Sample records for tio2 solar cell

  1. Laser processing of nanocrystalline TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Laser processing of nanocrystalline TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells H. Kim,a) G. P­20 m thick) layers incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells. Laser direct-write is a laser techniques to produce porous nc- TiO2 films required for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye solar cells

  2. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using TiO 2 coated carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Young Lee; P. S. Alegaonkar; Ji-Beom Yoo

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated a dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using TiO2 coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (TiO2-CNTs). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have excellent electrical conductivity and good chemical stability. We introduced CNTs in DSCs to improve solar cell performance through reduction of series resistance. TiO2-CNTs were obtained by Sol–Gel method. Compared with a conventional TiO2 cell, the TiO2-CNTs content (0.1 wt.%) cell showed ?50%

  3. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Yuan Dai; Kong-Jia Wang

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as

  4. TiO2-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yun-Hwa; Kim, Hyunho; Zong, Kyukwan; Pyo, Myoungho

    2012-05-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) comprised of TiO2 porous films with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were prepared at low temperature (150 degrees C). MWNT were incorporated to facilitate the fast electron transport resulting from metallic properties of carbon nanotubes. In order to enhance the effect of MWNT incorporation, TiO2-grafted MWNT (TiO2-MWNT) was synthesized which can increase the electron transport rate further due to proximity of TiO2 to MWNT The presence of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of MWNT was confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As in the DSSCs prepared through high temperature sintering of photoanodes, the maximum content of MWNT incorporated into TiO2 was limited to 0.01 wt% relative to TiO2. TiO2 photoanodes including TiO2-grafted MWNT (TiO2-MWNT/P25) enhanced the cell efficiencies by ca. 28% and 14%, relative to TiO2 photoanodes without and with MWNT respectively, reaching the efficiency of 5.0%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was utilized to examine the effect of incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles grafted to MWNT on the cell performance. PMID:22852357

  5. DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200349 Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Solar Cells: Rational Structural and Surface

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200349 Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Solar Cells: Rational Structural employed to substitute TiO2 nanoparticles for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. To fur- ther improve the performance of dye-sensitized TiO2 nanotube solar cells, efforts have been directed toward the optimization

  6. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Free-standing TiO2 Nanotube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaehyun Kim; Savas Delikanli; Samanthe Perera; Hao Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on free-standing TiO2 nanotube arrays as electrodes have been fabricated. It was shown that highly ordered vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays offer a large surface area for adsorption of dye molecules or quantum dots and provide a direct pathway for fast electron transport. This cuts down carrier recombination and enhances photoconversion efficiency. TiO2 nanotube arrays were

  7. Quantum Dot TiO2-Ge Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Carena; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kauzlarich, Susan; Carter, Sue

    2014-03-01

    Colloidal germanium (Ge) quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive solar materials due to their low toxicity compared to Pb- or Cd- based nanocrystals (NC), low cost, and optimal, tunable bandgap for both increased IR response and potential power conversion efficiency (?) boosts from Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG). We report on the successful fabrication and characterization of spun-cast donor/acceptor type TiO2-Ge CQD solar cells utilizing Ge colloidal quantum dots (CQD) synthesized via a facile microwave method as the active layer. We find that our Ge QD size performance-related trends are similar to other QD systems studied. Additionally, our best heterojunction devices achieved short circuit currents (JSC) of 450 ?A and open circuit voltages (VOC) of 0.335 V, resulting in ? = 0.022 %. While this represents significant increases over previous Ge CQD PV (85 % over hybrid Ge-P3HT PV, 350 % over Ge NC PV), our photocurrents are still much lower than other NC systems. Analysis of intensity-dependent J-V characteristics reveal that our currents are limited by a space-charge region that forms leading to unbalanced charge extraction. We conclude by discussing a variety of film treatments and device structures we have tested to increase JSC.

