack Templated by Graft Copolymer for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Daeyeon; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-07-01

    Organized mesoporous TiO2 Bragg stacks (om-TiO2 BS) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index organized mesoporous TiO2 (om-TiO2) films were prepared to enhance dye loading, light harvesting, electron transport, and electrolyte pore-infiltration in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The om-TiO2 films were synthesized via a sol-gel reaction using amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM as templates. To generate high and low index films, the refractive index of om-TiO2 film was tuned by controlling the grafting ratio of PVC-g-POEM via atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A polymerized ionic liquid (PIL)-based DSSC fabricated with a 1.2-μm-thick om-TiO2 BS-based photoanode exhibited an efficiency of 4.3%, which is much higher than that of conventional DSSCs with a nanocrystalline TiO2 layer (nc-TiO2 layer) (1.7%). A PIL-based DSSC with a heterostructured photoanode consisting of 400-nm-thick organized mesoporous TiO2 interfacial (om-TiO2 IF) layer, 7-μm-thick nc-TiO2, and 1.2-μm-thick om-TiO2 BS as the bottom, middle and top layers, respectively, exhibited an excellent efficiency of 7.5%, which is much higher than that of nanocrystaline TiO2 photoanode (3.5%).

  3. High-temperature annealing of TiO2 nanotube membranes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Fatemeh; Altomare, Marco; So, Seulgi; Lee, Kiyoung; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Alshehri, Abdelmohsen; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A.; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate photo-anodes by transferring anodic TiO2 nanotube membranes in tube-top-down configuration on FTO glass, and use them for constructing frontside illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells. Prior to solar cell construction, the tube-based photo-anodes are crystallized at different temperatures (400-800 °C), and the effects of tube electron transport properties on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells are investigated. We show that improved solar cell efficiencies (up to ca. 8.0%) can be reached by high-temperature treatment of the tube membranes. Consistent with electron transport time measurements, remarkably enhanced electron mobility is enabled when tube membranes are crystallized at 600 °C.

  4. Photodeposition of Ag2S on TiO2 nanorod arrays for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ag2S quantum dots were deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays by a two-step photodeposition. The prepared TiO2 nanorod arrays as well as the Ag2S deposited electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, suggesting a large coverage of Ag2S quantum dots on the ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays. UV–vis absorption spectra of Ag2S deposited electrodes show a broad absorption range of the visible light. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on these electrodes were fabricated, and the photoelectrochemical properties were examined. A high photocurrent density of 10.25 mA/cm2 with a conversion efficiency of 0.98% at AM 1.5 solar light of 100 mW/cm2 was obtained with an optimal photodeposition time. The performance of the QDSSC at different incident light intensities was also investigated. The results display a better performance at a lower incident light level with a conversion efficiency of 1.25% at 47 mW/cm2. PMID:23286551

  5. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cell with TiO2 anode under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hsiao, Chih-Chen; Weng, Hao-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The anatase phase crystalline quality of commercial TiO2 (P25) nanoparticle sintered in air and N2 is improved. Compared DSSC with air-sintered TiO2 anode, DSSC with N2-sintered TiO2 anode has better performance mainly from high optical absorption efficiency. Under UV irradiation, organic contaminants adsorbed on TiO2 are dissociated by the photocatalysis, and the dye adsorption is enhanced. The DSSC performance with UV-treated/N2-sintered TiO2 anode is further improved.

  6. Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

  7. Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

    2014-02-21

    A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness. PMID:24435106

  8. Sea urchin TiO2-nanoparticle hybrid composite photoelectrodes for CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eui-Hyun; Chang, Yong-June; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Yoon, Yeon-Hee; Park, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2012-04-01

    The sea urchin TiO(2) (SU TiO(2)) particles composed of radially aligned rutile TiO(2) nanowires are successfully synthesized through the simple solvothermal process. SU TiO(2) was incorporated into the TiO(2) nanoparticle (NP) network to construct the SU-NP composite film, and applied to the CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A conversion efficiency of 4.2% was achieved with a short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.2 mA cm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage of 531 mV, which corresponds to ∼20% improvement as compared with the values obtained from the reference cell made of the NP film. We attribute this extraordinary result to the light scattering effect and efficient charge collection. PMID:22362094

  9. Inverted organic solar cells using a solution-processed TiO2/CdSe electron transport layer to improve performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoxiao; Xiong, Zhicheng; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Luming; Wu, Sujuan; Lu, Xubing; Gao, Xingsen; Shui, Lingling; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles are deposited directly on TiO2 film to fabricate the TiO2/CdSe interlayer by a chemical bath deposition method. The inverted organic solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction as an active layer and TiO2/CdSe interlayer as an electron transport layer (ETL) are fabricated in air. A series of microstructural, photo-electronic, and electrochemical characterizations on these cells are performed. The TiO2/CdSe structure with respect to either the TiO2 layer or the CdSe layer as the ETL exhibits significantly enhanced external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the visible region. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that the exciton dissociation in the TiO2/CdSe structure is more effective than that in either the TiO2 or CdSe structure. The Nyquist plots obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) implies that the charge recombination in the TiO2/CdSe structure can be suppressed with respect to that in either the CdSe or TiO2 structure. The photovoltaic performances of the cells with the TiO2/CdSe ETL are clearly improved compared with the reference cells only with the TiO2 layer or CdSe layer as the ETL.

  10. N719- and D149-sensitized 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 solar cells--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho

    2015-03-21

    Poor dye loading on rutile TiO2 is one of the chief reasons for lower solar-to-electric conversion efficiency (η) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), compared to their anatase based counterparts. Previously, we showed that similar light harvesting for both rutile and anatase was realized by using a metal-free organic indoline dye, D149 [Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, 5769]. This was in contrast to the bulk of previous studies, which employed ruthenium based N719, leading to significant differences in light harvesting. To date, there has been no report directly comparing N719 and D149 for rutile based DSCs. In this work, three-dimensional hierarchical rutile TiO2 architecture (HRTA), consisting of one-dimensional nanorods, was successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method, and subsequently optimized as effective photoelectrodes for DSCs. Two dyes, N719 and D149, were used as sensitizers of the HRTA-based DSCs, with maximum η of 5.6% and 5.8% achieved, respectively. The higher η of the D149-sensitized DSC is ascribed to its higher extinction co-efficient, allowing a greater amount of light to be harvested with a thinner TiO2 layer. This study suggests that some of the limitations typically observed for rutile TiO2 based DSCs can be overcome through the use of strongly absorbing metal-free organic sensitizers. Furthermore, it reemphasises the importance of viewing DSCs as whole systems, rather than individual components. PMID:25690882

  11. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    bin Samsudin, Adel Eskandar; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa

    2012-09-01

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm2. The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, VOC increased by 57 mV, their current density, JSC increased by 0.774 mA cm-2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of RBR/RT where RT is the diffusion resistance of the TiO2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and RBR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I-3/3I- couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  12. Comparison of Dye-Sensitized Rutile- and Anatase-Based TiO2 Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N. G.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and optimize the new dye-sensitized solar cell technology. In view of the infancy of rutile material development for solar cells, the PV response of the dye-sensitized rutile-based solar cell is remarkably close to that of the anatase-based cell.

  13. Influences of alcoholic solvents on spray pyrolysis deposition of TiO2 blocking layer films for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changyun; Koh, Wei Lin; Leung, Man Yin; Hong, Wei; Li, Yuning; Zhang, Jie

    2013-02-01

    Influences of alcoholic solvents for titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TPA) precursor solutions on the spray pyrolysis deposited TiO2 films and the photovoltaic performance of the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) using these TiO2 films as the blocking layers were investigated. Smooth TiO2 films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition of a TPA solution in isopropanol (IPA) at a relatively low temperature of 260 °C. On the other hand, when ethanol was used as solvent, the TiO2 films fabricated at the same temperature showed much rougher surfaces with many pinholes. Our results showed that ethanol reacts with TPA to form titanium diethoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TEA), which requires a higher thermal decomposition temperature than that of TPA. SDSCs with TiO2 blocking layer films fabricated using a TPA solution in IPA showed higher power conversion efficiencies with smaller variations.

  14. Improved dispersion ability of TiO2 nanoparticles for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewvandi, Galhenage A.; Matosaki, Keiji; Chen, Changdong; Kusunose, Takafumi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Feng, Qi

    2015-12-01

    The presence of large aggregates in TiO2 paste as a result of the poor dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a non-uniform nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 film consisting irregular pore sizes, a bumpy film surface, and low dye adsorption density. This study describes organic molecular modifications to TiO2 nanoparticles surfaces to improve the dispersion ability. Two kinds of organic molecules-ethylene glycol and acetylacetone-and commercially available P25-TiO2 nanoparticles were solvothermally reacted to adsorb the organic molecules on TiO2 nanoparticles surfaces. TEM nanostructural study indicated that the organic molecular layer covered on the TiO2 nanoparticle surface, forming a core-shell nanostructure. The dispersibility of TiO2 nanoparticles in the paste was improved by organic molecular modifications. Furthermore, effects of TiO2 nanoparticles surface modification on photovoltaic performances of DSSCs were investigated. The performances of DSSCs with a single TiO2 nanoparticle mesoporous layer were reduced due to the improved light transmission, lower light adsorption, after the organic molecular modification. A light reflective scattering layer on the top of the TiO2 nanoparticle layer was used to prevent energy loss by light transmittance. The organic molecular modification together with the light scattering layer showed efficiency enhancements of 7% and 5% with acetylacetone and ethylene glycol modifications, respectively than the non-modified TiO2 film with the scattering layer, by confirming the effectiveness of surface modifications.

  15. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of a crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorod based network for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Pan, Jian; Bai, Yang; Zong, Xu; Li, Xinyong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2013-09-27

    One-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanostructures are desirable as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to their superior electron-transport capability. However, making use of the DSSC performance of 1D rutile TiO2 photoanodes remains challenging, mainly due to the small surface area and consequently low dye loading. Herein, a new type of photoanode with a three-dimensional (3D) rutile-nanorod-based network structure directly grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates was developed by using a facile two-step hydrothermal process. The resultant photoanode possesses oriented rutile nanorod arrays for fast electron transport as the bottom layer and radially packed rutile head-caps with an improved large surface area for efficient dye adsorption. The diffuse reflectance spectra showed that with the radially packed top layer, the light-harvesting efficiency was increased due to an enhanced light-scattering effect. A combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), dark current, and open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) analyses confirmed that the electron-recombiantion rate was reduced on formation of the nanorod-based 3D network for fast electron transport. As a resut, a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.31% was achieved with this photoanode in DSSCs, which is comparable to the best DSSC efficiencies that have been reported to date for 1D rutile TiO2 . PMID:23939704

  17. FeS2 quantum dots sensitized nanostructured TiO2 solar cell: photoelectrochemical and photoinduced absorption spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedja, I.

    2011-09-01

    Thin films of nanostructured TiO2 have been modified with FeS2 (pyrite) nano-particles by a low temperature chemical reaction of iron pentacarbonyl with sulfur in xylene. Quantum size effects are manifested by the observation of a blue shift in both absorption and photocurrent action spectra. PIA (Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy), where the excitation is provided by a square-wave modulated (on/off) monochromatic light emitting diode, is a multipurpose tool in the study of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, PIA is used to study quantum-dot modified TiO2 nanostructured electrodes. The PIA spectra obtained give evidence for long-lived photoinduced charge separation: electrons are injected into the metal oxide and holes are left behind in the FeS2 quantum dot. Time-resolved PIA shows that recombination between electrons and holes occurs on a millisecond timescale. The Incident-Photon-to-Current Efficiency of about 23 % was obtained at 400 nm excitation. The performances of TiO2 electrodes modified with FeS2 are relatively low, which is explained by the presence of FeS2 phases other than the photoactive pyrite phase, as follows from the XRD spectrum.

  18. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  19. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  20. Mechanism of biphasic charge recombination and accumulation in TiO2 mesoporous structured perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Yi; Wang, Yi; Yu, Man; Han, Jun; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Qin, Yujun

    2016-04-28

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells are becoming the next big thing in the photovoltaic field owing to their rapidly developing photoelectric conversion performance. Herein, mesoporous structured perovskite devices with various perovskite grain sizes are fabricated by a sequential dropping method, and the charge recombination dynamics is investigated by transient optical-electric measurements. All devices exhibit an overall power conversion efficiency around 15%. More importantly, a biphasic trap-limited charge recombination process is proposed and interpreted by taking into account the specific charge accumulation mechanism in perovskite solar cells. At low Fermi levels, photo-generated electrons predominately populate in the perovskite phase, while at high Fermi levels, most electrons occupy traps in mesoporous TiO2. As a result, the dynamics of charge recombination is, respectively, dominated by the perovskite phase and mesoporous TiO2 in these two cases. The present work would give a new perspective on the charge recombination process in meso-structured perovskite solar cells. PMID:27076212

  1. Hole transporting dye as light harvesting antenna in dye-sensitized TiO2 hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Eva L.; Yang, Lei; Zietz, Burkhard; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    We herein demonstrate the viability of utilizing the hole transporting medium of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells for light harvesting. When using a hole transporting dye (HTD) in addition to an interface dye (ID) bound to the surface of the mesoporous metal oxide scaffold, both are shown to contribute to the photocurrent. Efficient energy transfer (ET) from the HTD to the ID was accomplished by spectrally matching two triphenylamine dyes. The photoluminescence of the HTD was found to be quenched in the presence of the ID. In nanosecond transient absorption measurements, rapid formation of the oxidized HTD was observed after photoexcitation of the ID, demonstrating fast regeneration of the oxidized ID by the HTD. In solar cell devices comprising both the ID and HTD, the spectral response of the external quantum efficiency shows that both dyes contribute to the photocurrent, resulting in a doubling of the photocurrent. In comparison with devices comprising only TiO2 and the HTD, devices with the additional ID exhibited an increased photovoltage due to more efficient charge-carrier separation and energy transfer. Combining and matching HTDs with IDs for optimal ID regeneration but also providing ET is thus a viable means to optimize hybrid solar cells based on mesoporous TiO2.

  2. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells using one dimensional ZnO nanorod decorated porous TiO2 film electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Long; Ma, Qing-lan; Cai, Yungao; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2014-02-01

    A low cost and effective working electrode with one dimensional ZnO nanorod grown on the porous TiO2 film is used to improve the power conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. The one dimensional ZnO nanorod is introduced into the porous TiO2 film by a simple and facile hydrothermal route, and the obtained composite film is characterized using the field-emission scan electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocurrent-voltage curves of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells are measured by a solar cell measurement system. Compared with the bare porous TiO2 film based dye sensitized solar cell, it is found that the power conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell with ZnO nanorod decorated TiO2 porous film was improved by more than triple. It is mainly believed that the improved power conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell is ascribed to the increased dye adsorption amount and formation of energy barrier between ZnO nanorod and porous TiO2 film.

  3. Amphiphilic block-graft copolymer templates for organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jung Yup; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Joonmo; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block-graft copolymers composed of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) backbone and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) side chains are synthesized and combined with hydrophilically preformed TiO2 (Pre-TiO2), which works as a structural binder as well as titania source. This results in the formation of crack free, 6-μm-thick, organized mesoporous TiO2 (OM-TiO2) films via one-step doctor-blading based on self-assembly of SBS-g-POEM as well as preferential interaction of POEM chains with Pre-TiO2. SBS-g-POEM with different numbers of ethylene oxide repeating units, SBS-g-POEM(500) and SBS-g-POEM(950), are used to form OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte reach 5.7% and 5.8% at 100 mW/cm2 for OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The surface area of OM-TiO2(950) was greater than that of OM-TiO2(500) but the light reflectance was lower in the former, which is responsible for similar efficiency. Both DSSCs exhibit much higher efficiency than one (4.8%) with randomly-organized particulate TiO2 (Ran-TiO2), which is attributed to the higher dye loading, reduced charge recombination and improved pore infiltration of OM-TiO2. When utilizing poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII) and mesoporous TiO2 spheres as the solid electrolyte and the scattering layer, the efficiency increases up to 7.5%, one of the highest values for N719-based solid-state DSSCs.

  4. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell using a Nb-doped TiO2 electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; You, Ting; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-10-18

    In this work Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals are used as the photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. A solar cell with CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized 2.5 mol% Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals can achieve a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which is almost twice as high as the 1.7% obtained by a cell based on undoped TiO2 nanocrystals. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach as high as 91%, which is a record for all quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Detailed analysis shows that such an enhancement is due to improved lifetime and diffusion length of electrons in the solar cell. PMID:24045808

  5. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell using a Nb-doped TiO2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; You, Ting; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-10-01

    In this work Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals are used as the photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. A solar cell with CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized 2.5 mol% Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals can achieve a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which is almost twice as high as the 1.7% obtained by a cell based on undoped TiO2 nanocrystals. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach as high as 91%, which is a record for all quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Detailed analysis shows that such an enhancement is due to improved lifetime and diffusion length of electrons in the solar cell.

  6. The result of synthesis analysis of the powder TiO2/ZnO as a layer of electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retnaningsih, Lilis; Muliani, Lia

    2016-04-01

    This study has been conducted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle powders and ZnO nanoparticle powder into a paste to be in this research, dye-sensitive solar cells (DSSC) was produced by TiO2 nanopowder and ZnO nanopowder synthesis to make paste that is applied as electrode. This electrode works based on photon absorbed by dye and transferred to different composition of TiO2/ ZnO particle. Properties of DSSC are affected by fabrication method, parameter and dimension of TiO2 / ZnO nanoparticles, technique and composition of TiO2 / ZnO paste preparation is important to get the higher performance of DSSC. Doctor blade is a method for electrode coating on glass substrate. The electrode was immersed into dye solution of Z907 and ethanol. From the experiment, the effect of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowder mixture for electrode was investigated. XRD characterization show anatase and rutile phase, which sintered TiO2/ZnO has intensity more than 11,000. SEM characterization shows the composition of 20% TiO2 / 80% ZnO has better porosity. Higher efficiency that is investigated by I-V measurement using Sun Simulator.

  7. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing'ao

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

  8. A novel preparation of small TiO2 nanoparticle and its application to dye-sensitized solar cells with binder-free paste at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ke; Gong, Chuqing; Peng, Tianyou; Chen, Junnian; Xia, Jiangbin

    2011-09-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles with diameter <10 nm were synthesized by a facile, non-hydrothermal method at low temperature. A porous TiO2 film electrode consisting of the obtained small TiO2 nanoparticles and commercial TiO2 nanoparticles without any organic binder was prepared at low temperature. The photovoltaic performance of the solar cell based on the TiO2 electrode was investigated by the current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectra. All the experimental results indicate that the addition amount of the small TiO2 nanoparticles in the binder-free paste affects the photovoltaic performance of the photoelectrode greatly. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the optimized binder-free photoelectrode achieves 3.53% without high-temperature sintering. Additionally, the performance of the small particles derived from this facile method can be comparable with that of small ones obtained from traditionally hydrothermal method, indicating the small particles in our study can be applied to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. And the present low-temperature preparation of photoelectrode containing small TiO2 nanoparticles shows an encouraging performance on both conductive glass and plastic substrates and could be suited in the industrial and large-scale application due to its low energy cost and relatively high conversion efficiency.

  9. Preparation of anatase TiO2 nanorods with high aspect ratio for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ying; Wang, Chen; Hu, Yajing; Huang, Lu; Fu, Jianxun; Yang, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Due to offering a direct conduction pathway and fast electron transport, 1D nanostructures play an important role in improving charge collection efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The anatase TiO2 nanorods with different aspect ratios between 3.2 and 6.3 were obtained by controlling reaction time for DSSCs. As their aspect ratios increased, more dye was adsorbed on the anatase TiO2 nanorods film. A promising power conversion efficiency of 7.51% was obtained for the anatase TiO2 nanorods with the biggest aspect ratio of 6.3.

  10. Mesoporous TiO2 Yolk-Shell Microspheres for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with a High Efficiency Exceeding 11%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Wang-Chao; Guo, Fu-Ling; Mo, Li-E.; Hu, Lin-Hua; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Yolk-shell TiO2 microspheres were synthesized via a one-pot template-free solvothermal method building on the aldol condensation reaction of acetylacetone. This unique structure shows superior light scattering ability resulting in power conversion efficiency as high as 11%. This work provided a new synthesis system for TiO2 microspheres from solid to hollow and a novel material platform for high performance solar cells.

  11. Mesoporous TiO2 Yolk-Shell Microspheres for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with a High Efficiency Exceeding 11%.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Wang-Chao; Guo, Fu-Ling; Mo, Li-E; Hu, Lin-Hua; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Yolk-shell TiO2 microspheres were synthesized via a one-pot template-free solvothermal method building on the aldol condensation reaction of acetylacetone. This unique structure shows superior light scattering ability resulting in power conversion efficiency as high as 11%. This work provided a new synthesis system for TiO2 microspheres from solid to hollow and a novel material platform for high performance solar cells. PMID:26384004

  12. Mesoporous TiO2 Yolk-Shell Microspheres for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with a High Efficiency Exceeding 11%

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Wang-Chao; Guo, Fu-Ling; Mo, Li-E; Hu, Lin-Hua; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Yolk-shell TiO2 microspheres were synthesized via a one-pot template-free solvothermal method building on the aldol condensation reaction of acetylacetone. This unique structure shows superior light scattering ability resulting in power conversion efficiency as high as 11%. This work provided a new synthesis system for TiO2 microspheres from solid to hollow and a novel material platform for high performance solar cells. PMID:26384004

  13. Optimisation of Ruthenium Dye Sensitised Solar Cells Efficiency via Sn Diffusion into the TiO2 Mesoporous Layer

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Codrin; Zerulla, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Dye sensitised solar cells (DSCs) typically include a mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold, sensitised with an adsorbed dye, as the main active element responsible for the photon absorption and charge separation functionalities. The sintering process employed in the TiO2 active layer fabrication plays a crucial role in the formation of the nanoparticle (NP) scaffold and hence in the performance of a dye sensitised solar cell, as it allows the particles to form efficient inter-crystalline electric contacts providing high electron conductivity. Furthermore, the DSC design requires a conductive transparent top electrode which is typically made of fluorinated stannic oxide. Here we report on a highly spatially resolved scanning electron microscopy study in conjunction with focussed ion beam milling and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping of the distribution of all relevant elements within a DSC subsequent to a classical sintering process in the range of 350°C–550°C. Additionally, the article provides quantitative results regarding the found Sn diffusion and its effect on efficiency confirmed via J-V measurements. The effective spatial resolution of the EDX studies was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations of the electron trajectories and X-ray emission region. This permits to construct a model for the migration of Sn from the transparent conductive oxide into the TiO2 scaffold, resulting in alterations in the composition of the complex system which has a direct effect on the DSC performance. J-V measurements conclude that sintering temperature of 500°C is close to the optimum regarding Sn diffusion enhancement of DSCs. Sintering temperatures above 500°C were causing a drop in the DSC efficiency and are therefore not recommended. In order to optimize the DSC efficiency, the results are summarized by a model that explains how the efficiency varies with the Sn diffusion process. PMID:23704956

  14. The versatile designs and optimizations for cylindrical TiO2-based scatterers for solar cell anti-reflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Albert; Zhong, Yan-Kai; Fu, Sze-Ming

    2013-11-01

    The anti-reflection coating(ARC) based on dielectric nano-particles has been recently proposed as a new way to achieve the low reflectance required for solar cell front surfaces. In this scenario, the Mie modes associated with the dielectric nano-particles are utilized to facilitate photon forward scattering. In this work, versatile designs together with systematically optimized geometry are examined, for the ARCs based on dielectric scatterers. It is found that the Si3N4-TiO2 or SiO2-TiO2 stack is capable of providing low reflectance while maintaining a flat and passivated ARC-semiconductor interface which can be beneficial for reduced interface recombination and prevent V(OC) degradation associated with topography on the active materials. It is also confirmed that the plasmonic nano-particles placed at the front side of solar cells is not a preferred scheme, even with thorough geometrical optimization. At the ultimate design based on mixed graded index(GI) Mie-scattering, the averaged reflectance can be as low as 0.25%. Such a low reflectance is currently only achievable by ultra-long silicon nano-tips, but silicon nano-tips introduce severe surface recombination. On the other hand, the mixed GI Mie design preserves a flat and passivated ARC-silicon interface, with total thickness reduced to 279.8 nm, much thinner than 1.6 μm for silicon nanotips. In addition, the light trapping capability of mixed GI Mie design is much better than silicon nanotips. In fact, when compared to the state-of-art TiO2 light trapping anti-reflection coating, the mixed GI Mie design provides same light trapping capability while providing much lower reflectance. PMID:24514925

  15. Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Reduced Hysteresis and Enhanced Open Circuit Voltage by Using PW12-TiO2 as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun; Liu, Canjun; Di, Yunxiang; Li, Wenzhang; Liu, Fangyang; Jiang, Liangxing; Li, Jie; Hao, Xiaojing; Huang, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    An electron transport layer is essential for effective operation of planar perovskite solar cells. In this Article, PW12-TiO2 composite was used as the electron transport layer for the planar perovskite solar cell in the device structure of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-glass/PW12-TiO2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. A proper downward shift of the conduction band minimum (CBM) enhanced electron extraction from the perovskite layer to the PW12-TiO2 composite layer. Consequently, the common hysteresis effect in TiO2-based planar perovskite solar cells was significantly reduced and the open circuit voltage was greatly increased to about 1.1 V. Perovskite solar cells using the PW12-TiO2 compact layer showed an efficiency of 15.45%. This work can contribute to the studies on the electron transport layer and interface engineering for the further development of perovskite solar cells. PMID:26954448

  16. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO2 film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO2 flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO2 nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO2 flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  17. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack. PMID:25919200

  18. Porous (001)-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Athar Ali; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001) facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm) of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101) and (001) was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) under AM1.5 G illumination.

  19. Combinatorial solar cell libraries for the investigation of different metal back contacts for TiO2-Cu2O hetero-junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rühle, S; Barad, H N; Bouhadana, Y; Keller, D A; Ginsburg, A; Shimanovich, K; Majhi, K; Lovrincic, R; Anderson, A Y; Zaban, A

    2014-04-21

    Here we present a comprehensive investigation of TiO2-Cu2O hetero-junction solar cells with different back contacts (Au, ITO, Cu or Ag). Combinatorial hetero-junction libraries consisting of a linear TiO2 thickness gradient produced by spray pyrolysis and a bell shaped Cu2O profile synthesized by pulsed laser deposition were chosen to investigate the impact of the two metal oxide layer thicknesses. The back contacts were deposited as round patches onto a grid of 13 × 13 points, 169 contacts for each contact material, forming a library containing 4 × 13 × 13 = 676 back contacts. Each back contact represented a solar cell with an individual TiO2 and Cu2O thickness. I-V measurements show that all four materials provide an ohmic contact and that the open circuit voltage of ∼300 mV is rather independent of both layer thicknesses and contact material. The size of the Cu2O crystals drastically decreases with distance from the center of deposition, which leads to a drastic increase of series resistance when the crystal size is <50 nm. PMID:24615619

  20. Impacts of Heterogeneous TiO2 and Al2O3 Composite Mesoporous Scaffold on Formamidinium Lead Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Numata, Youhei; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2016-02-24

    Heterogeneous TiO2 and Al2O3 composites were employed as a mesoporous scaffold in formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI3-xClx)-based perovskite solar cells to modify surface properties of a mesoporous layer. It was found that the quality and morphology of the perovskite film were strongly affected by the TiO2/Al2O3 ratio in the mesoporous film. The conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cell was improved by using a composite of TiO2 and Al2O3 in comparison with TiO2- and Al2O3-based cells, yielding 11.0% for a cell with a 7:3 TiO2/Al2O3 composite. Our investigation shows a change of electron transport path depending on a composition ratio of insulating Al2O3 to n-type semiconducting TiO2 in a mesoporous layer. PMID:26811983

  1. The Effect of Scattering Layer on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using TiO2 Hollow Spheres/TiO2 Nanoparticles Films as Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyung; Suh, Soong-Hyuck; Lee, Min Woo; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized using poly styrene as the template. Dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated based on double-layered composite films of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 hollow spheres. The photoelectric conversion performances of Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 hollow spheres and TiO2 hollow spheres/TiO2 hollow spheres double-layered films are investigated, and their photoelectric conversion efficiencies were determined to 4.52, 7.10 and 5.48%, respectively. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on double layered composite films of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 hollow spheres exhibit the highest photo-electric conversion efficiency mainly due to the combined effect of two factors, the high light scattering of over-layer hollow spheres that enhance harvesting light of the Dye-sensitized solar cells and the under-layer TiO2 nanoparticle layer that ensures good electronic contact between TiO2 film and FTO conducting glass. The double layered composite TiO2 film electrodes are a promising development in enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:26726506

  2. Efficient dye-sensitised solar cell based on uniform In-doped TiO2 spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshayesh, A. M.; Farajisafiloo, N.

    2015-07-01

    A facile deposition of uniform photoanode electrodes by a novel anatase-stabilised gel for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) applications is reported. Highly crystalline anatase-TiO2 phase is stabilised by indium nitrate at 500 °C. The electrodes are composed of uniform spherical particles with diameter around 3 µm, containing small nanoparticles with the average grain size of 40 nm, deposited by dip-coating method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that 6 at.% In3+ was incorporated into titania crystal lattice and stabilised anatase phase by limiting the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. UV-Visible spectra show that the stabilised film has lower band gap energy than that of undoped TiO2, extending the absorption of TiO2 into visible region. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrates that the anatase-stabilised DSC enjoys less recombination and internal resistances, improving the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The anatase-stabilised DSC has higher power conversion efficiency of 7.48 % than that of unstabilised cell (6.37 %).

  3. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  4. Reduced electron recombination of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO(2) spheres consisting of ultrathin nanosheets with [001] facet exposed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Meinan; Yan, Cheng; Bell, John

    2012-01-01

    An anatase TiO(2) material with hierarchically structured spheres consisting of ultrathin nanosheets with 100% of the [001] facet exposed was employed to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Investigation of the electron transport and back reaction of the DSCs by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the spheres had a threefold lower electron recombination rate compared to the conventional TiO(2) nanoparticles. In contrast, the effective electron diffusion coefficient, D(n), was not sensitive to the variation of the TiO(2) morphology. The TiO(2) spheres showed the same D(n) as that of the nanoparticles. The influence of TiCl(4) post-treatment on the conduction band of the TiO(2) spheres and on the kinetics of electron transport and back reactions was also investigated. It was found that the TiCl(4) post-treatment caused a downward shift of the TiO(2) conduction band edge by 30 meV. Meanwhile, a fourfold increase of the effective electron lifetime of the DSC was also observed after TiCl(4) treatment. The synergistic effect of the variation of the TiO(2) conduction band and the electron recombination determined the open-circuit voltage of the DSC. PMID:23016142

  5. Laser welding of nanoparticulate TiO2 and transparent conducting oxide electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2010-08-27

    Poor interfacial contact is often encountered in nanoparticulate film-based devices. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a representative case in which a nanoporous TiO(2) electrode needs to be prepared on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate. In this study, we demonstrate that the inter-electrode contact resistance accounts for a considerable portion of the total resistance of a DSSC and its efficiency can be greatly enhanced by welding the interface with a laser. TiO(2) films formed on the TCO-coated glass substrate were irradiated with a pulsed ultraviolet laser beam at 355 nm; this transmits through the TCO and glass but is strongly absorbed by TiO(2). Electron microscopy analysis and impedance measurements showed that a thin continuous TiO(2) layer is formed at the interface as a result of the local melting of TiO(2) nanoparticles and this layer completely bridges the gap between the two electrodes, improving the current flow with a reduced contact resistance. We were able to improve the efficiency by 35-65% with this process. DSSCs fabricated using a homemade TiO(2) paste revealed an efficiency improvement from eta = 3.3% to 5.4%, and an increase from 8.2% to 11.2% was achieved with the TiO(2) electrodes made from a commercial paste. PMID:20671364

  6. Designing nanobowl arrays of mesoporous TiO2 as an alternative electron transporting layer for carbon cathode-based perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Hexiang; Xiao, Shuang; Fan, Zhiyong; Wong, Kam Sing; Yang, Shihe

    2016-03-17

    In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these advantages of the novel TiO2 NB film, the 220 nm-PS templated TiO2 NB based devices performed the best on both light absorption capability and charge extraction, and achieved a PCE up to 12.02% with good stability, which is 37% higher than that of the planar counterpart. These results point to a viable and convenient route toward the fabrication of TiO2 ETL nanostructures for high performance PSCs. PMID:26795208

  7. Sol-gel-Derived nano-sized double layer anti-reflection coatings (SiO2/TiO2) for low-cost solar cell fabrication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Hur, Man Gyu; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2013-11-01

    We investigate nano-sized double layer anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) using a TiO2 and SiO2 sol-gel solution process for mono-crystalline silicon solar cells. The process can be easily adapted for spraying sol-gel coatings to reduce manufacturing cost. The spray-coated SiO2/TiO2 nano-sized double layer ARCs were deposited on mono-crystalline silicon solar cells, and they showed good optical properties. The spray coating process is a lower-cost fabrication process for large-scale coating than vacuum deposition processes such as PECVD. The measured average optical reflectance (300-1200 nm) was about approximately 8% for SiO2/TiO2 nano-sized double layer ARCs. The electrical parameters of a mono-crystalline silicon solar cell and reflection losses show that the SiO2/TiO2 stacks can improve cell efficiency by 0.2% compared to a non-coated mono-crystalline silicon solar cell. In the results, good correlation between theoretical and experimental data was obtained. We expect that the sol-gel spray-coated mono-crystalline silicon solar cells have high potential for low-cost solar cell fabrication. PMID:24245311

  8. Multifunctional graded index TiO2 compact layer for performance enhancement in dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2013-11-01

    A specially tailored index TiO2 compact layer (arc-TiO2) has been successfully deposited to serve as photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The employment of the TiO2 compact layer in the DSSC was systematically investigated by means of UV-absorption spectra, incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The higher and red-shifted transmittance spectra of the ITO/arc-TiO2 electrode mimic the IPCE spectra of the DSSC, in a specific wavelength region. Furthermore, the blue-shift of the UV-absorption spectra and lower R1 value obtained from EIS measurements implied the decrease of the charge interfacial resistance, and this consequently facilitates the charge transport from the nanocrystalline-TiO2 to the ITO. The integrated effects of the arc-TiO2 compact layer originate the remarkable improvement in this type of DSSC applications. As a result, the arc-TiO2-based DSSC showed higher conversion efficiency of about 4.38%, representing almost 53% increment compared to bare ITO cell. This work also discuss the fundamental insight of the compact layer that determines the origin of such improvement in the DSSC performance.

  9. Bulk intermixing-type perovskite CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 nanorod hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Sian; Wang, Ying-Chiao; Tsai, Chin-Ming; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Yu, Chia-Hao; Yang, Yu-Pei; Lin, Jou-Chun; Wang, Di-Yan; Chen, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Yun-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2015-08-01

    To replace high-temperature sintered scaffold materials in conventional CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells, this study demonstrates a new device structure of a bulk intermixing (BI)-type CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 nanorod (NR) hybrid solar cell, where dispersed TiO2 NRs from chemical synthesis are intermixed with the perovskite absorbing layer to form a BI-type perovskite/TiO2 NR hybrid for device fabrication. Through interface engineering between the TiO2 NR surface and the photoactive perovskite material of CH3NH3PbI3 by ligand exchange treatment, a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 12% was achieved based on the simple BI-type CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 NR hybrid device structure. The proposed hybrids not only provide great flexibility for deposition on various substrates through spin coating at low temperatures but also enable layer-by-layer deposition for the future development of perovskite-based multi-junction solar cells.To replace high-temperature sintered scaffold materials in conventional CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells, this study demonstrates a new device structure of a bulk intermixing (BI)-type CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 nanorod (NR) hybrid solar cell, where dispersed TiO2 NRs from chemical synthesis are intermixed with the perovskite absorbing layer to form a BI-type perovskite/TiO2 NR hybrid for device fabrication. Through interface engineering between the TiO2 NR surface and the photoactive perovskite material of CH3NH3PbI3 by ligand exchange treatment, a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 12% was achieved based on the simple BI-type CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 NR hybrid device structure. The proposed hybrids not only provide great flexibility for deposition on various substrates through spin coating at low temperatures but also enable layer-by-layer deposition for the future development of perovskite-based multi-junction solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TiO2 synthesis and ligand exchange process, device fabrication and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04076k

  10. The tailored inner space of TiO2 electrodes via a 30 second wet etching process: high efficiency solid-state perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Park, Jong Hyoek

    2015-06-28

    We fabricated a perovskite solar cell with enhanced device efficiency based on the tailored inner space of the TiO2 electrode by utilizing a very short chemical etching process. It was found that the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode treated with a HF solution exhibited remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiencies under simulated AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The controlled inner space and morphology of the etched TiO2 electrode provide an optimized space for perovskite sensitizers and infiltration of a hole transport layer without sacrificing its original electron transport ability, which resulted in higher JSC, FF and VOC values. This simple platform provides new opportunities for tailoring the microstructure of the TiO2 electrode and has great potential in various optoelectronic devices utilizing metal oxide nanostructures. PMID:26034972

  11. Three-dimensional ordered TiO2 hollow spheres as scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Chen, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 nanostructure was constructed to obtain an improved photoelectric conversion performance. The design was based on the three-dimensional ordered assembly of TiO2 hollow spheres (3D-TiO2 HPs), which were synthesized using polystyrene colloidal crystals as sacrificial templates. Owing to this highly periodic structure and high specific surface area, the double-layered photoanode films derived from 3D-TiO2 HPs as light scattering layer exhibited enhanced conversion efficiency (7.0 %), thus leading to a 46 % increment of photovoltaic performance compared to the cell based on P25 TiO2 photoanode (4.8 %).

  12. Highly efficient plastic substrate dye-sensitized solar cells using a compression method for preparation of TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Tobe, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Arakawa, Hironori

    2007-12-01

    The efficiency of a plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cell was much improved by a new method consisting of a press method without heat treatment, light confinement effect of TiO(2) film and water-based TiO(2) paste; this device shows the highest light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency based on plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cells, 7.4% under 100 mW cm(-2) (1 sun) AM1.5 illumination. PMID:18004435

  13. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Andreia; Alves, João Paulo C.; Lima, Francisco Anderson S.; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) |TiO2/RGO|P3HT:PC61BM|V2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ˜22.3% and ˜28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities.

  14. Artificial photosynthesis based on ruthenium(II) tetrazole-dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Najafi, Leyla; Khanmirzaei, Leyla; Tarighi, Sara

    2015-11-01

    We have demonstrated the optical and morphological properties of a novel TiO2 nanoparticle as photoanode in order to apply in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanoparticles were synthesized through hydrothermal method in Tri-n-octyl amine (TOA) as capping agent. From the results it is concluded that the molar ratio of TiCl4 and TOA has remarkable influence on the size and homogeneity of the nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles structure for photoanode incorporated into dye-sensitized solar cell was obtained via the molar ratio of 1:10 for TiCl4:TOA. It has also studied the photovoltaic properties of different synthesized TiO2 nanocrystalline (1-4) anchored to ruthenium(II) complexes. 4-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl) benzoic acid (TzBA) applied as an anchoring ligand and 2,2-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and pyridine tetrazole (pyTz) used as ancillary ligands. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06% was obtained for [Ru(TzBA)(bpy)(pyTz)(NCS)] (5) under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a Jsc of 2.29 mA cm(-2), a Voc of 0.51 V, and FF of 55% which are the highest values among Ru(TzBA) complexes. DSSC study reveals that pyTz as an auxiliary ligand exhibits improved current generating capacity than the bpy and phen, which are introduced by dye (5). PMID:26028126

  15. Hierarchical twin-scale inverse opal TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang-Yeol; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2012-06-26

    We describe the preparation of three-dimensional hierarchical twin-scale inverse opal (ts-IO) electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ts-IO TiO(2) structure was obtained from a template fabricated via the assembly of mesoscale colloidal particles (40-80 nm in diameter) in the confined geometry of a macroporous IO structure. The photovoltaic properties of ts-IO electrodes were optimized by varying the layer thickness or the size of mesopores in the mesoscale colloidal assembly. Electron transport was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The result showed that due to the competing effects of recombination and dye adsorption, the maximum efficiency was observed at an electrode thickness of 12 ?m. The electrodes of smaller mesopores diameters yielded the higher photocurrent density due to the decrease in the electron transport resistance at the TiO(2)/dye interface. A maximum efficiency of 6.90% was obtained using an electrode 12 ?m thick and a mesopore diameter of 35 nm. PMID:22676971

  16. Novel Combination of Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Low Temperature Processed Compact TiO2 Layer via Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Du, Yangyang; Cai, Hongkun; Wen, Hongbin; Wu, Yuxiang; Huang, Like; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-05-25

    In this work, a facile and low temperature processed anodic oxidation approach is proposed for fabricating compact and homogeneous titanium dioxide film (AO-TiO2). In order to realize morphology and thickness control of AO-TiO2, the theory concerning anodic oxidation (AO) is unveiled and the influence of relevant parameters during the process of AO such as electrolyte ingredient and oxidation voltage on AO-TiO2 formation is observed as well. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that the planar perovskite solar cells (p-PSCs) fabricated in ambient air and utilizing optimized AO-TiO2 as electron transport layer (ETL) can deliver repeatable power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 13%, which possess superior open-circuit voltage (Voc) and higher fill factor (FF) compared to its counterpart utilizing conventional high temperature processed compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) as ETL. Through a further comparative study, it is indicated that the improvement of device performance should be attributed to more effective electron collection from perovskite layer to AO-TiO2 and the decrease of device series resistance. Furthermore, hysteresis effect about current density-voltage (J-V) curves in TiO2-based p-PSCs is also unveiled. PMID:27150310

  17. Effect of compressed TiO2 nanoparticle thin film thickness on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jenn Kai; Hsu, Wen Dung; Wu, Tian Chiuan; Meen, Teen Hang; Chong, Wen Jie

    2013-11-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as photoanode. Photoanode thin films were prepared by doctor blading method with 420 kg/cm2 of mechanical compression process and heat treatment in the air at 500°C for 30 min. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 NP photoanode is 26.6 μm with an efficiency of 9.01% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. The efficiency is around two times higher than that of conventional DSSCs with an uncompressed photoanode. The open-circuit voltage of DSSCs decreases as the thickness increases. One DSSC (sample D) has the highest conversion efficiency while it has the maximum short-circuit current density. The results indicate that the short-circuit current density is a compromise between two conflict factors: enlargement of the surface area by increasing photoanode thickness and extension of the electron diffusion length to the electrode as the thickness increases.

  18. Photoanode using hollow spherical TiO2 for duel functions in dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hwan Ho; Yi, Sung; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2013-12-01

    We report a new fabrication method of a bilayer photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell having highly crystalline TiO2 with hollow spherical nanoparticles. The hollow spherical TiO2 nanoparticles in DSSC work not only as scattering layer but also as channel of electrolyte. This is due to the fact that incident light is scattered by the hollow spherical nanoparticle according to Mie theory and spherical hollow spheres allow the empty space inside each sphere to circulate the electrolyte more effectively. The nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The space inside the spheres was fully developed by Ostwald Ripening process and the size of hollow spheres was controlled by concentration of PVPs and hydrothermal synthesis conditions (time and temperature). The nanoparticle size and photoanode morphology of the hollow spheres were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, the power conversion efficiency of 6.26% has been achieved under AM 1.5G simulated sunlights (100 mW cm(-2)). PMID:24266162

  19. Home-made experiment of Dye-sensitized TiO2 Nanocrystalline Solar Cells and its education evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, M. F.; Shieh, M. C.; Chen, T. W.

    2010-03-01

    Dyes extracted from some natural fruits including anthocyanins absorb sunlight and effectively activate electrons of anthocyanins. Thus these activated electrons are conducted between TiO2 nanocrystals and form electric potential and current between two electrodes. The dyes can be gotten from the natural fruits, such as blackberries, raspberry, pomegranate seeds and bing cherries. This principle permits making a dye sensitized TiO2 nanocrystallines solar cell (DSSC). All required materials and tools for fabricating a home- made DSSC are easy to obtain around home. The procedures are perfect hands-on experiment as well as demonstration in K-12 schools or home settings. We have designed several protocols for fabricating DSSC and have successfully demonstrated in more than 100 activities with different level students. K-12 Students were able to build their own working DSSC's within 2-3 hours sessions and learned about alternative energy sources. These experiments can inspire students and general public about the modern technology in daily life. Low cost (low than US 3 in Taiwan)and safety are also ensured in our DSSC experiments.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell constructed with titanium mesh and 3-D array of TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rustomji, Cyrus S; Frandsen, Christine J; Jin, Sungho; Tauber, Michael J

    2010-11-18

    We have designed and constructed dye sensitized solar cells based on new, 3-D configurations of TiO(2) nanotubes. The overall efficiency of our best cells is 5.0% under standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) solar conditions, and the incident photon-to-current efficiency exceeds 60% over a broad part of the visible spectrum. Unlike prior nanotube-based cells where tubes are grown vertically in a 2-D array, the anodes of the present cells consist of tubes that extend radially in a 3-D array from a grid of fine titanium wires. The nanotubes are tens of micrometers in length, and the radial nature of the anode allows the photon absorption path length to exceed the electron transport distance (nanotube length). The cells are front-illuminated and do not require a transparent conductive oxide substrate at either the anode or cathode. The use of 3-D configured nanotubes and low-resistance titanium metal substrates are expected to enhance the performance and simplify the construction of large area dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:20527771

  1. Enhanced photoelectric performance of PbS/CdS quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells via hydrogenated TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanli; Tao, Qiang; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Su, Shi; Ding, Dong; Mu, Yannan; Li, Xue; Li, Minghui

    2014-08-28

    The enhanced photoelectric performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells via hydrogenated TiO2 is proposed. The best energy conversion efficiency is 1.5 times higher than cells without hydrogen treatment. We demonstrated that introducing oxygen vacancies by hydrogenation is an effective and feasible method for enhanced photoelectric performance. PMID:25010989

  2. TiO2 dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC): linear relationship of maximum power point and anthocyanin concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Radin

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship of anthocyanin concentration from different organic fruit species and output voltage and current in a TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and hypothesized that fruits with greater anthocyanin concentration produce higher maximum power point (MPP) which would lead to higher current and voltage. Anthocyanin dye solution was made with crushing of a group of fresh fruits with different anthocyanin content in 2 mL of de-ionized water and filtration. Using these test fruit dyes, multiple DSSCs were assembled such that light enters through the TiO2 side of the cell. The full current-voltage (I-V) co-variations were measured using a 500 Ω potentiometer as a variable load. Point-by point current and voltage data pairs were measured at various incremental resistance values. The maximum power point (MPP) generated by the solar cell was defined as a dependent variable and the anthocyanin concentration in the fruit used in the DSSC as the independent variable. A regression model was used to investigate the linear relationship between study variables. Regression analysis showed a significant linear relationship between MPP and anthocyanin concentration with a p-value of 0.007. Fruits like blueberry and black raspberry with the highest anthocyanin content generated higher MPP. In a DSSC, a linear model may predict MPP based on the anthocyanin concentration. This model is the first step to find organic anthocyanin sources in the nature with the highest dye concentration to generate energy.

  3. Electro-spray deposition of a mesoporous TiO2 charge collection layer: toward large scale and continuous production of high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Yoon, Jungjin; Lee, Jin-wook; Suh, Dongchul; Park, Nam-gyu; Choi, Mansoo; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-12-28

    The spin-coating method, which is widely used for thin film device fabrication, is incapable of large-area deposition or being performed continuously. In perovskite hybrid solar cells using CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) (MAPbI(3)), large-area deposition is essential for their potential use in mass production. Prior to replacing all the spin-coating process for fabrication of perovskite solar cells, herein, a mesoporous TiO(2) electron-collection layer is fabricated by using the electro-spray deposition (ESD) system. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy and transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements reveal that the electro-sprayed mesoscopic TiO(2) film facilitates charge collection from the perovskite. The series resistance of the perovskite solar cell is also reduced owing to the highly porous nature of, and the low density of point defects in, the film. An optimized power conversion efficiency of 15.11% is achieved under an illumination of 1 sun; this efficiency is higher than that (13.67%) of the perovskite solar cell with the conventional spin-coated TiO(2) films. Furthermore, the large-area coating capability of the ESD process is verified through the coating of uniform 10 × 10 cm(2) TiO(2) films. This study clearly shows that ESD constitutes therefore a viable alternative for the fabrication of high-throughput, large-area perovskite solar cells. PMID:26602588

  4. Perovskite Solar Cells: Moth-Eye TiO2 Layer for Improving Light Harvesting Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells (Small 18/2016).

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Min; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Yoon, Jungjin; Yoo, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A moth-eye patterned mesoporous (mp) TiO2 layer is fabricated in the form of submicron scale by using lithography, nano-imprinting and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) stamping methods. On page 2443, M. Choi, N.-G. Park, and co-workers demonstrate an excellent light harvesting property of perovskite solar cell by employing the moth-eye nanostructured mp-TiO2 film. These novel fabrication methods are expected to be optically beneficial to opto-electronic devices. PMID:27151831

  5. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells by use of ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanofibers photoanode.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim M A; Dao, Van-Duong; Barakat, Nasser A M; Yasin, Ahmed S; Yousef, Ahmed; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2016-08-15

    Due to the good stability and convenient optical properties, TiO2 nanostructures still the prominent photoanode materials in the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). However, the well-known low bandgap energy and weak adsorption affinity for the dye distinctly constrain the wide application. This work discusses the impact of Zr-doping and nanofibrous morphology on the performance and physicochemical properties of TiO2. Zr-doped TiO2 nanofibers (NFs), with various zirconia content (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2wt%) were prepared by calcination of electrospun mats composed of polyvinyl acetate, titanium isopropoxyl and zirconium n-propoxyl. For all formulations, the results have shown that the prepared materials are continuous, randomly oriented, and good morphology nanofibers. The average diameter decreased from 353.85nm to 210.78nm after calcination without a considerable influence on the nanofibrous structure regardless the zirconia content. XRD result shows that there is no Rutile nor Brookite phases in the obtained material and the average crystallite size of the sample is affected by the presence of Zr-doping and changed from 23.01nm to 37.63nm for TiO2 and Zr-doped TiO2, respectively. Optical studies have shown Zr-doped TiO2 NFs have more absorbance in the visible region than that of pristine TiO2 NFs; the maximum absorbance is corresponding to the NFs having 1wt% zirconia. The improved spectra of Zr-doped TiO2 in the visible region is attributed to the heterostructure composition resulting from Zr-doping. The absorption bandgaps were calculated using Tauc model as 3.202 and 3.217 for pristine and Zr (1wt%)-doped TiO2 NFs, respectively. Furthermore, in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, utilizing Zr (1wt%)-doped TiO2 nanofibers achieved higher efficiency of 4.51% compared to the 1.61% obtained from the pristine TiO2 NFs. PMID:27179174

  6. One-dimensional and (001) facetted nanostructured TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Hao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most important components in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), photoanode materials have attracted massive interest and been greatly developed through the efforts of various research institutions in recent years. Photoanode materials not only provide a large surface for the sensitizer to favor charge separation, but also conduct the electrons to the collection electrode. In recent years, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (nanotubes (NT), nanowires (NW) and nanorods(NR)), which offer direct pathways for electron transport, and nanostructures (nanosheets (NS) and nanoparticles (NP)) with (001) crystal facets which possess higher surface energies have been widely employed as photoanode materials. In this review, the progress of 1D nanostructures and those with (001) crystal facets, as well as their photovoltaic performance in DSCs will be discussed briefly. Further efforts are needed to provide theoretical research for 1D and (001) facet nanostructured TiO2 and to improve DSC performances based on these photoanodes. PMID:23574952

  7. Influence of PVP template on the formation of porous TiO2 nanofibers by electrospinning technique for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayappan, Vijayakumar; Panneerselvam, Pratheep; Nemala, Sivasankar; Nallathambi, Karthick S.; Angaiah, Subramania

    2015-09-01

    The porous TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as template as well as pore-forming agent at the calcination temperature of 475 °C for 5 h. The influence of various concentrations of PVP (5, 8 and 10 wt%) on the surface area and porosity of the prepared TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) were studied by using BET-specific surface area analyzer. The TiO2 NFs obtained by using 5 wt% of PVP had higher surface area and porosity than those obtained by using 8 and 10 wt% of PVP. The prepared electrospun TiO2 NFs were characterized by using TG analysis, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FE-SEM and TEM studies. Finally, dye-sensitized solar cells were assembled using the prepared TiO2 NFs as the photoanode, Pt as the cathode and 0.5 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine in acetonitrile as an electrolyte. Among the three photoanodes, the cell assembled using porous TiO2 NFs obtained by using 5 wt% of PVP showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.81 % than those obtained by using 8 and 10 wt% of PVP, which showed the lower PCE of 4.13 and 3.42 %, respectively.

  8. Combined embedding of N-doping and CaCO3 surface modification in the TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young; Won, Yong Sun

    2013-11-01

    A successive embedding of N-doping and CaCO3 surface modification was carried out in the TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combined effect was revealed with the great increase of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of the prepared cells; the efficiency (η) was improved from 5.42% of a commercial TiO2 photoelectrode to 7.47% of an unmodified N-doped electrode, and to 9.03% of a N-doped and CaCO3 surface modified electrode. An enhanced photoresponse in N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles generate more photo-excited electrons in adsorbed dye, as supported by measured UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE). A successive CaCO3 surface modification then form a barrier on the surface of N-doped TiO2 particles, suppressing charge recombination of photo-generated electrons from N-doped TiO2 to dye or electrolyte, and thus extending their life time in the electrode, as supported by electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Furthermore, the higher basicity of the CaCO3 modified TiO2 facilitates the dye adsorption, as supported by the direct measurement of the amount of adsorbed dye.

  9. Increases in solar conversion efficiencies of the ZrO2 nanofiber-doped TiO2 photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in order to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, we introduced zirconia [ZrO2] nanofibers into a mesoporous titania [TiO2] photoelectrode. The photoelectrode consists of a few weight percent of ZrO2 nanofibers and a mesoporous TiO2 powder. The mixed ZrO2 nanofibers and the mesoporous TiO2 powder possessed a larger surface area than the corresponding mesoporous TiO2 powder. The optimum ratio of the ZrO2 nanofiber was 5 wt.%. The 5 wt.% ZrO2-mixed device could get a short-circuit photocurrent density of 15.9 mA/cm2, an open-circuit photovoltage of 0.69 V, a fill factor of 0.60, and a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.5% under irradiation of AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). PMID:22297154

  10. Three-dimensional TiO2/ZnO hybrid array as a heterostructured anode for efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao-Lin; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Wan, Quan; Li, Long-Bin; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-03-11

    The development of a novel nanoarray photoanode with a heterostructure on a transparent conducting oxide substrate provides a promising scheme to fabricate efficient energy conversion devices. Herein, we successfully synthesize the vertically aligned hierarchical TiO2 nanowire/ZnO nanorod or TiO2 nanowire/ZnO nanosheet hybrid arrays, which are proven to be excellent anode candidates for superior light utilization. Consequently, the quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells based on such hybrid arrays exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM 1.5G one sun illumination with improved short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor compared to pristine TiO2 nanowire arrays. Combined with the chemical-bath-deposited Cu2S counter electrode, the eventual PCE can be further optimized to as high as 4.57% for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized quantum dot solar cells. PMID:25679232

  11. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  12. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  13. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation &immersion (E &I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm(2)) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  14. Transparent Conducting Nb-Doped TiO2 Electrodes Activated by Laser Annealing for Inexpensive Flexible Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    A KrF excimer laser (λ= 248 nm) has been adopted for annealing cost-effective Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) films. Sputtered NTO layers were annealed on SiO2-coated flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. This local laser annealing technique is very useful for the formation of anatase NTO electrodes used in flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). An amorphous NTO film with a high resistivity and a low transparency was transformed significantly into a conductive and transparent anatase NTO electrode by laser irradiation. The 210 nm anatase NTO film shows a sheet resistance of 50 Ω and an average optical transmittance of 83.5% in the wavelength range from 450 to 600 nm after annealing at 0.25 J/cm2. The activation of Nb dopants and the formation of the anatase phase contribute to the high conductivity of the laser-annealed NTO electrode. Nb activation causes an increase in the optical band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. The electrical properties are in agreement with the material characteristics determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The irradiation energy for the NTO electrode also affects the performance of the organic solar cell. The laser annealing technique provides good properties of the anatase NTO film used as a transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) without damage to the PET substrate or layer delamination from the substrate.

  15. Photoconversion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D-Structured Photoelectrode Consisting of Both TiO2 Nanofibers and Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Wan-Tae; Choi, Won-Youl

    2016-03-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells, a three-dimensional (3-D)-structured photoelectrode of TiO2 nanofibers and nanoparticles was successfully fabricated by electro-spinning and screen-printing processes. Structures with one-dimensional nanofibers can be expected to improve the charge transport in a photoelectrode. The microstructure and crystalline structure were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and with an x-ray diffractometer, respectively. The particle size of the TiO2 particles and the diameters of the TiO2 nanofiber in the 3-D-structured photoelectrode were ~30 nm and ~500 nm, respectively. The total thickness of the TiO2 layer in the 3-D-structured photoelectrode, which is composed of a nanoparticle layer of ~12 μm and a nanofiber layer of ~8 μm, was ~20 μm. The crystalline, anatase phase was also determined. In these dye-sensitized solar cells with a 3-D-structured layer, a short-circuit current density of 12.36 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.74 V, a fill factor of 0.46, and an energy conversion efficiency of 4.18% were observed. These values are higher than those of dye-sensitized solar cells with a conventional TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The proposed 3-D-structured photoelectrode consisting of TiO2 nanofibers and nanoparticles can help improve the performance of commercial dye-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Photoconversion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D-Structured Photoelectrode Consisting of Both TiO2 Nanofibers and Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Wan-Tae; Choi, Won-Youl

    2016-06-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells, a three-dimensional (3-D)-structured photoelectrode of TiO2 nanofibers and nanoparticles was successfully fabricated by electro-spinning and screen-printing processes. Structures with one-dimensional nanofibers can be expected to improve the charge transport in a photoelectrode. The microstructure and crystalline structure were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and with an x-ray diffractometer, respectively. The particle size of the TiO2 particles and the diameters of the TiO2 nanofiber in the 3-D-structured photoelectrode were ~30 nm and ~500 nm, respectively. The total thickness of the TiO2 layer in the 3-D-structured photoelectrode, which is composed of a nanoparticle layer of ~12 μm and a nanofiber layer of ~8 μm, was ~20 μm. The crystalline, anatase phase was also determined. In these dye-sensitized solar cells with a 3-D-structured layer, a short-circuit current density of 12.36 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.74 V, a fill factor of 0.46, and an energy conversion efficiency of 4.18% were observed. These values are higher than those of dye-sensitized solar cells with a conventional TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The proposed 3-D-structured photoelectrode consisting of TiO2 nanofibers and nanoparticles can help improve the performance of commercial dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Influence of TiCl4 post-treatment condition on TiO2 electrode for enhancement photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-10-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment processed by chemical bath deposition is usually adopted as pre- and post-treatment for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) film deposition in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) technology. TiCl4 post-treatment is a widely known method capable of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the TiO2 electrode is proposed and compared to the untreated film. A TiO2 passivating layer was deposited on FTO glass by RF magnetron sputtering. The TiO2 sol prepared sol-gel method, nanoporous TiO2 upper layer was deposited by screen printing method on the passivating layer. TiCl4 post-treatment was deposited on the substrate by hydrolysis of TiCl4 aqueous solution. Crystalline structure was adjusted by various TiCl4 concentration and dipping time: 20 mM-150 mM and 30 min-120 min. The conversion efficiency was measured by solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). The dye-sensitized solar cell using TiCl4 post-treatment was measured the maximum conversion efficiency of 5.04% due to electron transport effectively. As a result, the DSSCs based on TiCl4 post-treatment showed better photovoltaic performance than cells made purely of TiO2 nanoparticles. The relative DSSCs devices are characterized in terms of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, conversion efficiency. PMID:25942852

  18. A General Method for Preparing Anatase TiO2 Treelike-Nanoarrays on Various Metal Wires for Fiber Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Tu, Fanfan; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices. PMID:24646952

  19. Enhanced photoelectrical performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with double-layer TiO2 on perovskite SrTiO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Mei; Dong, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    In this research, perovskite SrTiO3 particles are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and TiO2 with a double-layer structure is grown on the SrTiO3 surface by a hydrolysis-condensation process. Structural characterizations reveal that TiO2 comprises of two phases: anatase film at the bottom and single-crystal rutile nanorods grown along the [110] direction on top. The TiO2-SrTiO3 composite film is investigated as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. In comparison with pure TiO2 and SrTiO3, the composite photoanode shows a much better performance in photoelectric conversion efficiency (1.35 %), which is about 2 and 100 times as efficient as pure TiO2 and SrTiO3, respectively. This indicates that the composite structure can facilitate charge carrier transfer and reduce electron-hole recombination to enhance photoelectrical properties of TiO2-based photoanode materials.

  20. The influence of anatase-rutile mixed phase and ZnO blocking layer on dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2nanofiberphotoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianning; Li, Yan; Hu, Hongwei; Bai, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Ningyi

    2013-01-01

    High performance is expected in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that utilize one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructures owing to the effective electron transport. However, due to the low dye adsorption, mainly because of their smooth surfaces, 1-D TiO2 DSSCs show relatively lower efficiencies than nanoparticle-based ones. Herein, we demonstrate a very simple approach using thick TiO2 electrospun nanofiber films as photoanodes to obtain high conversion efficiency. To improve the performance of the DSCCs, anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nanofibers are achieved by increasing sintering temperature above 500°C, and very thin ZnO films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method as blocking layers. With approximately 40-μm-thick mixed-phase (approximately 15.6 wt.% rutile) TiO2 nanofiber as photoanode and 15-nm-thick compact ZnO film as a blocking layer in DSSC, the photoelectric conversion efficiency and short-circuit current are measured as 8.01% and 17.3 mA cm-2, respectively. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements reveal that extremely large electron diffusion length is the key point to support the usage of thick TiO2 nanofibers as photoanodes with very thin ZnO blocking layers to obtain high photocurrents and high conversion efficiencies.

  1. Influence of TiO2 nanotube morphology and TiCl4 treatment on the charge transfer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Hong; Chae, Sang Youn; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2013-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs), and surface-modified NTAs with a TiCl4 treatment. The photovoltaic efficiencies of the DSSCs using TiO2 NP, NTA, and TiCl4-treated NTA electrodes are 4.25, 4.74, and 7.47 %, respectively. The highest performance was observed with a TiCl4-treated TiO2 NTA photoanode, although in the case of the latter two electrodes, the amounts of N719 dye adsorbed were similar and 68 % of that of the NP electrode. Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the overall resistance, including the charge-transfer resistance, was smaller with NTA morphologies than with NP morphologies. We suggest that a different electron transfer mechanism along the one-dimensional nanostructure of the TiO2 NTAs contributes to the smaller charge-transfer resistance, resulting in a higher short circuit current ( J sc), even at lower dye adsorption. Furthermore, the TiCl4-treated NTAs showed even smaller charge-transfer resistance, resulting in the highest J sc value, because the downward shift in the conduction band edge improves the electron injection efficiency from the excited dye into the TiCl4-treated TiO2 electrodes.

  2. Double-layer electrode based on TiO2 nanotubes arrays for enhancing photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Que, Wenxiu; Sun, Peng; Ren, Jiangbo

    2013-12-26

    The present work reports a rapid and facile method to fabricate a novel double-layer TiO2 photoanode, which is based on highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays and monodispersive scattering microspheres. This double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA photoanode have got many unique structural and optical properties from TiO2 scattering microspheres, such as high specific surface area, multiple interparticle scattering, and efficient light-harvesting. Results indicate that this as-fabricated double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA front-illumination dye-sensitized solar cell, which is fabricated from the TiO2 nanotube arrays with a 17.4 μm length after TiCl4 treatment, exhibits a pronounced power conversion efficiency of 7.24% under an AM1.5 G irradiation, which can be attributed to the increased incident photon-to-current conversion and light-harvesting efficiency. PMID:24304127

  3. Hierarchical TiO2 flowers built from TiO2 nanotubes for efficient Pt-free based flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bing-Xin; Luo, Qiu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2012-10-14

    A novel hierarchical TiO(2) flower consisting of anatase TiO(2) nanotubes on a Ti foil substrate has been prepared via a mild hydrothermal reaction of TiO(2) nanoparticles/Ti foil. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC based on hierarchical TiO(2) flowers/Ti (7.2%) is much higher than that of TiO(2) nanoparticle/Ti (6.63%) because of its superior light scattering ability and fast electron transport. Moreover, full flexible DSSC based on the novel hierarchical TiO(2) flowers/Ti foil photoelectrode and electrodeposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on indium tin oxide-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (ITO-PET) counter electrode shows a significant power conversion efficiency of 6.26%, accompanying a short-circuit current density of 11.96 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 761 mV and a fill factor of 0.69. PMID:22914771

  4. Size-controlled synthesis of anisotropic TiO2 single nanocrystals using microwave irradiation and their application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Manseki, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Ban, Takayuki; Sugiura, Takashi; Yoshida, Tsukasa

    2013-03-14

    A microwave hydrothermal reaction of colloidal titanates is presented as a cost-effective synthesis to produce TiO(2) single nanocrystals. The photoelectrode consisting of anisotropic nanorods and V-shaped twins has a significant advantage for achieving an appreciable incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 85.6% for the dye-sensitized solar cell. PMID:23307102

  5. Controlling the Morphology of TiO2 Nanorods/Polythiophene Composites for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using H-Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Wei, Qingshuo; Watkins, James J.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate how the morphology of solution-processable hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells, within an active layer consisting of modified poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and TiO2 nanorods, can be controlled by H-Bonding. The hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells suffer from the problems of the aggregation of inorganic nanocrystals and the interface between nanocrystals and the polymer matrix. To address these issues, we utilize P3HT-based block copolymer (BCP), in which one block is P3HT and the other block is a P3HT derivative containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomer side chain. In the mean time, we functionalized the TiO2 nanorods with dyes having multiple COOH groups. This design both enables self-assembly of the devices via micophase segregation into well-defined morphologies and provides a means for establishing strong preferential interaction between TiO2 nanorods and the PEG side chain. This strong, preferential H-bonding limits the aggregation of the TiO2 nanorods and modifies the interfacial properties between donor and acceptor. TEM showed the self-assembly structure of the TiO2 nanorods in polymer matrix. Using this modified thiophene copolymer, hybrid devices are made with power conversion efficiencies 50% higher than that of conventional P3HT homopolymer.

  6. Preparation of a nanoporous CaCO3-coated TiO2 electrode and its application to a dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Jin Young; Youn, Sung Hun; Park, Min; Hong, Kug Sun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun; Shin, Hyunho

    2007-11-01

    A nanoporous CaCO3 overlayer-coated TiO2 thick film was prepared by the topotactic thermal decomposition of Ca(OH)2, and its performance as an electrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated. As compared to bare TiO2, nanoporous CaCO3-coated TiO2 provided higher specific surface area and, subsequently, a larger amount of dye adsorption; this in turn increased short-circuit current (Jsc). Furthermore, the CaCO3 coating demonstrated increased impedance at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface and increased the lifetime of the photoelectrons, indicating the improved retardation of the back electron transfer, which increases Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc), and fill factor (ff). Thereby, the energy conversion efficiency (eta) of the solar cell improved from 7.8 to 9.7% (an improvement of 24.4%) as the nanoporous CaCO3 layer was coated onto TiO2 thick films. PMID:17927224

  7. In situ processed gold nanoparticle-embedded TiO2 nanofibers enabling plasmonic perovskite solar cells to exceed 14% conversion efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Shim, Chang Su; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S.; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated organometallic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on Au decorated TiO2 nanofibers and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). A power conversion efficiency of 14.92% was achieved, which is significantly higher than that of conventional mesoporous (mp) TiO2, as well as TiO2 nanofiber-based devices. The present synthetic process provides new opportunities for the development of efficient plasmonic PSCs based on metal oxide nanofibers. Solar cells based on these architectures exhibit a short-circuit current density JSC of 21.63 +/- 0.36 mA cm-2, VOC of 0.986 +/- 0.01 V and fill factor of 70% +/- 3%, which provide a power conversion efficiency of 14.92% +/- 0.33% under standard AM 1.5 conditions. The results of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy and solid-state impedance spectroscopy (ssIS) revealed that PSCs based on Au-decorated TiO2 nanofibers exhibit a low recombination rate. The present results are much higher than those for reported PSCs based on a Au@TiO2 electron-transporting layer (ETL).We have demonstrated organometallic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on Au decorated TiO2 nanofibers and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). A power conversion efficiency of 14.92% was achieved, which is significantly higher than that of conventional mesoporous (mp) TiO2, as well as TiO2 nanofiber-based devices. The present synthetic process provides new opportunities for the development of efficient plasmonic PSCs based on metal oxide nanofibers. Solar cells based on these architectures exhibit a short-circuit current density JSC of 21.63 +/- 0.36 mA cm-2, VOC of 0.986 +/- 0.01 V and fill factor of 70% +/- 3%, which provide a power conversion efficiency of 14.92% +/- 0.33% under standard AM 1.5 conditions. The results of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy and solid-state impedance spectroscopy (ssIS) revealed that PSCs based on Au-decorated TiO2 nanofibers exhibit a low recombination rate. The present results are much higher than those for reported PSCs based on a Au@TiO2 electron-transporting layer (ETL). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization details, XRD of MAPbI3, HRTEM and STEM analysis, synthesis of conventional perovskite solar cell and its analysis, XPS, TGA-DTA and stability parameters. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07395b

  8. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of layered TiO2/carbon nanotube/TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Grosso, D. R.; Imbrogno, A.; Xu, F.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the realization of photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells based on composites of carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Our results show the best photovoltaics performance for carbon nanotubes weight percentages between 0.2% and 0.4%. Photoanodes realized in three-layer configuration, TiO2/carbon nanotube/TiO2, show a cell efficiency of 10.5% and a fill factor of 70%, values 2.4 times greater with respect to that of classical TiO2 anode. The presence of carbon nanotubes enhances the charge transport, strongly reducing the electron/hole recombination in the anode bulk, while the double layer of TiO2 increases the dye adsorption limiting the reduction caused by the presence of carbon nanotubes.

  9. Photovoltaic properties of dye sensitised solar cells using TiO2 nanotube arrays for photoanodes: Role of hydrochloric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tian; Wang, Baoyuan; Xie, Jian; Li, Quantong; Zhang, Jun; Asghar, Muhammad Imran; Lund, Peter D.; Wang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    A hydrochloric acid treatment was performed to modify the surface of TiO2 nanotube arrays for improving the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. The microstructural, optical and photovoltaic properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays and the assembled cells were investigated in detail. It was found that HCl treatment does not change the morphology and crystallographic structure of the nanotube arrays, but it results in more hydroxyl groups on the TiO2 surface for dye adsorption and a surface protonation for both an improved dye adsorption and a higher quantum yield of electron injection. A major performance enhancement was found which originated from the remarkable increase in the dye adsorption. A power conversion efficiency of 8.4%, JSC of ?16.8 mA cm-2 and VOC of 0.7 V was observed when the photoanode was treated with a 0.1 M HCl solution.

  10. Performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cell with a TiCl4-treated TiO2 compact layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jisuk; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2015-03-01

    We here show that an effective blocking layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can be formed by spin coating a commercial TiO2 paste onto a conducting glass substrate. The spin-coated TiO2 layer was made more compact than the main absorption layer by TiCl4 treatment. DSSCs employing a compact layer exhibited an average current density and an efficiency of 19.09 mA/cm2 and 9.10%, respectively, while 16.91 mA/cm2 and 8.33% were obtained from unblocked reference cells. The enhanced DSSC performance is attributed to the increased electron lifetime. Intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay analysis showed that a TiCl4-treated compact layer substantially suppresses the charge recombination at the TiO2/substrate interface, thereby increasing the electron lifetime. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Stable anatase TiO2 coating on quartz fibers by atomic layer deposition for photoactive light-scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Han; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Jur, Jesse S.; Woodroof, Mariah; Kalanyan, Ber; Lee, Kyoungmi; Devine, Christina K.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2012-07-01

    Quartz fibers provide a unique high surface-area substrate suitable for conformal coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and are compatible with high temperature annealing. This paper shows that the quartz fiber composition stabilizes ALD TiO2 in the anatase phase through TiO2-SiO2 interface formation, even after annealing at 1050 C. When integrated into a dye-sensitized solar cell, the TiO2-coated quartz fiber mat improves light scattering performance. Results also confirm that annealing at high temperature is necessary for better photoactivity of ALD TiO2, which highlights the significance of quartz fibers as a substrate. The ALD TiO2 coating on quartz fibers also boosts dye adsorption and photocurrent response, pushing the overall efficiency of the dye-cells from 6.5 to 7.4%. The mechanisms for improved cell performance are confirmed using wavelength-dependent incident photon to current efficiency and diffuse light scattering results. The combination of ALD and thermal processing on quartz fibers may enable other device structures for energy conversion and catalytic reaction applications.

  12. Photoelectrochemical cell/dye-sensitized solar cell tandem water splitting systems with transparent and vertically aligned quantum dot sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kahee; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    The present work reports fabrication of vertically aligned CdS sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting oxide substrate with high transparency as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting. To realize an unassisted water splitting system, the photoanode and dye-sensitized solar cell tandem structures are tried and their electrochemical behaviors are also investigated. The hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays followed by CdS nanoparticle decoration can improve the light absorption of long wavelength light resulting in increased photocurrent density. Two different techniques (electrodeposition and spray pyrolysis deposition) of CdS nanoparticle sensitization are carried out and their water splitting behaviors in the tandem cell are compared.

  13. Performance enhancement of perovskite solar cells with Mg-doped TiO2 compact film as the hole-blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Qin, Minchao; Tao, Hong; Ke, Weijun; Chen, Zhao; Wan, Jiawei; Qin, Pingli; Xiong, Liangbin; Lei, Hongwei; Yu, Huaqing; Fang, Guojia

    2015-03-01

    In this letter, we report perovskite solar cells with thin dense Mg-doped TiO2 as hole-blocking layers (HBLs), which outperform cells using TiO2 HBLs in several ways: higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) (1.08 V), power conversion efficiency (12.28%), short-circuit current, and fill factor. These properties improvements are attributed to the better properties of Mg-modulated TiO2 as compared to TiO2 such as better optical transmission properties, upshifted conduction band minimum (CBM) and downshifted valence band maximum (VBM), better hole-blocking effect, and higher electron life time. The higher-lying CBM due to the modulation with wider band gap MgO and the formation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxides together resulted in an increment of Voc. In addition, the Mg-modulated TiO2 with lower VBM played a better role in the hole-blocking. The HBL with modulated band position provided better electron transport and hole blocking effects within the device.

  14. Designing nanobowl arrays of mesoporous TiO2 as an alternative electron transporting layer for carbon cathode-based perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Hexiang; Xiao, Shuang; Fan, Zhiyong; Wong, Kam Sing; Yang, Shihe

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these advantages of the novel TiO2 NB film, the 220 nm-PS templated TiO2 NB based devices performed the best on both light absorption capability and charge extraction, and achieved a PCE up to 12.02% with good stability, which is 37% higher than that of the planar counterpart. These results point to a viable and convenient route toward the fabrication of TiO2 ETL nanostructures for high performance PSCs.In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these advantages of the novel TiO2 NB film, the 220 nm-PS templated TiO2 NB based devices performed the best on both light absorption capability and charge extraction, and achieved a PCE up to 12.02% with good stability, which is 37% higher than that of the planar counterpart. These results point to a viable and convenient route toward the fabrication of TiO2 ETL nanostructures for high performance PSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; text, tables and figures giving detailed and additional material characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06715d

  15. Designing nanostructured one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube and TiO2 nanoparticle multilayer composite film as photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells to increase the charge collection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilavasan, Jeganathan; Al-Jassim, Maufick; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2015-01-01

    A photoanode consisting of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) was designed for efficient charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells. TNT and TNP films were fabricated on a conductive glass substrate by using electrophoretic deposition and doctor-blade methods, respectively. The TNP, TNT, and TNT/TNP bi-layer electrodes exhibit solar cell efficiencies of 5.3, 7.4, and 9.2%, respectively. Solar cell performance results indicate a higher short-circuit current density (Jsc) for the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode when compared to a TNT or TNP electrode alone. The open-circuit voltages (Voc) of TNT/TNP and TNT electrodes are comparable while the Voc of TNP electrode is inferior to that of the TNT/TNP electrode. Fill factors of TNT/TNP, TNT, and TNP electrodes also exhibit similar behaviors. The enhanced efficiency of the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode is found to be mainly due to the enhancement of charge collection efficiency, which is confirmed by the charge transport parameters measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS analyses also revealed that the TNT/TNP incurs smaller charge transport resistances and longer electron life times when compared to those of TNT or TNP electrodes alone. It was demonstrated that the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode can possess the advantages of both rapid electron transport rate and a high light scattering effect.

  16. CdSe quantum dots and N719-dye decorated hierarchical TiO2 nanorods for the construction of efficient co-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mohan Raj; Kumaresan, Duraisamy

    2015-08-24

    Three-dimensional hierarchical TiO2 nanorods (HTNs) decorated with the N719 dye and 3-mercaptopropionic or oleic acid capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in photoanodes for the construction of TiO2 nanorod-based efficient co-sensitized solar cells are reported. These HTN co-sensitized solar cells showed a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 3.93 %, and a higher open-circuit voltage and fill factor for the photoanode with 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe QDs due to the strong electronic interactions between CdSe QDs, N719 dye and HTNs, and the superior light-harvesting features of the HTNs. An electrochemical impedance analysis indicated that the superior charge-collection efficiency and electron diffusion length of the CdSe QD-coated HTNs improved the photovoltaic performance of these HTN co-sensitized solar cells. PMID:26212770

  17. Graphene oxide nanosheets as an effective template for the synthesis of porous TiO2 film in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; He, Fenglong; Wang, Jin; Yu, Huogen; Zhao, Li

    2015-12-01

    Template method by using various organic components as the pore-forming agent is an effective strategy for the preparation of various porous inorganic materials. After high-temperature calcination in air, the organic components can be in situ decomposed into the gaseous CO2, resulting in the formation of porous structures in inorganic materials. In addition to the well-known organic components, it is highly required to develop new and simple carbon-containing template to prepare porous inorganic nanostructures. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used as a new template for the preparation of porous TiO2 film photoelectrode, which can be applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The porous TiO2 film was fabricated via a three-step method, including the initially homogeneous grafting of GO nanosheets on the TiO2 surface (TiO2-GO), the preparation of TiO2-GO film using blade method and final formation of porous structure after the in situ removal of GO by high-temperature calcination. The effect of GO content on photoelectric conversion performance of the as-fabricated DSSCs was investigated. It was found that the conversion efficiency of DSSC based on porous TiO2-GO (0.75%) film reached up to a maximum value (4.65%), which was much higher than that of DSSC based on nonporous TiO2 film (4.01%). The enhanced conversion efficiency can be attributed to the formation of more porous structures caused by the GO nanosheets after high-temperature calcination. This work may provide a new insight for preparing other porous structured materials.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of fully flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on the Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-nanosheet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Hong, Chengxun; Wang, Hui-gang; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2016-02-01

    Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-sheet arrays photoanode was synthesized on flexible Ti-mesh substrate by using a hydrothermal approach. The effect of TiO2 morphology and Nb2O5 coating layer on the photovoltaic performance of the flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Ti-mesh supported nanostructures were systematically investigated. Compared to the TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs), hierarchical TiO2 nanowire arrays (HNWAs) with enlarged internal surface area and strong light scattering properties exhibited higher overall conversion efficiency. The introduction of thin Nb2O5 coating layers on the surface of the TiO2 HNWAs played a key role in improving the photovoltaic performance of the flexible DSSC. By separating the TiO2 and electrolyte (I-/I3-), the Nb2O5 energy barrier decreased the electron recombination rate and increased electron collection efficiency and injection efficiency, resulting in improved Jsc and Voc. Furthermore, the influence of Nb2O5 coating amounts on the power conversion efficiency were discussed in detail. The fully flexible DSSC based on Nb2O5 coated TiO2 HNWAs films with a thickness of 14 μm displayed a well photovoltaic property of 4.55% (Jsc = 10.50 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.58). The performance enhancement of the flexible DSSC is largely attributed to the reduced electron recombination, enlarged internal surface area and superior light scattering ability of the formed hierarchical nanostructures.

  19. Fine Tuning of Nanocrystal and Pore Sizes of TiO2 Submicrospheres toward High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Ding, Yong; Mo, Li-E; Hu, Lin-Hua; Wu, Ji-Huai; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-10-14

    In general, the properties and performance of mesoporous TiO2 are greatly dependent on its crystal size, crystallinity, porosity, surface area, and morphology; in this regard, design and fine-tuning the crystal and pore sizes of the TiO2 submicrospheres and investigating the effect of these factors on the properties and photoelectric performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is essential. In this work, uniform TiO2 submicrospheres were synthesized by a two-step procedure containing hydrolysis and solvothermal process. The crystal and pore sizes of the TiO2 submicrospheres were fine-tuned and controlled in a narrow range by adjusting the quantity of NH4OH during the solvothermal process. The effect of crystal and pore size of TiO2 submicrosphere on the performance of the DSSCs and their properties including dye-loading capacity, light scattering effect, power conversion efficiency (PCE), incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies (IPCEs), and electron recombination were compared and analyzed. The results show that increasing pore size plays a more significant role in improving the dye-loading capacity and PCE than increasing surface area, and an overall PCE value of 8.62% was obtained for the device with a 7.0 μm film thickness based on the TiO2 submicrospheres treated with 0.6 mL of NH4OH. Finally, the best TiO2 submicrosphere based photoanode film was optimized by TiCl4 treatment, and increasing film thickness and a remarkable PCE up to 11.11% were achieved. PMID:26393366

  20. Effects of anodization growth of TiO2-nanotube array membrane on photo-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min-Woo; Chun, Ki-Young

    2009-03-01

    Membranes of TiO2 nanotube(NT) arrays were grown by potentiostatic anodic oxidation in an ethylene glycol electrolyte with small addition of H2O and NH4F. Ti metal plate with a thickness of 0.1 mm was completely converted into ≈0.2 mm-thick TiO2 NT membrane for 24 to 96 h of anodization. Stacked NTs in membrane were separated into individual NT from the neighboring NTs as anodization continues up to 96 h. As-fabricated membrane of NTs were mechanically grinded to yield fine NT particles for the photoanode application to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), in replacement of conventional TiO2 particles. Photo-conversion efficiency of the DSC using TiO2 crystalline NT particles is varying from 2.22% to 5.03%. Fine TiO2 NT particles can increase dye attachment due to high surface to volume ratio.