  8. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    -called third generation of solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs2,3 and organic phoEnhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 nanotubes can be effectively controlled for the suitable use for a hybrid solar cell by varying the diameter

  9. Rutile TiO2 nanowire-based perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qinglong; Sheng, Xia; Li, Yingxuan; Feng, Xinjian; Xu, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Different lengths of rutile TiO2 nanowires (NW) with wide-open space for effective material filling were used as photoanodes for perovskite solar cells. Cells with 900 nm nanowires as photoanodes exhibit a current density of 22 mA cm(-2) and an efficiency of 11.7%, outperforming the reported TiO2 nanowire-based perovskite solar cells. PMID:25317656

  10. Electron transport and recombination in polycrystalline TiO2 nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Enache-Pommer; Janice E. Boercker; Eray S. Aydil

    2007-01-01

    Electron transport and recombination time constants in dye-sensitized solar cells made from TiO2 nanowires were determined using transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements. The magnitude of the electron transport time (10?2 to 10?3 s) and its dependence on the illumination intensity were similar to those reported for dye-sensitized solar cells made from TiO2 nanoparticles indicating that electron capture and release by

  11. Influence of TiO 2\\/electrode interface on electron transport properties in back contact dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiro Fuke; Atsushi Fukui; Ashraful Islam; Ryoichi Komiya; Ryohsuke Yamanaka; Hiroshi Harima; Liyuan Han

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the TiO2\\/electrode interface was investigated on electron transport properties at the interface and in TiO2 porous film in back contact dye-sensitized solar cells. Analysis of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with Ti and TCO indicated that electron transport properties at TiO2\\/Ti and TiO2\\/TCO interfaces are similar despite the former's lack of a ‘built-in potential’. The dependence of short

  12. Hydrogenated TiO2 film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogenated TiO2 film was obtained by annealing TiO2 film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO2 films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO2 film and pristine TiO2 film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO2 film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO2 surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO2 as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO2 film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO2 to generate more photocurrent.

  13. Natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods assembly of broccoli shape based solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yuvapragasam, Akila; Muthukumarasamy, N; Agilan, S; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Senthil, T S; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2015-07-01

    TiO2 nanorods based thin films with rutile phase have been synthesized using template free low temperature hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the prepared TiO2 samples were made of TiO2 nanorods and the nanorods had arranged by itself to form a broccoli like shape. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared TiO2 samples exhibit rutile phase. The grown TiO2 nanorods had been sensitized using the flowers of Sesbania (S) grandiflora, leaves of Camellia (C) sinensis and roots of Rubia (R) tinctorum. Dye sensitized solar cells had been fabricated using the natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods based thin film photoelectrode and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current density were found to lie in the range of 0.45-0.6V and 5.6-6.4mA/cm(2) respectively. The photovoltaic performance of all the fabricated natural dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells indicate that natural dyes have the potential to be used as effective sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:25974906

  14. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by UV–O 3 treatment of TiO 2 layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoung-Kuk Lee; Jang-Joo Kim

    2009-01-01

    Solar conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells was improved by UV–O3 treatment of TiO2 before and\\/or after sintering. The enhancement was resulted from the removal of the residual organics originated from the TiO2 precursor pastes, increased adsorption of dyes to the TiO2, surface, and longer diffusion length and shorter electron transit time of electrons through the TiO2 mesoscopic structure. The

  15. Preparation of mesoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, K. Stanly; Abraham, P. A.; Panicker, N. Rani; Pramanik, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) introduced by Prof.M.Gratzel is a low cost alternative to the existing silicon based solar cells. Solar light conversion efficiency of the current DSSC can be further improved by replacing the conventional anatase TiO2 having lesser surface area with mesoporous high surface area anatase TiO2. This paper describes the sol-gel synthesis of mesoporous high surface area nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 by the controlled hydrolysis and condensation of titanium isopropoxide followed by heat treatment. XRD reveals that xerogel heat treated at 500°C is phase pure anatase. Crystallite size of prepared anatase TiO2 calculated using Scherrer equation was found to be 15 nm. BET analysis of prepared anatase TiO2 exhibited relatively high specific surface area of 97 m2/g, which is found to be almost double to that of the anatase TiO2 generally used for DSSC photo anode fabrication. The pore size distribution (BJH plot) also revealed the mesoporous nature of prepared anatase TiO2 having an average pore size of 7.4 nm.