  1. Effects of tetrabutoxytitanium on photoelectrochemical properties of plastic-based TiO2 film electrodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ke; Peng, Tianyou; Chen, Junnian; Dai, Ke

    2011-03-01

    The flexible DSSCs based on conducting plastic substrates are fabricated using electrodes made of tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT) mixed with P25 TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperature. To investigate the effects of TBOT on the flexible dye-sensitized solar cells, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is performed in the dark and under illumination conditions. Resistances for electron transport through TiO2, charge-transfer resistance related to the TiO2/redox electrolytes interface recombination, electron transport time and electron lifetime are quantified under different weight ratios of TBOT/P25. Additionally, the photovoltaic characteristics I-V curves and incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) of flexible anodes made of different weight ratios of TBOT/P25 are obtained as well. It is found that the electrode under weight ratio 0.17 has the smallest inherent resistance, longest electron transport time and electron lifetime, lowest recombination rate and best performance with conversion efficiency 3.94%. These results indicate that after the weight ratios of TBOT/P25 is optimized, TBOT could enhance the interconnection between the TiO2 particles, improve the conductivity of the electrode and decrease the charge recombination. Above results demonstrate that adding TBOT to TiO2 is an easy and efficient method to improve the performance of the flexible DSSC fabricated at low temperature.

  2. Improved electron transfer and plasmonic effect in dye-sensitized solar cells with bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. PMID:24457831

  3. Enhancing the electron lifetime and diffusion coefficient in dye-sensitized solar cells by patterning the layer of TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi Alvar, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad; Abdi, Yaser; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2016-03-01

    In order to fulfill fast electron transport and low recombination rate in dye-sensitized solar cells, we propose to utilize a micro-patterned anode based on TiO2 nanoparticles. The micro-structures of the mesoporous TiO2 films were patterned by Si molds (microimprint technique). A series of measurements including the time of flight, open circuit voltage decay, and charge extraction is carried out to investigate the electron transport in these structures. Our measurement confirms the fast electron transport and high electron lifetime in the micro-patterned structures, which is in agreement with the previously reported simulations. The results have shown that for columnar 20 × 20 μm2 micro-structures, the electron diffusion coefficient is increased by 60% from 3.9 × 10-5 cm 2 / s to 6.3 × 10-5 cm 2 / s . In addition, the electron lifetime has considerably (about one order of magnitude) increased in the cells based on TiO2 micro-structures. These enhancements in the electron transport have significantly improved the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, which is increased by 69% from 5.16% to 8.73%. The results are explained in terms of directional diffusion and extra trap states in the micro-structures of porous TiO2 films.

  4. 3-D solar cells by electrochemical-deposited Se layer as extremely-thin absorber and hole conducting layer on nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duy-Cuong; Tanaka, Souichirou; Nishino, Hitoshi; Manabe, Kyohei; Ito, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional selenium solar cell with the structure of Au/Se/porous TiO2/compact TiO2/fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass plates was fabricated by an electrochemical deposition method of selenium, which can work for the extremely thin light absorber and the hole-conducting layer. The effect of experimental conditions, such as HCl and H2SeO3 in an electrochemical solution and TiO2 particle size of porous layers, was optimized. This kind of solar cell did not use any buffer layer between an n-type electrode (porous TiO2) and a p-type absorber layer (selenium). The crystallinity of the selenium after annealing at 200°C for 3 min in the air was significantly improved. The cells with a selenium layer deposited at concentrations of HCl = 11.5 mM and H2SeO3 = 20 mM showed the best performance, resulting in 1- to 2-nm thickness of the Se layer, short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.7 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, fill factor of 0.53, and conversion efficiency of 3.0%.

  5. Electro-spray deposition of a mesoporous TiO2 charge collection layer: toward large scale and continuous production of high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Yoon, Jungjin; Lee, Jin-Wook; Suh, Dongchul; Park, Nam-Gyu; Choi, Mansoo; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-12-01

    The spin-coating method, which is widely used for thin film device fabrication, is incapable of large-area deposition or being performed continuously. In perovskite hybrid solar cells using CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), large-area deposition is essential for their potential use in mass production. Prior to replacing all the spin-coating process for fabrication of perovskite solar cells, herein, a mesoporous TiO2 electron-collection layer is fabricated by using the electro-spray deposition (ESD) system. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy and transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements reveal that the electro-sprayed mesoscopic TiO2 film facilitates charge collection from the perovskite. The series resistance of the perovskite solar cell is also reduced owing to the highly porous nature of, and the low density of point defects in, the film. An optimized power conversion efficiency of 15.11% is achieved under an illumination of 1 sun; this efficiency is higher than that (13.67%) of the perovskite solar cell with the conventional spin-coated TiO2 films. Furthermore, the large-area coating capability of the ESD process is verified through the coating of uniform 10 × 10 cm2 TiO2 films. This study clearly shows that ESD constitutes therefore a viable alternative for the fabrication of high-throughput, large-area perovskite solar cells.The spin-coating method, which is widely used for thin film device fabrication, is incapable of large-area deposition or being performed continuously. In perovskite hybrid solar cells using CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), large-area deposition is essential for their potential use in mass production. Prior to replacing all the spin-coating process for fabrication of perovskite solar cells, herein, a mesoporous TiO2 electron-collection layer is fabricated by using the electro-spray deposition (ESD) system. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy and transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements reveal that the electro-sprayed mesoscopic TiO2 film facilitates charge collection from the perovskite. The series resistance of the perovskite solar cell is also reduced owing to the highly porous nature of, and the low density of point defects in, the film. An optimized power conversion efficiency of 15.11% is achieved under an illumination of 1 sun; this efficiency is higher than that (13.67%) of the perovskite solar cell with the conventional spin-coated TiO2 films. Furthermore, the large-area coating capability of the ESD process is verified through the coating of uniform 10 × 10 cm2 TiO2 films. This study clearly shows that ESD constitutes therefore a viable alternative for the fabrication of high-throughput, large-area perovskite solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06558e

  6. In situ processed gold nanoparticle-embedded TiO2 nanofibers enabling plasmonic perovskite solar cells to exceed 14% conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Shim, Chang Su; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-01-28

    We have demonstrated organometallic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on Au decorated TiO2 nanofibers and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). A power conversion efficiency of 14.92% was achieved, which is significantly higher than that of conventional mesoporous (mp) TiO2, as well as TiO2 nanofiber-based devices. The present synthetic process provides new opportunities for the development of efficient plasmonic PSCs based on metal oxide nanofibers. Solar cells based on these architectures exhibit a short-circuit current density JSC of 21.63 ± 0.36 mA cm(-2), VOC of 0.986 ± 0.01 V and fill factor of 70% ± 3%, which provide a power conversion efficiency of 14.92% ± 0.33% under standard AM 1.5 conditions. The results of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy and solid-state impedance spectroscopy (ssIS) revealed that PSCs based on Au-decorated TiO2 nanofibers exhibit a low recombination rate. The present results are much higher than those for reported PSCs based on a Au@TiO2 electron-transporting layer (ETL). PMID:26759073

  7. Design of Ag@C@SnO2@TiO2 yolk-shell nanospheres with enhanced photoelectric properties for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peilu; Li, Dan; Yao, Shiting; Zhang, Yiqun; Liu, Fengmin; Sun, Peng; Chuai, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Geyu

    2016-06-01

    The hierarchical Ag@C@SnO2@TiO2 nanospheres (ACSTS) have been successfully synthesized by deposition of SnO2 and TiO2 on the Ag@C templates layer by layer. The size of ACSTS is ca. 360 nm while the Ag@C cores have an average diameter of about 300 nm. The rough and porous shell structure consisting of SnO2 and TiO2 ensures a large specific surface area (115.5 m2 g-1). To demonstrate how such a unique structure might lead to more excellent photovoltaic property, several kinds of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are also fabricated using different nanospheres based photoanodes. It is found that the ACSTS based DSSC exhibits an obvious improvement in cell performance. According to various technical characterization, the ACSTS can provide dual-functions of light absorption and charge transfer, hence resulting in an enhanced short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.68 mA cm-2 and a higher FF of 63% compared with other DSSCs. The ACSTS cell finally obtains a PCE of up to 8.62%, increasing by 70.4% and 10.2% than hollow TiO2 nanospheres and Ag@C@TiO2 nanospheres based cells, respectively. The improved photovoltaic properties of ACSTS cell can be mainly ascribed to the unique microstructure and the synergistic effect of the encapsulated Ag@C cores.

  8. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO2 electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D'Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G.

    2014-08-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO2 electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ˜150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO2 layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO2 layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClxpoly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  9. Anatase TiO2 nanowires functionalized by organic sensitizers for solar cells: A screened Coulomb hybrid density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Hatice; Gunceler, Deniz; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Ellialtioǧlu, Şinasi; Mete, Ersen

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of two different organic molecules cyanidin glucoside (C21O11H20) and TA-St-CA on anatase (101) and (001) nanowires has been investigated using the standard and the range separated hybrid density functional theory calculations. The electronic structures and optical spectra of resulting dye-nanowire combined systems show distinct features for these types of photochromophores. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the natural dye cyanidin glucoside is located below the conduction band of the semiconductor while, in the case of TA-St-CA, it resonates with the states inside the conduction band. The wide-bandgap anatase nanowires can be functionalized for solar cells through electron-hole generation and subsequent charge injection by these dye sensitizers. The intermolecular charge transfer character of Donor-π-Acceptor type dye TA-St-CA is substantially modified by its adsorption on TiO2 surfaces. Cyanidin glucoside exhibits relatively stronger anchoring on the nanowires through its hydroxyl groups. The atomic structures of dye-nanowire systems re-optimized with the inclusion of nonlinear solvation effects showed that the binding strengths of both dyes remain moderate even in ionic solutions.

  10. Transfer and assembly of large area TiO2 nanotube arrays onto conductive glass for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Siqian; Ding, Hao; Li, Quantong; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Highly ordered titanium oxide nanotube arrays are synthesized by a two-step anodic oxidation of pure titanium foil at constant voltage. It is found that the length of nanotube arrays firstly increased rapidly with the anodization time, and then the growth rate gradually slowed down with further increasing the anodization time. The mechanism of anodization time-dependent tube length growth is discussed. Large area free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays are detached from the underlying Ti foil and transferred onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates to serve as the photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoelectric performance of the DSSCs assembled by TNT/FTO films is strongly related to the tube length of titania and the surface treatment. For the photoanodes without any surface modification, the highest overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) that can be achieved is 4.12% in the DSSC assembled with 33-μm-thick TNT arrays, while the overall PCE of DSSC based on the 33-μm-thick TNT arrays increases to 9.02% in response to the treatment with TiCl4.

  11. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  12. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F; Mane, Rajaram S; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  13. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals in different basic pHs and their applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anajafi, Z.; Marandi, M.; Taghavinia, N.

    2015-06-01

    In this research TiO2 nanocrystals with sizes about 11-70 nm were grown by hydrothermal method. The process was performed in basic autoclaving pH in the range of 8.0-12.0. The synthesized anatase phase TiO2 nanocrystals were then applied in the phtoanode of the dye sensitized solar cells. It was shown that the final average size of the nanocrystals was larger when the growth was carried out in higher autoclaving pHs. The photoanodes made of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared in the pHs of 8.0 and 9.0 represented low amounts of dye adsorption and light scattering. The performance of the corresponding dye sensitized solar cells was also not acceptable. Nevertheless, the energy conversion efficiency was better for the state of pH of 9.0. For the photoanodes made of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared at autoclaving pH of 10.0, the dye adsorption and light scattering were quite higher. The photovoltaic characteristics of the best cell in this state were 15.25 mA/cm2, 740 mV, 0.6 and 6.8% for the short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency, respectively. The photoanodes composed of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared in autoclaving pHs of 11.0 and 12.0 demonstrated lower amount of dye adsorption and higher light scattering. This was quite considerable for the state of pH of 12.0. The energy conversion efficiencies were consequently decreased compared to that of the pH of 10.0. The optimum situation was finally discussed based on the nanocrystals size and its influence on the sensitization and light harvesting efficiency.

  15. How to Optimize the Interface between Photosensitizers and TiO2 Nanocrystals with Molecular Engineering to Enhance Performances of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Zhang, Kai; Fang, Yanyan; Zuo, Yunxing; Duan, Yandong; Zhuo, Zengqing; Chen, Xuanming; Yang, Wanli; Lin, Yuan; Wong, Man Shing; Pan, Feng

    2015-11-18

    In this work, the interfacial properties of a series of metal-free organic naphthodithienothiophene (NDTT)-based photosensitizers adsorbed on TiO2 surfaces were investigated by a combination of ab initio calculations and experimental measurements. The calculations and experiments reveal that because of the efficient charge transfer from the adsorbed dyes to TiO2 nanocrystal surface there is an upward shift for the energy levels of dyes and a downward shift for the conduction band of surface TiO2 and that the band gaps for both of them are also reduced. Such electronic level alignments at the interface would lead to increased light absorption range by adsorbed dyes and increased driving force for charge injection but reduced open-circuit potential (V(oc)). More interestingly, we found that molecule engineering of the donor group and introducing additional electron-withdrawing unit have little effect on the electronic level alignments at the interface (because band gaps of the dyes adsorbed on TiO2 surfaces become approximately identical when compared with those of the dyes measured in solution) but that they can affect the steric effect and the charge separation at the interface to tune V(oc) and the short-circuit current density (J(sc)) effectively. All these findings suggest that optimizing the interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2 surfaces by synchronously modifying steric effects of dye molecules anchored on TiO2 and charge-transfer and separation properties at the interfaces is important to construct efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:26510212

  16. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  17. Investigation on the dynamics of electron transport and recombination in TiO2 nanotube/nanoparticle composite electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Raheleh; Iraji zad, Azam; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2011-12-28

    In this work, we report on fabrication and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO(2) nanotube/nanoparticle (NT/NP) composite electrodes. TiO(2) nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil in an organic electrolyte. The nanotubes were chemically separated from the foil, ground and added to a TiO(2) nanoparticle paste, from which composite NT/NP electrodes were fabricated. In the composite TiO(2) films the nanotubes existed in bundles with a length of a few micrometres. By optimizing the amount of NT in the paste, dye-sensitized solar cells with an efficiency of 5.6% were obtained, a 10% improvement in comparison to solar cells with pure NP electrodes. By increasing the fraction of NT in the electrode the current density increased by 20% (from 11.1 to 13.3 mA cm(-2)), but the open circuit voltage decreased from 0.78 to 0.73 V. Electron transport, lifetime and extraction studies were performed to investigate this behavior. A higher fraction of NT in the paste led to more and deeper traps in the resulting composite electrodes. Nevertheless, faster electron transport under short-circuit conditions was found with increased NT content, but the electron lifetime was not improved. The electron diffusion length calculated for short-circuit conditions was increased 3-fold in composite electrodes with an optimized NT fraction. The charge collection efficiency was more than 90% over a wide range of light intensities, leading to improved solar cell performance. PMID:22051895

  18. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle-accumulated bilayer photoelectrode and condenser lens-assisted solar concentrator on light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of 240 nm (T240), used as a light-scattering layer, were applied on 25-nm-sized TiO2 NPs (T25) that were used as a dye-absorbing layer in the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, the incident light was concentrated via a condenser lens, and the effect of light concentration on the capacity of the light-scattering layer was systematically investigated. At the optimized focal length of the condenser lens, T25/T240 double layer (DL)-based DSSCs with the photoactive area of 0.36 cm2 were found to have the short circuit current (Isc) of 11.92 mA, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 4.11%, which is significantly improved when they were compared to the T25 single layer (SL)-based DSSCs without using a solar concentrator (the corresponding values were the Isc of 2.53 mA, the Voc of 0.69, and the PCE of 3.57%). Thus, the use of the optimized light harvesting structure in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs in conjunction with light concentration was found to significantly enhance the power output of DSSCs. PMID:23758633

  19. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle-accumulated bilayer photoelectrode and condenser lens-assisted solar concentrator on light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kook Joo; Lee, Sun Woo; Lee, Yong Hun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Deug Woo; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of 240 nm (T240), used as a light-scattering layer, were applied on 25-nm-sized TiO2 NPs (T25) that were used as a dye-absorbing layer in the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, the incident light was concentrated via a condenser lens, and the effect of light concentration on the capacity of the light-scattering layer was systematically investigated. At the optimized focal length of the condenser lens, T25/T240 double layer (DL)-based DSSCs with the photoactive area of 0.36 cm2 were found to have the short circuit current (Isc) of 11.92 mA, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 4.11%, which is significantly improved when they were compared to the T25 single layer (SL)-based DSSCs without using a solar concentrator (the corresponding values were the Isc of 2.53 mA, the Voc of 0.69, and the PCE of 3.57%). Thus, the use of the optimized light harvesting structure in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs in conjunction with light concentration was found to significantly enhance the power output of DSSCs. PMID:23758633

  20. Absorption enhancement in CH3NH3PbI3 solar cell using a TiO2/MoS2 nanocomposite electron selective contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran Ahmed, Muhammad; Hussain, Zakir; Khalid, Amir; Noman Amin, Hafiz Muhammad; Habib, Amir

    2016-04-01

    In the present contribution, perovskite absorbers have been combined with few layer thick MoS2 semiconductor to put together a solar cell allowing broad spectrum harvesting of solar radiations. Such modification allows to achieve solar light harvesting at the band edges, addressing a drawback of CH3NH3PbI3 absorbers. We recorded an improved efficiency from 3.7% to 4.3% on the back of this methodology. We have also worked out a novel methodology to synthesize TiO2/MoS2 nanocomposite by in situ dispersion of liquid exfoliated MoS2 sheets in the sol gel reaction.

  1. Rose Bengal sensitized bilayered photoanode of nano-crystalline TiO2-CeO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Beedri, Niyamat I.; Kadam, Vishal S.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2015-09-01

    The present work deals with the study of TiO2-CeO2 bilayered photoanode with low-cost Rose Bengal (RB) dye as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell application. The recombination reactions are reduced in bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode as compared to the single-layered CeO2 photoanode. Once the electrons get transferred from lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of RB dye to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, then the possibilities of recombination of electrons with oxidized dye molecules or oxidized redox couple are reduced. This is because the CB position of CeO2 is higher than that of TiO2, which blocks the path of electrons. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis shows negative shift in frequency for bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode as compared to CeO2 photoanode. Hence, in bilayered photoanode lifetime of electrons is more than in single-layered photoanode, confirming reduction in recombination reactions. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm both anatase TiO2 and CeO2 with crystalline size using Scherrer formula as 24 and 10 nm, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy images of photoanode show the porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The presence of Ti and Ce is confirmed by electron diffraction studies. The band gap values for TiO2 and CeO2 were calculated as 3.20 and 3.11 eV, respectively, using diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode showed open-circuit voltage (V OC) ~500 mV and short-circuit photocurrent density (J SC) ~0.29 mA/cm2 with fill factor (FF) ~62.17 %. There is increase in V OC and J SC values by 66.67 and 38.10 %, respectively, compared to RB-sensitized CeO2 photoanode.

  2. Extremely enhanced photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells by sintering mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes with crystalline titania chelated by acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Chou, Ya-Hui; Liu, Jin-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The study presents a significant improvement on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through incorporating the crystalline titania chelated by acetic acid (TAc) into the mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes. The effects of TAc on the blocking layer, mesoporous TiO2 layer, and post-treatment have been investigated. The TAc blocking layer displays compact construction, revealing superior response time and resistance to suppress dark current compared to the blocking layer made from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP). The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs with the TAc treatment can reach as high as 10.49%, which is much higher than that of pristine DSSCs (5.67%) and that of DSSCs treated by TTIP (7.86%). We find that the TAc incorporation can lead to the decrease of charge transfer resistance and the increase of dye adsorption. The result may be attributed to the fact that the TAc possesses high crystallinity, exposed (101) planes, and acid groups chelated on surface, which are favorable for dye attachment and strong bonding at the FTO/TiO2 and the TiO2/TiO2 interfaces, These improvements result in the remarkable increase of photocurrent and thereby that of power conversion efficiency.

  3. Surface Modification of TiO2 Photoanodes with Fluorinated Self-Assembled Monolayers for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wooh, Sanghyuk; Kim, Tea-Yon; Song, Donghoon; Lee, Yong-Gun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Bergmann, Victor W; Weber, Stefan A L; Bisquert, Juan; Kang, Yong Soo; Char, Kookheon

    2015-11-25

    Dye aggregation and electron recombination in TiO2 photoanodes are the two major phenomena lowering the energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Herein, we introduce a novel surface modification strategy of TiO2 photoanodes by the fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) formation with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFTS), blocking the vacant sites of the TiO2 surface after dye adsorption. The F-SAM helps to efficiently lower the surface tension, resulting in efficient repelling ions, e.g., I3(-), in the electrolyte to decrease the electron recombination rate, and the role of F-SAM is characterized in detail by impedance spectroscopy using a diffusion-recombination model. In addition, the dye aggregates on the TiO2 surface are relaxed by the F-SAM with large conformational perturbation (i.e., helix structure) seemingly because of steric hindrance developed during the SAM formation. Such multifunctional effects suppress the electron recombination as well as the intermolecular interactions of dye aggregates without the loss of adsorbed dyes, enhancing both the photocurrent density (11.9 → 13.5 mA cm(-2)) and open-circuit voltage (0.67 → 0.72 V). Moreover, the combined surface modification with the F-SAM and the classical coadsorbent further improves the photovoltaic performance in DSCs. PMID:26506252

  4. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength. PMID:23901483

  5. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres as scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yichuan; Wang, Linlin; Zhao, Jiachang; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-01

    Hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres were synthesized by a 2-step process consisting of thermal hydrolysis and subsequent solvothermal reaction. Quasi-monodispersed solid TiO2 microspheres aggregated by amorphous particles were firstly obtained by the controlled thermal hydrolysis of titanium sulfate, and then the solid structures transformed to hollow ones and crystallized during the subsequent solvothermal treatment. SEM and TEM images of the samples revealed that the morphological evolution was in perfect accordance with the inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. The rich porosity and unique hierarchical hollow structure endow the TiO2 microspheres with a large specific surface area of 108.0 m2 g-1. As an effective anode material for dye-sensitized solar cells, TiO2 hollow microspheres showed good capability of dye adsorption and strong light scattering, leading to a comparable energy conversion efficiency to the commercial 18NR-T transparent titania. Finally, a high efficiency of 7.84% was achieved for the bi-layer DSSC by coating the hollow microspheres on top of the 18NR-T titania as the light scattering layer.

  6. g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Wang, Guanxi; Fan, Jiajie; Liu, Baoshun; Cao, Shaowen; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated by using g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanosheets (CTS) as photoanode materials in this research. A thin layer of g-C3N4 was coated on the surface of TiO2 nanosheets by simply heating the mixture of TiO2 nanosheets and urea, which led to the formation of TiO2@g-C3N4 nanosheet heterostructure. The experimental results showed that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs was obviously improved after modified by g-C3N4. The measurements of I-V characteristic indicated that the introduction of g-C3N4 could increase both the open circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent density. Along with the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, it is considered that the thin layer of g-C3N4 can act as the blocking layer for electron backward recombination with electrolyte, which can be used as the functional material to increase the DSSC performance.

  7. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 anode film with spinodal phase separation structure in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guli, Mina; Yao, Jianxi; Zhao, Jingyong; Rao, Wangping; Xiao, Li; Tian, Hongxin

    2013-10-01

    Low electronic transmission efficiency and high charge recombination are the existing problems of photoanode film in traditional dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This paper put forward the photoanode TiO2 films with spinodal phase separation structure (SPSS) and continuous TiO2 skeleton which were triggered by the photopolymerization of organic monomers in a photomonomer-inorganic precursor system. The photoanode TiO2 films fabricated by different precursor solution compositions and different coating layers were characterized mainly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photocatalysis and photoelectric performance test. The results indicated that, the as-prepared TiO2 anode film with seven coating layers and heat treated at 500 °C showed higher photoelectric conversion efficiency at about 2% than that of other samples with less coating layers and lower heat treatment temperature. The film also showed excellent photocatalytic activity by using methylene blue (MB) dye as a model organic substrate under fluorescent lamp irradiation. It is suggested that the film with SPSS structure has the potential to improve the electronic transmission efficiency and reduce the carrier recombination due to its particular structure, higher surface area, and lack of bottleneck in electronic transmission. It is worth noting that the SPSS structure provides new ideas to develop new photoanode films and further improve the photoelectric conversion performance of the DSSC in future.

  8. Plasmon resonance enhanced optical absorption in inverted polymer/fullerene solar cells with metal nanoparticle-doped solution-processable TiO2 layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei-Feng; Zhu, Xiao-Zhao; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Liang, Jian; Jin, Yue; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2013-04-24

    This paper investigates the effects of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in an inverted polymer/fullerene solar cell by incorporating Au and/or Ag nanoparticles (NPs) into the TiO2 buffer layer. Enhanced light harvesting via plasmonic resonance of metal NPs has been observed. It results in improved short-circuit current density (Jsc) while the corresponding open-circuit voltage (Voc) is maintained. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.52% is obtained in the case of introducing 30% Ag NPs into the TiO2, corresponding to a 20.7% enhancement compared with the reference device without the metal NPs. The device photovoltaic characteristics, photocurrent properties, steady-state and dynamic photoluminescences of active layer on metal NP-doped TiO2, and electric field profile in metal NP-doped TiO2 layers are systematically investigated to explore how the plasmonic effects of Au and/or Ag NPs influence the OSC performance. PMID:23510437

  9. Synthesis of CdSe -- TiO2 Nanocomposites and Their Applications to TiO2 Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. Y.; Choi, S. B.; Noh, J. H.; HunYoon, S.; Lee, S.; Noh, T. H.; Frank, A. J.; Hong, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized via aminolysis of Ti-oleate complexes in the presence of CdSe nanocrystals, and their application as sensitizers for TiO{sub 2} solar cells was investigated. The formation of CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The emission spectrum of CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites revealed photoinduced charge separation at the CdSe-TiO{sub 2} interface of the composite. The photocurrent-voltage properties of CdSe-TiO{sub 2}-sensitized TiO{sub 2} particle films compared favorably with those of CdSe-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films. Evidence was also found indicating that the TiO{sub 2} component of the composite protects CdSe against degradation during film annealing.

  10. Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm-1 caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 μm are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability.

  11. Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO3 compact layers and comparision of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer thickness in planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jincheng; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Wang, Yanqing; Li, Mingqian

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the ultra-thin and high-quality WO3 compact layers were successfully prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis method using the tungsten isopropoxide solution in isopropanol. The influence of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer thickness on the photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells was systematically compared, and the interface charge transfer and recombination in planar perovskite solar cells with TiO2 compact layer was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the optimum thickness of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer was 15 nm and 60 nm. The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO3 compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO2 compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  12. Fabrication N, F, and N/F-Doped TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2015-08-01

    In this study, pure TiO2, N-doped TiO2, F-doped TiO2, and N/F-doped TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 in the presence of ammonia water and NH4F, respectively. The introduction of doping materials did not affect the crystalline structure. No absorption peak for pure TiO2 was observed above the wavelength of 400 nm. However, the N-doped TiO2 and N/F-doped TiO2 powders exhibited a new absorption peak in the visible light region between 400 and 530 nm. The Jsc value of DSSCs based on the N/F-doped TiO2 electrode was increased by 10% compared to DSSCs using a pure TiO2 electrode, and the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 12%. PMID:26369182

  13. Effect of a Coadsorbent on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells: Shielding versus Band-Edge Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A. J.; Neale, N. R.; Kopidakis, N.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Gratzel, M.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the operational characteristics key to efficient, low-cost, stable solar cells based on dye-sensitized mesoporous films (in collaboration with DOE's Office of Science Program). Toward this end, we have investigated the mechanism by which the adsorbent chenodeoxycholate, cografted with a sensitizer onto TiO2 nanocrystals, improves the open-circuit photovoltage (VOC) and short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC). We find that adding chenodeoxycholate not only shifts the TiO2 conduction-band edge to negative potentials but also accelerates the rate of recombination. The net effect of these opposing phenomena is to produce a higher photovoltage. It is also found that chenodeoxycholate reduces the dye loading significantly but has only a modest effect on JSC. Implications of these results to developing more efficient cells are discussed.

  14. Effect of Acetic Acid in TiCl4 Post-Treatment on Nanoporous TiO2 Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Byung-Man; Hong, Na-Yeong; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je

    2012-09-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is adopted as a post-treatment on the nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO2) layers to enhance the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A TiCl4 post-treatment is capable of improving electron transport and dye-loading on the surface of TiO2 layers. In this study, the TiCl4 solution mixed with acetic acid was employed to enhance the condition of the TiCl4 post-treatment. Since acetic acid in the TiCl4 solution prevents the formation of impurities and facilitates the crystallization, it improves dye adsorption and electron transport properties. To analyze the performance of the cell, we measured X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurements.

  15. Highly efficient quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 solar cells based on multilayered semiconductors (ZnSe/CdS/CdSe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; McCue, Connor; Zhang, Qifeng; Uchaker, Evan; Mai, Yaohua; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-02-01

    A new approach by inserting a layer of ZnSe QDs was studied to enhance the adsorption of CdS/CdSe QDs resulting in much improved power conversion efficiency. ZnSe, CdS and CdSe QDs were sequentially assembled on a nanocrystalline TiO2 film to prepare a ZnSe/CdS/CdSe sensitized photoelectrode for QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) applications. The results show that the performance of QDSSCs is strongly dependent on the order of the QDs with respect to TiO2. The pre-assembled ZnSe QD layer acts as a seed layer in the subsequent SILAR process, inducing both the nucleation and growth of CdS QDs, whereas CdS and CdSe QDs have a complementary effect in light harvesting. In the cascade structure of TiO2/ZnSe/CdS/CdSe electrode, a high efficiency of 4.94% and a long electron lifetime of 87.4 ms were achieved, which can be attributed to the following factors: the higher intensity and red shift of light absorption in 400-700 nm range increase the electron concentration in TiO2 substrate sensitized by ZnSe/CdS/CdSe compared to the others, which directly accelerate electron transport in TiO2 and their transfer to FTO glass; the re-organization of energy levels among ZnSe, CdS and CdSe forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels, which is advantageous to the electron injection and hole recovery of QDs.A new approach by inserting a layer of ZnSe QDs was studied to enhance the adsorption of CdS/CdSe QDs resulting in much improved power conversion efficiency. ZnSe, CdS and CdSe QDs were sequentially assembled on a nanocrystalline TiO2 film to prepare a ZnSe/CdS/CdSe sensitized photoelectrode for QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) applications. The results show that the performance of QDSSCs is strongly dependent on the order of the QDs with respect to TiO2. The pre-assembled ZnSe QD layer acts as a seed layer in the subsequent SILAR process, inducing both the nucleation and growth of CdS QDs, whereas CdS and CdSe QDs have a complementary effect in light harvesting. In the cascade structure of TiO2/ZnSe/CdS/CdSe electrode, a high efficiency of 4.94% and a long electron lifetime of 87.4 ms were achieved, which can be attributed to the following factors: the higher intensity and red shift of light absorption in 400-700 nm range increase the electron concentration in TiO2 substrate sensitized by ZnSe/CdS/CdSe compared to the others, which directly accelerate electron transport in TiO2 and their transfer to FTO glass; the re-organization of energy levels among ZnSe, CdS and CdSe forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels, which is advantageous to the electron injection and hole recovery of QDs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06935h

  16. Solar physical vapor deposition preparation and microstructural characterization of TiO2 based nanophases for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Moga, Sorin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Monty, Claude J A; Vasile, Bogdan; Dorobantu, Dorel; Enachescu, Marian

    2012-11-01

    Titanium dioxide exists in three crystalline phases: anatase, rutile and brookite. Although rutile is thermodynamically more stable, anatase is considered as the most favorable phase for photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. Recent studies have shown a significant improvement of light harvesting and overall solar conversion efficiency of anatase nanoparticles in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) when using a mixture of anatase and rutile phases (10-15% rutile). TiO2 nanopowders have been prepared by a solar physical vapor deposition process (SPVD). This method has been developed in Odeillo-Font Romeu France using "heliotron" solar reactors working under concentrated sunlight in 2 kW solar furnaces. By controlling reactor's atmosphere type (air/argon) and gas pressure, several types of anatase/rutile nanophases have been obtained with slightly different microstructural properties and morphological characteristics. X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) were performed on precursor and on the SPVD obtained nanopowders. Information concerning their phase composition and coherence diffraction domain (crystallites size and strain) was obtained. Nanopowders morphology has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:23421278

  17. Structural and optical characterization of electrodeposited CdSe in mesoporous anatase TiO2 for regenerative quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Frédéric; Davoisne, Carine; Philippe, Laetitia; Elias, Jamil

    2012-10-01

    We investigated CdSe-sensitized TiO(2) solar cells by means of electrodeposition under galvanostatic control. The electrodeposition of CdSe within the mesoporous film of TiO(2) gives rise to a uniform, thickness controlled, conformal layer of nanostructured CdSe particles intimately wrapping the anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles. This technique has the advantage of providing not only a fast method for sensitization ( < 5 min) but also being easily scalable to the sensitization of large-area panels. XRD together with SAED analysis highlight that the deposit of CdSe is exclusively constituted of the hexagonal polymorph. In addition, hierarchical growth has also been shown, starting from the formation of a TiO(2)-CdSe core-shell structure followed by the growth of an assembly of CdSe nanoparticles resembling cauliflowers. This assembly exhibits at its core a mosaic texture with crystallites of about 3 nm in size, in contrast to a shell composed of well-crystallized single crystals between 5 and 10 nm in size. Preliminary results on the photovoltaic performance of such a nanostructured composite of TiO(2) and CdSe show 0.8% power conversion efficiency under A.M.1.5 G conditions-100 mW cm(-2) in association with a new regenerative redox couple based on cobalt(+III/+II) polypyridil complex (V(oc ) = 485 mV, J(sc ) = 4.26 mA cm (-2), ff=0.37). PMID:22972037

  18. Highly efficient quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 solar cells based on multilayered semiconductors (ZnSe/CdS/CdSe).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; McCue, Connor; Zhang, Qifeng; Uchaker, Evan; Mai, Yaohua; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-02-21

    A new approach by inserting a layer of ZnSe QDs was studied to enhance the adsorption of CdS/CdSe QDs resulting in much improved power conversion efficiency. ZnSe, CdS and CdSe QDs were sequentially assembled on a nanocrystalline TiO2 film to prepare a ZnSe/CdS/CdSe sensitized photoelectrode for QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) applications. The results show that the performance of QDSSCs is strongly dependent on the order of the QDs with respect to TiO2. The pre-assembled ZnSe QD layer acts as a seed layer in the subsequent SILAR process, inducing both the nucleation and growth of CdS QDs, whereas CdS and CdSe QDs have a complementary effect in light harvesting. In the cascade structure of TiO2/ZnSe/CdS/CdSe electrode, a high efficiency of 4.94% and a long electron lifetime of 87.4 ms were achieved, which can be attributed to the following factors: the higher intensity and red shift of light absorption in 400-700 nm range increase the electron concentration in TiO2 substrate sensitized by ZnSe/CdS/CdSe compared to the others, which directly accelerate electron transport in TiO2 and their transfer to FTO glass; the re-organization of energy levels among ZnSe, CdS and CdSe forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels, which is advantageous to the electron injection and hole recovery of QDs. PMID:25615827

  19. Study of copper sulfide counter electrode on the performances of CdS/CdSe/ZnS-sensitized hierarchical TiO2 spheres quantum dots solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatong, Nattha; Tang, I.-Ming; Pon-On, Weeraphat

    2015-07-01

    The effects of using copper sulfide (CuS) counter electrodes on the performances of solar cells made with CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum dots co-sensitized onto hierarchical TiO2 spheres (HTS) used as photoelectrode is reported. The HTS in the QDSSCs is composed of an assembly of numerous TiO2 spheres made by the solvolthermal method. The photoelectrical performance of HTS/CdS/CdSe/ZnS coupled to CuS counter electrode was compared to those coupled to Pt CE. The HTS/CdS/CdSe/ZnS coupled to the CuS CE showed the highest power conversion efficiency η (of 1.310 %.) which is significantly higher than those using a standard Pt CE (η = 0.374%) (3.50 fold). This higher efficiency is the results of the higher electrocatalytic activities when the copper sulfide CEs is used.

  20. Ga-doped ZnO transparent electrodes with TiO2 blocking layer/nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Roh, Ji-Hyung; Song, Sang-Woo; Park, Jae-Ho; Yer, In-Hyung; Moon, Byung-Moo

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO [GZO] thin films were employed for the transparent electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs]. The electrical property of the deposited GZO films was as good as that of commercially used fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO]. In order to protect the GZO and enhance the photovoltaic properties, a TiO2 blocking layer was deposited on the GZO surface. Then, TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on the blocking layer, and dye was attached for the fabrication of DSSCs. The fabricated DSSCs with the GZO/TiO2 glasses showed an enhanced conversion efficiency of 4.02% compared to the devices with the normal GZO glasses (3.36%). Furthermore, they showed better characteristics even than those using the FTO glasses, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance. PMID:22222148

  1. Ga-doped ZnO transparent electrodes with TiO2 blocking layer/nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Roh, Ji-Hyung; Song, Sang-Woo; Park, Jae-Ho; Yer, In-Hyung; Moon, Byung-Moo

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO [GZO] thin films were employed for the transparent electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs]. The electrical property of the deposited GZO films was as good as that of commercially used fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO]. In order to protect the GZO and enhance the photovoltaic properties, a TiO2 blocking layer was deposited on the GZO surface. Then, TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on the blocking layer, and dye was attached for the fabrication of DSSCs. The fabricated DSSCs with the GZO/TiO2 glasses showed an enhanced conversion efficiency of 4.02% compared to the devices with the normal GZO glasses (3.36%). Furthermore, they showed better characteristics even than those using the FTO glasses, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance.

  2. A cylindrical core-shell-like TiO2 nanotube array anode for flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A versatile anodization method was reported to anodize Ti wires into cylindrical core-shell-like and thermally crystallized TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays that can be directly used as the photoanodes for semi- and all-solid fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells (F-DSSC). Both F-DSSCs showed higher power conversion efficiencies than or competitive to those of previously reported counterparts fabricated by depositing TiO2 particles onto flexible substrates. The substantial enhancement is presumably attributed to the reduction of grain boundaries and defects in the prepared TNT anodes, which may suppress the recombination of the generated electrons and holes, and accordingly lead to more efficient carrier-transfer channels. PMID:21711629

  3. Improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO2/graphene/TiO2 sandwich structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the TiO2/graphene/TiO2 sandwich structure improves the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over that of DSSCs with the traditional structure. Studies have demonstrated that the TiO2/graphene/TiO2 sandwich structure effectively enhances the open circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and photoelectrical conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs. The enhanced performance of DSSCs with the sandwich structure can be attributed to an increase in electron transport efficiency and in the absorption of light in the visible range. The DSSC with the sandwich structure in this study exhibited a Voc of 0.6 V, a high Jsc of 11.22 mA cm-2, a fill factor (FF) of 0.58, and a calculated η of 3.93%, which is 60% higher than that of a DSSC with the traditional structure. PMID:25136284

  4. Surface thulium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles used as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells: improving the open-circuit voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Teresa; Navas, Javier; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Blanco, Ginesa; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the incorporation of thulium oxide onto the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, which were used as the photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The Tm-TiO2-based semiconductors were widely characterized using techniques such as atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of a Tm oxide on the surface was confirmed, and neither the crystalline phases present nor the band gap of TiO2 were affected. In turn, the presence of Tm3+ resulted in new electronic transitions, which led to luminescence processes in the Tm-TiO2 semiconductors. Furthermore, the use of these semiconductors as photoelectrodes in DSSCs led to an increase in open-circuit voltage of up to 6 %. This increase can be reasonably explained by the negative shift of the flat-band potential of the photoelectrodes.