  16. Efficient inverted solar cells using TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bang-Ying Yu; Ating Tsai; Shu-Ping Tsai; Ken-Tsung Wong; Yang Yang; Chih-Wei Chu; Jing-Jong Shyue

    2008-01-01

    Using a vertical titania (TiO2) nanotube array, an inverted polymer solar cell was constructed with power conversion efficiency up to 2.71%. In this study, self-organized TiO2 nanotubes arrays were grown by anodizing Ti metal in glycerol electrolyte containing 0.5 wt% NH4F and 1.0 wt% H2O with 20 V potential. The tube length (~100 nm) was controlled by the thickness of

  17. Porous nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojuan Fan; Claudia Swanson; David Rogow; Akhilesh Tripathi; Scott Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We report a rapid and low cost method to fabricate porous TiO2 thin films used as anode electrodes for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) gel was used as template to define a network co-structure with alkali titanium oxide, then spin cast on substrates. After thermally removing polymer, smooth and crack-free large area TiO2 thin films with fine pores

  18. TiO2 derived by titanate route from electrospun nanostructures for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, A Sreekumaran; Zhu, Peining; Babu, V Jagadeesh; Yang, Shengyuan; Krishnamoorthy, Thirumal; Murugan, Rajendiran; Peng, Shengjie; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-04-17

    We report the use of highly porous, dense, and anisotropic TiO(2) derived from electrospun TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanostructures through titanate route in dye-sensitized solar cells. The titanate-derived TiO(2) of high surface areas exhibited superior photovoltaic parameters (efficiency > 7%) in comparison to the respective electrospun TiO(2) nanomaterials and commercially available P-25. PMID:22469013

  19. Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ta-Chuan; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The main purposes of this study are replacing conventional hydro-thermal method by microwave heating using water as reaction medium to rapidly synthesize TiO2.Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was hydrolyzed in water. The solution is subsequently processed with microwave heating for crystal growth. The reaction time could be shortened into few minutes. Then we chose different acids as dispersion agents to prepare TiO2 paste for investigating the effects of dispersion on the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photovoltaic performance of the microwave-assisted synthesized TiO2 achieved power conversion efficiency of 6.31% under AM 1.5 G condition (100 mW/cm2). This PCE value is compatible with that of the devices made from commercial TiO2.

  20. Nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Seung-Min; Jung, Hyun; Lee, Young-Jun; Park, Nam-Gyu; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-05-01

    A new strategy was attempted to fabricate photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells through a reassembly technique (exfoliation and restacking) to increase solar activity. A random hybridization between exfoliated layered titanate and TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles resulted in a ‘house-of-cards’ structure, which might increase the mesoporosity and surface area of TiO2 film. In the XRD patterns of the present nanocomposite, no (00 l) peaks could be seen due to the random hybridization between layered titanate and TiO2 nanosol particles. According to the N2 adsorption desorption isotherms, the resulting nanohybrids are fairly porous with a high specific surface area (SBET=˜190 m2/g, mean pore size=6 nm), which leads to an efficient dye adsorption. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (?) of the present nanocomposite film is about 100 times higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticle one under the standard AM 1.0 irradiation condition, suggesting that the mesoporous nature of TiO2 film would play an important role for efficient photovoltaic cell performance.