  5. Ga-doped ZnO transparent electrodes with TiO2 blocking layer/nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO [GZO] thin films were employed for the transparent electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs]. The electrical property of the deposited GZO films was as good as that of commercially used fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO]. In order to protect the GZO and enhance the photovoltaic properties, a TiO2 blocking layer was deposited on the GZO surface. Then, TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on the blocking layer, and dye was attached for the fabrication of DSSCs. The fabricated DSSCs with the GZO/TiO2 glasses showed an enhanced conversion efficiency of 4.02% compared to the devices with the normal GZO glasses (3.36%). Furthermore, they showed better characteristics even than those using the FTO glasses, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance. PMID:22222148

  6. Coating effect of electrospun nanofibers of Nb-doped TiO2 mixed in photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, Yuji; Deguchi, Makoto; Guo, Shirong; Aoki, Keisuke; Nomiyama, Teruaki

    2014-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers (NFs) of Nb doped TiO2 (TNO) were added as a conductive agent to TiO2 mesoporous layer in dye sensitized solar cells. In order to improve the mobility of carriers in NFs by reducing the barrier at grain boundaries among constituent nanoparticles in NFs, the surface of TNO-NFs was coated with a thin TNO layer by pulsed laser deposition with changing the deposition time td. It was found that the inter-grain space was filled first at td ≤ 5 min, and the diffusion velocity vD of carriers was increased by more than 10 times. Since Jsc showed an increase of ˜15% while vD and the electron lifetime τe decreased at td > 10 min, the carrier injection from dye/TiO2 nanoparticles to TNO-NFs was considered to be promoted.

  7. Photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh Oun; Kim, Eui Jin; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Sang Yook; Suh, Hwa Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-02-01

    To improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent was successfully formulated on nanoporous TiO2 surface. Adsorption and desorption properties of crude gardenia yellow solution on a macroporous resin, XAD-1600, were investigated to purify gardenia yellow because of its strong adsorption and desorption abilities as well as high selectivity. To this end, adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were measured and fitted using adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. Adsorption and desorption breakthrough curves in a column packed with XAD-1600 resin was obtained to optimize the separation process of gardenia yellow. The photovoltaic performance of the photo-electrode adsorbed with the crude and purified gardenia yellow in DSSCs was compared from current-voltage measurements. The results showed that the photovoltaic conversion efficiency was highly dependent on how to separate and purify gardenia yellow as a photosensitizer.

  8. Photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Oun; Kim, Eui Jin; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Sang Yook; Suh, Hwa Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jae Wook

    2014-10-31

    To improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent was successfully formulated on nanoporous TiO2 surface. Adsorption and desorption properties of crude gardenia yellow solution on a macroporous resin, XAD-1600, were investigated to purify gardenia yellow because of its strong adsorption and desorption abilities as well as high selectivity. To this end, adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were measured and fitted using adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. Adsorption and desorption breakthrough curves in a column packed with XAD-1600 resin was obtained to optimize the separation process of gardenia yellow. The photovoltaic performance of the photo-electrode adsorbed with the crude and purified gardenia yellow in DSSCs was compared from current-voltage measurements. The results showed that the photovoltaic conversion efficiency was highly dependent on how to separate and purify gardenia yellow as a photosensitizer. PMID:25459707

  9. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Tang, Minghua; Song, Linlin; Tang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Bingjie; Zhang, Lisha; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2(CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3 · 4H2O, CuSO4 · 5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as 'petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PMID:23947562

  10. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2(CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3 · 4H2O, CuSO4 · 5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as ‘petals’ with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PMID:23947562

  11. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Tang, Minghua; Song, Linlin; Tang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Bingjie; Zhang, Lisha; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

    2013-08-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2 (CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3 · 4H2O, CuSO4 · 5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as `petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PACS: 81.15.-z; 84.60.Jt; 73.40.Lq

  12. Synergistic effects of the aspect ratio of TiO2 nanowires and multi-walled carbon nanotube embedment for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Ji Hoon; Moon, Kook Joo; Park, So Dam; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2013-08-01

    The existence of numerous interfacial boundaries among TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) accumulated in the photoelectrode layer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) hinders the effective transport of photogenerated electrons to an electrode. Therefore, as a replacement for TiO2 NPs, one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires (NWs) can be suggested to provide pathways for fast electron transport by significantly reducing the number of interfacial boundaries. In order to provide direct evidence for the better performance of such longer TiO2 NWs than shorter TiO2 NWs, we examine the effect of the controlled aspect ratio of the TiO2 NWs randomly accumulated in the photoelectrode layer on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. It is clearly found that longer TiO2 NWs significantly improve the electron transport by reducing the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfacial contact resistance. Furthermore, the embedment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an effective charge transfer medium in longer TiO2 NWs is proposed in this study to promote more synergistic effects, which lead to significant improvements in the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs. PMID:23771100

  13. Synergistic effects of the aspect ratio of TiO2 nanowires and multi-walled carbon nanotube embedment for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Ji Hoon; Moon, Kook Joo; Park, So Dam; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2013-07-01

    The existence of numerous interfacial boundaries among TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) accumulated in the photoelectrode layer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) hinders the effective transport of photogenerated electrons to an electrode. Therefore, as a replacement for TiO2 NPs, one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires (NWs) can be suggested to provide pathways for fast electron transport by significantly reducing the number of interfacial boundaries. In order to provide direct evidence for the better performance of such longer TiO2 NWs than shorter TiO2 NWs, we examine the effect of the controlled aspect ratio of the TiO2 NWs randomly accumulated in the photoelectrode layer on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. It is clearly found that longer TiO2 NWs significantly improve the electron transport by reducing the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfacial contact resistance. Furthermore, the embedment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an effective charge transfer medium in longer TiO2 NWs is proposed in this study to promote more synergistic effects, which lead to significant improvements in the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs.

  14. Ag plasmonic nanostructures and a novel gel electrolyte in a high efficiency TiO2/CdS solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-04-21

    A novel photoanode architecture with plasmonic silver (Ag) nanostructures embedded in titania (TiO2), which served as the wide band gap semiconducting support and CdS quantum dots (QDs), as light absorbers, is presented. Ag nanostructures were prepared by a polyol method and are comprised of clumps of nanorods, 15-35 nm wide, interspersed with globular nanoparticles and they were characterized by a face centered cubic lattice. Optimization of Ag nanostructures was achieved on the basis of a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtained for the cell with a Ag/TiO2/CdS electrode encompassing a mixed morphology of Ag nano-rods and particles, relative to analogous cells with either Ag nanoparticles or Ag nanorods. Interfacial charge transfer kinetics was unraveled by fluorescence quenching and lifetime studies. Ag nanostructures improve the light harvesting ability of the TiO2/CdS photoanode via (a) plasmonic and scattering effects, which induce both near- and far-field enhancements which translate to higher photocurrent densities and (b) charging effects, whereby, photoexcited electron transfer from TiO2 to Ag is facilitated by Fermi level equilibration. Owing to the spectacular ability of Ag nanostructures to increase light absorption, a greatly increased PCE of 4.27% and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% (at 440 nm) was achieved for the cell based on Ag/TiO2/CdS, greater by 42 and 66%, respectively, compared to the TiO2/CdS based cell. In addition, the liquid S(2-) electrolyte was replaced by a S(2-) gel containing fumed silica, and the redox potential, conductivity and p-type conduction of the two were deduced to be comparable. Although the gel based cells showed diminished solar cell performances compared to their liquid counterparts, nonetheless, the Ag/TiO2/CdS electrode continued to outperform the TiO2/CdS electrode. Our studies demonstrate that Ag nanostructures effectively capture a significant chunk of the electromagnetic spectrum and aid QD solar cells in delivering high power conversion efficiencies. PMID:25785507

  15. Improved electron transfer and plasmonic effect in dye-sensitized solar cells with bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-02-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements.TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05652j

  16. Nanostructure Developments of TiO2 Nanocrystals and Aerogels and Their Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Yeoul; Park, Yu-Sik

    2015-07-01

    We synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (TPs) as a reference via hydrothermal method and also TiO2 aerogels (TAs) via CO2 supercritical drying method. We investigated crystal phase transformation behavior of TPs and TAs with temperature. As-prepared TPs are anatase and rutile phase transformation from anatase starts at 600 °C and was complete at 700 °C. However, TAs are amorphous phase until 300 °C and the crystallization to anatase occurs at 400 °C, and remains anantase phase until 700 °C. At the results of nitrogen adsorption and desorption analyses, TPs with specific surface area of 209 m2/g at 100 °C showed the decrease of the specific surface area and pore volume with increasing temperature and 95% of decrease at 700 °C. TAs showed higher specific surface area, 498 m2/g at 100 °C, and the decreasing trend according to temperature is similar with those of TPs. We prepared three types of photoelectrodes, TPs, TAs, and TATPs (1:1 TAs and TPs composite photoelectrode). After results of DSC photocurrent conversion efficiency measurements of the three type cells, we found that TATPs showed the improved cell efficiency by 1% point, compared with a reference TPs below 15 micrometer thickness. In conclusion, the introduction of nanoporous TAs can improve the photocurrent conversion efficiency due to their high specific surface area for high dye adsorption without degrading of electron transfer. PMID:26373122

  17. Excellent Passivation and Low Reflectivity Al2O3/TiO2 Bilayer Coatings for n-Wafer Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B. G.; Skarp, J.; Malinen, V.; Li, S.; Choi, S.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    A bilayer coating of Al2O3 and TiO2 is used to simultaneously achieve excellent passivation and low reflectivity on p-type silicon. This coating is targeted for achieving high efficiency n-wafer Si solar cells, where both passivation and anti-reflection (AR) are needed at the front-side p-type emitter. It could also be valuable for front-side passivation and AR of rear-emitter and interdigitated back contact p-wafer cells. We achieve high minority carrier lifetimes {approx}1 ms, as well as a nearly 2% decrease in absolute reflectivity, as compared to a standard silicon nitride AR coating.

  18. Polymer counter electrode of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(4-styrenesulfonate) containing TiO2 nano-particles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Son, Min-Kyu; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-03-01

    A counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) is an important component, which often limits the cell performance. Here we report a low-cost and high-performance polymer counter electrode of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) containing TiO2 nano-particles for dye-sensitized solar cells. Catalytic characteristics of the counter electrode are significantly improved by adding TiO2 nano-particles to PEDOT:PSS. This improvement is attributed to catalytic activation due to an increase in the surface area of the counter electrode and an increase in conductivity of PEDOT:PSS due to its structural change. A dye-sensitized solar cell using the polymer counter electrode shows 8.27% of efficiency and 16.39 mA cm-2 of short circuit current density, higher than 7.59% of efficiency and 14.75 mA cm-2 of short circuit current density of a cell with the conventional Pt counter electrode.

  19. Boron and sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanofilm as effective photoanode for high efficiency CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Xichuan; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Huayan; Li, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    A modified polysulfide redox couple, (CH3)4N)2S/((CH3)4N)2Sn, was employed in CdS quantum dots (QDs) sensitized B/S co-doped TiO2 solar cell with NiS as counter electrode, followed by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an organic solution to prepare the QDs-cell to ensure high wettability and superior penetration ability of the B/S co-doped TiO2 films, with the co-doping of B/S in TiO2, its band-gap was narrowed and significantly extended the light capture range, and an enhanced energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.6% was observed under AM 1.5 G illuminations, with a significantly high Voc of 1.217 V, a high ff of 88.2% and a short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 3.35 mA cm-2.

  20. Effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of all-solid-state TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingwei; Liu, Benjamin; Dong, Zhenhua; Dong, Zhenyu; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    In order to analyse the effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), different electrodes were used as the counter electrodes for all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs. An inorganic solid-state electrolyte, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was selected to couple with N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays to fabricate the DSSCs. Fluorine doped tin oxide transparent conducting glass (FTO), platinum coated FTO (Pt/FTO), graphite coated FTO (graphite/FTO), and graphite coated common glass (graphite/glass) were investigated as the counter electrodes, and the cells composed of the corresponding electrodes above have power-conversion efficiencies of 2.17%, 9.84%, 7.62%, and 3.45%, respectively. Our findings indicate that due to its unique catalytic and conducting properties, graphite can replace both Pt and FTO as a counter electrode to reduce the fabrication cost of all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs.

  1. Effects of Metal Oxide Modifications on Photoelectrochemical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Nanoparticles Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tian-you; Fan, Ke; Zhao, De; Yu, Li-juan; Li, Ren-jie

    2012-10-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2) nanoparticles were used to prepare the porous film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells, and a second metal oxide (MgO, ZnO, Al2O3, or NiO) modification was carried out by dipping the m-TiO2 electrode into their respective nitrate solution followed by annealing at 500 °C. Experimental results indicated that the above second metal oxide modifications on m-TiO2 electrode are shown in all cases to act as barrier layer for the interfacial charge transfer processes, but film electron transport and interfacial charge recombination characteristics under applied bias voltage were dependent significantly on the existing states and kinds of these second metal oxides. Those changes based on second metal oxide modifications showed good correlation with the current-voltage analyses of dye-sensitized solar cell, and all modifications were found to increase the open-circuit photo-voltage in various degrees, while the MgO, ZnO, and NiO modifications result in 23%, 13%, and 6% improvement in cell conversion efficiency, respectively. The above observations indicate that controlling the charge transport and recombination is very important to improve the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-based solar cell.

  2. Enhanced conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on bilayered nano-composite photoanode film consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Du, P F; Song, L X; Xiong, J

    2014-06-01

    Novel TiO2 nanoparticles/nanofibers (NPs/NFs) bilayered nano-composite photoanode film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was fabricated through the combination of spin-coating and electrospinning. The NPs and NFs layers have complementary roles. The underlaid spin-coated NPs layer provides the photoanode film with higher specific surface area for dye adsorption and improved adhesion to conductive glass substrate. The overlaid electrospun NFs layer endows the photoanode film with better dye-loading and light-harvesting capabilities due to its porous meshwork structure. And the NFs layer also offers larger pore volume, which can facilitate the electrolyte diffusion and the activity regeneration of dye sensitizers. As a result, the electron transport is accelerated while the charge recombination is suppressed. Ascribing to the synergic effect of the NPs and NFs layers, the TiO2 NPs/NFs-based DSSCs achieve a conversion efficiency of 4.46%, which is nearly 14% higher than that of the pure TiO2 NPs-based ones. PMID:24738365

  3. Rational design of anatase TiO2 architecture with hierarchical nanotubes and hollow microspheres for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiuwang; Khan, Javid; Chai, Zhisheng; Yuan, Yufei; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Pengyi; Wu, Mingmei; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Large surface area, sufficient light-harvesting and superior electron transport property are the major factors for an ideal photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which requires rational design of the nanoarchitectures and smart integration of state-of-the-art technologies. In this work, a 3D anatase TiO2 architecture consisting of vertically aligned 1D hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with ultra-dense branches (HTNTs, bottom layer) and 0D hollow TiO2 microspheres with rough surface (HTS, top layer) is first successfully constructed on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide glass through a series of facile processes. When used as photoanodes, the DSSCs achieve a very large short-current density of 19.46 mA cm-2 and a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.38%. The remarkable photovoltaic performance is predominantly ascribed to the enhanced charge transport capacity of the NTs (function as the electron highway), the large surface area of the branches (act as the electron branch lines), the pronounced light harvesting efficiency of the HTS (serve as the light scattering centers), and the engineered intimate interfaces between all of them (minimize the recombination effect). Our work demonstrates a possibility of fabricating superior photoanodes for high-performance DSSCs by rational design of nanoarchitectures and smart integration of multi-functional components.

  4. Correlation between Energy and Spatial Distribution of Intragap Trap States in the TiO2 Photoanode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Li-Min; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Xu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2015-07-20

    The energy and spatial distribution of intragap trap states of the TiO2 photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells and their impact on charge recombination were investigated by means of time-resolved charge extraction (TRCE) and transient photovoltage (TPV). The photoanodes were built from TiO2 nanospheroids with different aspect ratios, and the TRCE results allowed differentiation of two different types of trap states, that is, deep and shallow ones at the surface and in the bulk of the TiO2 particles, respectively. These trap states exhibit distinctly different characteristic energy with only a slight variation in the particle size, as derived from the results of the density of states. Analyses of the size-dependent TPV kinetics revealed that in a moderate photovoltage regime of about 375-625 mV, the dynamics of electron recombination are dominated by shallow trap states in the bulk, which can be well accounted for by the mechanism of multiple-trap-limited charge transport. PMID:25916413

  5. Wet chemical synthesis and self-assembly of SnS2 nanoparticles on TiO2 for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukigase, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Sagawa, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2011-04-01

    SnS2 nanoparticles were synthesized through a simple wet chemical process at room temperature. The SnS2 nanoparticles were approximately spherical in shape and had diameter about 3-4 nm. SnS2-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were fabricated by the immersion of chemically modified TiO2 to well-dispersed SnS2 solution for 72 h (i.e., self-assembly method.) SnS2-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were applied in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Under AM1.5 irradiation with 100 mW/cm2 light intensity (at 1 sun), the short-circuit current density (J(sc)), the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), the fill factor (FF), and the energy conversion efficiency (eta) were 0.47 mA/cm2, 0.29 V, 0.58 and 0.081%, respectively. PMID:21776689

  6. Effect of the rutile content on the photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells composed of mixed-phase TiO2 photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tae Kwan; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Duckhyun; Shim, Jae-Hyun; Bae, Jae Young; Huh, Seong; Won, Yong Sun

    2012-01-28

    The effect of the rutile content on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) composed of mixed-phase TiO(2) photoelectrode has been investigated. The mixed-phase TiO(2) particles with varied amounts of rutile, relative to anatase phase, are synthesized by an in situ method where the concentration of sulfate ion is used as a phase-controlling parameter in the formation of TiO(2) using TiCl(4) hydrolysis. The surface area (S(BET)) varies from 33 (pure rutile) to 165 (pure anatase) m(2) g(-1). Generally, both the current density (J(sc)) and photo-conversion efficiency (η) decrease as the rutile content increases. The incorporation of rod-shaped rutile particles causes low uptake of dye due to the reduced surface area, as well as slow electron transport in less efficiently-stacked structure. However, maximum J(sc) (14.63 mA cm(-2)) and η (8.69%) appear when relatively low rutile content (16%) is employed. The reported synergistic effect by the efficient interparticle electron transport from rutile to anatase seems to overbalance the decrease of surface area when small amount of rutile particles is incorporated. PMID:22124477

  7. Plasmonic enhancement of low cost mesoporous Fe2O3-TiO2 loaded with palladium, platinum or silver for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. M. S.; Shalan, Ahmed E.; Rashad, M. M.; Mahmoud, M. H. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, a low cost mesoporous Fe2O3-TiO2 nanoparticles has been synthesized from Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore, Egypt using simple hydrothermal route. Meanwhile, silver, platinum and palladium metals nanoparticles from spent catalysts have been extracted and deposited between the anatase TiO2 particles using in situ reduction step. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm (SBET) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared materials were applied as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose photocurrent-voltage J-V characteristic curves measurements were consistently performed. The 0.5% precious metal doped samples NPs exhibit absorption enhancement over a broad wavelength range due to the excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) at different wavelengths which also exhibited very good and enhanced photovoltaic performance as a result of the strong scattering lightresulting of noticeable enhancement of charge transfer rates. Indeed, the Ag@Fe2O3-TiO2 sample exhibited the maximum overall conversion efficiency (η % = 4.5%) and it can be considered as a cost-effective photoanode for DSSCs.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the TiO2 nanostructural materials synthesized by electrospray and hydrothermal post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bing; Liu, Baoshun

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a series of new hierarchical porous TiO2 spheres with specific high surface area and pore volume were prepared by the method of electrospray and hydrothermal post-treatment in our group. The applications of these materials in photocatalysis have been investigated. In this research, the application of them in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was studied. The porous TiO2 spheres showed a Gaussian distribution with average size of ca. 600 nm, which can be used as good materials for light scattering in DSSCs. The specific surface areas of these materials are high enough for dye adsorption. The DSSCs made from the electrosprayed materials shows a 7.2% light-to-electricity efficiency, and the maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 530 nm is over 90%. The UV-Vis diffusion reflectance and EQE measurement proved that the as-prepared TiO2 materials show dual functions of light scattering and dye-adsorption, which is an important functional material in DSSCs.

  9. Hydrothermal Synthesis of TiO2 Porous Hollow Nanospheres for Coating on the Photoelectrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu Mohan, Varishetty; Murakami, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    Various sizes of TiO2 hollow nanosphers were synthesized by a hydrolysis followed by the hydrothermal treatment using different water content and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) while the remaining components such as methylamine, ethanol and acetonitrile were kept as a constant. We synthesized the various sizes of spheres, 150, 250, 400, 450, and 600 nm in diameter; those are represented as SP150, SP250, SP400, SP450, and SP600. The prepared spheres diameters were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These spheres were coated by using a simple spray technique with the TiO2 colloidal solution as a scattering layer for the TiO2 photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. Optical absorption measurements did not find a difference in the dye adsorption amount with and without the scattering layer. The scattering effect was observed by incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements especially in the wavelength region of 550-700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements show that the scattering layer with 450 nm spheres coated on the photoelectrode gave the improved photovoltaic performances compared to other diameters of the spheres. In the present study, the best energy conversion efficiency of 9.56% was obtained for the photoelectrode with the scattering layer, while the pure photoelectrode without the layer gave 8.4%.

  10. An integrated power pack of dye-sensitized solar cell and Li battery based on double-sided TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxi; Xue, Xinyu; Wang, Sihong; Lin, Changjian; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach to fabricate an integrated power pack by hybridizing energy harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a lithium ion battery (LIB) on the same Ti foil that has double-sided TiO(2) nanotube (NTs) arrays. The solar cell part is made of two different cosensitized tandem solar cells based on TiO(2) nanorod arrays (NRs) and NTs, respectively, which provide an open-circuit voltage of 3.39 V and a short-circuit current density of 1.01 mA/cm(2). The power pack can be charged to about 3 V in about 8 min, and the discharge capacity is about 38.89 μAh under the discharge density of 100 μA. The total energy conversion and storage efficiency for this system is 0.82%. Such an integrated power pack could serve as a power source for mobile electronics. PMID:22519631

  11. A CdSe thin film: a versatile buffer layer for improving the performance of TiO2 nanorod array:PbS quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Cao, Dawei; Liu, Kong; Jiang, Qiwei; Yang, Ying; Pang, Shan; Zhang, Weifeng; Lei, Yong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-05-21

    To fully utilize the multiple exciton generation effects in quantum dots and improve the overall efficiency of the corresponding photovoltaic devices, nanostructuralizing the electron conducting layer turns out to be a feasible strategy. Herein, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated on the basis of morphologically optimized TiO2 nanorod arrays. By inserting a thin layer of CdSe quantum dots into the interface of TiO2 and PbS, a dramatic enhancement in the power conversion efficiency from 4.2% to 5.2% was realized and the resulting efficiency is one of the highest values for quantum dot solar cells based on nanostructuralized buffer layers. The constructed double heterojunction with a cascade type-II energy level alignment is beneficial for promoting photogenerated charge separation and reducing charge recombination, thereby responsible for the performance improvement, as revealed by steady-state analyses as well as ultra-fast photoluminescence and photovoltage decays. Thus this paper provides a good buffer layer to the community of quantum dot solar cells. PMID:27124650

  12. Synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod and application in CdSe/CdS co-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-12-01

    A hierarchical double-layered TiO2 flower-rod structure composed of three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 flowers and one-dimensional (1D) nanorods on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The possible formation mechanism of the hierarchical architecture is also proposed. When used in CdSe/CdS quantum dots co-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), the 1D ordered rutile nanorods at bottom can accelerate the electron transfer rate by providing direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, while the 3D flowers formed on the top of nanorods can increase the adsorption of QDs due to the enlarged areas, and can also be used as a scattering layer. The performance of the CdSe/CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.46 mA cm-2, and a open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.42 V, with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.31% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm-2), which is greatly higher than that of CdSe/CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (1.63%).

  13. A double layered TiO2 photoanode consisting of hierarchical flowers and nanoparticles for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Rao, Hua-Shang; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2013-05-01

    We report the innovative development of a double layered photoanode made of hierarchical TiO2 flowers (HTFs) as the overlayer and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) as the underlayer, for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). They were prepared via a mild and simple one-step hydrothermal reaction of TiO2 nanoparticles/FTO glass substrate in an alkaline solution. The underlayer made of TNPs with a small size (20 nm in diameter) serves as a transparent photoanode for efficient dye adsorption. The overlayer consisting of HTFs (3-5 μm in diameter) embedded by TiO2 nanosheets plays multiple roles in enhancing light-scattering and fast electron transport. DSSCs based on this novel double layered photoanode (5 μm TNPs + 5 μm HTFs) exhibit greater than 7.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE), which is higher than that of single layer TNP based photoanodes (6.59%) with similar thickness (~10 μm), and this is mainly attributed to the superior light scattering ability and fast electron transport of the former. Meanwhile, the thickness of the TNP underlayer has been optimized to further improve the PCE and an excellent PCE of over 9% has been achieved based on a 15 μm TNP + a 5 μm HTF double layered photoanode, accompanied by a short-circuit photocurrent density of 17.85 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 763 mV and a fill factor of 0.67.We report the innovative development of a double layered photoanode made of hierarchical TiO2 flowers (HTFs) as the overlayer and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) as the underlayer, for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). They were prepared via a mild and simple one-step hydrothermal reaction of TiO2 nanoparticles/FTO glass substrate in an alkaline solution. The underlayer made of TNPs with a small size (20 nm in diameter) serves as a transparent photoanode for efficient dye adsorption. The overlayer consisting of HTFs (3-5 μm in diameter) embedded by TiO2 nanosheets plays multiple roles in enhancing light-scattering and fast electron transport. DSSCs based on this novel double layered photoanode (5 μm TNPs + 5 μm HTFs) exhibit greater than 7.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE), which is higher than that of single layer TNP based photoanodes (6.59%) with similar thickness (~10 μm), and this is mainly attributed to the superior light scattering ability and fast electron transport of the former. Meanwhile, the thickness of the TNP underlayer has been optimized to further improve the PCE and an excellent PCE of over 9% has been achieved based on a 15 μm TNP + a 5 μm HTF double layered photoanode, accompanied by a short-circuit photocurrent density of 17.85 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 763 mV and a fill factor of 0.67. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00508a

  14. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  15. Enhanced performance of bi-layer Nb2O5 coated TiO2 nanoparticles/nanowires composite photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, D.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2014-11-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on coumarin NKX-2700 dye sensitized bi-layer photoanode and quasi-solid state electrolyte sandwiched together with cobalt sulfide coated counter electrode. A novel bi-layer photoanode has been prepared using composite mixtures of 90 wt.% TiO2 nanoparticles + 10 wt.% TiO2 nanowires (TNPWs) as active layer and Nb2O5 is coated on the active layer, which acts as scattering layer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was applied over the TNPWs/Nb2O5 photoanode film, as a blocking layer. TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs), TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) and TNPWs/Nb2O5 were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The sensitizing organic dye coumarin NKX-2700 displayed maximum absorption wavelength (λmax) at 525 nm, which could be observed from the UV-vis spectrum. DSSC-1 fabricated with composite bi-layer photoanode revealed enhanced photo-current efficiency (PCE) as compared to other DSSCs and illustrated photovoltaic parameters; short-circuit current JSC = 18 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (VOC) = 700 mV, fill factor (FF) = 64% and PCE (η) = 8.06%. The electron transport and charge recombination behaviors of DSSCs were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and the results illustrated that the DSSC-1 showed the lowest charge transport resistance (Rtr) and the longest electron lifetime (τeff). Therefore, in the present investigation, it could be concluded that the novel bi-layer photoanode with blocking layer increased the short circuit current, electron transport and suppressed the recombination of charge carriers at the photoanode/dye/electrolyte interface in DSSC-1.

  16. Graphene Oxide-Assisted Synthesis of Microsized Ultrathin Single-Crystalline Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets and Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Sha, Junwei; Li, Wei; He, Fang; Liu, Enzuo; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-02-01

    High-quality microsized ultrathin single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheets (MS-TiO2) with exposed {001} facets were synthesized by a facile and low-cost two-step process that combines a graphene oxide (GO)-assisted hydrothermal method with calcination. Both GO and HF play an important role in the formation of well dispersed MS-TiO2. As a novel microsized (1-4 μm) ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) material, MS-TiO2 possesses much higher lateral size and aspect ratio compared to common 2D nanosized (30-60 nm) ultrathin TiO2 nanosheets (NS-TiO2), resulting in excellent electronic conductivity and superior electron transfer and diffusion properties. Here, we fabricated MS-TiO2 and NS-TiO2, both of which were incorporated with the TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) to constitute the hybrid photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and explored the effect of the lateral size (nano- and micro-) of ultrathin TiO2 nanosheets on their electron transfer and diffusion properties. Benefiting from the faster electron transfer rate and short diffusion path of the MS-TiO2, the MS-TiO2/P25 gains the more superior performance compared to pure P25 and NS-TiO2/P25 in the application of DSSCs. Moreover, it is expected that the novel high aspect ratio MS-TiO2 may be applied in diverse fields including photocatalysis, photodetectors, lithium-ion batteries and others concerning the environment and energy. PMID:26745514

  17. SiO(2) /TiO(2) hollow nanoparticles decorated with Ag nanoparticles: enhanced visible light absorption and improved light scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun Hye; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yun, Juyoung; Kim, Chanhoi; Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-04-01

    Hollow SiO2 /TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) of controlled size (Ag@HNPs) were fabricated in order to enhance visible-light absorption and improve light scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). They exhibited localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the LSPR effects were significantly influenced by the size of the Ag NPs. The absorption peak of the LSPR band dramatically increased with increasing Ag NP size. The LSPR of the large Ag NPs mainly increased the light absorption at short wavelengths, whereas the scattering from the SiO2 /TiO2 HNPs improved the light absorption at long wavelengths. This enabled the working electrode to use the full solar spectrum. Furthermore, the SiO2 layer thickness was adjusted to maximize the LSPR from the Ag NPs and avoid corrosion of the Ag NPs by the electrolyte. Importantly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased from 7.1 % with purely TiO2 -based DSSCs to 8.1 % with HNP-based DSSCs, which is an approximately 12 % enhancement and can be attributed to greater light scattering. Furthermore, the PCEs of Ag@HNP-based DSSCs were 11 % higher (8.1 vs. 9.0 %) than the bare-HNP-based DSSCs, which can be attributed to LSPR. Together, the PCE of Ag@HNP-based DSSCs improved by a total of 27 %, from 7.1 to 9.0 %, due to these two effects. This comparative research will offer guidance in the design of multifunctional nanomaterials and the optimization of solar-cell performance. PMID:24591121

  18. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells aided by Sr,Cr co-doped TiO2 xerogel films made of uniform spheres.

    PubMed

    Bakhshayesh, A M; Bakhshayesh, N

    2015-12-15

    One-pot preparation of Sr,Cr co-doped TiO2 xerogel film for boosting the short circuit current density of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is reported. The 2.5-μm-diameter spheres are assembled from 60nm nanoparticles by a modified sol-gel method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that Sr(2+) and Cr(3+) ions to be well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice without forming specific strontium and chromium compositions. The crystallite size, phase composition, and band structure of the particles depend on the dopants concentration. Isolated energy levels near valence band as a result of the transition ion (i.e., Cr) introduction, in conjunction with the local lattice distortions owing to the alkaline earth ion (i.e., Sr) insertion, improves the photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO2 spheres, enhancing the short circuit current density of the cells. The DSC co-doped with 0.075 at.% Sr and 2.5 at.% Cr (i.e., S7C25 solar cell) showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.89% and short circuit current density of 18.58mA/cm(2) thanks to lower charge transfer resistance (2.35Ωcm(2)), lower electron transit time (1.26ms), and higher electron diffusion coefficient (17.1×10(4)cm(2)S(-1)) compared to the other cells, demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The concept of simultaneously introduction of alkaline earth ions and transition ions into TiO2 lattice will open up a new insight into the fabrication of high performance DSCs. PMID:26313709

  19. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of Bi2S3/Sb2S3 quantum dots co-sensitized TiO2 nanorods solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixin; Yang, Junyou; Jiang, Qinghui; Luo, Yubo; Hou, Yaru; Zhou, Shuqin; Xiao, Ye; Fu, Liangwei; Zhou, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, high coverage and uniformly distributed Bi2S3 and Sb2S3 quantum dots (QDs) are deposited simultaneously on the surface of TiO2 nanorods (NRs) via electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure, morphology and composition of the deposits are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis (EDS), respectively. The results show that the deposits are of Bi2S3 and Sb2S3 compound semiconductor, and the Bi2S3/Sb2S3 QDs cover on the top and side surface of TiO2 NRs homogeneously. EDS analysis demonstrates that the ratio of both S to Sb and S to Bi are approximately 3:2, indicating that ECALD method can well control the deposition of each element. Owing to the better light absorption property and reduced recombination possibility of Bi2S3/Sb2S3 QDs co-sensitized solar cells, the power conversion efficiency reaches 0.67% with a short-circuit current density of 4.83 mA cm-2 at AM 1.5 solar light of 100 mW cm-2, which is much higher than that of Bi2S3 or Sb2S3 QDs sensitized solar cells.

  20. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of TiO2 hierarchical nanosheets with exposed {001} facets as an effective bifunctional layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Peng, Tao; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Wenjing; Zhang, Kun; Mehnane, Hadja Fatima; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-25

    Layer-by-layer self-assembled TiO2 hierarchical nanosheets with exposed {001} facets have been successfully fabricated via a simple one-step solvothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 layer-by-layer hierarchical nanosheets (TiO2 LHNs) exhibit favorable light scattering effect and large surface area, owing to their layer-by-layer hierarchical structure. When applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the layer-by-layer hierarchical structure with exposed {001} facet could effectively enhance light harvesting and dye adsorption, followed by increasing the photocurrent of DSSCs. As a result, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 7.70% has been achieved for the DSSCs using TiO2 LHNs as the bifunctional layer, indicating 21% improvement compared to the pure Degussa P25 (6.37%) as photoanode. Such enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the better light scattering capability of TiO2 LHNs, higher dye adsorption on TiO2 LHN {001} facets, and longer lifetime of the injected electrons in TiO2 LHNs compared to P25, which are examined by UV-vis spectrophotometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under the same conditions. These remarkable properties of TiO2 LHNs make it a promising candidate as a bifunctional scattering material for DSSCs. PMID:24881671

  1. Fabrication of silicon solar cell with >18% efficiency using spin-on-film processing for phosphorus diffusion and SiO2/graded index TiO2 anti-reflective coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Yu; Ho, Wen-Jeng; Yeh, Chien-Wu

    2015-11-01

    This study employed spin-on film (SOF) technology for the fabrication of phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) with a graded index on silicon (Si) wafers. Low cost and high efficiency solar cells are important issues for the operating cost of a photovoltaic system. SOF technology for the fabrication of solar cells can be for the achievement of this goal. This study succeeded in the application of SOF technology in the preparation of both phosphorus diffusion and SiO2/graded index TiO2 ARCs for Si solar cells. Optical properties of TiO2, SiO2, and multi-layer SiO2/TiO2 deposition by SOF are characterized. Electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes.

  2. High-efficiency inverted organic solar cells with polyethylene oxide-modified Zn-doped TiO2 as an interfacial electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambidurai, M.; Kim, Jun Young; Ko, Youngjun; Song, Hyung-Jun; Shin, Hyeonwoo; Song, Jiyun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Lee, Changhee

    2014-07-01

    High efficiency inverted organic solar cells are fabricated using the PTB7:PC71BM polymer by incorporating Zn-doped TiO2 (ZTO) and 0.05 wt% PEO:ZTO as interfacial electron transport layers. The 0.05 wt% PEO-modified ZTO device shows a significantly increased power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.10%, compared to that of the ZTO (7.67%) device.High efficiency inverted organic solar cells are fabricated using the PTB7:PC71BM polymer by incorporating Zn-doped TiO2 (ZTO) and 0.05 wt% PEO:ZTO as interfacial electron transport layers. The 0.05 wt% PEO-modified ZTO device shows a significantly increased power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.10%, compared to that of the ZTO (7.67%) device. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental part, UPS spectra, absorption spectra, XPS spectra, J-V characteristics, IPCE spectra, AFM, and PL spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02780a

  3. Improved Device Performance of Polymer-CuInS2/TiO2 Solar Cells Based on Treated CuInS2 Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Wenjin; Xie, Zhongwen; Pan, Yuwen; Zhang, Guoqiang; Wang, Songming; Xu, Fei; Yao, Cheng; Hu, Lingling; Li, Dan; Yang, Xing; Song, Qinping; Huang, Fangzhi

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a solvothermal approach to remove the organic amine ligand on the surface of CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) and demonstrates improved device performance of ternary polymer-CuInS2/TiO2 solar cells. Surface treatment of the CuInS2 QDs was carried out using different treatment methods, agents, and reaction times. Results showed that most of the amine ligands could be removed using hexanoic acid as the treatment agent by the solvothermal method in 16 h; the treated CuInS2 QDs displayed an aggregation tendency and quenched the fluorescence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) more effectively. As a result, MEH-PPV-CuInS2/TiO2 solar cells based on the treated CuInS2 QDs showed much higher device performance than those containing pristine CuInS2 QDs, achieving efficiency of 2.02% under AM1.5 illumination.

  4. A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-11-01

    Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. PMID:25247717

  5. One-pot synthesis of Cd1- x In x Te semiconductor as a sensitizer on TiO2 mesoporous for potential solar cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singsa-ngah, Mutika; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis of a new ternary semiconductor nanoparticle Cd1- x In x Te, as a sensitizer for solar cell devices via a one-pot mixed precursor solution. The Cd1- x In x Te nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition process and coated onto a TiO2 photoelectrode. A tetragonal structure of Cd1- x In x Te NPs was constituted on the TiO2 photoelectrode with a diameter range ˜25-30 nm, and the atomic percentages of the chemical elements showed that the structure could be Cd0.1In0.9Te incorporated with the CdIn2Te4 structure. When the dipping cycle increased, the energy gaps became narrower from 1.2 to 0.6 eV due to the increasing amount and the larger size of nanoparticles. The photovoltaic properties of various cycles were investigated, and the best power conversion efficiency ( η) of 0.49 % under full 1 sun illumination (100 mW/cm2, AM 1.5G) was obtained for the seven-cycle-Cd1- x In x Te NPs with a current density ( J sc) of 2.64 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage ( V oc) of 638 mV, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.29. The efficiency of this material can be further improved for higher potential solar cell devices.

  6. TiO2 quantum dots as superb compact block layers for high-performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with an efficiency of 16.97%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yongguang; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Min; Huo, Jinghao; Zhou, Pei; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2015-12-01

    A compact TiO2 layer is crucial to achieve high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this study, we developed a facile, low-cost and efficient method to fabricate a pinhole-free and ultrathin blocking layer based on highly crystallized TiO2 quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 3.6 nm. The surface morphology of the blocking layer and the photoelectric performance of the perovskite solar cells were investigated by spin-coating with three different materials: colloidal TiO2 QDs, titanium precursor solution, and aqueous TiCl4. Among these three treatments, the perovskite solar cell based on the TiO2 QD compact layer offered the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.97% with a photocurrent density of 22.48 mA cm-2, a photovoltage of 1.063 V and a fill factor of 0.71. The enhancement of PCE mainly stems from the small series resistance and the large shunt resistance of the TiO2 QD layer.A compact TiO2 layer is crucial to achieve high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this study, we developed a facile, low-cost and efficient method to fabricate a pinhole-free and ultrathin blocking layer based on highly crystallized TiO2 quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 3.6 nm. The surface morphology of the blocking layer and the photoelectric performance of the perovskite solar cells were investigated by spin-coating with three different materials: colloidal TiO2 QDs, titanium precursor solution, and aqueous TiCl4. Among these three treatments, the perovskite solar cell based on the TiO2 QD compact layer offered the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.97% with a photocurrent density of 22.48 mA cm-2, a photovoltage of 1.063 V and a fill factor of 0.71. The enhancement of PCE mainly stems from the small series resistance and the large shunt resistance of the TiO2 QD layer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05563f

  7. Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-28

    The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm(-1) caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 μm are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability. PMID:25631573

  8. Synergistic effect of TiCl4-ZnO treated TiO2 nanotubes in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Chang Seob; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2015-06-01

    Oxide semiconducting TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) with TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have attracted considerable attention because of a fast electron migration process in the photoelectrode. However, TNT films of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) displayed low conversion efficiency because of lower dye loading and sunlight absorption than in the case of TNPs films. For high-performance DSSCs, an aqueous solution treatment using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was used on the TNT film. The TNT array was prepared by an anodization process. Herein, we studied that a double dip-coating TiCl4-ZnO treatment of the TNTs enhanced photocurrent density and fill factor due to an improvement in electron transfer, increase in dye adsorption, and reduction in the recombination charge rate. The results show that the DSSCs with a TiCl4-ZnO treatment show a maximum conversion efficiency of 8.29% and JSC of 21.19 mA/cm2 under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5).

  9. Reconstruction of the (001) surface of TiO2 nanosheets induced by the fluorine-surfactant removal process under UV-irradiation for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiyuan; Wang, Jiajia; Zhao, Zongyan; Yu, Tao; Feng, Jianyong; Yuan, Yongjun; Tang, Zekun; Liu, Yunhong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2012-04-14

    The champion dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO(2) nanoparticles nearly reach the limit of photo-current density using the black dye or zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer. However, the way to make ordinary DSSCs more efficient as well as to understand the mechanism is still essential. Here we present an elegant UV irradiation treatment of TiO(2) nanosheets to enhance the performance of DSSCs based on the TiO(2) nanosheets via room temperature removal of inorganic surfactants and reconstruction of the (001) surface of TiO(2) nanosheets, killing two birds with one stone. UV irradiation was utilized to remove the fluorine-surfactant on the surface of anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with a high percentage of exposed {001} facets which were synthesized with the aid of hydrofluoric acid. The nanosheets treated with UV irradiation for 40 min had the advantage of improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs by 17.6%, compared to that without UV treatment when they were introduced into DSSCs as photoanode materials. The improved efficiency was ascribed to more dye adsorption. A theoretical calculation proposed that UV irradiation induced microfaceted steps on the TiO(2) surface by two domain (1 4) reconstruction after UV irradiating the (1 1) (001) surface. The microfaceted steps increase the active surface area of the TiO(2) nanosheets by increasing the exposure of titanium atoms and engendering active sites. PMID:22382572

  10. Charge transport improvement employing TiO2 nanotube arrays as front-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Andrea; Sacco, Adriano; Bianco, Stefano; Manfredi, Diego; Cappelluti, Federica; Hernandez, Simelys; Quaglio, Marzia; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2013-02-21

    TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays with different lengths were fabricated by anodic oxidation of Ti foil and free-standing NT membranes were detached by the metal substrate and bonded on the fluorine-doped tin oxide surface implementing an easy procedure. Morphology of the as-grown material and of the prepared photoanode was investigated by means of electron microscopy, deepening the investigation on the thermal treatment effect. Crystalline orientation and exposed surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements, showing suitable characteristics for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). DSCs were assembled employing a microfluidic housing system. The cell performances and the electron transport properties as a function of the tube length, before and after a TiCl(4) treatment, were characterized by I-V electrical measurements, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay. Fitting the impedance spectra with an equivalent circuit, it was possible to obtain information on the electron diffusion properties into the TiO(2) nanotubes. A comparison with the charge transport properties evaluated in nanoparticle-based photoanodes witnesses a noteworthy increase of electron lifetime and diffusion length, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency up to 7.56%. PMID:22918400

  11. Enhanced performance of reversely transferred, doubly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Doubly open-ended conventional TiO2 nanotube arrays (Type I) and nanoporous-layer-covered nanotube arrays (Type II) were transferred to transparent fluorine-doped tin oxides (FTOs) for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO/Type II exhibited a long electron lifetime ( τ e ) and rapid electron transport compared to FTO/Type I because of the reduced surface defect-state-mediated recombination rate. In particular, Type II transferred reversely to the FTO (FTO/Type II-rev) had beneficial geometric effects, leading to a decrease in pore size from the bottom to the top and a nanoporous TiO2 thin bottom layer. These enabled more effective light scattering near the FTO and facilitated lateral electron movement toward the FTO, leading to a shortened electron pathway and a reduced recombination rate. The significantly enhanced electron lifetime and the shortened electron transit time of the FTO/Type II-rev improved the charge collection efficiency significantly. Furthermore, the enhanced light scattering increased the light harvesting efficiency. These beneficial geometric effects of FTO/Type II-rev contributed to the greatly enhanced overall cell efficiency (7.61%) of the DSSC compared to the DSSCs with FTO/Type I (5.27%) and FTO/Type II (6.65%).

  12. Preparation of silver nanowires coated with TiO2 using chemical binder and their applications as photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kang, Taeho; Cho, Woohyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Oh, Seong-Geun; Im, Seung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire was prepared for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Ag nanowire, having an excellent electrical conductivity, was synthesized by using the facile microwave-assisted polyol reduction process. The diameter and length of Ag wires were 40-50 nm and 20-30 μm, respectively, and the face-centered cubic silver crystal structure was obtained. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as a chemical binder, the entire surface of Ag wire was coated with the TiO2 shell, which has thickness of 20 nm, through solvothermal method. The crystalline structure of TiO2 shell was the anatase phase possessing an advantage to achieve the high efficiency in DSSC. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire exhibited the high thermal stability. The high conversion efficiency (5.56%) in fabricated device with Ag@TiO2 electrode, which is about 10% higher than reference cell, was achieved by enhancement of short-current density (Jsc) value. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire could effectively reduce the charge recombination through the contribution to electron shortcut for improvement in the electron transfer rate and lifetime.

  13. Improving Electron Transfer from Dye to TiO2 by Using CdTe Nanostructure Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshkar, Farshad; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    In this work, TiO2 P25 was deposited successfully on the FTO glass by electrophoresis method. Different chemical methods were served for deposition of nanosized CdTe such as successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and drop-cast. Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from prepared electrodes, Pt as a counter electrode, dye solution, and electrolyte. The effects of chemical deposition methods were investigated on the surface quality, optical properties, and solar cell efficiency. It was observed that deposition method has an important role on the solar cell performance. It was also seen that deposition method affects directly on surface thickness and the amount of dye adsorption. In fact, each deposition method creates different surfaces, and hence, they act variously in electron transfer across the electrode surface. Among different deposition methods that were used in this experimental work, SILAR method showed the best performance and the surface that was created by this method could transfer the electrons across the electrode faster than the other ones. But this chemical method cannot improve solar cell efficiency due to some different reasons that we mentioned in this paper.

  14. High open voltage and superior light-harvesting dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated by flower-like hierarchical TiO2 composed with highly crystalline nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Ya-Ping; Weng, Jian; Hu, Lin-Hua; Wu, Ji-Huai; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The morphology, microstructure and crystallography of titanium dioxide (TiO2) have great effect on the photoelectric performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, flower-like 3D TiO2 microstructures based on well-defined high-crystalline nanosheets are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. Especially, morphological evolution process and mechanism of this hierarchical structure are investigated. Due to the highly crystalline nature and smaller surface area of these nanosheets, the corresponding device shows an extremely high open-current voltage up to 0.84 V, which results from the less electron recombination. When applied as a scattering layer on top of the nanoparticle layer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be significantly improved and give birth to a PCE value of 9.6%, which is 24.6% higher than that of an analogous device using nanoparticles (NP) (7.7%). As reflected by diffusion reflection spectra, intensity of the modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), this hierarchical structure can not only enhance light harvesting, but also reduce electron recombination, facilitate electron transport and improve electron collection efficiency.

  15. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO3-TiO2 composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Khaledi, Hamid; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd2Ti4(μ-O)6(TFA)8(THF)6]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO3-TiO2 composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO3-TiO2 composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application.

  16. Adsorption of porphyrin and carminic acid on TiO2 nanoparticles: A photo-active nano-hybrid material for hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Munir, Shamsa; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Hussain, Hazrat; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    A photo-active nano-hybrid material consisting of titania nanoparticles, carminic acid, and sulphonic acid functionalized porphyrin is reported here. In an attempt to extend the absorption spectrum of titania to visible region by co-adsorbing carminic acid and sulphonic acid functionalized porphyrin on its surface. Interesting changes in the UV-visible and fluorescence spectra were noticed. The adsorption of carminic acid resulted in the formation of charge transfer complex with titania nanoparticles. This was confirmed by the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopies. Chemisorption of porphyrin on the carminic acid functionalized titania further boosted the charge transfer effect. This was noticed by the increase in intensity and width of the charge transfer absorption and emission bands. Energy level diagram showed that the interaction among the constituents of the nano-hybrid assembly permitted the flow of electron in a cascade manner from carminic acid to TiO2.This also allowed direct flow of electrons either from carminic acid or porphyrin toward titania. The material was used as an active blend in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells. Co-functionalized TiO2-based devices were found 3.5 times more efficient than the reference device but morphology of the device proved a major setback. PMID:26555643

  17. Porous Zn-doped TiO2 nanowall photoanode: Effect of Zn2+ concentration on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Siti Khatijah Md; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Rahman, Mohd. Yusri Abd.; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2015-10-01

    We report the study of the utilization of a new synthesized-photoactive materials of Zn-doped TiO2 nanowall (ZTNW) in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and the study of the effect of Zn2+ concentration in the ZTNW on the DSSC performance. ZTNW was prepared directly on the ITO substrate using a liquid phase deposition (LPD) method in an aqueous solution containing TiO2 and Zn precursors. The effect of Zn2+ dopants on the performance of DSSC was studied by preparing the ZTNW with several concentrations of Zn2+, namely from 10.0 to 40.0 mM. It was found that the performance of DSSC with a structure of ITO/ZTNW/N719/Electrolyte/Pt increases with the increasing of Zn2+ concentration and optimum at 24.0 mM. Typical power conversion efficiency as high as 1.98% was obtained from the optimum ZTNW sample. The role of Zn2+ concentration in the device performance will be discussed and examined using electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy method.

  18. 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 and metal-free organic sensitizer producing dye-sensitized solar cells 8.6% conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of 'next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously. PMID:25167837

  19. 3D Hierarchical Rutile TiO2 and Metal-free Organic Sensitizer Producing Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 8.6% Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of `next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously.

  20. High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells based on low-cost commercial P25 TiO2 and organic dye.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiong; Xue, Zhaosheng; Wang, Long; Cheng, Yueming; Liu, Bin

    2012-03-01

    High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on low-cost commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2) and organic indoline dye D149 have been fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with compression post-treatment at room temperature. The pressed EPD electrode outperformed the sintered EPD electrode and as-prepared EPD electrode in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. About 150% and 180% enhancement in power conversion efficiency have been achieved in DSC devices with sintering and compression post-treatment as compared to the as-prepared electrode, respectively. Several characterizations including intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra have been employed to reveal the nature of improvement with post-treatment. Experimental results indicate that the sintering and compression post-treatment are beneficial to improve the electron transport and thus lead to the enhancement of photocurrent and power conversion efficiency. In addition, the compression post-treatment is more efficient than sintering post-treatment in improving interparticle connection in the as-prepared EPD electrode. Under optimized conditions, the conversion efficiency of plastic devices with D149-sensitized P25 TiO(2) photoanode has reached 5.76% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)). This study demonstrates that the EPD combined with compression post-treatment provides a way to fabricate highly efficient plastic photovoltaic devices. PMID:22324725

  1. In-situ synthesis of TiO2 network nanoporous structure on Ti wire substrate and its application in fiber dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Hong; Fang, Guo-jia; Ke, Wei-jun; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a two-step treatment method to modify the Ti wires which are used as anode substrates of fiber dye sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs). A special kind of network nanoporous structure is formed on the surface of Ti wire substrates through sodium hydroxide hydrothermal reaction and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) assistant treatment. Nanoporous structures with different sizes are in-situ grown on the Ti wire substrates by changing the hydrothermal reaction condition. Then, TiO2 network nanoporous structures with branch-like nano-structure or 2D nanoflakes are obtained after TiCl4 treatment. The effects of these network nanoporous structures on the FDSSC performances are investigated intensively. It is found that these special network nanoporous structures between TiO2 nanoparticle active layer and Ti wire substrate are beneficial to the connection of the nanoparticle layer and fiber-shaped substrate, thus improving the electron transport rate and prolonging electron lifetime. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of this parallel assembled FDSSC increases to 4.64% from 2.56% after this two-step treatment.

  2. TiO2 quantum dots as superb compact block layers for high-performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with an efficiency of 16.97.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yongguang; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Min; Huo, Jinghao; Zhou, Pei; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2015-12-28

    A compact TiO(2) layer is crucial to achieve high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this study, we developed a facile, low-cost and efficient method to fabricate a pinhole-free and ultrathin blocking layer based on highly crystallized TiO(2) quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 3.6 nm. The surface morphology of the blocking layer and the photoelectric performance of the perovskite solar cells were investigated by spin-coating with three different materials: colloidal TiO(2) QDs, titanium precursor solution, and aqueous TiCl(4). Among these three treatments, the perovskite solar cell based on the TiO(2) QD compact layer offered the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.97% with a photocurrent density of 22.48 mA cm(-2), a photovoltage of 1.063 V and a fill factor of 0.71. The enhancement of PCE mainly stems from the small series resistance and the large shunt resistance of the TiO(2) QD layer. PMID:26585357

  3. Influence of difference quantity La-doped TiO2 photoanodes on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells: A strategy for choosing an appropriate doping quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zige; Li, Guoxiang; Cui, Zijian; Zhang, Kaiyue; Feng, Yaqing; Meng, Shuxian

    2016-05-01

    Facilitated by TiO2 particles adsorbing lanthanide ions in hydrosol, La-doped TiO2 was produced by a hydrothermal method. The structure, optical and photoluminescence properties of down-converting photoelectrode with the La3+ were characterized by X-ray (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with 0.05 g-La/TiO2 reached 7.02%, which gave an efficiency improved by 10.36% compared with that of cells fabricated from pure TiO2. The improvement in efficiency was ascribed to more dyes adsorbed on the surface of TiO2. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with 0.05 g-La/TiO2 reached 7.02%, which gave an efficiency improved by 10.36% compared with that of cells fabricated from pure TiO2.

  4. Direct Low-Temperature Growth of Single-Crystalline Anatase TiO2 Nanorod Arrays on Transparent Conducting Oxide Substrates for Use in PbS Quantum-Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Suk; Han, Gill Sang; Park, So Yeon; Shin, Hee-Won; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Jeong, Sohee; Cho, In Sun; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-05-20

    We report on the direct growth of anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays (A-NRs) on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates that can be directly applied to various photovoltaic devices via a seed layer mediated epitaxial growth using a facile low-temperature hydrothermal method. We found that the crystallinity of the seed layer and the addition of an amine functional group play crucial roles in the A-NR growth process. The A-NRs exhibit a pure anatase phase with a high crystallinity and preferred growth orientation in the [001] direction. Importantly, for depleted heterojunction solar cells (TiO2/PbS), the A-NRs improve both electron transport and injection properties, thereby largely increasing the short-circuit current density and doubling their efficiency compared to TiO2 nanoparticle-based solar cells. PMID:25928587

  5. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of novel TiO2 photoelectrode on TCO substrates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jung Eun; Kwon, Soon Jin; Jo, Hyo Jeong; Yi, Kwang Bok; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we report synthesis and growth of rutile-anatase TiO2 thin film on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a two-step hydrothermal method. The effects of additional treatments (i.e., TiCl4 post-treatment and seed layer formation were also studied. Photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement of rutile-anatase TiO2 thin film was performed under 1.5 G light illumination. Photovoltaic performance was investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS/IMPS) and open-circuit photovoltage decay (OCVD). PMID:25971044

  6. The Study of Femtosecond Laser Irradiation on GaAs Solar Cells With TiO2/SiO2 Anti-Reflection Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yinqun; Shi, Zhiguo; Wu, Wenhui; Chen, Ruifang; Rong, Zhen; Ye, Yunxia; Liu, Haixia

    Femtosecond laser ablation on GaAs solar cells for space power has been investigated. In particular, we studied the effects of laser energy and laser number on the ablation of solar cells. Furthermore, the morphologies and microstructure of ablation were characterized by the non-contact optical profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photovoltaic properties were tested by the volt ampere characteristic test system. The abaltion threshold of the TiO2/SiO2 anti-reflection film of GaAs solar cells was obtained from the linear fit of the dependence of the square diameter of the ablated area with the natural logarithm of the femtosecond laser pulse energy, the resulting threshold of the laser fluence is about 0.31J/cm2, and the corresponding energy is 5.4uJ. The ablation depth showed nonlinear dependence of energy. With the fixed energy 6uJ and the increasing laser number, the damage degree increases obviously. Furthermore, the electric properties also suffer a certain degradation. Among all the evaluated electric properties, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) degraded remarkably.

  7. Moth-Eye TiO2 Layer for Improving Light Harvesting Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Min; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Yoon, Jungjin; Yoo, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A moth-eye nanostructured mp-TiO2 film using conventional lithography, nano-imprinting and polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamping methods is demonstrated for the first time. Power conversion efficiency of the moth-eye patterned perovskite solar cell is improved by ≈11%, which mainly results from increasing light harvesting efficiency by structural optical property. PMID:26990492

  8. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells: An TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid photoanode with post-treatment of TiCl4 aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling; Niu, Haihong; Zhang, Shouwei; Wan, Lei; Miao, Shiding; Xu, Jinzhang

    2012-11-01

    A TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid film was prepared on a conductive F-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by depositing a mixture paste of TiO2 (P25) and nano-sized SiO2 particles. The hybrid film was further treated by a titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution with different concentrations before it was assembled as a photoanode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We studied the performance of DSSCs by using the dye molecule of cis-bis(isothiocy-anato)-bis-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II) bis-tetrabutylammonium (N719) as sensitizer. Results suggested that the post-treatment using TiCl4 could enhance the dye adsorption. The thin TiO2 layer hydrolyzed from TiCl4 could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the composite film, leading to a better electron transport than non-treated films, and improve the light harvesting efficiency. The optimal concentration was found to be 75 mM for the post-treatment of TiO2-SiO2 hybrid film by TiCl4 solution. A photoelectron conversion efficiency of 6.39% was achieved in the back-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells, which is ˜105% higher than the basic efficiency of the bare TiO2 sensitized sample. TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid photoanode was prepared by incorporation of nano-sized SiO2 in the TiO2 film. The introduced SiO2 as a wide band-gap material gives a significant improvement of the performance of corresponding DSSCs in terms of photocurrent densities and energy conversion efficiency.

  9. Solid-state and flexible solar cells based on dye-sensitized TiO2: study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Claudia; Nogueira, Flavia; Cachet, Hubert; De Paoli, Marco-Aurelio

    2002-02-01

    Dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells were assembled using rigid or flexible transparent electrodes (a conductive film deposited on glass or poly(ethylene terephthalate) as substrates and a polymer electrolyte based on (formula available in paper) and poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide). The cells were characterized by current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under different light intensities. Under 100 mWcm-2 illumination, the rigid cell exhibited an open circuit potential VOC=0.75V, a short-circuit photocurrent ISC=2.5 mAcm-2 and an efficiency (eta) =0.9%; for the flexible cell, VOC=0.83V and (eta) and ISC were almost 10 times smaller. Under illumination, impedance spectra exhibited three semi-circles for the rigid cell. For the flexible cell the time constants were not well defined. In the dark, both systems presented very high impedance. The differences in the efficiency and the impedance spectra of both cells were compared and discussed.

  10. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C.; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ~450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ~18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells.Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ~450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ~18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of TiO2 nanorod arrays, TEM images of TiO2 nanorod and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, cross-sectional SEM images of PbS/CdS core-shell QDs spin coated on TiO2 nanorod arrays, optical transmittance of TiO2 nanorod arrays, EQE spectrum of solar cell device annealed in N2 along with absorption spectrum of PbS/CdS core-shell QDs also annealed in N2, and tables of detailed performance of solar cell devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02371h

  11. Double functions of porous TiO2 electrodes on CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: Enhancement of perovskite crystal transformation and prohibition of short circuiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugadoss, Govindhasamy; Mizuta, Gai; Tanaka, Soichiro; Nishino, Hitoshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Imahori, Hiroshi; Ito, Seigo

    2014-08-01

    In order to analyze the crystal transformation from hexagonal PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by the sequential (two-step) deposition process, perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 layers were deposited on flat and/or porous TiO2 layers. Although the narrower pores using small nanoparticles prohibited the effective transformation, the porous-TiO2 matrix was able to help the crystal transformation of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 by sequential two-step deposition. The resulting PbI2 crystals in porous TiO2 electrodes did not deteriorate the photovoltaic effects. Moreover, it is confirmed that the porous TiO2 electrode had served the function of prohibiting short circuits between working and counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells.

  12. A detailed study on the working mechanism of a heteropoly acid modified TiO2 photoanode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanxia; Yang, Yulin; Qiang, Liangsheng; Fan, Ruiqing; Li, Liang; Ye, Tengling; Na, Yong; Shi, Yan; Luan, Tianzhu

    2015-03-14

    A novel heteropolyacid (HPA) K6SiW11O39Ni(H2O)·xH2O (SiW11Ni) modified TiO2 has been successfully synthesized and introduced into the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The performance of the cell with the HPA-modified photoanode (SiW11Ni/TiO2), mixed with P25 powder in the ratio of 2 : 8, is better than the cell with a pristine P25 photoanode. An increase of 31% in the photocurrent and 22% improvement in the conversion efficiency are obtained. The effect of the heteropolyacid was well studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, spectro-electrochemical spectroscopy, dark current, intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy, open-circuit voltage decay and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the interfacial layer modified by SiW11Ni can enhance the injection and transport of electrons, and then retard the recombination of electrons, which results in a longer electron lifetime. What's more, the introduction of SiW11Ni can simultaneously broaden the absorption in the visible region, eventually leading to an efficient increase in energy conversion efficiency. PMID:25669421

  13. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Quanxin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Near infrared to visible up-conversion of light by rare earth ion-doped phosphors (NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)) that convert multiple photons of lower energy to higher energy photons offer new possibilities for improved performance of photovoltaic devices. Here, up-conversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films are designed and used as a electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on composite electrodes are investigated. The results show the cell with NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.65% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mWcm(-2)), which is an increase of 14% compared to the cell without NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) (6.71%). The performance improvement is attributed to the dual effects of enhanced light harvesting from extended light absorption range and increased light scattering, and lower electron transfer resistance. PMID:25875488

  14. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the π-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory/simulation and experiments appears to be the key to further DSCs progress, both concerning the design of new dye sensitizers and their interaction with the semiconductor and with the solution environment and/or an electrolyte upon adsorption onto the semiconductor. PMID:23108504

  15. Tuning band alignment by CdS layers using a SILAR method to enhance TiO2/CdS/CdSe quantum-dot solar-cell performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Li, Xiaoning; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Lin-Wang; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-04-14

    We report tuning band alignment by optimized CdS layers using a SILAR method to achieve the recorded best performance with about 6% PCE in TiO2/CdS/CdSe QDSSCs. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we find that a better lattices match between CdS and TiO2 assists the growth of CdSe, and the combined effect of charge transfer and surface dipole moment at the TiO2/CdS/CdSe interface shifts the energy levels of TiO2 upward and increases Voc of the solar cells. More importantly, the band gap of CdS buffer layers is sensitive to the distortion induced by lattice mismatch and numbers of CdS layers. For example, the barrier for charge transfer disappears when there are more than 4 layers of CdS, facilitating the charge injection from CdSe to TiO2. PMID:27040601

  16. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  17. DC sputtering assisted nano-branched core-shell TiO2/ZnO electrodes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zengming; Hu, Yong; Qin, Fuyu; Ding, Yutian

    2016-07-01

    TiO2/ZnO core-shell photo-anodes with a large surface area were synthesised by a combination of chemical growth and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of these combined methods for the advancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was discussed. An understanding of the morphology and structure of this core-shell material was obtained from the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the thickness of the ZnO nanoshells (as assessed by using TEM), prepared by MS, has a significant effect on improvements in the conversion efficiency. The conversion efficiency can be greatly improved from 0.06% to 0.72% by optimising different experimental conditions, such as ZnO nanoshell MS time and chemical bath deposition time. The enhanced efficiency may be attributed to the emergence of a ZnO energy barrier and the improvement of the photo-anode surface area.

  18. High-performance large-scale flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Jen, Hsiu-Ping; Lin, Meng-Hung; Li, Lu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Cheng, Po-Jen; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-10-23

    A simple strategy to fabricate flexible dye-sensitized solar cells involves the use of photoanodes based on TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays with rear illumination. The TNT films (tube length ∼35 μm) were produced via anodization, and sensitized with N719 dye for photovoltaic characterization. Pt counter electrodes of two types were used: a conventional FTO/glass substrate for a device of rigid type and an ITO/PEN substrate for a device of flexible type. These DSSC devices were fabricated into either a single-cell structure (active area 3.6×0.5 cm2) or a parallel module containing three single cells (total active area 5.4 cm2). The flexible devices exhibit remarkable performance with efficiencies η=5.40% (single cell) and 4.77% (parallel module) of power conversion, which outperformed their rigid counterparts with η=4.87% (single cell) and 4.50% (parallel model) under standard one-sun irradiation. The flexible device had a greater efficiency of conversion of incident photons to current and a broader spectral range than the rigid device; a thinner electrolyte layer for the flexible device than for the rigid device is a key factor to improve the light-harvesting ability for the TNT-DSSC device with rear illumination. Measurements of electrochemical impedance spectra show excellent catalytic activity and superior diffusion characteristics for the flexible device. This technique thus provides a new option to construct flexible photovoltaic devices with large-scale, light-weight, and cost-effective advantages for imminent applications in consumer electronics. PMID:24050628

  19. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-06-14

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ∼450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ∼18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells. PMID:25975363

  20. Influence of spray deposited TiO2 film thickness on the performance of n-TiO2/p-Si low cost hetero-junction solar cell and its utility as a carrier blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhar, R.; Angadi, Basavaraj; Shekar, H. D. Chandra; Murthy, L. C. S.

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films with different thicknesses (55-95nm) were deposited in a multi-cycle on Si (100) substrates at a temperature of 350°C by spray pyrolysis technique under optimum conditions, for the application as a window layer for hetero-junction solar cells. The dark-light I-V characteristics of Au/TiO2/p-Si/Al hetero-junction solar cells have shown excellent rectifying behavior. The increase in film thickness can improve the short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc), respectively. The estimated lower Isc and Voc confirm that the photo generated charge carriers being blocked or trapped at pin-holes which are rich in sprayed films, as carriers pass through the multi-cycle deposited TiO2 layers. The observed variation in the photovoltaic properties of cells could be due to oxidation on the Si substrate. Power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.00021% was obtained in a cell with the TiO2 film thickness of 55 nm. Decrease in dark current as a function of thickness indicates, the hole blocking behavior of hetero-junction solar cells.

  1. Hydrolysis preparation of the compact TiO2 layer using metastable TiCl4 isopropanol/water solution for inorganic-organic hybrid heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyan, Dai; Chengwu, Shi; Yanru, Zhang; Ni, Wu

    2015-07-01

    A hydrolysis process was applied to prepare the compact TiO2 layer using the fresh metastable TiCl4 isopropanol/water solution as the precursor solution for the preparation of the inorganic-organic hybrid heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The optimal compact TiO2 layer prepared from the aqueous solution of 2 mol/L TiCl4 diluted in isopropanol at 1 : 3 by volume as precursor solution was uniform and with a film thickness of 126 nm. The corresponding perovskite solar cell gave a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 10.61%. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51472071, 51272061, 51072043), and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CBA00700).

  2. Mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles as a top scattering layer to enhance performance of nanocrystalline TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaohua; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yalong; Sun, Panpan; Huang, Niu; Sun, Yihua

    2015-05-01

    Herein, we report a bilayer TiO2 photoanode composed of nanocrystalline TiO2 (NCT) bottom layer and mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles (PR) top scattering layer. The present structure performs well in solar light harvesting which is mainly attributed to the fact that the top scattering layer exhibits superior light scattering effect and meanwhile the NCT bottom layer with large dye-loading capacity can make better use of the back-scattered light. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay measurements demonstrate that DSSC based on bilayer photoanode shows faster interfacial electron transfer and slower charge recombination process than that based on NCT monolayer photoanode. These advantages render the DSSCs based on NCT-PR bilayer photoanode exhibiting superior performance under AM1.5G simulated solar irradiation. As an example, by tuning mass ratio between P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles in the top scattering layer, the DSSC based on NCT-PR bilayer photoanode exhibits an optimum solar energy conversion efficiency of 9.0%, which is about 1.25 times higher than that of monolayer NCT device (7.2%) with the same film thickness.

  3. Arginine Interactions with Anatase TiO2 (100) Surface and the Perturbation of 49Ti NMR Chemical Shifts - A DFT Investigation: Relevance to Renu-Seeram Bio Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Rainer; Lipton, Andrew S.; Filipek, S.; Renugopalakrishnan, Venkatesan M.

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theoretical calculations have been utilized to investigate the interaction of the amino acid arginine with the (100) surface of anatase and the reproduction of experimentally measured 49Ti NMR chemical shifts of anatase. Significant binding of arginine through electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonds of the arginine guanidinium protons to the TiO2 surface oxygen atoms is observed, allowing attachment of proteins to titania surfaces in the construction of bio-sensitized solar cells. GIAO-B3LYP/6-31G(d) NMR calculation of a three-layer model based on the experimental structure of this TiO2 modification gives an excellent reproduction of the experimental value (-927 ppm) within +/- 7 ppm, however, the change in relative chemical shifts, EFGs and CSA suggest that the effect of the electrostatic arginine binding might be too small for experimental detection.

  4. Properties of Pulsed-Laser-Deposited CuI and Characteristics of Constructed Dye-Sensitized TiO2|Dye|CuI Solid-State Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusop, Mohamad; Shirata, Tetsuya; Sirimanne, Prasad M.; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    Transparent semiconducting copper iodide (CuI) films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition and their characteristics were investigated. In this paper, the structural and optoelectrical properties of CuI thin films and the construction of dye-sensitized TiO2|Dye|CuI solid-state photovoltaic solar cells are reported. The optical absorption of these films shows a remarkable blue shift compared to that of polycrystalline CuI, which can be explained by the formation of ultrafine CuI grains. The CuI films exhibited an optical transmittance of over 80% in wavelengths ranging from 400 to 900 nm and a minimum resistivity of approximately 2 KΩ\\cdotcm. The properties of pulsed-laser-deposited CuI in the power output of n-TiO2|Dye|p-CuI cells is studied. An efficient charge generation is observed through the illumination of the TiO2 layer of the fabricated n-TiO2|Dye|p-CuI cells. The cell performance has been characterized base on the current-voltage (I-V) working curve determined under AM 1.5 illumination conditions (100 mW/cm2, 25°C). The maximum short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of approximately 12.2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of approximately 480 mV were obtained for the TiO2|Dye|CuI solid-state photovoltaic solar cells with good reproducibility. The fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (η) were about 47.8% and 2.8%, respectively.

  5. Free standing TiO2 nanotube array electrodes with an ultra-thin Al2O3 barrier layer and TiCl4 surface modification for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xianfeng; Guan, Dongsheng; Huo, Jingwan; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications.Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis spectra of desorbed N719 dyes from TiO2 electrodes with and without Al2O3 barrier. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03198e

  6. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (η = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (η). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 ( Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  7. Effect of solvents on the extraction of natural pigments and adsorption onto TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A M; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd Amir H; Ludin, Norasikin A

    2015-03-01

    Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX. PMID:25483560

  8. Effect of solvents on the extraction of natural pigments and adsorption onto TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Ludin, Norasikin A.

    2015-03-01

    Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX.

  9. Preparation of SiO2/TiO2 and TiO2/TiO2 micropattern and their effects on platelet adhesion and endothelial cell regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-an; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Kun; Ren, Hui-lan; Huang, Nan

    2013-07-01

    TiO2 films were applied on blood contact biomaterials for its excellent biocompatibility. The topological structure of the biomaterial surfaces have a significant impact on cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Thus, it is anticipated that the combination of TiO2 film deposition and surface micro-patterning will provide a potential application for cardiovascular implants materials. In this work, TiO2/TiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 micro-groove/ridge stripes on Si (100) were prepared by photolithography, wet etching and unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS). Their surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability were investigated. The crystal structure of TiO2 films was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Platelet adhesion on the SiO2/TiO2 and TiO2/TiO2 surfaces was tested, and the morphology and behaviour of endothelial cells cultured on the micropatterned surfaces were observed. It was proved that the SiO2/TiO2 pattern could reduce platelet adhesion and aggregation compared with TiO2/TiO2 pattern, endothelial cells grew along the micro-stripes and their behaviour could be effectively regulated by micropatterned surface. So, it is suggested that the micropatterned SiO2/TiO2 surface can contribute more bio-compatible function of regulating and coordinating the behaviour of endothelial cells and platelets.

  10. Defect chemistry and defect engineering of TiO2-based semiconductors for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Janusz; Alim, Mohammad Abdul; Bak, Tadeusz; Idris, Mohammad Asri; Ionescu, Mihail; Prince, Kathryn; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Mat Teridi, Mohd Asri; Sigmund, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    This tutorial review considers defect chemistry of TiO2 and its solid solutions as well as defect-related properties associated with solar-to-chemical energy conversion, such as Fermi level, bandgap, charge transport and surface active sites. Defect disorder is discussed in terms of defect reactions and the related charge compensation. Defect equilibria are used in derivation of defect diagrams showing the effect of oxygen activity and temperature on the concentration of both ionic and electronic defects. These defect diagrams may be used for imposition of desired semiconducting properties that are needed to maximize the performance of TiO2-based photoelectrodes for the generation of solar hydrogen fuel using photo electrochemical cells (PECs) and photocatalysts for water purification. The performance of the TiO2-based semiconductors is considered in terms of the key performance-related properties (KPPs) that are defect related. It is shown that defect engineering may be applied for optimization of the KPPs in order to achieve optimum performance. PMID:26446476

  11. Graphene-embedded 3D TiO2 inverse opal electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells: morphological characteristics and photocurrent enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Na; Yoo, Haemin; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-05-21

    We demonstrated the preparation of graphene-embedded 3D inverse opal electrodes for use in DSSCs. The graphene was incorporated locally into the top layers of the inverse opal structures and was embedded into the TiO2 matrix via post-treatment of the TiO2 precursors. DSSCs comprising the bare and 1-5 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes were compared. We observed that the local arrangement of graphene sheets effectively enhanced electron transport without significantly reducing light harvesting by the dye molecules. A high efficiency of 7.5% was achieved in DSSCs prepared with the 3 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes, constituting a 50% increase over the efficiencies of DSSCs prepared without graphene. The increase in efficiency was mainly attributed to an increase in J(SC), as determined by the photovoltaic parameters and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. PMID:23536037

  12. Graphene-embedded 3D TiO2 inverse opal electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells: morphological characteristics and photocurrent enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye-Na; Yoo, Haemin; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrated the preparation of graphene-embedded 3D inverse opal electrodes for use in DSSCs. The graphene was incorporated locally into the top layers of the inverse opal structures and was embedded into the TiO2 matrix via post-treatment of the TiO2 precursors. DSSCs comprising the bare and 1-5 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes were compared. We observed that the local arrangement of graphene sheets effectively enhanced electron transport without significantly reducing light harvesting by the dye molecules. A high efficiency of 7.5% was achieved in DSSCs prepared with the 3 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes, constituting a 50% increase over the efficiencies of DSSCs prepared without graphene. The increase in efficiency was mainly attributed to an increase in JSC, as determined by the photovoltaic parameters and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis.We demonstrated the preparation of graphene-embedded 3D inverse opal electrodes for use in DSSCs. The graphene was incorporated locally into the top layers of the inverse opal structures and was embedded into the TiO2 matrix via post-treatment of the TiO2 precursors. DSSCs comprising the bare and 1-5 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes were compared. We observed that the local arrangement of graphene sheets effectively enhanced electron transport without significantly reducing light harvesting by the dye molecules. A high efficiency of 7.5% was achieved in DSSCs prepared with the 3 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes, constituting a 50% increase over the efficiencies of DSSCs prepared without graphene. The increase in efficiency was mainly attributed to an increase in JSC, as determined by the photovoltaic parameters and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33672g

  13. CuS/CdS Quantum Dot Composite Sensitizer and Its Applications to Various TiO2 Mesoporous Film-Based Solar Cell Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung; Ochirbat, Altantuya; Lee, Hyo Joong

    2015-07-14

    A nanoscale composite sensitizer composed of CuS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) was prepared by a simple but effective layer-by-layer reaction between a metal cation (Cu(2+) or Cd(2+)) and a sulfide anion (S(2-)). The as-prepared composite CuS/CdS QD sensitizer displayed an enhanced photon-to-current conversion over the sensitizing range of the visible spectrum compared to the counterpart of the pure CdS sensitizer. At the optimized ratio of the deposited amounts of CuS and CdS, the best CuS/CdS-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 cell with a polysulfide electrolyte showed an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.60% with a short circuit current (Jsc) of 11.77 mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.65 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.47. From the transmission electron microscopy images, the initially deposited CuS seemed to take a nucleation site to accumulate more CdS in the later deposition. The kinetic studies by impedance and Voc decay measurements also revealed that the CuS/CdS and CdS QD sensitizers made a similar interface between TiO2 and the electrolyte, but the former had a larger resistance of charge transfer with a longer lifetime of excitons after light absorption than the latter. To enhance the sensitizing power further, a multilayer QD sensitizer of CuS/CdS/CdSe was prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). This led to the best performance of 4.32% overall power conversion efficiency. Finally, a hybrid sensitizing system of inorganic QD (CuS/CdS) and organic dye (coded MK-2) was tested with a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox mediator. The CuS/CdS/MK-2 dye-sensitized cell showed over 3.0% efficiency under the standard illumination condition (1 sun). PMID:26086801

  14. The role of surface modification for TiO2 nanoparticles in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Pan, Xiaobo; Wang, Mengyan; Ma, Jiong; Fei, Yiyan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Mi, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have a potential in the field of biological application. However, its poor dispersibility in water hampered its applications. In this study, 3-phosphonopropionic acid and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane were respectively used for surface modification on TiO2 NPs with negative and positive surface charges (denoted as TiO2-COOH and TiO2-NH2). Zeta potentials of the prepared samples with high absolute value demonstrate the great improvement in their dispersibility. In terms of viability experiment, both TiO2-COOH and TiO2-NH2 showed low cytotoxicity. The cellular uptake efficiency and the uptake pathways of TiO2-COOH and TiO2-NH2 for cancer cells were studied. The exocytosis of TiO2-NH2 was also observed in the experiment. PMID:27003465

  15. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs.

  16. Free standing TiO2 nanotube array electrodes with an ultra-thin Al2O3 barrier layer and TiCl4 surface modification for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianfeng; Guan, Dongsheng; Huo, Jingwan; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2013-11-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications. PMID:24056866

  17. Synthesis of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by combining laser decomposition of titanium isopropoxide and ablation of Ag for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kamal, Ahmed Kamal

    Nanostructured powders of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 are synthesized by a novel pulsed-laser process that combines laser ablation of a silver (Ag) disc with laser decomposition of a titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) solution. Nanoparticles are formed by rapid condensation of vaporized species in the plasma plume generated by the high power laser, resulting in the formation of rapidly quenched Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles that have far-from-equilibrium or metastable structures. The uniqueness of the new ablation process is that it is a one-step process, in contrast to the two-step process developed by previous researchers in the field. Moreover, its ability to synthesize an extended-solid solution phase of Ag in TiO 2 may also be unique. The present work implies that other oxide phases, such as Al2O3, MgO and MgAl2O4, can be doped with normally insoluble metals, such as Pt and Ir, thus opening new opportunities for catalytic applications. Again, there is the prospect of being able to synthesize nanopowders of diamond, c-BN, and mixtures thereof, which are of interest for applications in machine tools, rock-drill bits, and lightweight armor. A wet-chemistry method is also investigated, which has much in common with that adopted by previous workers in the field. However, photo-voltaic properties do not measure up to expectations based on published data. A possible explanation is that the selected Ag concentrations are too high, so that recombination of holes and electrons occurs via a quantum-tunneling mechanism reduces photo-activity. Future work, therefore, will investigate lower concentrations of Ag dopant in TiO2, while also examining the effects of metastable states, including extended solid solution, amorphous, and semi-crystalline structures.

  18. Mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with new hole-transporting materials containing butadiene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lv, Songtao; Han, Liying; Xiao, Junyan; Zhu, Lifeng; Shi, Jiangjian; Wei, Huiyun; Xu, Yuzhuan; Dong, Juan; Xu, Xin; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Shirong; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo; Li, Xianggao

    2014-07-01

    Two new triphenylamine-based hole-transporting materials (HTMs) containing butadiene derivatives are employed in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Up to 11.63% of power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been achieved. Advantages such as easy synthesis, low cost and relatively good cell performance exhibit a possibility for commercial applications in the future. PMID:24841233

  19. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystallites on TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Novel Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cell Structure via the Successive-Ion-Layer-Adsorption-Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoran; Demopoulos, George P

    2015-10-21

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is an environmentally benign semiconductor with excellent optoelectronic properties that attracts a lot of interest in thin film photovoltaics. In departure from that conventional configuration, we fabricate and test a novel absorber-conductor structure featuring in situ successive-ion-layer-adsorption-reaction (SILAR)-deposited CZTS nanocrystallites as a light absorber on one-dimensional TiO2 (rutile) nanorods as an electron conductor. The effectiveness of the nanoscale heterostructure in visible light harvesting and photoelectron generation is demonstrated with an initial short circuit current density of 3.22 mA/cm(2) and an internal quantum efficiency of ∼60% at the blue light region, revealing great potential in developing CZTS extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells. PMID:26422062

  20. TiO2 Nanotubes with a ZnO Thin Energy Barrier for Improved Current Efficiency of CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Kang, S. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kolekar, G. B.; Sung, Y. E.; Han, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the formation of a thin ZnO energy barrier between a CdSe quantum dot (Q dots) sensitizer and TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TONTs) for improved current efficiency of Q dot-sensitized solar cells. The formation of a ZnO barrier between TONTs and the Q dot sensitizer increased the short-circuit current under illumination and also reduced the dark current in a dark environment. The power conversion efficiency of Q dot-sensitized TONT solar cells increased by 25.9% in the presence of the ZnO thin layer due to improved charge-collecting efficiency and reduced recombination.