  1. Sol–gel TiO 2 antireflective films for textured monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. San Vicente; A. Morales; M. T. Gutiérrez

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is validate the sol–gel method as a procedure to prepare antireflective films (AR) for textured monocrystalline solar cells. In this way, sol–gel TiO2 films were deposited on both microscope slides and textured monocrystalline silicon solar cells by dip coating. The solutions were prepared by mixing tetrabutyl ortotitanate, water and ethanol using a basic compound as

  2. Nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells sensitized with InAs quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pingrong; Zhu, Kai; Norman, Andrew G; Ferrere, Suzanne; Frank, Arthur J; Nozik, Arthur J

    2006-12-21

    We report nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells sensitized with InAs quantum dots. InAs quantum dots of different sizes were synthesized and incorporated in solar cell devices. Efficient charge transfer from InAs quantum dots to TiO2 particles was achieved without deliberate modification of the quantum dot capping layer. A power conversion efficiency of about 1.7% under 5 mW/cm2 was achieved; this is relatively high for a nanocrystalline metal oxide solar cell sensitized with presynthesized quantum dots, but this efficiency could only be achieved at low light intensity. At one sun, the efficiency decreased to 0.3%. The devices are stable for at least weeks under room light in air. PMID:17165992

  3. TiO2-Coated Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Solar Cells with Efficiency of 15%

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Enzheng; Zhang, Luhui; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Yi; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Zhang, Sen; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-01-01

    Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene or conducting polymers with conventional silicon wafers leads to promising solar cell architectures with rapidly improved power conversion efficiency until recently. Here, we report CNT-Si junction solar cells with efficiencies reaching 15% by coating a TiO2 antireflection layer and doping CNTs with oxidative chemicals, under air mass (AM 1.5) illumination at a calibrated intensity of 100?mW/cm2 and an active device area of 15?mm2. The TiO2 layer significantly inhibits light reflectance from the Si surface, resulting in much enhanced short-circuit current (by 30%) and external quantum efficiency. Our method is simple, well-controlled, and very effective in boosting the performance of CNT-Si solar cells. PMID:23181192

  4. Facile fabrication of mesoporous TiO 2 electrodes for dye solar cells: chemical modification and repetitive coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seigo Ito; Takayuki Kitamura; Yuji Wada; Shozo Yanagida

    2003-01-01

    A chemical dispersing technique for preparing a coating paste of TiO2 nanoparticles is disclosed to fabricate mesoporous electrodes for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells. The suspension of TiO2 (P-25) powder was stirred in aqueous nitric acid at 80°C, and then evaporated to dryness, giving the nitric acid-adsorbed P-25 powder. The coating paste was obtained by mixing the nitric acid-adsorbed P-25 with

  5. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanocrystalline TiO 2 films made at low temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elias Stathatos; Yongjun Chen; Dionysios D. Dionysiou

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with enhanced performance were made by using nanocrystalline TiO2 films without any template deposited on plastic or glass substrates at low temperature. A simple and benign procedure was developed to synthesize the low-temperature TiO2 nanostructured films. According to this method, a small quantity of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) was added in an ethanolic dispersion of TiO2 powder

  6. 50 nm sized spherical TiO2 nanocrystals for highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Sang Do; Ojha, Devi Prashad; You, Ji Su; Lee, Joori; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2015-05-01

    Single crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with spherical morphology are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction under basic conditions. TiO2 NPs, selectively controlled to the sizes of 30, 40, 50, and 65 nm, are then applied to a mesoporous photoelectrode of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. In particular, a spherical TiO2 NP of 50 nm size (NP50) offers the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.19%, with JSC of 21.58 mA cm-2, VOC of 1049 mV, and FF of 0.759 while the enhancement of PCE mainly arises from the increase of VOC and FF. Furthermore, the fabricated photovoltaic devices exhibit reproducible PCE values and very little hysteresis in their J-V curves. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurement and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of the photocurrent indicate that the device employing NP50 exhibits the longest electron lifetime although the electron injection from perovskite to TiO2 is less efficient than the devices with smaller TiO2 NPs. The extended electron lifetime is attributed to the suppression of electron recombination due to optimized mesopores generated by the spherical NP50.