  1. A maskless synthesis of TiO2-nanofiber-based hierarchical structures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Sabba, Dharani; Agarwala, Shweta; Pramana, Stevin S; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures with secondary growth have been successfully synthesized on electrospun nanofibers via surfactant-free hydrothermal route. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on the secondary nanostructures has been studied. The synthesized nanostructures comprise electrospun nanofibers which are polycrystalline with anatase phase and have single crystalline, rutile TiO2 nanorod-like structures growing on them. These secondary nanostructures have a preferential growth direction [110]. UV-vis spectroscopy measurements point to better dye loading capability and incident photon to current conversion efficiency spectra show enhanced light harvesting of the synthesized hierarchical structures. Concomitantly, the dye molecules act as spacers between the conduction band electrons of TiO2 and holes in the hole transporting medium, i.e., spiro-OMeTAD and thus enhance open circuit voltage. The charge transport and recombination effects are characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. As a result of improved light harvesting, dye loading, and reduced recombination losses, the hierarchical nanofibers yield 2.14% electrochemical conversion efficiency which is 50% higher than the efficiency obtained by plain nanofibers. PMID:24410851

  2. A maskless synthesis of TiO2-nanofiber-based hierarchical structures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures with secondary growth have been successfully synthesized on electrospun nanofibers via surfactant-free hydrothermal route. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on the secondary nanostructures has been studied. The synthesized nanostructures comprise electrospun nanofibers which are polycrystalline with anatase phase and have single crystalline, rutile TiO2 nanorod-like structures growing on them. These secondary nanostructures have a preferential growth direction [110]. UV–vis spectroscopy measurements point to better dye loading capability and incident photon to current conversion efficiency spectra show enhanced light harvesting of the synthesized hierarchical structures. Concomitantly, the dye molecules act as spacers between the conduction band electrons of TiO2 and holes in the hole transporting medium, i.e., spiro-OMeTAD and thus enhance open circuit voltage. The charge transport and recombination effects are characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. As a result of improved light harvesting, dye loading, and reduced recombination losses, the hierarchical nanofibers yield 2.14% electrochemical conversion efficiency which is 50% higher than the efficiency obtained by plain nanofibers. PMID:24410851

  3. DNA mediated wire-like clusters of self-assembled TiO2 nanomaterials: supercapacitor and dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithiyanantham, U.; Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Ede, Sivasankara Rao; Kundu, Subrata

    2014-06-01

    A new route for the formation of wire-like clusters of TiO2 nanomaterials self-assembled in DNA scaffold within an hour of reaction time is reported. TiO2 nanomaterials are synthesized by the reaction of titanium-isopropoxide with ethanol and water in the presence of DNA under continuous stirring and heating at 60 °C. The individual size of the TiO2 NPs self-assembled in DNA and the diameter of the wires can be tuned by controlling the DNA to Ti-salt molar ratios and other reaction parameters. The eventual diameter of the individual particles varies between 15 +/- 5 nm ranges, whereas the length of the nanowires varies in the 2-3 μm range. The synthesized wire-like DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials are excellent materials for electrochemical supercapacitor and DSSC applications. From the electrochemical supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the TiO2 nanomaterials showed different specific capacitance (Cs) values for the various nanowires, and the order of Cs values are as follows: wire-like clusters (small size) > wire-like clusters (large size). The highest Cs of 2.69 F g-1 was observed for TiO2 having wire-like structure with small sizes. The study of the long term cycling stability of wire-like clusters (small size) electrode were shown to be stable, retaining ca. 80% of the initial specific capacitance, even after 5000 cycles. The potentiality of the DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials was also tested in photo-voltaic applications and the observed efficiency was found higher in the case of wire-like TiO2 nanostructures with larger sizes compared to smaller sizes. In future, the described method can be extended for the synthesis of other oxide based materials on DNA scaffold and can be further used in other applications like sensors, Li-ion battery materials or treatment for environmental waste water.A new route for the formation of wire-like clusters of TiO2 nanomaterials self-assembled in DNA scaffold within an hour of reaction time is reported. TiO2 nanomaterials are synthesized by the reaction of titanium-isopropoxide with ethanol and water in the presence of DNA under continuous stirring and heating at 60 °C. The individual size of the TiO2 NPs self-assembled in DNA and the diameter of the wires can be tuned by controlling the DNA to Ti-salt molar ratios and other reaction parameters. The eventual diameter of the individual particles varies between 15 +/- 5 nm ranges, whereas the length of the nanowires varies in the 2-3 μm range. The synthesized wire-like DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials are excellent materials for electrochemical supercapacitor and DSSC applications. From the electrochemical supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the TiO2 nanomaterials showed different specific capacitance (Cs) values for the various nanowires, and the order of Cs values are as follows: wire-like clusters (small size) > wire-like clusters (large size). The highest Cs of 2.69 F g-1 was observed for TiO2 having wire-like structure with small sizes. The study of the long term cycling stability of wire-like clusters (small size) electrode were shown to be stable, retaining ca. 80% of the initial specific capacitance, even after 5000 cycles. The potentiality of the DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials was also tested in photo-voltaic applications and the observed efficiency was found higher in the case of wire-like TiO2 nanostructures with larger sizes compared to smaller sizes. In future, the described method can be extended for the synthesis of other oxide based materials on DNA scaffold and can be further used in other applications like sensors, Li-ion battery materials or treatment for environmental waste water. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The details about the instrument used for various characterizations and figures related to FE-SEM analysis, EDS analysis, photoluminescence (PL) and LASER Raman study are provided. Table related to FT-IR analysis is also provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01836b

  4. Photo-electrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline meso-porous n-type TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using simple synthesized azo dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezema, C. G.; Nwanya, A. C.; Ezema, B. E.; Patil, B. H.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Ukoha, P. O.; Lokhande, C. D.; Maaza, Malik; Ezema, Fabian I.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate at room temperature (300 K). Titanium trichloride and sodium hydroxide were used as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, electrical and wettability properties. The photoelectrochemical study of TiO2 sensitized with a laboratory synthesized organic dye (azo) was evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte at 40 mW cm-2 light illumination intensity. The photovoltaic characteristics show a fill factor of 0.24 and solar conversion efficiency value of 0.032 % for a TiO2 thickness of 0.96 µm as compared to efficiency of 0.014 % for rose Bengal of the same thickness.

  5. Polyoxometalate-anatase TiO2 composites are introduced into the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells to retard the recombination and increase the electron lifetime.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Lin; Chen, Wei-Lin; Wang, En-Bo; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-02-28

    Polyoxometalate-TiO(2) composites have been successfully introduced into the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells to reduce the recombination of the electrons, which results in a longer electron lifetime. The performance of the cells with the polyoxometalate-modified photoanode is better than the cell with a pure P25 photoanode. The effect of the polyoxometalate was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurement. The results show that the electron lifetime becomes longer following an increase in the amount of the polyoxometalate. PMID:23314419

  6. Decoupling optical and electronic optimization of organic solar cells using high-performance temperature-stable TiO2/Ag/TiO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Dae; Pfadler, Thomas; Zimmermann, Eugen; Feng, Yuyi; Dorman, James A.; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2015-10-01

    An electrode structured with a TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT) multilayer as indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement with a superior thermal stability has been successfully fabricated. This electrode allows to directly tune the optical cavity mode towards maximized photocurrent generation by varying the thickness of the layers in the sandwich structure. This enables tailored optimization of the transparent electrode for different organic thin film photovoltaics without alteration of their electro-optical properties. Organic photovoltaic featuring our TAT multilayer shows an improvement of ˜12% over the ITO reference and allows power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 8.7% in PTB7:PC71BM devices.

  7. Surface Roughness Characterization of ZnO: TiO2-Organic Blended Solar Cells Layers by Atomic Force Microscopy and Fractal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Ikram, Muhammad; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to quantitatively characterize the 3D complexity of ZnO:TiO2-organic blended solar cells layers by atomic force microscopy and fractal analysis. ZnO:TiO2-organic blended solar cells layers were investigated by AFM in tapping-mode in air, on square areas of 25 μm2. A detailed methodology for ZnO:TiO2-organic blended solar cells layers surface fractal characterization, which may be applied for AFM data, is presented. Detailed surface characterization of the surface topography was obtained using statistical parameters, according with ISO 25178-2: 2012. The fractal dimensions Df values (all with average ± standard deviation), obtained with morphological envelopes method, for: blend D1 (P3HT:PCBM:ZnO:TiO2 blend with ratio 1:0.35:0.175:0.175 mg in 1 ml of Chlorobenzene) is Df = 2.55 ± 0.01; and for blend D2 (P3HT:PCBM:ZnO:TiO2 blend with ratio 1:0.55:0.075:0.075 mg in 1 ml of Chlorobenzene) is Df = 2.45 ± 0.01. Denoting the ratios in 1 ml of Chlorobenzene with D1 and D2 articles. The 3D surface roughness of samples revealed a fractal structure at nanometer scale. Fractal and AFM analysis may assist manufacturers in developing ZnO:TiO2-organic blended solar cells layers with better surface characteristics and provides different yet complementary information to that offered by traditional surface statistical parameters.

  8. Polymer-Based Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Chromophores on TiO2 for Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Leem, Gyu; Morseth, Zachary A; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Jiang, Junlin; Brennaman, M Kyle; Papanikolas, John M; Schanze, Kirk S

    2016-04-20

    A polychromophoric light-harvesting assembly featuring a polystyrene (PS) backbone with ionic carboxylate-functionalized Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes as pendant groups (PS-Ru-A) was synthesized and successfully anchored onto mesoporous structured TiO2 films (TiO2 //PS-Ru-A). Studies of the resulting TiO2 //PS-Ru-A films carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that the ionic carboxylated Ru(II) complexes from PS-Ru-A led to the surface immobilization on the TiO2 film. Monochromatic light photocurrent spectroscopy (IPCE) and white light (AM1.5G) current-voltage studies of dye-sensitized solar cells using the TiO2 //PS-Ru-A photoanode give rise to modest photocurrent and white light efficiency (24 % peak IPCE and 0.33 % PCE, respectively). The photostability of surface-bound TiO2 //PS-Ru-A films was tested and compared to a monomeric Ru(II) complex (TiO2 //Ru-A), showing an enhancement of ∼14 % in the photostability of PS-Ru-A. Transient absorption measurements reveal that electron injection from surface-bound pendants occurs on the picosecond time scale, similar to TiO2 //Ru-A, while time-resolved emission measurements reveal delayed electron injection occurring in TiO2 //PS-Ru-A on the nanosecond time scale, underscoring energy transport from unbound to surface-bound complexes. Additionally, charge recombination is delayed in PS-Ru-A, pointing towards intra-assembly hole transport to complexes away from the surface. Molecular dynamics simulations of PS-Ru-A in fluid solution indicate that a majority of the pendant Ru(II) complexes lie within 10-20 Å of each other, facilitating efficient energy- and charge transport among the pendant complexes. PMID:26854269

  9. One-step synthesis of vertically aligned anatase thornbush-like TiO2 nanowire arrays on transparent conducting oxides for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dong Kyu; Chi, Won Seok; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2013-08-01

    Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-density anatase-phase vertically aligned thornbush-like TiO2 nanowires (TBWs) on transparent conducting oxide glasses. Morphologically controllable TBW arrays of 9 μm in length are generated through a one-step hydrothermal reaction at 200 °C over 11 h using potassium titanium oxide oxalate dehydrate, diethylene glycol (DEG), and water. The TBWs consist of a large number of nanoplates or nanorods, as confirmed by SEM and TEM imaging. The morphologies of TBWs are controllable by adjusting DEG/water ratios. TBW diameters gradually decrease from 600 (TBW600) to 400 (TBW400) to 200 nm (TBW200) and morphologies change from nanoplates to nanorods with an increase in DEG content. TBWs are utilized as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) and solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs). The energy-conversion efficiency of qssDSSCs is in the order: TBW200 (5.2%)>TBW400 (4.5%)>TBW600 (3.4%). These results can be attributed to the different surface areas, light-scattering effects, and charge transport rates, as confirmed by dye-loading measurements, reflectance spectroscopy, and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy analyses. TBW200 is further treated with a graft-copolymer-directed organized mesoporous TiO2 to increase the surface area and interconnectivity of TBWs. As a result, the energy-conversion efficiency of the ssDSSC increases to 6.7% at 100 mW cm(-2) , which is among the highest values for N719-dye-based ssDSSCs. PMID:23893968

  10. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs. PMID:26758941

  11. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs. PMID:26758941

  12. Stoichiometry gradient, cation interdiffusion, and band alignment between a nanosized TiO2 blocking layer and a transparent conductive oxide in dye-sensitized solar cell front contacts.

    PubMed

    Salvinelli, Gabriele; Drera, Giovanni; Baratto, Camilla; Braga, Antonio; Sangaletti, Luigi

    2015-01-14

    An angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study allowed us to identify cation interdiffusion and stoichiometry gradients at the interface between a nanosized TiO2 blocking layer and a transparent conductive Cd-Sn oxide substrate. A stoichiometry gradient for the Sn cations is already found in the bare Cd-Sn oxide layer. When TiO2 ultrathin layers are deposited by RF sputtering on the Cd-Sn oxide layer, Ti is found to partially replace Sn, resulting in a Cd-Sn-Ti mixed oxide layer with a thickness ranging from 0.85 to 3.3 nm. The band gap profile across the junction has been reconstructed for three TiO2 layers, resulting in a valence band offset decrease (and a conduction band offset increase) with the blocking layer thickness. The results are related to the cell efficiencies in terms of charge injection and recombination processes. PMID:25469853

  13. An ultrathin TiO2 blocking layer on Cd stannate as highly efficient front contact for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Braga, Antonio; Baratto, Camilla; Colombi, Paolo; Bontempi, Elza; Salvinelli, Gabriele; Drera, Giovanni; Sangaletti, Luigi

    2013-10-21

    An engineered multilayer structure of platinum-cadmium stannate-titanium oxide (Pt-CTO-TO), with different TO layer thickness (in the range 1-5 nm), has been grown at 400 °C on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, following a 2-step procedure without breaking vacuum. To produce an alternative and reliable front contact for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), morphology and composition of a TO blocking layer have been studied, paying particular attention to the oxide-oxide (CTO-TO) interface characteristics. The influence of the metallic mesh on the transparent conductive oxide sheet resistance has also been considered. A sputtered CTO layer shows a high average transmittance, over 90%. The Pt mesh yields a drastic reduction in the series resistance, almost one order, without affecting the optical properties. The ultrathin blocking layer of Ti oxide prevents charge recombination, improving the overall performance of the solar cells: +86% in efficiency, +50% in short circuit current, with respect to bare CTO. PMID:24000007

  14. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. PMID:25497036

  15. Near-uv photon efficiency in a TiO2 electrode - Application to hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desplat, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    An n-type (001) TiO2 electrode irradiated at 365 nm was tested under anodic polarization. A saturation current independent of pH and proportional to light intensity has been observed. Accurate measurements of the incident power lead to a 60 per cent photon efficiency. A photoelectrochemical cell built with such an electrode, operated under solar irradiation without concentration, produced an electrolysis current of 0.7 mA/sq cm without applied voltage.

  16. Vertical TiO2 Nanorods as a Medium for Stable and High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Modules.

    PubMed

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Palma, Alessandro L; Matteocci, Fabio; Ahmed, Irfan; Razza, Stefano; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Licoccia, Silvia; Ismail, Jamil; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M; Jose, Rajan

    2015-08-25

    Perovskite solar cells employing CH3NH3PbI3-xClx active layers show power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 20% in single cells and 13% in large area modules. However, their operational stability has often been limited due to degradation of the CH3NH3PbI3-xClx active layer. Here, we report a perovskite solar module (PSM, best and av. PCE 10.5 and 8.1%), employing solution-grown TiO2 nanorods (NRs) as the electron transport layer, which showed an increase in performance (∼5%) even after shelf-life investigation for 2500 h. A crucial issue on the module fabrication was the patterning of the TiO2 NRs, which was solved by interfacial engineering during the growth process and using an optimized laser pulse for patterning. A shelf-life comparison with PSMs built on TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, best and av. PCE 7.9 and 5.5%) of similar thickness and on a compact TiO2 layer (CL, best and av. PCE 5.8 and 4.9%) shows, in contrast to that observed for NR PSMs, that PCE in NPs and CL PSMs dropped by ∼50 and ∼90%, respectively. This is due to the fact that the CH3NH3PbI3-xClx active layer shows superior phase stability when incorporated in devices with TiO2 NR scaffolds. PMID:26208221

  17. Array of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with micropatterned TiO2 nanoparticles for a high-voltage power source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an array of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) for a high-voltage power source based on micropatterned titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) as photoanodes connected in series. The underlying concept of patterning the TNP of a few micrometers thick lies on the combination of the lift-off process of transfer-printed patterns of a sacrificial layer and the soft-cure treatment of the TNP for fixation. This sacrificial layer approach allows for high pattern fidelity and stability, and it enables to construct stable, micrometer-thick, and contamination-free TNP patterns for developing the SS-DSSC array for miniature high-voltage applications. The array of 20 SS-DSSCs integrated in series is found to show a voltage output of around 7 V. PMID:24256849

  18. Array of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with micropatterned TiO2 nanoparticles for a high-voltage power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seong-Min; Park, Hea-Lim; Kim, Min-Hoi; Kim, Se-Um; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate an array of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) for a high-voltage power source based on micropatterned titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) as photoanodes connected in series. The underlying concept of patterning the TNP of a few micrometers thick lies on the combination of the lift-off process of transfer-printed patterns of a sacrificial layer and the soft-cure treatment of the TNP for fixation. This sacrificial layer approach allows for high pattern fidelity and stability, and it enables to construct stable, micrometer-thick, and contamination-free TNP patterns for developing the SS-DSSC array for miniature high-voltage applications. The array of 20 SS-DSSCs integrated in series is found to show a voltage output of around 7 V.

  19. Array of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with micropatterned TiO2 nanoparticles for a high-voltage power source.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong-Min; Park, Hea-Lim; Kim, Min-Hoi; Kim, Se-Um; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an array of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) for a high-voltage power source based on micropatterned titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) as photoanodes connected in series. The underlying concept of patterning the TNP of a few micrometers thick lies on the combination of the lift-off process of transfer-printed patterns of a sacrificial layer and the soft-cure treatment of the TNP for fixation. This sacrificial layer approach allows for high pattern fidelity and stability, and it enables to construct stable, micrometer-thick, and contamination-free TNP patterns for developing the SS-DSSC array for miniature high-voltage applications. The array of 20 SS-DSSCs integrated in series is found to show a voltage output of around 7 V. PMID:24256849

  20. WO3/TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the nanotubes. SEM images show that these materials have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes, and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work indicate that the unique structure and composition of these composite materials enhance the charge carrier transport and optical properties compared with the parent materials.

  1. Growth of aligned single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Akshay; Madaria, Anuj R.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-06

    TiO{sub 2} is a wide band gap semiconductor with important applications in photovoltaic cells and photocatalysis. In this paper, we report synthesis of single-crystalline rutile phase TiO{sub 2} nanowires on arbitrary substrates, including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass slides, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), Si/SiO{sub 2}, Si(100), Si(111), and glass rods. By controlling the growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor concentrations, and so forth, we demonstrate that anisotropic growth of TiO{sub 2} is possible leading to various morphologies of nanowires. Optimization of the growth recipe leads to well-aligned vertical array of TiO{sub 2} nanowires on both FTO and glass substrates. Effects of various titanium precursors on the growth kinetics, especially on the growth rate of nanowires, are also studied. Finally, application of vertical array of TiO{sub 2} nanowires on FTO as the photoanode is demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cell with an efficiency of 2.9 ± 0.2%.

  2. Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone on anatase TiO2 and niobium doped TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Andreas; Leideborg, Michael; Larsson, Karin; Westin, Gunnar; Osterlund, Lars

    2006-01-26

    Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone was studied on nanostructured anatase TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 films made by sol-gel methods (10 and 20 mol % NbO2.5). A detailed characterization of the film materials show that films contain only nanoparticles with the anatase modification with pentavalent Nb oxide dissolved into the anatase structure, which is interpreted as formation of substituted Nb=O clusters in the anatase lattice. The Nb-doped films displayed a slight yellow color and an enhanced the visible light absorption with a red-shift of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for the pure TiO2 film to 411 nm for 20 mol % NbO2.5. In-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy shows that acetone adsorbs associatively with eta1-coordination to the surface cations on all films. On Nb-doped TiO2 films, the carbonyl bonding to the surface is stabilized, which is evidenced by a lowering of the nu(C=O) frequency by about 20 cm(-1) to 1672 cm(-1). Upon solar light illumination acetone is readily decomposed on TiO2, and stable surface coordinated intermediates are formed. The decomposition rate is an order of magnitude smaller on the Nb-doped films despite an enhanced visible light absorption in these materials. The quantum yield is determined to be 0.053, 0.004 and 0.002 for the pure, 10% Nb:TiO2, and 20%Nb:TiO2, respectively. Using an interplay between FTIR and DFT calculations we show that the key surface intermediates are bidentate bridged formate and carbonate, and H-bonded bicarbonate, respectively, whose concentration on the surface can be correlated with their heats of formation and bond strength to coordinatively unsaturated surface Ti and Nb atoms at the surface. The oxidation rate of these intermediates is substantially slower than the initial acetone decomposition rate, and limits the total oxidation rate at t>7 min on TiO2, while no decrease of the rate is observed on the Nb-doped films. The rate of degradation of key surface intermediates is different on pure TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2, but cannot explain the overall lower total oxidation rate for the Nb-doped films. Instead the inferior photocatalytic activity in Nb-doped TiO2 is attributed to an enhanced electron-hole pair recombination rate due to Nb=O cluster and cation vacancy formation. PMID:16471666

  3. Size-tunable TiO2 nanorod microspheres synthesised via a one-pot solvothermal method and used as the scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yichuan; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2013-11-01

    TiO2 microspheres assembled by single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment at 180 °C based on an aqueous-organic mixture solution containing n-hexane, distilled water, titanium n-butoxide and hydrochloric acid. The spheres had a radiative structure from the center, and their diameters were controlled in the range from 1 to 5 μm by adjusting the volume of the reactant water. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that all the as-prepared microspheres had relatively high specific surface areas of about 50 m2 g-1. The 1 μm sized TiO2 nanorod microspheres were fabricated as a scattering overlayer in DSSCs, leading to a remarkable improvement in the power conversion efficiency: 8.22% of the bi-layer DSSCs versus 7.00% for the reference cell made of a single-layer film prepared from nanocrystalline TiO2. Such improvement was mainly attributed to the enhanced light harvesting and dye loading brought by the effective scattering centers.TiO2 microspheres assembled by single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment at 180 °C based on an aqueous-organic mixture solution containing n-hexane, distilled water, titanium n-butoxide and hydrochloric acid. The spheres had a radiative structure from the center, and their diameters were controlled in the range from 1 to 5 μm by adjusting the volume of the reactant water. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that all the as-prepared microspheres had relatively high specific surface areas of about 50 m2 g-1. The 1 μm sized TiO2 nanorod microspheres were fabricated as a scattering overlayer in DSSCs, leading to a remarkable improvement in the power conversion efficiency: 8.22% of the bi-layer DSSCs versus 7.00% for the reference cell made of a single-layer film prepared from nanocrystalline TiO2. Such improvement was mainly attributed to the enhanced light harvesting and dye loading brought by the effective scattering centers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04462a

  4. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-01-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network. PMID:25030846

  5. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-01-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network. PMID:25030846

  6. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-07-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network.

  7. Homogeneous Photosensitization of Complex TiO2 Nanostructures for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jingshan; Karuturi, Siva Krishna; Liu, Lijun; Su, Liap Tat; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 nanostructures-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells are under worldwide attentions as the method to generate clean energy. For these devices, narrow-bandgap semiconductor photosensitizers such as CdS and CdSe are commonly used to couple with TiO2 in order to harvest the visible sunlight and to enhance the conversion efficiency. Conventional methods for depositing the photosensitizers on TiO2 such as dip coating, electrochemical deposition and chemical-vapor-deposition suffer from poor control in thickness and uniformity, and correspond to low photocurrent levels. Here we demonstrate a new method based on atomic layer deposition and ion exchange reaction (ALDIER) to achieve a highly controllable and homogeneous coating of sensitizer particles on arbitrary TiO2 substrates. PEC tests made to CdSe-sensitized TiO2 inverse opal photoanodes result in a drastically improved photocurrent level, up to ~15.7 mA/cm2 at zero bias (vs Ag/AgCl), more than double that by conventional techniques such as successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. PMID:22693653

  8. A facile method to prepare SnO2 nanotubes for use in efficient SnO2-TiO2 core-shell dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Caitian; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Bingan; Chen, Lulu; Wang, Youqing; Teng, Feng; Wang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2012-05-01

    A high-efficiency photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should combine the advantageous features of fast electron transport, slow interfacial electron recombination and large specific surface area. However, these three requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. Here we report a simple procedure to combine the three conflicting requirements by using porous SnO2 nanotube-TiO2 (SnO2 NT-TiO2) core-shell structured photoanodes for DSSCs. The SnO2 nanotubes are prepared by electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/tin dichloride dihydrate (SnCl2.2H2O) solution followed by direct sintering of the as-spun nanofibers. A possible evolution mechanism is proposed. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of the SnO2 NT-TiO2 core-shell structured DSSCs (~5.11%) is above five times higher than that of SnO2 nanotube (SnO2 NT) DSSCs (~0.99%). This PCE value is also higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) DSSCs (~4.82%), even though the amount of dye molecules adsorbed to the SnO2 NT-TiO2 photoanode is less than half of that in the P25 film. This simple procedure provides a new approach to achieve the three conflicting requirements simultaneously, which has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to obtain high-efficiency DSSCs.A high-efficiency photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should combine the advantageous features of fast electron transport, slow interfacial electron recombination and large specific surface area. However, these three requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. Here we report a simple procedure to combine the three conflicting requirements by using porous SnO2 nanotube-TiO2 (SnO2 NT-TiO2) core-shell structured photoanodes for DSSCs. The SnO2 nanotubes are prepared by electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/tin dichloride dihydrate (SnCl2.2H2O) solution followed by direct sintering of the as-spun nanofibers. A possible evolution mechanism is proposed. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of the SnO2 NT-TiO2 core-shell structured DSSCs (~5.11%) is above five times higher than that of SnO2 nanotube (SnO2 NT) DSSCs (~0.99%). This PCE value is also higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) DSSCs (~4.82%), even though the amount of dye molecules adsorbed to the SnO2 NT-TiO2 photoanode is less than half of that in the P25 film. This simple procedure provides a new approach to achieve the three conflicting requirements simultaneously, which has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to obtain high-efficiency DSSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30349c

  9. UV and solar TiO(2) photocatalysis of brevetoxins (PbTxs).

    PubMed

    Khan, Urooj; Benabderrazik, Nadia; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Rein, Kathleen; Gardinali, Piero R; Arroyo, Luis; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2010-05-01

    Karenia brevis, the harmful alga associated with red tide, produces brevetoxins (PbTxs). Exposure to these toxins can have a negative impact on marine wildlife and serious human health consequences. The elimination of PbTxs is critical to protect the marine environment and human health. TiO(2) photocatalysis under 350 nm and solar irradiation leads to significant degradation of PbTxs via first order kinetics. ELISA results demonstrate TiO(2) photocatalysis leads to a significant decrease in the bioactivity of PbTxs as a function of treatment time. Experiments conducted in the presence of synthetic seawater, humic material and a hydroxyl scavenger showed decreased degradation. PbTxs are highly hydrophobic and partition to organic microlayer on the ocean surface. Acetonitrile was employed to probe the influence of an organic media on the TiO(2) photocatalysis of PbTxs. Our results indicate TiO(2) photocatalysis may be applicable for the degradation of PbTxs. PMID:19931554

  10. UV and Solar TiO2 Photocatalysis of Brevetoxins (PbTxs)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Urooj; Benabderrazik, Nadia; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Rein, Kathleen; Gardinali, Piero R.; Arroyo, Luis; O’Shea, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    Karenia brevis, the harmful alga associated with red tide, produces brevetoxins (PbTxs). Exposure to these toxins can have a negative impact on marine wildlife and serious human health consequences. The elimination of PbTxs is critical to protect the marine environment and human health. TiO2 photocatalysis under 350 nm and solar irradiation leads to significant degradation of PbTxs via first order kinetics. ELISA results demonstrate TiO2 photocatalysis leads to a significant decrease in the bioactivity of PbTxs as a function of treatment time. Experiments conducted in the presence of synthetic seawater, humic material and a hydroxyl scavenger showed decreased degradation. PbTxs are highly hydrophobic and partition to organic microlayer on the ocean surface. Acetonitrile was employed to probe the influence of an organic media on the TiO2 photocatalysis of PbTxs. Our results indicate TiO2 photocatalysis may be applicable for the degradation of PbTxs. PMID:19931554

  11. Increased biodegradability of Ultracid in aqueous solutions with solar TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    García-Ripoll, A; Amat, A M; Arques, A; Vicente, R; López, M F; Oller, I; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W

    2007-06-01

    A study of solar TiO(2) photocatalytic degradation of the insecticide Ultracidtrade mark, a commercial formulation containing methidathion as the active ingredient, is described. Total elimination of methidathion can be achieved in less than 2h of irradiation, although longer solar exposures are needed for complete mineralisation of the solution (7-8h). Activated sludge respirometry shows that when methidathion is eliminated, the solution is detoxified, so further irradiation does not seem necessary. A Zahn-Wellens test also indicates improved biodegradability of the treated sample after abatement of the active ingredient. Finally, analysis of the ions formed indicates that the thiophosphate moiety of the molecule is preferentially attacked in the early stages of the reaction, while the thiadiazole ring is more sluggish to the effect of TiO(2)-photocatalysis. PMID:17307222

  12. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by TiO2(R), TiO2(R/A) and TiO2(A) under ultrasonic and solar light irradiation and application in degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuwei; Cheng, Chunping; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiu; Jin, Xudong; Li, Kai; Kang, Pingli; Gao, Jingqun

    2011-08-30

    In the present work, the rutile, anatase and mixed (rutile and anatase) crystal phase TiO(2) powders were irradiated by ultrasound and solar light, respectively, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected through the oxidation reaction from 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). The DPCO can be extracted by the mixed solvent of benzene and carbon tetrachloride and the extract liquors display an obvious absorption peak around 563nm. In addition, the influences of (ultrasonic or solar light) irradiation time, TiO(2) addition amount and DPCI concentration on the quantities of generated ROS were also reviewed. The kinds of generated ROS were determined by using several radical scavengers. At last, the researches on the sonocatalytic and photocatalytic degradation of several organic dyes were also performed. It is wished that this paper might offer some important subjects for broadening the applications of sonocatalytic and photocatalytic technologies. PMID:21700389

  13. Solar-light photocatalytic disinfection using crystalline/amorphous low energy bandgap reduced TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmin; Hwang, Hee Min; Wang, Luyang; Kim, Ikjoon; Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-01-01

    A generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from TiO2 under solar light has been long sought since the ROS can disinfect organic pollutants. We found that newly developed crystalline/amorphous reduced TiO2 (rTiO2) that has low energy bandgap can effectively generate ROS under solar light and successfully remove a bloom of algae. The preparation of rTiO2 is a one-pot and mass productive solution-process reduction using lithium-ethylene diamine (Li-EDA) at room temperature. Interestingly only the rutile phase of TiO2 crystal was reduced, while the anatase phase even in case of both anatase/rutile phased TiO2 was not reduced. Only reduced TiO2 materials can generate ROS under solar light, which was confirmed by electron spin resonance. Among the three different types of Li-EDA treated TiO2 (anatase, rutile and both phased TiO2), the both phased rTiO2 showed the best performance to produce ROS. The generated ROS effectively removed the common green algae Chlamydomonas. This is the first report on algae degradation under solar light, proving the feasibility of commercially available products for disinfection. PMID:27121120

  14. Solar-light photocatalytic disinfection using crystalline/amorphous low energy bandgap reduced TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Hwang, Hee Min; Wang, Luyang; Kim, Ikjoon; Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-01-01

    A generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from TiO2 under solar light has been long sought since the ROS can disinfect organic pollutants. We found that newly developed crystalline/amorphous reduced TiO2 (rTiO2) that has low energy bandgap can effectively generate ROS under solar light and successfully remove a bloom of algae. The preparation of rTiO2 is a one-pot and mass productive solution-process reduction using lithium-ethylene diamine (Li-EDA) at room temperature. Interestingly only the rutile phase of TiO2 crystal was reduced, while the anatase phase even in case of both anatase/rutile phased TiO2 was not reduced. Only reduced TiO2 materials can generate ROS under solar light, which was confirmed by electron spin resonance. Among the three different types of Li-EDA treated TiO2 (anatase, rutile and both phased TiO2), the both phased rTiO2 showed the best performance to produce ROS. The generated ROS effectively removed the common green algae Chlamydomonas. This is the first report on algae degradation under solar light, proving the feasibility of commercially available products for disinfection. PMID:27121120

  15. Microglial cells (BV-2) internalize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: toxicity and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Rihane, Naima; Nury, Thomas; M'rad, Imen; El Mir, Lassaad; Sakly, Mohsen; Amara, Salem; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Because of their whitening and photocatalytic effects, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are widely used in daily life. These NPs can be found in paints, plastics, papers, sunscreens, foods, medicines (pills), toothpastes, and cosmetics. However, the biological effect of TiO2-NPs on the human body, especially on the central nervous system, is still unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the brain is one of the target organs in acute or chronic TiO2-NPs toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TiO2-NPs at different concentrations (0.1 to 200 μg/mL) on murine microglial cells (BV-2) to assess their activity on cell growth and viability, as well as their neurotoxicity. Different parameters were measured: cell viability, cell proliferation and DNA content (SubG1 peak), mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (especially superoxide anions), and ultrastructural changes. Results showed that TiO2-NPs induced some cytotoxic effects with a slight inhibition of cell growth. Thus, at high concentrations, TiO2-NPs were not only able to inhibit cell adhesion but also enhanced cytoplasmic membrane permeability to propidium iodide associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and an overproduction of superoxide anions. No induction of apoptosis based on the presence of a SubG1 peak was detected. The microscopic observations also indicated that small groups of nanosized particles and micron-sized aggregates were engulfed by the BV-2 cells and sequestered as intracytoplasmic aggregates after 24-h exposure to TiO2-NPs. Altogether, our data show that the accumulation TiO2-NPs in microglial BV-2 cells favors mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress. PMID:26846246

  16. TiO2 nanorod arrays functionalized with In2S3 shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Qiu, Jijun; Zhuge, Fuwei

    2011-07-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO2-In2S3 core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In2S3 shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In2S3 nanoshells on the surface of TiO2 nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In2S3 shell and TiO2 core. Results show that the thickness of In2S3 shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO2-In2S3 core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (Isc) of 2.40 mA cm - 2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency (η) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In2S3 coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO2-In2S3 core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells.

  17. TiO2 nanorod arrays functionalized with In2S3 shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Qiu, Jijun; Zhuge, Fuwei

    2011-07-29

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO(2)-In(2)S(3) core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO(2) nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In(2)S(3) shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In(2)S(3) nanoshells on the surface of TiO(2) nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In(2)S(3) shell and TiO(2) core. Results show that the thickness of In(2)S(3) shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO(2)-In(2)S(3) core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (I(sc)) of 2.40 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency (η) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In(2)S(3) coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO(2)-In(2)S(3) core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells. PMID:21697580

  18. Exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles increases Staphylococcusaureusinfection of HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Walker, Stephen. G.; Wang, Hong Zhan; Gondon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Guterman, Shoshana; Zawacki, Emma; Applebaum, Eliana; Rafailovich, Miriam; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel; Mironava, Tatsiana

    TiO2 is one of the most common nanoparticles in industry from food additives to energy generation. Even though TiO2 is also used as an anti-bacterial agent in combination with UV, we found that, in the absence of UV, exposure of HeLa cells to TiO2 nanoparticles largely increased their risk of bacterial invasion. HeLa cells cultured with low dosage rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0.1 mg/ml) for 24 hrs prior to exposure to bacteria had 350% and 250% respectively more bacteria infected per cell. The increase was attributed to increased LDH leakage, and changes in the mechanical response of the cell membrane. On the other hand, macrophages exposed to TiO2 particles ingested 40% fewer bacteria, further increasing the risk of infection. In combination, these two factors raise serious concerns regarding the impact of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on the ability of organisms to resist bacterial infection.

  19. Treatment of wastewater containing Cu(II)-EDTA using immobilized TiO2/solar light.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Lee, Nae-Hyun; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2007-02-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of Cu(II)-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), employing immobilized TiO2, under natural sunlight rather than artificial UV light conditions, was investigated at a latitude 38 degrees. The immobilized TiO2 film was prepared using a sol gel process, the crystalline structure of which was identified, by X-ray diffraction analysis, as a mixture of the rutile and anatase forms. The PCO of Cu(II)-EDTA was examined in a circulating reactor with 20 L of 10(-4) M Cu(II)-EDTA and synthetic and real wastewaters at pH 4 and 6.5, respectively. The removals of both Cu(II) and DOC were initially relatively rapid, but slowed as the reaction proceeded and generally followed first-order kinetics. The rate constants for the removal of Cu(II) and DOC were 1.1 x 10(-3) and 1.6 x 10(-3) min-1, respectively. The efficiency of the PCO in the decomplexation of Cu(II)-EDTA increased with increasing H2O2 dose using both the synthetic and real wastewaters. Therefore, we suggest the PCO process using the solar/immobilized TiO2 system, with addition of H2O2 as well as filtration for the removal of suspended solids, can be effectively applied to the treatment of Cu(II)-EDTA containing real wastewater. PMID:17182387

  20. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelinski, Andrew

    Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) films were elaborated using the Sol-Gel technique and subsequently used to study plasmonic photovoltaic and photocatalytic energy transfer enhancement mechanisms. TiO2 was chosen because of the unique optical and electrical properties it possesses as well as its ease of preparation and operational stability. The properties of sol-elaborated films vary significantly with processing environment and technique, and the sol formula; a systematic investigation of these variables enabled the selection of a consistent technique to produce relatively dense, crack-free TiO2 thin films. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) energy transfer was investigated by integrating plasmonic Au nanoparticles into multi-layer wide-band gap semiconductor (TiO2) devices, and by doping strongly catalytic TiO2 anodes in a 3-electrode photochemical cell. An instant 3x photocurrent enhancement in the multilayer solar cell device was observed under 650nm light illumination, which suggests the presence of a resonant energy transfer. The focus of this work was to develop a systematic analysis of the actual mechanics of energy transfer responsible for the light-harvesting enhancements seen in previous studies of Au nanoparticle-TiO2 systems under visible illumination. This mechanism remains the subject of debate and models have been proposed by various researchers. A method is developed here to pinpoint the most influential of the proposed mechanisms.

  1. Superior Antibacterial Activity of Fe3O4-TiO2 Nanosheets under Solar Light.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuanglong; Zhan, Sihui; Jia, Yanan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-10-01

    Fe3O4-TiO2 nanosheets (Fe3O4-TNS) were synthesized by means of lamellar reverse micelles and solvothermal method, which were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, BET, and magnetic property analysis. It can be found that Fe3O4-TNS nanosheets exhibited better photocatalytic antibacterial activity toward Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus than pure Fe3O4 and TNS, and the antibacterial efficiency could reach 87.2% and 93.7% toward E. coli and S. aureus with 100 μg/mL Fe3O4-TNS after 2 h of simulated solar light illumination, respectively. The photocatalytic destruction of bacteria was further confirmed by fluorescent-based cell live/dead test and SEM images. It was uncovered that Fe3O4-TNS inactivated G- E. coli and G+ S. aureus by different mechanisms: the destruction of outer membranes and ruptured cell bodies were responsible for the bactericidal effect against E. coli, while the antibacterial effect toward S. aureus were due to the fact that the cells were adsorbed in form of clusters by massive Fe3O4-TNS, which could restrict their activities and cause malfunction of the selective permeable barriers. Furthermore, the antibacterial mechanism was studied by employing scavengers to understand exact roles of different reactive species, indicating the key roles of h(+) and H2O2. The recovery and reusability experiments indicated that Fe3O4-TNS still retained more than 90% bacteria removal efficiency even after five cycles. Considering the easy magnetic separation, bulk availability, and high antibacterial activity of Fe3O4-TNS, it is a promising candidate for cleaning the microbial contaminated water environment. PMID:26372171

  2. TiO2 nanoparticles-induced apoptosis of primary cultured Sertoli cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fashui; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yingjun; Ze, Yuguan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Yajing; Ge, Yushuang; Zhang, Qi; Ye, Lingqun

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), as largest production and use of nanomaterials, have been demonstrated to have a potential toxicity on reproductive system. However, the mechanism underlying male reproductive toxicity of TiO2 NPs remains limited. Thus, our study was designed to examine the cellular viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and expression of apoptotic cytokines in primary cultured Sertoli cells isolated from mice under TiO2 NPs exposure. Results showed that TiO2 NPs exposure from 5 to 30 μg/mL resulted in reduction of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and induction of apoptosis or death on Sertoli cells. TiO2 NPs could migrate to Sertoli cells, which induced mitochondria-mediated or endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated apoptotic changes including elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reductions in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and releases of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In addition, upregulation of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase-3, glucose-regulated protein 78, and C/EBP homologous protein and caspase-12 protein expression, and downregulation of bcl-2 protein expression in primary cultured Sertoli cells induced by TiO2 NPs treatment. All of the results suggested that ROS generation may play a critical role in the initiation of TiO2 NPs-induced apoptosis by mediation of the disruption of ΔΨm, the cytochrome c release, and further the activation of caspase cascade and unfolded protein response signaling pathway. PMID:26238530

  3. Fe vs. TiO2 Photo-assisted Processes for Enhancing the Solar Inactivation of Bacteria in Water.

    PubMed

    Pulgarin, César

    2015-01-01

    Batch solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a known, simple and low-cost water treatment technology. SODIS is based on the synergistic action of temperature increase and light-assisted generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on bacteria. ROS are generated via the action of solar photons on i) Natural Organic Matter (NOM), ii) some mineral components of water (Fe oxides or Fe-organic complexes, nitrogen compounds) and iii) endogenous bacteria photosensitizers (e.g. cytochrome). SODIS has proven its effectiveness for remote settlements or urban slums in regions with high incident solar radiation. All of the internal and external simultaneous processes are often driven by photoactive Fe-species present in the cell, as well as in the natural water sources. In SODIS, a temperature of 50 °C is required and due to this temperature dependence, only 1-2 L can be treated at a time. As required exposure time strongly depends on irradiation intensity and temperature, some SODIS households could be overburdened, leading to inadequate treatment and probable bacterial re-growth. This is why TiO(2) photocatalysis and Fe photo-assisted systems (i.e. photo-Fenton reactants) have been considered to enhance the photo-catalytic processes already present in natural water sources when exposed to solar light. Both TiO(2) and Fe-photoassisted processes, when applied to water disinfection aim to improve the performance of solar bacteria inactivation systems by i) enhancing ROS production, ii) making the process independent from the rise in temperature and as a consequence iii) allowing the treatment of larger volumes than 1-2 L of water and iv) prevent bacterial (re)growth, sometimes observed after sole solar treatment. PMID:26507082

  4. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from a Coumarin NKX-2700 Dye-Sensitized TiO2/MgO Core-Shell Photoanode with an HfO2 Blocking Layer and a Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, D.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated from a coumarin NKX-2700 dye-sensitized core-shell photoanode and a quasi-solid-state electrolyte, sandwiched together, with a cobalt sulfide-coated counter electrode. The core-shell photoanode consisted of a composite mixture of 90% TiO2 nanoparticles and 10% TiO2 nanowires (TNPW) as core layer and MgO nanoparticles (MNP) as shell layer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was applied to the core-shell photoanode film as a blocking layer. TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanowires, and TNPW/MNP were characterized by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was apparent from the UV-visible spectrum of the sensitizing dye coumarin NKX-2700 that its absorption was maximum at 525 nm. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) was greater for DSSC-1, fabricated with a core-shell TNPW/MNP/HfO2 photoanode, than for the other DSSC; its photovoltaic properties were: short circuit photocurrent J sc = 19 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage ( V oc) = 720 mV, fill factor ( FF) = 66%, and PCE ( η) = 9.02%. The charge-transport and charge-recombination behavior of the DSSC were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the results showed that the composite core-shell film resulted in the lowest charge-transfer resistance ( R CE) and the longest electron lifetime ( τ eff). Hence, the improved performance of DSSC-1 could be ascribed to the core-shell photoanode with blocking layer, which increased electron transport and suppressed recombination of charge carriers at the photoanode/dye/electrolyte interface.

  5. Detecting HER2 on cancer cells by TiO2 spheres Mie scattering.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Chiao; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Chi-Young

    2009-09-15

    This work is the first to describe a bioimaging method that uses highly uniformly sized TiO(2) submicrometer and micrometer spheres based on Mie scattering. Transmembrane proteins (HER2) located on the surface of cancer cells were detected by bonded antibody-linked TiO(2) spheres using optic microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. A particular HER2 bond on cancer cells, which has a weaker binding affinity than the biotin/avidin interaction, can be identified between TiO(2) spheres that are linked to anti-HER2 antibodies and those that are linked to nonspecific mouse IgG antibodies by observing the cells under an optical microscope or by measuring absorbance from a UV-vis spectrum. The TiO(2) spheres used in this work was prepared by reacting TTIP with carboxylic acid, as described elsewhere and the uniformity of the TiO(2) sphere was further improved by adjusting the amount of water used. The water content was inversely related to particle size and the size distribution: as more water was used, smaller spheres with a narrower size distribution were obtained. The most uniform sphere obtained had a diameter of about 1 microm with a size variation of 3%. PMID:19653662

  6. Solar-Energy-Driven Photoelectrochemical Biosensing Using TiO2 Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Li, Jun; Da, Peimei; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-08-01

    Photoelectrochemical sensing represents a unique means for chemical and biological detection, with foci of optimizing semiconductor composition and electronic structures, surface functionalization layers, and chemical detection methods. Here, we have briefly discussed our recent developments of TiO2 nanowire-based photoelectrochemical sensing, with particular emphasis on three main detection mechanisms and corresponding examples. We have also demonstrated the use of the photoelectrochemical sensing of real-time molecular reaction kinetic measurements, as well as direct interfacing of living cells and probing of cellular functions. PMID:25962650

  7. Nanometer-thin TiO2 enhances skeletal muscle cell phenotype and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Ken; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Iwasa, Fuminori; Minamikawa, Hajime; Ueno, Takeshi; Yamada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The independent role of the surface chemistry of titanium in determining its biological properties is yet to be determined. Although titanium implants are often in contact with muscle tissue, the interaction of muscle cells with titanium is largely unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that the surface chemistry of clinically established microroughened titanium surfaces could be controllably varied by coating with a minimally thin layer of TiO2 (ideally pico-to-nanometer in thickness) without altering the existing topographical and roughness features, and that the change in superficial chemistry of titanium is effective in improving the biological properties of titanium. Methods and results Acid-etched microroughened titanium surfaces were coated with TiO2 using slow-rate sputter deposition of molten TiO2 nanoparticles. A TiO2 coating of 300 pm to 6.3 nm increased the surface oxygen on the titanium substrates in a controllable manner, but did not alter the existing microscale architecture and roughness of the substrates. Cells derived from rat skeletal muscles showed increased attachment, spread, adhesion strength, proliferation, gene expression, and collagen production at the initial and early stage of culture on 6.3 nm thick TiO2-coated microroughened titanium surfaces compared with uncoated titanium surfaces. Conclusion Using an exemplary slow-rate sputter deposition technique of molten TiO2 nanoparticles, this study demonstrated that titanium substrates, even with microscale roughness, can be sufficiently chemically modified to enhance their biological properties without altering the existing microscale morphology. The controllable and exclusive chemical modification technique presented in this study may open a new avenue for surface modifications of titanium-based biomaterials for better cell and tissue affinity and reaction. PMID:22114483

  8. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal. PMID:23508150

  9. Coverage control of CdSe quantum dots in the photodeposition on TiO2 for the photoelectrochemical solar hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Mari; Murata, Yusuke; Nakabayashi, Yasunari; Ikeda, Takuya; Fujishima, Musashi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2016-07-15

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have successfully been formed on the TiO2 surface by the photodeposition of Se QDs and their subsequent transformation into CdSe QDs (CdSe/TiO2) (Fujishima et al., 2014). The addition of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) in the second step of the two-step photodeposition process significantly decreases the CdSe particle size and the contact angle against the TiO2 surface to increase the TiO2-surface coverage by CdSe QDs with the particle size distribution sharpened. X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy measurements indicated that MAA is densely chemisorbed on the surface of CdSe QDs through CdS bond, whereas sparsely adsorbed on the TiO2 surface. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells using CdSe/TiO2 as the photoanode for hydrogen (H2) generation from aqueous sulfide solution were fabricated. The rate of H2 generation strongly depends on the concentration of MAA (C) added in the photoanode preparation, and the photoanode prepared at C=0.04mM affords a maximum solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 0.028%. PMID:27100903

  10. Whole Genome Expression Analysis Reveals Differential Effects of TiO2 Nanotubes on Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lily; Barczak, Andrea J.; Barbeau, Rebecca A.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; LaTempa, Thomas J.; Grimes, Craig A.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2010-01-01

    The response of primary human endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to TiO2 nanotube arrays is studied through gene expression analysis. Microarrays revealed that nanotubes enhanced EC proliferation and motility, decreased VSMC proliferation, and decreased expression of molecules involved in inflammation and coagulation in both cell types. Networks generated from significantly affected genes suggest that cells may be sensing nanotopographical cues via pathways previously implicated in sensing shear stress. PMID:20030358

  11. Effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles on Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Alinovi, Rossella; Pinelli, Silvana; Passeri, Giovanni; Zavaroni, Ivana; Goldoni, Matteo; Campanini, Marco; Aliatis, Irene; Mutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Sparse evidence suggests a possible link between exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) and cardiovascular (CV) risk, perhaps through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. We assessed the effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which take part in vascular endothelium repair/replacement. Methods CACs were isolated from healthy donors’ buffy coats after culturing lymphomonocytes on fibronectin-coated dishes in endothelial medium for 7 days. CACs were pre-incubated with increasing concentration of TiO2 and Co3O4 (from 1 to 100 μg/ml) to test the effects of NP – characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy – on CAC viability, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), function (fibronectin adhesion assay), oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Neither oxidative stress nor cell death were associated with exposure to TiO2 NP (except at the highest concentration tested), which, however, induced a higher pro-inflammatory effect compared to Co3O4 NPs (p<0.01). Exposure to Co3O4 NPs significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.01) and increased caspase activity (p<0.01), lipid peroxidation end-products (p<0.05) and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 or lower). Notably, CAC functional activity was impaired after exposure to both TiO2 (p<0.05 or lower) and Co3O4 (p<0.01) NPs. Conclusions In vitro exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs exerts detrimental effects on CAC viability and function, possibly mediated by accelerated apoptosis, increased oxidant stress (Co3O4 NPs only) and enhancement of inflammatory pathways (both TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs). Such adverse effects may be relevant for a potential role of exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in enhancing CV risk in humans. PMID:25803285

  12. Preparation and Solar Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A novel method to prepare N-doped TiO2-loaded halloysite nanotubes (N-TiO2/HNTs) nanocomposites was achieved by using the chemical vapor deposition in autoclave. The N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites obtained by the different form of the doping N source were studied through a series of characterizations. The XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations verified the anatase structure of TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca.20nm loaded on the outer surface of HNTs. The UV-vis characterization of the N-TiO2/HNTs presented a further red-shift compared to the pure N-TiO2 nanoparticles.. The XPS characterizations confirmed the N element doped into the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites prepared were evaluated by degradation of phenol at room temperature under simulated solar light irradiation.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts with tunable response to solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petala, Athanasia; Tsikritzis, Dimitris; Kollia, Mary; Ladas, Spyridon; Kennou, Stella; Kondarides, Dimitris I.

    2014-06-01

    Modification of the electronic structure of wide band gap semiconductors by anion doping is an effective strategy for the development of photocatalytic materials operating under solar light irradiation. In the present work, nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts of variable dopant content were synthesized by annealing a sol-gel derived TiO2 powder under flowing ammonia at temperatures in the range of 450-800 °C, and their physicochemical and optical properties were compared to those of undoped TiO2 samples calcined in air. Results show that materials synthesized at T = 450-600 °C contain relatively small amounts of dopant atoms and their colour varies from pale yellow to dark green due to the creation of localized states above the valence band of TiO2 and the formation of oxygen vacancies. Treatment with NH3 at T > 600 °C results in phase transformation of anatase to rutile, in a significant decrease of the specific surface area and in formation of TiN at the surface of the TiO2 particles. The resulting dark grey (T = 700 °C) and black (T = 800 °C) materials display strong absorption in both the visible and NIR regions, originating from partial reduction of TiO2 and formation of Ti3+ defect states. The present synthesis method enables tailoring of the electronic structure of the semiconductor and could be used for the development of solar light-responsive photocatalysts for photo(electro)chemical applications.

  14. In Vitro Therapeutic Potential of Tio2 Nanoparticles Against Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Young, Jung A; Hoon, Hur Ji; Lee, Hannah; Lee, SooBin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to the degradation products of titanium implants are key indicators to determine the quality of biocompatibility of implant devices. The present study investigated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic morphological modification, and apoptotic-related gene expressions in the human cervical carcinoma cells. TiO2 nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity on cancer cells was determined by the sulphorhodamine-B assay. Apoptotic morphological modification such as nuclear fragmentation, rounding, cytoplasm shrinkage, loss of adhesion, and reduced cell volume were observed by an inverted, fluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The DNA fragmentation study showed the occurrence of necrosis and apoptosis in nanoparticle-treated cells. The qPCR study showed the increased p53 and bax mRNA expression in the nanoparticle-treated cells compared to control. In addition, caspase 3 activity was increased in nanoparticle-treated cells, which indicates the increased auto-catalysis. Taking all these data together, it may suggest that TiO2 nanoparticle could inhibit the growth of HeLa cells. PMID:26519422

  15. Synthesis of Nanoscale TiO2 and Study of the Effect of Their Crystal Structure on Single Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Ismagilov, Z. R.; Shikina, N. V.; Mazurkova, N. A.; Tsikoza, L. T.; Tuzikov, F. V.; Ushakov, V. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Rudina, N. A.; Korneev, D. V.; Ryabchikova, E. I.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) on cell responses, we synthesized four modifications of the TiO2 (amorphous, anatase, brookite, and rutile) capable of keeping their physicochemical characteristics in a cell culture medium. The modifications of nanoscale TiO2 were obtained by hydrolysis of TiCl4 and Ti(i-OC3H7)4 (TIP) upon variation of the synthesis conditions; their textural, morphological, structural, and dispersion characteristics were examined by a set of physicochemical methods: XRD, BET, SAXS, DLS, AFM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The effect of synthesis conditions (nature of precursor, pH, temperature, and addition of a complexing agent) on the structural-dispersion properties of TiO2 nanoparticles was studied. The hydrolysis methods providing the preparation of amorphous, anatase, brookite, and rutile modifications of TiO2 nanoparticles 3–5 nm in size were selected. Examination of different forms of TiO2 nanoparticles interaction with MDCK cells by transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections revealed different cell responses after treatment with different crystalline modifications and amorphous form of TiO2. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that direct contact of the nanoparticles with cell plasma membrane is the primary and critical step of their interaction and defines a subsequent response of the cell. PMID:22623903

  16. Disorder engineering of undoped TiO2 nanotube arrays for highly efficient solar-driven oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Salari, M; Aboutalebi, S H; Aghassi, A; Wagner, P; Mozer, A J; Wallace, G G

    2015-02-28

    The trade-off between performance and complexity of the device manufacturing process should be balanced to enable the economic harvest of solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a conceptual, yet practical and well-regulated strategy to achieve efficient solar photocatalytic activity in TiO2 through controlled phase transformation and disorder engineering in the surface layers of TiO2 nanotubes. This approach enabled us to fine-tune the bandgap structure of undoped TiO2 according to our needs while simultaneously obtaining robust separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Introduction of specific surface defects also assisted in utilization of the visible part of sunlight to split water molecules for the production of oxygen. The strategy proposed here can serve as a guideline to overcome the practical limitation in the realization of efficient, non-toxic, chemically stable photoelectrochemical systems with high catalytic activity at neutral pH under visible illumination conditions. We also successfully incorporated TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) with free-based porphyrin affording a pathway with an overall 140% enhanced efficiency, an oxygen evolution rate of 436 μL h(-1) and faradic efficiencies over 100%. PMID:25623280

  17. TiO2 nanotube structures for enhanced cell and biological functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Karla S.; Oh, Seunghan; Frandsen, Christine J.; Jin, Sungho

    2010-04-01

    Nanostructures have pronounced effects on biological processes such as growth of cells and their functionality. Advances in biomaterial surface structure and design have resulted in improved tissue engineering. Nanotechnology can be utilized for optimization of titanium implants with a formation of vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays on the implant surface. The anodic oxidation of the titanium implant surface to form a TiO2 nanotube array involves electrochemical processes and self assembly. In this paper, the mechanism of nanotube formation, nanotube bio-characteristics, and their emerging role in soft and hard tissue engineering as well as in regenerative medicine will be reviewed, and the beneficial effects of surface nanotubes on cell adhesion, proliferation, and functionality will be discussed in relation to potential orthopedics applications.

  18. Beneficial surface passivation of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowires for solar water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Gun; Song, Gwang Yeom; Ahn, Bo-Eun; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Heo, Jaeyeong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon Hyung

    2016-03-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanowires (TONWs) with a length of 2.0 μm were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method in a strong acid solution. To investigate the effect of surface passivation of TONW arrays, a TiO2 layer with a thickness varying from 5 to 20 nm on TONW arrays was applied by atomic layer deposition (ALD). No distinct morphological modification was observed in all prepared TONW arrays in the environment where the diameter of the TONW arrays was systematically increased from 10 to 40 nm. In this study, Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that 10 nm TiO2-coated TONW (denoted as TiO2(10 nm)/TONW) arrays showed the highest electronic conductivity, followed by the 5 nm, 20 nm, and 0 nm TiO2/TONW arrays. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was assessed in 0.1 M KOH, which revealed that TiO2(10 nm)/TONW arrays displayed a photocurrent density (3.92 mA/cm2 at 0.5 VNHE) higher than that (2.72 mA/cm2) of TONW arrays. This may be ascribed to the surface passivation of trap or defect sites by the thin TiO2 surface coating, leading to the increased electron densities and improving the PEC performance. For a more definitive examination, photovoltage decay measurement was performed to calculate the decay lifetime, which is closely correlated to the electron-hole recombination reaction. In this study, TiO2(10 nm)/TONW arrays exhibited a decay lifetime (0.7 s) shorter than that (1.1 s) of TONW arrays, proving the suppressed charge recombination in the thin TiO2/TONW arrays.

  19. Effect of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles on the growth of RSC-364 rat synovial cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangxue; Ma, Jiawei; Dong, Linmeng; Hou, Ying; Jia, Xiaoling; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2013-06-01

    Nanoscale materials (such as TiO2, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles) have gained much concern in the coating of implants for cell adhesion and growth to improve the osteoconductivity. However, due to attrition and corrosion, the wear particles would be generated from the joint in living organism, and influence the physiological function of synovial membranes in joint cavity. In this study, the potential cytotoxicity of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on rat synovial cell line 364 (RSC-364) was investigated. After treatment with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (0, 3, 30, 300 microg/ml), the viability of RSC-364 cells were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. TiO2 NPs exposure could disrupt the integrity of cell plasma membrane, leading to the increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium. TiO2 NPs were uptaken by RSC-364 cells. The ultrastructure of RSC-364 cells was changed such as nuclear shrinkage and mitochondrial swelling. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) was over-produced especially in the cells exposed to 30 and 300 microg/ml TiO2 NPs. The activities of endogeneous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were significantly decreased. The increased lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) suggests the oxidative damage in cells. The flow cytometry detected that the cell cycle was blocked in G0/G1 phase, inhibiting the cell proliferation. These preliminary results indicate the oxidative stress injury and cytotoxicity of anatase TiO2 NPs on rat synovial cells. The reasonable and safe application of nanomaterials in artificial implants needs further study. PMID:23862421

  20. Degradation of Methyl Orange and Congo Red dyes by using TiO2 nanoparticles activated by the solar and the solar-like radiation.

    PubMed

    Ljubas, Davor; Smoljanić, Goran; Juretić, Hrvoje

    2015-09-15

    In this study we used TiO2 nanoparticles as semiconductor photocatalysts for the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) and Congo Red (CR) dyes in an aqueous solution. Since TiO2 particles become photocatalytically active by UV radiation, two sources of UV-A radiation were used - natural solar radiation which contains 3-5% UV-A and artificial, solar-like radiation, created by using a lamp. The optimal doses of TiO2 of 500 mg/L for the CR and 1500 mg/L for the MO degradation were determined in experiments with the lamp and were also used in degradation experiments with natural solar light. The efficiency of each process was determined by measuring the absorbance at two visible wavelengths, 466 nm for MO and 498 nm for CR, and the total organic carbon (TOC), i.e. decolorization and mineralization, respectively. In both cases, considerable potential for the degradation of CR and MO was observed - total decolorization of the solution was achieved within 30-60 min, while the TOC removal was in the range 60-90%. CR and MO solutions irradiated without TiO2 nanoparticles showed no observable changes in either decolorization or mineralization. Three different commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were used: pure-phase anatase, pure-phase rutile, and mixed-phase preparation named Degussa P25. In terms of degradation kinetics, P25 TiO2 exhibited a photocatalytic activity superior to that of pure-phase anatase or rutile. The electric energy consumption per gram of removed TOC was determined. For nearly the same degradation effect, the consumption in the natural solar radiation experiment was more than 60 times lower than in the artificial solar-like radiation experiment. PMID:26160663

  1. Aperiodic TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal: Full-Visible-Spectrum Solar Light Harvesting in Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25245854

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition-Confined Nonstoichiometric TiO2 Nanocrystals with Tunneling Effects for Solar Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tachikawa, Takashi; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2 nanocrystals (TNCs) confined with controllable atomic layer deposition (ALD) amorphous layers were developed to provide a novel model of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) photocatalysts for hydrogen generation in the ultraviolet to near-infrared region. Photoexcitation of optimized MIS nanostructures consisting of a metal cocatalyst (Pt), electron tunneling layer (ALD TiO2), and photoactive nonstoichiometric core (Ti(3+)-doped TNC) exhibited efficient hydrogen generation (52 μmol h(-1)·g(-1)), good reusability (16 h), and long-term stability (>7 d). The charge-transfer dynamics were examined using transient absorption spectroscopy to clarify the relationship between the photocatalytic activity and the tunneling effect. Our strategies highlight defect engineering in fabricating MIS photocatalysts with improved charge separation and tailored solar energy conversion properties. PMID:26963920

  3. Contact-dependent transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles between mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Schoelermann, Julia; Burtey, Anne; Allouni, Zouhir Ekeland; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Cimpan, Mihaela Roxana

    2016-03-01

    Cellular organelles have been shown to shuttle between cells in co-culture. We hereby show that titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) can be transferred in such a manner, between cells in direct contact, along with endosomes and lysosomes. A co-culture system was employed for this purpose and the NP transfer was observed in mammalian cells including normal rat kidney (NRK) and HeLa cells. We found that the small GTPase Arf6 facilitates the intercellular transfer of smaller NPs and agglomerates. Spherical, anatase nano-TiO2 with sizes of 5 (Ti5) and 40 nm (Ti40) were used in this study. Humans are increasingly exposed to TiO2 NPs from external sources such as constituents of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, or from internal sources represented by Ti-based implants, which release NPs upon abrasion. Exposure to 5 mg/l of Ti5 and Ti40 for 24 h did not affect cellular viability but modified their ability to communicate with surrounding cells. Altogether, our results have important implications for the design of nanomedicines, drug delivery and toxicity. PMID:26037905

  4. Fabrication and characterization of photovoltaic devices based on perovskite compounds with TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamada, Masahiro; Fukunishi, Sakiko; Kohno, Kazufumi; Sakamoto, Hiroki

    2015-02-01

    Perovskite-type photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. The compact and meso-porous TiO2 of the solar cells were fabricated from TiO2 nanoparticles and sol, and the photovoltaic properties and microstructures were characterized. The conversion efficiencies were improved by the combination of TiO2 nanoparticles and sol. Current density was also improved by increasing numbers of spin-coatings of meso-porous TiO2. Thick meso-porous TiO2 layers would assist the construction of perovskite layers and block of the leak current.

  5. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  6. Solar TiO2-assisted photocatalytic degradation of IGCC power station effluents using a Fresnel lens.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, J M; Durán, A; Guerra, J; García-Peña, F; Coca, P

    2008-03-01

    The heterogeneous TiO2 assisted photocatalytic degradation of wastewater from a thermoelectric power station under concentrated solar light irradiation using a Fresnel lens has been studied. The efficiency of photocatalytic degradation was determined from the analysis of cyanide and formate removal. Firstly, the influence of the initial concentration of H2O2 and TiO2 on the degradation kinetics of cyanides and formates was studied based on a factorial experimental design. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks. Results showed that the photocatalytic process was effective for cyanides destruction (mainly following a molecular mechanism), whereas most of formates (degraded mainly via a radical path) remained unaffected. Finally, to improve formates degradation, the effect of lowering pH on their degradation rate was evaluated after complete cyanide destruction. The photooxidation efficiency of formates reaches a maximum at pH around 5-6. Above pH 6, formate anion is subjected to electrostatic repulsion with the negative surface of TiO2. At pH<4.5, formate adsorption and photon absorption are reduced due to some catalyst agglomeration. PMID:18078669

  7. Metal oxide nanocluster-modified TiO2 as solar activated photocatalyst materials.

    PubMed

    Fronzi, Marco; Iwaszuk, Anna; Lucid, Aoife; Nolan, Michael

    2016-02-24

    In this review we describe our work on new TiO2 based photocatalysts. The key concept in our work is to form new composite structures by the modification of rutile and anatase TiO2 with nanoclusters of metal oxides and our density functional theory (DFT) level simulations are validated by experimental work synthesizing and characterizing surface-modified TiO2. We use DFT to show that nanoclusters of different metal oxides, TiO2, SnO/SnO2, PbO/PbO2, NiO and CuO can be adsorbed at rutile and anatase surfaces and can induce red shifts in the absorption edge to enable visible light absorption which is the first key requirement for a practical photocatalyst. We furthermore determine the origin of the red shift and discuss the factors influencing this shift and the fate of excited electrons and holes. For p-block metal oxides we show how the oxidation state of Sn and Pb can be used to tune both the magnitude of the red shift and also its mechanism. Finally, aiming to make our models more realistic, we present some new results on the stability of water at rutile and anatase surfaces and the effect of water on oxygen vacancy formation and on nanocluster modification. These nanocluster-modified TiO2 structures form the basis of a new class of photocatalysts which will be useful in oxidation reactions and with the suitable choice of nanocluster modifier can be applied to CO2 reduction. PMID:26808905

  8. Metal oxide nanocluster-modified TiO2 as solar activated photocatalyst materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronzi, Marco; Iwaszuk, Anna; Lucid, Aoife; Nolan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    In this review we describe our work on new TiO2 based photocatalysts. The key concept in our work is to form new composite structures by the modification of rutile and anatase TiO2 with nanoclusters of metal oxides and our density functional theory (DFT) level simulations are validated by experimental work synthesizing and characterizing surface-modified TiO2. We use DFT to show that nanoclusters of different metal oxides, TiO2, SnO/SnO2, PbO/PbO2, NiO and CuO can be adsorbed at rutile and anatase surfaces and can induce red shifts in the absorption edge to enable visible light absorption which is the first key requirement for a practical photocatalyst. We furthermore determine the origin of the red shift and discuss the factors influencing this shift and the fate of excited electrons and holes. For p-block metal oxides we show how the oxidation state of Sn and Pb can be used to tune both the magnitude of the red shift and also its mechanism. Finally, aiming to make our models more realistic, we present some new results on the stability of water at rutile and anatase surfaces and the effect of water on oxygen vacancy formation and on nanocluster modification. These nanocluster-modified TiO2 structures form the basis of a new class of photocatalysts which will be useful in oxidation reactions and with the suitable choice of nanocluster modifier can be applied to CO2 reduction.

  9. TiO2 nanoparticles induce DNA double strand breaks and cell cycle arrest in human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Krupa; Patel, Pal; Shah, Darshini; Shukla, Ritesh K; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have the second highest global annual production (∼3000 tons) among the metal-containing NPs. These NPs are used as photocatalysts for bacterial disinfection, and in various other consumer products including sunscreen, food packaging, therapeutics, biosensors, surface cleaning agents, and others. Humans are exposed to these NPs during synthesis (laboratory), manufacture (industry), and use (consumer products, devices, medicines, etc.), as well as through environmental exposures (disposal). Hence, there is great concern regarding the health effects caused by exposure to NPs and, in particular, to TiO2 NPs. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs in A549 cells was examined, focusing on their potential to induce ROS, different types of DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest. We show that TiO2 NPs can induce DNA damage and a corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency, as evident from the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays. We demonstrate that DNA damage may be attributed to increased oxidative stress and ROS generation. Furthermore, genomic and proteomic analyses showed increased expression of ATM, P53, and CdC-2 and decreased expression of ATR, H2AX, and Cyclin B1 in A549 cells, suggesting induction of DNA double strand breaks. The occurrence of double strand breaks was correlated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Overall, the results indicate the potential for genotoxicity following exposure to these TiO2 NPs, suggesting that use should be carefully monitored. PMID:25524809

  10. Electron Injection from Copper Diimine Sensitizers into TiO2: Structural Effects and Their Implications for Solar Energy Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Mara, Michael W; Bowman, David N; Buyukcakir, Onur; Shelby, Megan L; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Huang, Jier; Harpham, Michael R; Stickrath, Andrew B; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Stoddart, J Fraser; Coskun, Ali; Jakubikova, Elena; Chen, Lin X

    2015-08-01

    Copper(I) diimine complexes have emerged as low cost replacements for ruthenium complexes as light sensitizers and electron donors, but their shorter metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) states lifetimes and lability of transient Cu(II) species impede their intended functions. Two carboxylated Cu(I) bis-2,9-diphenylphenanthroline (dpp) complexes [Cu(I)(dpp-O(CH2CH2O)5)(dpp-(COOH)2)](+) and [Cu(I)(dpp-O(CH2CH2O)5)(dpp-(Φ-COOH)2)](+) (Φ = tolyl) with different linker lengths were synthesized in which the MLCT-state solvent quenching pathways are effectively blocked, the lifetime of the singlet MLCT state is prolonged, and the transient Cu(II) ligands are stabilized. Aiming at understanding the mechanisms of structural influence to the interfacial charge transfer in the dye-sensitized solar cell mimics, electronic and geometric structures as well as dynamics for the MLCT state of these complexes and their hybrid with TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated using optical transient spectroscopy, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy, time-dependent density functional theory, and quantum dynamics simulations. The combined results show that these complexes exhibit strong absorption throughout the visible spectrum due to the severely flattened ground state, and a long-lived charge-separated Cu(II) has been achieved via ultrafast electron injection (<300 fs) from the (1)MLCT state into TiO2 nanoparticles. The results also indicate that the TiO2-phen distance in these systems does not have significant effect on the efficiency of the interfacial electron-transfer process. The mechanisms for electron transfer in these systems are discussed and used to develop new strategies in optimizing copper(I) diimine complexes in solar energy conversion devices. PMID:26154849

  11. Electrolyte Concentration Effect of a Photoelectrochemical Cell Consisting of TiO 2 Nanotube Anode

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ren, Kai; Gan, Yong X.; Nikolaidis, Efstratios; Sofyani, Sharaf Al; Zhang, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical responses of a TiO 2 nanotube anode in ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, ammonia, ethanol, urea, and Na 2 S electrolytes with different concentrations were investigated. The TiO 2 nanotube anode was highly efficient in photoelectrocatalysis in these solutions under UV light illumination. The photocurrent density is obviously affected by the concentration change. Na 2 S generated the highest photocurrent density at 0, 1, and 2 V bias voltages, but its concentration does not significantly affect the photocurrent density. Urea shows high open circuit voltage at proper concentration and low photocurrent at different concentrations. Externally applied bias voltage ismore » also an important factor that changes the photoelectrochemical reaction process. In view of the open circuit voltage, EG, ammonia, and ethanol fuel cells show the trend that the open circuit voltage (OCV) increases with the increase of the concentration of the solutions. Glycerol has the highest OCV compared with others, and it deceases with the increase in the concentration because of the high viscosity. The OCV of the urea and Na 2 S solutions did not show obvious concentration effect.« less

  12. Solid state perovskite solar modules by vacuum-vapor assisted sequential deposition on Nd:YVO4 laser patterned rutile TiO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Palma, Alessandro L.; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Casaluci, Simone; Matteocci, Fabio; Wali, Qamar; Rauf, Muhammad; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.; Jose, Rajan

    2015-12-01

    The past few years have witnessed remarkable progress in solution-processed methylammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbX3, X = halide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with reported photoconversion efficiency (η) exceeding 20% in laboratory-scale devices and reaching up to 13% in their large area perovskite solar modules (PSMs). These devices mostly employ mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as an electron transport layer (ETL) which provides a scaffold on which the perovskite semiconductor can grow. However, limitations exist which are due to trap-limited electron transport and non-complete pore filling. Herein, we have employed TiO2 nanorods (NRs), a material offering a two-fold higher electronic mobility and higher pore-filing compared to their particle analogues, as an ETL. A crucial issue in NRs’ patterning over substrates is resolved by using precise Nd:YVO4 laser ablation, and a champion device with η ∼ 8.1% is reported via a simple and low cost vacuum-vapor assisted sequential processing (V-VASP) of a CH3NH3PbI3 film. Our experiments showed a successful demonstration of NRs-based PSMs via the V-VASP technique which can be applied to fabricate large area modules with a pin-hole free, smooth and dense perovskite layer which is required to build high efficiency devices.

  13. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  14. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  15. Integration of CdSe/CdSexTe1-x Type-II Heterojunction Nanorods into Hierarchically Porous TiO2 Electrode for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangheon; Flanagan, Joseph C.; Kang, Joonhyeon; Kim, Jinhyun; Shim, Moonsub; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor sensitized solar cells, a promising candidate for next-generation photovoltaics, have seen notable progress using 0-D quantum dots as light harvesting materials. Integration of higher-dimensional nanostructures and their multi-composition variants into sensitized solar cells is, however, still not fully investigated despite their unique features potentially beneficial for improving performance. Herein, CdSe/CdSexTe1-x type-II heterojunction nanorods are utilized as novel light harvesters for sensitized solar cells for the first time. The CdSe/CdSexTe1-x heterojunction-nanorod sensitized solar cell exhibits ~33% improvement in the power conversion efficiency compared to its single-component counterpart, resulting from superior optoelectronic properties of the type-II heterostructure and 1-octanethiol ligands aiding facile electron extraction at the heterojunction nanorod-TiO2 interface. Additional ~32% enhancement in power conversion efficiency is achieved by introducing percolation channels of large pores in the mesoporous TiO2 electrode, which allow 1-D sensitizers to infiltrate the entire depth of electrode. These strategies combined together lead to 3.02% power conversion efficiency, which is one of the highest values among sensitized solar cells utilizing 1-D nanostructures as sensitizer materials.

  16. Integration of CdSe/CdSexTe1-x Type-II Heterojunction Nanorods into Hierarchically Porous TiO2 Electrode for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangheon; Flanagan, Joseph C; Kang, Joonhyeon; Kim, Jinhyun; Shim, Moonsub; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor sensitized solar cells, a promising candidate for next-generation photovoltaics, have seen notable progress using 0-D quantum dots as light harvesting materials. Integration of higher-dimensional nanostructures and their multi-composition variants into sensitized solar cells is, however, still not fully investigated despite their unique features potentially beneficial for improving performance. Herein, CdSe/CdSe(x)Te(1-x) type-II heterojunction nanorods are utilized as novel light harvesters for sensitized solar cells for the first time. The CdSe/CdSe(x)Te(1-x) heterojunction-nanorod sensitized solar cell exhibits ~33% improvement in the power conversion efficiency compared to its single-component counterpart, resulting from superior optoelectronic properties of the type-II heterostructure and 1-octanethiol ligands aiding facile electron extraction at the heterojunction nanorod-TiO(2) interface. Additional ~32% enhancement in power conversion efficiency is achieved by introducing percolation channels of large pores in the mesoporous TiO(2) electrode, which allow 1-D sensitizers to infiltrate the entire depth of electrode. These strategies combined together lead to 3.02% power conversion efficiency, which is one of the highest values among sensitized solar cells utilizing 1-D nanostructures as sensitizer materials. PMID:26638994

  17. Structure, synthesis, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Cabot, Andreu; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-24

    TiO2 semiconductor nanobelts have unique structural and functional properties, which lead to great potential in many fields, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, energy storage, gas sensors, biosensors, and even biomaterials. A review of synthetic methods, properties, surface modification, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts is presented here. The structural features and basic properties of TiO2 nanobelts are systematically discussed, with the many applications of TiO2 nanobelts in the fields of photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, biosensors, and lithium-ion batteries then introduced. Research efforts that aim to overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of TiO2 nanobelts are also highlighted. These efforts are focused on the rational design and modification of TiO2 nanobelts by doping with heteroatoms and/or forming surface heterostructures, to improve their desirable properties. Subsequently, the various types of surface heterostructures obtained by coupling TiO2 nanobelts with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, chalcogenides, and conducting polymers are described. Further, the charge separation and electron transfer at the interfaces of these heterostructures are also discussed. These properties are related to improved sensitivity and selectivity for specific gases and biomolecules, as well as enhanced UV and visible light photocatalytic properties. The progress in developments of near-infrared-active photocatalysts based on TiO2 nanobelts is also highlighted. Finally, an outline of important directions of future research into the synthesis, modification, and applications of this unique material is given. PMID:25800706

  18. RGD peptide immobilized on TiO2 nanotubes for increased bone marrow stromal cells adhesion and osteogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Yu, Wei-qiang; Qiu, Jing; Zhao, Yan-fang; Zhang, Yi-lin; Zhang, Fu-qiang

    2012-02-01

    Recently, TiO(2) nanotube layers are widely used in orthopedics and dental applications because of their good promotion effect on bone cells. Furthermore, peptide sequences such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid are used to modify Ti implant for binding to cell surface integrins through motif. In this study, a cellular adhesive peptide of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-cysteine (RGDC) was immobilized onto anodized TiO(2) nanotubes on Ti to examine its in vitro responses on rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. High-resolution C1s scans suggested the presence of RGDC on the surface and SEM images confirmed the nanotubes were not destroyed after modification. BMSCs adhesion and osteogenic gene expression were detected in TiO(2) nanotube layers with and without RGDC modification by fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, SEM, and realtime polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). Results showed that the TiO(2) nanotube layers immobilized with RGDC increased BMSCs adhesion compared to nonfunctionalized nanotubes after 4 h of cultivation. Furthermore, the osteogenic gene expression of BMSCs was dramatically enhanced on the TiO(2) nanotube layers immobilized with RGDC (10 mM) compared to the TiO(2) nanotube layers immobilized with RGDC (1 mM) and non-functionalized anodized Ti. Our results from in vitro study provided evidence that Ti anodized to possess nanotubes and then further functionalized with RGDC should be further studied for the design of better biomedical implant surfaces. PMID:22143905

  19. Nanoscale TiO2 nanotubes govern the biological behavior of human glioma and osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ang; Qin, Xiaofei; Wu, Anhua; Zhang, Hangzhou; Xu, Quan; Xing, Deguang; Yang, He; Qiu, Bo; Xue, Xiangxin; Zhang, Dongyong; Dong, Chenbo

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to their surroundings through an interactive adhesion process that has direct effects on cell proliferation and migration. This research was designed to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanotubes with different topographies and structures on the biological behavior of cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the nanotube diameter, rather than the crystalline structure of the coatings, was a major factor for the biological behavior of the cultured cells. The optimal diameter of the nanotubes was 20 nm for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation in both glioma and osteosarcoma cells. The expression levels of vitronectin and phosphor-focal adhesion kinase were affected by the nanotube diameter; therefore, it is proposed that the responses of vitronectin and phosphor-focal adhesion kinase to the nanotube could modulate cell fate. In addition, the geometry and size of the nanotube coating could regulate the degree of expression of acetylated α-tubulin, thus indirectly modulating cell migration behavior. Moreover, the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were influenced by the topography. In conclusion, a nanotube diameter of 20 nm was the critical threshold that upregulated the expression level of Bcl-2 and obviously decreased the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3. This information will be useful for future biomedical and clinical applications. PMID:25848261

  20. Influence of TiO2 nanoparticles on cellular antioxidant defense and its involvement in genotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Jana; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (<25 nm anatase, TiO2-An; <100 nm rutile, TiO2-Ru) on cellular antioxidant defense in HepG2 cells. We previously showed that in HepG2 cells, TiO2 nanoparticles are not toxic, although they induce oxidative DNA damage, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and up-regulation of mRNA expression of DNA-damage-responsive genes (p53, p21, gadd45α and mdm2). In the present study, we measured changes in mRNA expression of several antioxidant enzymes: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, nitric oxide synthase, glutathione reductase and glutamate-cysteine ligase. As reduced glutathione has a central role in cellular antioxidant defense, we determined the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on changes in the intracellular glutathione content. To confirm a role for glutathione in protection against TiO2-nanoparticle-induced DNA damage, we compared the extent of TiO2-nanoparticle-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells that were glutathione depleted with buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine pretreatment and in nonglutathione-depleted cells. Our data show that both types of TiO2 nanoparticles up-regulate mRNA expression of oxidative-stress-related genes, with TiO2-Ru being a stronger inducer than TiO2-An. Both types of TiO2 nanoparticles also induce dose-dependent increases in intracellular glutathione levels, and in glutathione-depleted cells, TiO2-nanoparticle-induced DNA damage was significantly greater than in nonglutathione-depleted cells. Interestingly, the glutathione content and the extent of DNA damage were significantly higher in TiO2-An- than TiO2-Ru-exposed cells. Thus, we show that TiO2 nanoparticles cause activation of cellular antioxidant processes, and that intracellular glutathione has a critical role in defense against this TiO2-nanoparticle-induced DNA damage.

  1. Improved photoelectrical performance of graphene supported highly crystallized anatase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Qiong; Zhao, Mei; Li, Yang; Liu, Qiuhong; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-08-01

    In this study, titanium oxysulfate (TiOSO4) and graphene were used as titanium source and supporter, respectively, to synthesize anatase TiO2-graphene (TiO2-G) composite. Crystal structure, morphology, and composition of TiO2-G were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and thermogravimetric analysis. Both TiO2-G and blank TiO2 powders exhibit spindle-shaped structure with the long axis along [001]. Compared to unsupported TiO2, TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly formed on graphene surface. When fabricated into dye-sensitized solar cells, photoelectrical conversion efficiency of TiO2-G (2.3 %) was much higher than that of blank TiO2 (0.89 %) prepared at the same conditions. Moreover, high sintering temperature enhanced photoelectrical performance of the composite. When the temperature was increased from 450 to 600 °C, the efficiency was improved from 1.5 to 2.6 %. The findings above demonstrate that TiO2-G has great potential for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Photocatalytic performance of nitrogen, osmium co-doped TiO2 for removal of eosin yellow in water under simulated solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kuvarega, Alex T; Krause, Rui W M; Mamba, Bhekie B

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen, osmium co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using ammonia as the nitrogen source and osmium tetroxide as the source of osmium. The role of rutile phase OsO2 in enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 towards the degradation of Eosin Yellow was investigated. The materials were characterised by various techniques that include FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, TGA and DRUV-Vis. The amorphous, oven dried sample was transformed to the anatase and then the rutile phase with increasing calcination temperature. DRUV-Vis analysis revealed a red shift in absorption with increasing calcination temperature, confirmed by a decrease in the band gap of the material. The photocatalytic activity of N, Os co-doped TiO2 was evaluated using eosin yellow degradation and activity increased with increase in calcination temperature under simulated solar irradiation. The rutile phase of the co-doped TiO2 was found to be more effective in degrading the dye (k(a) = 1.84 x 10(-2) min(-1)) compared to the anatase co-doped phase (k(a) = 9.90 x 10(-3) min(-1)). The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of rutile TiO2 and rutile OsO2 in the N, Os co-doped TiO2. PMID:23901525

  3. Solar Spectrum Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 and Water Vapor Into Hydrocarbons Using TiO2 Nanoparticle Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Sanju; Bao, Ningzhong; Roy, Somnath C.

    2014-01-01

    A viable option for recycling carbon dioxide is through the sunlight-powered photocatalytic conversion of CO2 and water vapor into hydrocarbon fuels over highly active nanocatalysts. With photocatalytic CO2 reduction sunlight, a renewable energy source as durable as the sun, is used to drive the catalytic reaction with the resultant fuel products compatible with the current hydrocarbon-based energy infrastructure. The use of co-catalyst (Cu, Pt)-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticle wafers in the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 and water vapor to hydrocarbon fuels, with optimal humidity levels and exposure times established. We also attempted to increase product formation by sputtering both co-catalysts on the nanoparticle wafer's surface, with the resulting product rates significantly higher than that of either the Cu or Pt coated samples. When the TiO2 nanoparticle wafers are used in a flow-through membrane implementation we find a significant increase in product rates of formation, including methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. We believe that nanocatalyst-based flow-through membranes are a viable route for achieving large-scale and low cost photocatalytic solar fuel production.

  4. Anodization parameters influencing the morphology and electrical properties of TiO2 nanotubes for living cell interfacing and investigations.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, D; Bhatti, A; Li, Y; Hamedani, H Amani; Garmestani, H; Hodgson, P; Nahavandi, S

    2016-02-01

    Nanotube structures have attracted tremendous attention in recent years in many applications. Among such nanotube structures, titania nanotubes (TiO2) have received paramount attention in the medical domain due to their unique properties, represented by high corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, high specific surface area, as well as great cell proliferation, adhesion and mineralization. Although lot of research has been reported in developing optimized titanium nanotube structures for different medical applications, however there is a lack of unified literature source that could provide information about the key parameters and experimental conditions required to develop such optimized structure. This paper addresses this gap, by focussing on the fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes through anodization process on both pure titanium and titanium alloys substrates to exploit the biocompatibility and electrical conductivity aspects, critical factors for many medical applications from implants to in-vivo and in-vitro living cell studies. It is shown that the morphology of TiO2 directly impacts the biocompatibility aspects of the titanium in terms of cell proliferation, adhesion and mineralization. Similarly, TiO2 nanotube wall thickness of 30-40nm has shown to exhibit improved electrical behaviour, a critical factor in brain mapping and behaviour investigations if such nanotubes are employed as micro-nano-electrodes. PMID:26652471

  5. Effects of RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet detachment from TiO2 nanodots films.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kui; Wang, Tiantian; Yu, Mengliu; Wan, Hongping; Lin, Jun; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming

    2016-06-01

    Light-induced cell detachment is reported to be a safe and effective cell sheet harvest method. In the present study, the effects of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) immobilization on cell growth, cell sheet construction and cell harvest through light illumination are investigated. RGD was first immobilized on TiO2 nanodots films through simple physical adsorption, and then mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the films. It was found that RGD immobilization promoted cell adhesion and proliferation. It was also observed that cells cultured on RGD immobilized films showed relatively high level of pan-cadherin. Cells harvested with ultraviolet illumination (365nm) showed good viability on both RGD immobilized and unmodified TiO2 nanodot films. Single cell detachment assay showed that cells detached more quickly on RGD immobilized TiO2 nanodot films. That could be ascribed to the RGD release after UV365 illumination. The current study demonstrated that RGD immobilization could effectively improve both the cellular responses and light-induced cell harvest. PMID:27040216

  6. Nanostructured N-doped TiO2 marigold flowers for an efficient solar hydrogen production from H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Nilima S.; Warule, Sambhaji S.; Dhanmane, Sushil A.; Kulkarni, Milind V.; Valant, Matjaz; Kale, Bharat B.

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanostructures in the form of marigold flowers have been synthesized for the first time using a facile solvothermal method. The structural analysis has shown that such an N-doped TiO2 system crystallizes in the anatase structure. The optical absorption spectra have clearly shown the shift in the absorption edge towards the visible-light range, which indicates successful nitrogen doping. The nitrogen doping has been further confirmed by photoluminescence and photoemission spectroscopy. Microscopy studies have shown the thin nanosheets (petals) of N-TiO2 with a thickness of ~2-3 nm, assembled in the form of the marigold flower with a high surface area (224 m2 g-1). The N-TiO2 nanostructure with marigold flowers is an efficient photocatalyst for the decomposition of H2S and production of hydrogen under solar light. The maximum hydrogen evolution obtained is higher than other known N-TiO2 systems. It is noteworthy that photohydrogen production using the unique marigold flowers of N-TiO2 from abundant H2S under solar light is hitherto unattempted. The proposed synthesis method can also be utilized to design other hierarchical nanostructured N-doped metal oxides.Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanostructures in the form of marigold flowers have been synthesized for the first time using a facile solvothermal method. The structural analysis has shown that such an N-doped TiO2 system crystallizes in the anatase structure. The optical absorption spectra have clearly shown the shift in the absorption edge towards the visible-light range, which indicates successful nitrogen doping. The nitrogen doping has been further confirmed by photoluminescence and photoemission spectroscopy. Microscopy studies have shown the thin nanosheets (petals) of N-TiO2 with a thickness of ~2-3 nm, assembled in the form of the marigold flower with a high surface area (224 m2 g-1). The N-TiO2 nanostructure with marigold flowers is an efficient photocatalyst for the decomposition of H2S and production of hydrogen under solar light. The maximum hydrogen evolution obtained is higher than other known N-TiO2 systems. It is noteworthy that photohydrogen production using the unique marigold flowers of N-TiO2 from abundant H2S under solar light is hitherto unattempted. The proposed synthesis method can also be utilized to design other hierarchical nanostructured N-doped metal oxides. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GC-MS graph of the filtrate obtained in solvothermal reaction after 16 h and FESEM images without guanidine carbonate for 16 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02975a

  7. Removal of Cu(II)-EDTA complex using TiO2/solar light: the effect of operational parameters and feasibility of solar light application.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Shin, In-Soo; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Mok; Shin, Won-Tae

    2006-01-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of Cu(II)-ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) was investigated at 38 degrees latitude, using natural sunlight instead of artificial UV light. In order to investigate the optimum conditions for the PCO of Cu(II)-EDTA, the effects of several parameters, such as the type and angle of solar collector, solar light intensity, area of the solar reactor and flow rate, on the removals of Cu(II) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were examined with 20 L of 10(-4) M Cu(II)-EDTA at pH 4 in a circulating reactor. The removals (%) of Cu(II) and DOC were favorable with the use of a hemispherical collector, with a 38 degrees tilt angle when flat, on a sunny day, and a solar collector with a high area, in a TiO(2) slurry system. On the basis of these experimental results, PCO with solar light irradiation could be used as a feasible technique in the treatment of Cu(II)-EDTA. In addition, PCO with solar light irradiation is regarded as a potential technique in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater when considering the quite similar removal efficiency of Cu(II)-EDTA, with the subsequent removal of the liberated Cu(2+) by adsorption onto the TiO(2) compared to that of synthetic wastewater. PMID:16760083

  8. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  9. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnO nanoparticles to achieve antibacterial properties and stem cell compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Ma, Yuanping; Liu, Yiran; Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Zhenting; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    To endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties, different concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were decorated on anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal treatment method. The particle sizes of ZnO, which were evenly distributed and tightly adherent to the walls of the Ti nanotubes, ranged from 20-50 nm. Results from this study showed that Zn was released from the TiO2 nanotubes in a constant, slow, and biologically inspired manner. Importantly, the results showed that the ZnO decorated TiO2 nanotubular samples inhibited Streptococcus mutants and Porphyromonas gingivalis growth compared to control unmodified Ti samples. Specifically, S. mutants and P. gingivalis growth were both reduced 45-85% on the ZnO decorated Ti samples compared to Ti controls after 7 days of culture. When examining the mechanism of action, it has been further found for the first time that the ZnO decorated Ti samples inhibited the expression of Streptococcus mutans bacterial adhesion genes. Lastly, the results showed that the same samples which decreased bacterial growth the most (0.015 M precursor Zn(NO3)2 samples) did not inhibit mesenchymal stem cell growth compared to Ti controls for up to 7 days. In summary, results from this study showed that compared to plain TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2 decorated with 0.015 M ZnO provided unprecedented antibacterial properties while maintaining the stem cell proliferation capacity necessary for enhancing the use of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnO nanoparticles to achieve antibacterial properties and stem cell compatibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Ma, Yuanping; Liu, Yiran; Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Zhenting; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    To endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties, different concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were decorated on anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal treatment method. The particle sizes of ZnO, which were evenly distributed and tightly adherent to the walls of the Ti nanotubes, ranged from 20-50 nm. Results from this study showed that Zn was released from the TiO2 nanotubes in a constant, slow, and biologically inspired manner. Importantly, the results showed that the ZnO decorated TiO2 nanotubular samples inhibited Streptococcus mutants and Porphyromonas gingivalis growth compared to control unmodified Ti samples. Specifically, S. mutants and P. gingivalis growth were both reduced 45-85% on the ZnO decorated Ti samples compared to Ti controls after 7 days of culture. When examining the mechanism of action, it has been further found for the first time that the ZnO decorated Ti samples inhibited the expression of Streptococcus mutans bacterial adhesion genes. Lastly, the results showed that the same samples which decreased bacterial growth the most (0.015 M precursor Zn(NO3)2 samples) did not inhibit mesenchymal stem cell growth compared to Ti controls for up to 7 days. In summary, results from this study showed that compared to plain TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2 decorated with 0.015 M ZnO provided unprecedented antibacterial properties while maintaining the stem cell proliferation capacity necessary for enhancing the use of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry. PMID:24971593

  11. Ti(3+)-self doped brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with high solar absorption and excellent photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoye; Xu, Tao; Wang, Lan; Wang, Chuanyi

    2016-01-01

    Black brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with outstanding photocatalytic activity toward CO2 reduction is prepared by a facile oxidation-based hydrothermal reaction method combined with post-annealing treatment. Large amount of Ti(3+) defects are introduced into the bulk of brookite nanoparticles, which increases the solar energy absorption and enhances the photocatalytic activity. PMID:27021203

  12. Ti3+-self doped brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with high solar absorption and excellent photocatalytic CO2 reduction

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaoye; Xu, Tao; Wang, Lan; Wang, Chuanyi

    2016-01-01

    Black brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with outstanding photocatalytic activity toward CO2 reduction is prepared by a facile oxidation-based hydrothermal reaction method combined with post-annealing treatment. Large amount of Ti3+ defects are introduced into the bulk of brookite nanoparticles, which increases the solar energy absorption and enhances the photocatalytic activity. PMID:27021203

  13. Ti3+-self doped brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with high solar absorption and excellent photocatalytic CO2 reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xiaoye; Xu, Tao; Wang, Lan; Wang, Chuanyi

    2016-03-01

    Black brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with outstanding photocatalytic activity toward CO2 reduction is prepared by a facile oxidation-based hydrothermal reaction method combined with post-annealing treatment. Large amount of Ti3+ defects are introduced into the bulk of brookite nanoparticles, which increases the solar energy absorption and enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  14. Comparison of photocatalytic and transport properties of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructures for solar-driven water splitting.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Simelys; Hidalgo, Diana; Sacco, Adriano; Chiodoni, Angelica; Lamberti, Andrea; Cauda, Valentina; Tresso, Elena; Saracco, Guido

    2015-03-28

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been widely used as photo-catalysts due to their low-cost, high surface area, robustness, abundance and non-toxicity. In this work, four TiO2 and ZnO-based nanostructures, i.e. TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs), ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs) and ZnO@TiO2 core-shell structures, specifically prepared with a fixed thickness of about 1.5 μm, are compared for the solar-driven water splitting reaction, under AM1.5G simulated sunlight. Complete characterization of these photo-electrodes in their structural and photo-electrochemical properties was carried out. Both TiO2 NPs and NTs showed photo-current saturation reaching 0.02 and 0.12 mA cm(-2), respectively, for potential values of about 0.3 and 0.6 V vs. RHE. In contrast, the ZnO NWs and the ZnO@TiO2 core-shell samples evidence a linear increase of the photocurrent with the applied potential, reaching 0.45 and 0.63 mA cm(-2) at 1.7 V vs. RHE, respectively. However, under concentrated light conditions, the TiO2 NTs demonstrate a higher increase of the performance with respect to the ZnO@TiO2 core-shells. Such material-dependent behaviours are discussed in relation with the different charge transport mechanisms and interfacial reaction kinetics, which were investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The role of key parameters such as electronic properties, specific surface area and photo-catalytic activity in the performance of these materials is discussed. Moreover, proper optimization strategies are analysed in view of increasing the efficiency of the best performing TiO2 and ZnO-based nanostructures, toward their practical application in a solar water splitting device. PMID:25715190

  15. TiO2 supported over porous silica photocatalysts for pesticide degradation using solar light: Part 2. Silica prepared using acrylic acid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mangalampalli V Phanikrishna; Kumari, Valluri Durga; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju

    2010-03-15

    An acrylic acid emulsion mixture is used for synthesis of novel porous silica (E-Si) material. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar light irradiation for isoproturon (herbicide) degradation is drastically increased when dispersed over E-Si support using solid state dispersion (SSD) technique. The composite material is characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-vis DRS, SEM and TEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the composite catalysts are evaluated for different parameters. The 5 wt% TiO2/E-Si is found to be highly active for isoproturon degradation. PMID:19962829

  16. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles Preferentially Induce Cell Death in Transformed Cells in a Bak/Bax-Independent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanglong; Eaton, John W.; Li, Chi

    2012-01-01

    While the cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been under intense investigation, the molecular mechanisms of this cytotoxicity remain unknown. Here we investigated the influence of oncogenic transformation and a major apoptotic signaling pathway on cellular responses to TiO2 nanoparticles. Isogenic wild-type (WT) and apoptosis-resistant (Bak−/−Bax−/−) cell lines with and without tumorigenic transformation were examined. TiO2 nanoparticles preferentially reduced viability of tumorigenic cells in a dose-dependent fashion compared with their untransformed counterparts. Importantly, the elevated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles was independent of a major Bak/Bax-dependent apoptosis pathway. Because transformation does not affect cellular fluid-phase endocytosis or nanoparticle uptake, it is likely that the increased cytotoxicity in tumor cells is due to the interaction between TiO2 nanoparticles and the lysosomal compartment. Overall, our data indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity preferentially in transformed cells independent of a major apoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:23185639

  17. A facile approach for high surface area electrospun TiO2 nanostructures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Arun, T A; Madhavan, Asha Anish; Chacko, Daya K; Anjusree, G S; Deepak, T G; Thomas, Sara; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2014-03-28

    A rice-shaped TiO2-ZnO composite was prepared by electrospinning a mixture comprising the precursors of TiO2 and ZnO in polyvinyl acetate polymer dissolved in N,N-dimethyl acetamide. The electrospun nanofibers upon heat treatment in air resulted in collapse of the continuous fiber morphology and the formation of the rice-shaped TiO2-ZnO composite. The TiO2-ZnO composite was then treated with dilute acetic acid under hydrothermal conditions to etch ZnO from the TiO2-ZnO composite to get coral-shaped anisotropic TiO2. The structural anisotropy of TiO2 produced by the selective etching of ZnO resulted in a high surface area of 148 m(2) g(-1) for the TiO2. The initial and final materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and XPS spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. The utility of the anisotropic TiO2 in photovoltaics and photocatalysis was explored. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using the TiO2 showed a conversion efficiency of 6.54% as against 4.8% for a control experiment with the rice-shaped TiO2. The anisotropic TiO2 also showed good photocatalysis in the degradation of methyl orange dye and phenol. PMID:24481057

  18. Sol-Gel-derived TiO2-SiO2 implant coatings for direct tissue attachment. Part II: Evaluation of cell response.

    PubMed

    Areva, Sami; Aäritalo, Virpi; Tuusa, Sari; Jokinen, Mika; Lindén, Mika; Peltola, Timo

    2007-08-01

    Silica-releasing sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 coatings with tailored nanostructure were evaluated in fibroblast and osteoblast cell cultures. The adhesion of both fibroblasts and osteoblasts proceeded within two hours. The highest fibroblast proliferation activities were observed on the TiO2-SiO2 (70:30) and (30:70) coatings. However, the cell layer on TiO2-SiO2 (30:70) coating was disordered. Prolonged osteoblast activity was observed on the coatings as a function of increased amount of released silica. At day 21 the surfaces were fully covered by the calcified nodules and extracellular matrix except for the coatings TiO2-SiO2 (10:90) i.e. having the highest SiO2 amount. The results suggested that TiO2-SiO2 (70:30) was the best for fibroblasts and TiO2-SiO2 (30:70) for osteoblasts. The applicability of the sol-gel derived TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 coatings as an alternative for the calcium phosphate based implant coatings are discussed. PMID:17483880

  19. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 on ZnO-nanorod layer for high-efficiency electrochemiluminescence cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chansri, Pakpoom; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2016-02-01

    In this research paper, we present the fabrication of an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) cell with TiO2 on ZnO-nanorod electrodes via the dip-coating technique. The TiO2 nanoparticles coated on ZnO nanorods (TiO2-ZNRs) were grown on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass by the dip-coating technique. The electrode of TiO2-ZNRs for ECL cells has the structure F-doped SnO2 (FTO) glass/Ru(II) complex [Ru(bpy)32+]/TiO2-ZNRs/FTO glass. The TiO2-ZNRs were coated on FTO glass by spin-coating and dip-coating methods. The X-ray diffraction system, scanning electron microscope, and spectral brightness analyzer were used to confirm the successful formation of the structure and the morphological properties. The threshold voltage at the start of light emission was 2.25 V for TiO2-ZNRs and was lower than 3.25 V for bare FTO. The threshold voltage was l2.5 V for ZNRs. The electrical and optical properties of the TiO2-ZNRs ECL cell were 30.76 cd/m2 light intensity, 0.067 mA output current, 0.268 cd/A (at 9.67 mA/cm2) current efficiency, and 0.068 lm/W ECL efficiency at 5 V and 60 Hz. The peak intensity of the TiO2-ZNRs-based ECL cell at a wavelength of 621 nm exhibited a dark orange color and was independent of the type of electrode used. The use of TiO2-ZNRs could improve the ECL efficiency and long-lifetime stability.

  20. Enhanced in vitro angiogenic behaviour of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on thermally oxidized TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ai Wen; Liau, Ling Ling; Chua, Kien Hui; Ahmad, Roslina; Akbar, Sheikh Ali; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2016-02-01

    One of the major challenges in bone grafting is the lack of sufficient bone vascularization. A rapid and stable bone vascularization at an early stage of implantation is essential for optimal functioning of the bone graft. To address this, the ability of in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces fabricated via thermal oxidation method to enhance the angiogenic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. The cellular responses of HUVECs on TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces were studied through cell adhesion, cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation, growth factors secretion (VEGF and BFGF), and angiogenic-endogenic-associated gene (VEGF, VEGFR2, BFGF, PGF, HGF, Ang-1, VWF, PECAM-1 and ENOS) expression analysis after 2 weeks of cell seeding. Our results show that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, formation of capillary-like tube networks and growth factors secretion of HUVECs, as well as leading to higher expression level of all angiogenic-endogenic-associated genes, in comparison to unmodified control surfaces. These beneficial effects suggest the potential use of such surface nanostructures to be utilized as an advantageous interface for bone grafts as they can promote angiogenesis, which improves bone vascularization.

  1. Enhanced in vitro angiogenic behaviour of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on thermally oxidized TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ai Wen; Liau, Ling Ling; Chua, Kien Hui; Ahmad, Roslina; Akbar, Sheikh Ali; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in bone grafting is the lack of sufficient bone vascularization. A rapid and stable bone vascularization at an early stage of implantation is essential for optimal functioning of the bone graft. To address this, the ability of in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces fabricated via thermal oxidation method to enhance the angiogenic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. The cellular responses of HUVECs on TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces were studied through cell adhesion, cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation, growth factors secretion (VEGF and BFGF), and angiogenic-endogenic-associated gene (VEGF, VEGFR2, BFGF, PGF, HGF, Ang-1, VWF, PECAM-1 and ENOS) expression analysis after 2 weeks of cell seeding. Our results show that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, formation of capillary-like tube networks and growth factors secretion of HUVECs, as well as leading to higher expression level of all angiogenic-endogenic-associated genes, in comparison to unmodified control surfaces. These beneficial effects suggest the potential use of such surface nanostructures to be utilized as an advantageous interface for bone grafts as they can promote angiogenesis, which improves bone vascularization. PMID:26883761

  2. Enhanced in vitro angiogenic behaviour of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on thermally oxidized TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ai Wen; Liau, Ling Ling; Chua, Kien Hui; Ahmad, Roslina; Akbar, Sheikh Ali; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in bone grafting is the lack of sufficient bone vascularization. A rapid and stable bone vascularization at an early stage of implantation is essential for optimal functioning of the bone graft. To address this, the ability of in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces fabricated via thermal oxidation method to enhance the angiogenic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. The cellular responses of HUVECs on TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces were studied through cell adhesion, cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation, growth factors secretion (VEGF and BFGF), and angiogenic-endogenic-associated gene (VEGF, VEGFR2, BFGF, PGF, HGF, Ang-1, VWF, PECAM-1 and ENOS) expression analysis after 2 weeks of cell seeding. Our results show that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, formation of capillary-like tube networks and growth factors secretion of HUVECs, as well as leading to higher expression level of all angiogenic-endogenic-associated genes, in comparison to unmodified control surfaces. These beneficial effects suggest the potential use of such surface nanostructures to be utilized as an advantageous interface for bone grafts as they can promote angiogenesis, which improves bone vascularization. PMID:26883761

  3. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on adipose derived stromal cell differentiation, morphology, ECM deposition and its susceptibility to bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironava, Tatsiana; Xu, Yan; Rafailovich, Miriam

    The growing annual production of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles is proportional to an increase in the chances of occupational and consumer exposure. Considering, that these nanoparticles are currently being used in multiple personal care products many concerns have arisen about their health impact. Human skin is in constant contact with the external environment and is one of the most important routes of exposure to TiO2. In this study we have investigated the effect of two forms of TiO2, rutile and anatase, on human adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs). Here, we focus on the effects of TiO2 exposure on intracellular lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers; on whether different forms of TiO2 have similar effects on cell function; and whether nanoparticle localization inside cells correlates with loss of cell function. In addition presence of bacteria on the skin is taken into account in its complex interaction with ADSCs and TiO2 nanoparticles. Altogether, the present study indicates that nanosized TiO2 particles adversely effects the differentiation of ADSCs, have profound effects on cell function and increase the rate of bacterial infection.

  4. The Osteogenic Properties of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cultures on TiO2 Sol-Gel-Derived Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Grzesiak, Jakub; Siudzińska, Anna; Marędziak, Monika; Donesz-Sikorska, Anna; Krzak, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the bone implants is a crucial factor determining the successful tissue regeneration. The aim of this work was to compare cellular behavior and osteogenic properties of rat adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on metallic substrate covered with TiO2 sol-gel-derived nanolayer. The morphology, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation potential of both ASCs and BMSCs propagated on the biomaterials were examined. The potential for osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and BMSCs was determined based on the presence of specific markers of osteogenesis, that is, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCL). Additionally, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular matrix was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Obtained results showed that TiO2 layer influenced proliferation activity of ASCs, which manifested by shortening of population doubling time and increase of OPN secretion. However, characteristic features of cells morphology and growth pattern of cultures prompted us to conclude that ultrathin TiO2 layer might also enhance osteodifferentiation of BMSCs. Therefore in our opinion, both populations of MSCs should be used for biological evaluation of biomaterials compatibility, such results may enhance the area of investigations related to regenerative medicine. PMID:25710015

  5. Distinctive toxicity of TiO2 rutile/anatase mixed phase nanoparticles on Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Kirsten; Fenoglio, Ivana; Carella, Emanuele; Kolling, Julia; Albrecht, Catrin; Boots, Agnes W; Förster, Irmgard; Schins, Roel P F

    2012-03-19

    Titanium dioxide has a long-standing use as a food additive. Micrometric powders are, e.g., applied as whiteners in confectionary or dairy products. Possible hazards of ingested nanometric TiO(2) particles for humans and the potential influence of varying specific surface area (SSA) are currently under discussion. Five TiO(2)-samples were analyzed for purity, crystallinity, primary particle size, SSA, ζ potential, and aggregation/agglomeration. Their potential to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage was evaluated in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Only anatase-rutile containing samples, in contrast to the pure anatase samples, induced significant LDH leakage or mild DNA damage (Fpg-comet assay). Evaluation of the metabolic competence of the cells (WST-1 assay) revealed a highly significant correlation between the SSA of the anatase samples and cytotoxicity. The anatase/rutile samples showed higher toxicity per unit surface area than the pure anatase powders. However, none of the samples affected cellular markers of oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that both SSA and crystallinity are critical determinants of TiO(2)-toxicity toward intestinal cells. PMID:22263745

  6. The Effects of TiO2 Nanodot Films with RGD Immobilization on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Meng-Liu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Zhu, Li-Qin; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Hui-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Cell sheet technology is a new strategy in tissue engineering which could be possible to implant into the body without a scaffold. In order to get an integrated cell sheet, a light-induced method via UV365 is used for cell sheet detachment from culture dishes. In this study, we investigated the possibility of cell detachment and growth efficiency on TiO2 nanodot films with RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet technology. Mouse calvaria-derived, preosteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured on TiO2 nanodot films with (TR) or without (TN) RGD immobilization. After cells were cultured with or without 5.5 mW/cm2 UV365 illumination, cell morphology, cell viability, osteogenesis related RNA and protein expression, and cell detachment ability were compared, respectively. Light-induced cell detachment was possible when cells were cultured on TR samples. Also, cells cultured on TR samples showed better cell viability, alongside higher protein and RNA expression than on TN samples. This study provides a new biomaterial for light-induced cell/cell sheet harvesting. PMID:26417596

  7. Bandgap tailoring of in-situ nitrogen-doped TiO2 sputtered films intended for electrophotocatalytic applications under solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delegan, N.; Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P.; El Khakani, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a reactive RF-sputtering process permitting the in-situ nitrogen doping of TiO2 films in order to shift their photoactivity from UV to visible range. By carefully controlling the relative nitrogen-to-argon mass flow rate ratio (within the 0%-25% range) in the sputter deposition chamber, TiO2:N films were grown with nitrogen contents ranging from 0 to 6.2 at. %, as determined by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A systematic investigation of the crystalline structure of the TiO2:N films, as a function of their N content, revealed that low N contents (0.2-0.3 at. %) induce crystallization in the rutile phase while higher N contents (≥1.4 at. %) were accompanied with the recovery of the anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ˜35 nm. By using both UV-Vis absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, we were able to quantitatively determine the bandgap (Eg) variation of the TiO2:N films as a function of their N content. Thus, we have demonstrated that the Eg of the TiO2:N films effectively narrows from 3.2 eV down to a value as low as ˜2.3 eV for the optimal N doping concentration of 3.4 at. % (higher N incorporation does not translate into further red shifting of the TiO2:N films' Eg). The photoactivity of the TiO2:N films under visible light was confirmed through electro-photocatalytic decomposition of chlortetracycline (CTC, an emerging water pollutant) under standard 1.5AM solar radiation. Thus, CTC degradation efficiencies of up to 98% were achieved with 2 hours process cycles under simulated solar light. Moreover, the electro-photocatalytic performance of the TiO2:N films is shown to be directly correlated to their optoelectronic properties (namely their bandgap narrowing).

  8. The detrimental influence of bacteria (E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella) on the degradation of organic compounds (and vice versa) in TiO2 photocatalysis and near-neutral photo-Fenton processes under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Moncayo-Lasso, Alejandro; Mora-Arismendi, Luis Enrique; Rengifo-Herrera, Julián Andrés; Sanabria, Janeth; Benítez, Norberto; Pulgarin, César

    2012-05-01

    TiO2 photocatalytic and near-neutral photo-Fenton processes were tested under simulated solar light to degrade two models of natural organic matter - resorcinol (R) (which should interact strongly with TiO2 surfaces) and hydroquinone (H) - separately or in the presence of bacteria. Under similar oxidative conditions, inactivation of Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhimurium was carried out in the absence and in the presence of 10 mg L(-1) of R and H. The 100% abatement of R and H by using a TiO2 photocatalytic process in the absence of bacteria was observed in 90 min for R and in 120 min for H, while in the presence of microorganisms abatement was only of 55% and 35% for R and H, respectively. Photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5.0 completely removed R and H in 40 min, whereas in the presence of microorganisms their degradation was of 60% to 80%. On the other hand, 2 h of TiO2 photocatalytic process inactivated S. typhimurium and E. coli cells in three and six orders of magnitude, respectively, while S. sonnei was completely inactivated in 10 min. In the presence of R or H, the bacterial inactivation via TiO2 photocatalysis was significantly decreased. With photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5 all the microorganisms tested were completely inactivated in 40 min of simulated solar light irradiation in the absence of organics. When R and H were present, bacterial photo-Fenton inactivation was less affected. The obtained results suggest that in both TiO2 and iron photo-assisted processes, there is competition between organic substances and bacteria simultaneously present for generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This competition is most important in heterogeneous systems, mainly when there are strong organic-TiO2 surface interactions, as in the resorcinol case, suggesting that bacteria-TiO2 interactions could play a key role in photocatalytic cell inactivation processes. PMID:22370626

  9. A photoelectrochemical methanol fuel cell based on aligned TiO2 nanorods decorated graphene photoanode.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Guowen; Jing, Lin; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Chao; Yan, Yi-Ming

    2016-02-11

    We report the photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation of methanol on a rationally designed graphene-TiO2 nanorod array (G-TNR) photoanode. A PEC methanol fuel cell was constructed by coupling the G-TNR photoanode with a cathode. This study raises a conceptual fuel cell that realizes the synergistic energy conversion of chemical energy and solar energy. PMID:26741738

  10. A Brown Mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF Composite with an Extremely High Quantum Yield of Solar Energy Photocatalysis for H2 Evolution.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Qiu, Bocheng; Tian, Baozhu; Anpo, Masakazu; Che, Michel

    2015-04-24

    A brown mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF composite with a high fluorine dopant concentration (8.01 at%) is synthesized by a vacuum activation method. It exhibits an excellent solar absorption and a record-breaking quantum yield (Φ = 46%) and a high photon-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (η = 34%,) for solar photocatalytic H2 production, which are all higher than that of the black hydrogen-doped TiO2 (Φ = 35%, η = 24%). The MCFs serve to improve the adsorption of F atoms onto the TiO2 /MCF composite surface, which after the formation of oxygen vacancies by vacuum activation, facilitate the abundant substitution of these vacancies with F atoms. The decrease of recombination sites induced by high-concentration F doping and the synergistic effect between lattice Ti(3+)-F and surface Ti(3+)-F are responsible for the enhanced lifetime of electrons, the observed excellent absorption of solar light, and the photocatalytic production of H2 for these catalysts. The as-prepared F-doped composite is an ideal solar light-driven photocatalyst with great potential for applications ranging from the remediation of environmental pollution to the harnessing of solar energy for H2 production. PMID:25511009

  11. Cyto- and genotoxicity of ultrafine TiO2 particles in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Wang, He

    2007-04-01

    Titanium dioxide is frequently used in the production of paints, paper, plastics, welding rod-coating material, and cosmetics, because of its low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that nano-sized or ultrafine TiO(2) (UF-TiO(2)) (<100 nm in diameter) can generate pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumor in rats. Cytotoxicity induced by UF-TiO(2) in rat lung alveolar macrophages was also observed. This generates great concern about the possible adverse effects of UF-TiO(2) for humans. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of UF-TiO(2) were investigated using the methyl tetrazolium cytotoxicity (MTT) assay, the population growth assay, the apoptosis assay by flow cytometry, the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, the comet assay, and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation assay. WIL2-NS cells were incubated for 6, 24 and 48 h with 0, 26, 65 and 130 microg/ml UF-TiO(2). Significant decreases in viability were seen in the MTT assay at higher doses; for example, 61, 7 and 2% relative viability at 130 microg/ml for 6, 24 and 48-h exposure (P<0.01). A dose-dependent relationship was observed, while a time-dependent relationship was seen only at the highest dose (130 microg/ml) after exposure for 24 and 48 h. Treatment with 130 microg/ml UF-TiO(2) induced approximately 2.5-fold increases in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (P<0.01). In addition, a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index was observed by the CBMN assay (P<0.05). In the comet assay, treatment with 65 microg/ml UF-TiO(2) induced approximately 5-fold increases in olive tail moment (P<0.05). In the HPRT mutation assay, treatment with 130 microg/ml UF-TiO(2) induced approximately 2.5-fold increases in the mutation frequency (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that UF-TiO(2) can cause genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in cultured human cells. PMID:17223607

  12. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. PMID:19863989

  13. Facile fabrication of TiO2-graphene composite with enhanced photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Peining, Zhu; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Shengjie, Peng; Shengyuan, Yang; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-02-01

    We report the fabrication of one-dimensional TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite by a facile and one-step method of electrospinning. The unique nanostructured composite showed a significant enhancement in the photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties in comparison to TiO(2) as demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cells and photodegradation of methyl orange. PMID:22292504

  14. Self-standing Hybrid Nanofibers of TiO2 and TiO2/Hydroxyapatite: Application in Photocatalytic and Photovoltatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhani, Parvaneh

    2012-02-01

    A Hybrid fibers of Hydroxyapatite TiO2, HAp/TiO2 with modified photocatalytic properties were synthesized using a template method. Liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique was employed to grow TiO2 layers on cellulose fibers, followed by deposition of HAp from a pseudo body solution, and finally heat removing the cellulose template. The resulting material has a fibrous structure, mimicking the cellulose fibers shape, and have a typical surface area of 114 m^2/g, compared to 74 m^2/g for pure TiO2 fibers. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation tests showed that addition of HAp to TiO2 fibers increased the adsorptive from 17% to 35%. Nano particulated TiO2 fibers as one-dimensional long structures were introduced into TiO2 P25 nano particle films using co-electrophoretic deposition. This resulted in less porosity and higher roughness factor of the films that provided more favorable conditions for electron transport. The films used as the photoanode of a dye solar cell (DSC) produced 65% higher photovoltaic efficiency. TiO2 fibers can be excellent binders in single-step, organic-free electrophoretic deposition of TiO2 for DSC photoanode.

  15. Electrospun Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers and their in vitro biocompatibility: prospective matrix for satellite cell adhesion and cultivation.

    PubMed

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Van Ba, Hoa; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Hwang, I H

    2013-03-01

    We report the fabrication of novel Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers with the improved cellular response for potential tissue engineering applications. In this study, Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers were prepared by facile sol-gel electrospinning using titanium isopropoxide and iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. The obtained electrospun nanofibers were vacuum dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 500 °C. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized composite nanofibers was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. To examine the in vitro cytotoxicity, satellite cells were treated with as-prepared Fe3O4/TiO2 and the viability of cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay at regular time intervals. The morphological features of unexposed satellite cells and exposed to Fe3O4/TiO2 composite were examined with a phase contrast microscope whereas the quantification of cell viability was carried out via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphology of the cells attached to hybrid matrix was observed by Bio-SEM. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the satellite cells could attach to the Fe3O4/TiO2 composite nanofibers after being cultured. We observed that Fe3O4-TiO2 composite nanofibers could support cell adhesion and growth. Results from this study therefore suggest that Fe3O4/TiO2 composite scaffold with small diameters (approximately 200 nm) can mimic the natural extracellular matrix well and provide possibilities for diverse applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25427477

  16. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and organic synthesis. PMID:24198485

  17. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Bayram; Telli, Hakan; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Başaran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO2 nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO2 owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO2, and TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO2 is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO2/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO2 showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO2, pure TiO2, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  18. Proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells by surface-modified in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ai Wen; Tay, Lelia; Chua, Kien Hui; Ahmad, Roslina; Ali Akbar, Sheikh; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    Two important criteria of an ideal biomaterial in the field of stem cells research are to regulate the cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency and to direct the differentiation into a specific cell lineage when desired. The present study describes the influence of TiO2 nanofibrous surface structures on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). TiO2 nanofiber arrays were produced in situ onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate via a thermal oxidation process and the successful fabrication of these nanostructures was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and contact angle measurement. ADSCs were seeded on two types of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces (TiO2 nanofibers and flat control), and their morphology, proliferation, and stemness expression were analyzed using FESEM, AlamarBlue assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results show that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly enhanced proliferation on the TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces compared to the flat control surfaces. The greater proliferation ability of TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces was further confirmed by the results of cell cycle assay. More importantly, TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly upregulate the expressions of stemness markers Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, and Nestin. These results demonstrate that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces can be used to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation while simultaneously maintaining the stemness of ADSCs, thereby representing a promising approach for their potential application in the field of bone tissue engineering as well as regenerative therapies. PMID:25473278

  19. Diatom-templated TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity: biomimetics of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiao; Chen, Daomei; Li, Yongli; Shao, Junlong; Xie, Jiao; Sun, Yuejuan; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2013-11-01

    The siliceous frustules with sophisticated optical structure endow diatoms with superior solar light-harvesting abilities for effective photosynthesis. The preserved frustules of diatom ( Cocconeis placentula) cells, as biophotonic crystals, were thus employed as both hard templates and silicon resources to synthesize TiO2 photocatalyst. Characterizations by a combination of physicochemical techniques proved that the bio-inspired sample is TiO2-coated SiO2 with biogenic C self-doped in. It was found that the synthesized composites exhibited similar morphologies to the original diatom templates. In comparison with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, the C-doped TiO2/SiO2 catalyst exhibited more light absorption in the visible region and higher photocatalytic efficiency for photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light due to the biomorphic hierarchical structures, TiO2 coating and C-doping.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of TiO2 Nanoparticle Thin Films using Electrophoresis Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Ryo; Ito, Kazuatsu; Sato, Yuuki; Mori, Yasushige; Adachi, Motonari; Yoshikado, Shinzo

    2011-10-01

    Thin films of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited by constant-current electrophoresis deposition in ethanol using colloid of various concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Thin films deposited in colloid of high concentration had the high density, no apparent cracks and the higher optical transparency. The eficiency of the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells was improved using thin film of TiO2 nanoparticle deposited in colloid with high concentration. It was suggested that the thin film with high quality could be deposited by making the velocity of a TiO2 nanoparticle low because the linkage between TiO2 nanoparticles were promoted by oriented attachment mechanism.