  7. 50 nm sized spherical TiO2 nanocrystals for highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sang Do; Ojha, Devi Prashad; You, Ji Su; Lee, Joori; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2015-05-01

    Single crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with spherical morphology are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction under basic conditions. TiO2 NPs, selectively controlled to the sizes of 30, 40, 50, and 65 nm, are then applied to a mesoporous photoelectrode of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. In particular, a spherical TiO2 NP of 50 nm size (NP50) offers the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.19%, with JSC of 21.58 mA cm(-2), VOC of 1049 mV, and FF of 0.759 while the enhancement of PCE mainly arises from the increase of VOC and FF. Furthermore, the fabricated photovoltaic devices exhibit reproducible PCE values and very little hysteresis in their J-V curves. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurement and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of the photocurrent indicate that the device employing NP50 exhibits the longest electron lifetime although the electron injection from perovskite to TiO2 is less efficient than the devices with smaller TiO2 NPs. The extended electron lifetime is attributed to the suppression of electron recombination due to optimized mesopores generated by the spherical NP50. PMID:25916796

  8. TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures: Hydrothermal fabrication and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yang, Jin; Sun, Wentao; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Arrays of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures that consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase branches were hydrothermally fabricated and employed as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Each hierarchical nanostructure array was attained in two steps. First, a primary nanorod array was synthesized in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and tetrabutyl titanate (C16H36O4Ti); subsequently, secondary branches were grown on the nanorods in aqueous solutions of ammonium hexafluorotitanate ((NH4)2TiF6) and boric acid (H3BO3). The secondary anatase branches filled part of the space among the primary rutile nanorods and gave rise to a larger surface area. Light-harvesting capability of the DSSCs with TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures as photoanodes was appreciably improved because more dye molecules could be loaded on the photoanodes and more light could be scattered inside the DSSCs. Therefore, the conversion efficiencies of the DSSCs were doubled by replacing the photoanode of primary TiO2 nanorod array with the photoanodes of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructure arrays. Furthermore, in order to reach a compromise between the photoanode surface area and the inter-nanorod space volume, the growth time of the secondary TiO2 anatase branches was optimized.

  9. Comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles applied to dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacoubi, Besma; Bennaceur, Jamila; Ben Taieb, S.; Chtourou, Rathowan

    2014-02-01

    Microcrystalline titanium oxide (TiO2) particles of anatase crystal phase were prepared by the sol-gel route, varying thermal treatment conditions (400 °C and 600 °C), for a comparison purpose with commercial TiO2 (P25). Structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) application. Both microcrystalline TiO2 particles, synthesized by the sol-gel method and obtained from the P25 powder were used to prepare a light scattering layer of the working electrode. The obtained electrodes were then immersed in a solution of N-719 (ruthenium) dye, at the ambient temperature, during 24 h. Finally, the DSSCs were assembled, the short circuit photocurrent, the open circuit photovoltage, and the power conversion efficiency were measured using an I-V measurement system. The overall conversion efficiencies for all elaborated DSSCs were proximate. A maximum efficiency of 2.3% was achieved for the sol-gel TiO2 thin film annealed at 400 °C, under one sun irradiation, with an open circuit voltage of 0.61 V and a current density of 6.54 mA/cm2. The higher efficiency value of the sol-gel TiO2 sample, annealed at 400 °C, was attributed to the uniformity of the prepared titanium oxide substrate, which provides a better surface for the dye absorption.

  10. Analysis of the electron transport properties in dye-sensitized solar cells using highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes and TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Cho, Kun-Ching; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chien, Shu-Hua; Liang, Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This study uses TiO2 nanoparticles and highly ordered anatase TiO2 nanotubes (AOTnt) as thin film photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs are assembled by single-layer and double-layer films of photoanodes and their electron transfer performance is compared. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by the sol-gel method, and AOTnts were grown on titanium foil. This study uses TiO2 nanoparticles or AOTnts to prepare single-layer photoanodes and TiO2 nanoparticles coated on an AOTnt film to fabricate double-layer photoanodes. These three different photoanodes are soaked in dye and assembled into DSSCs, and their open-loop voltage recession, electrochemical impedance, lifetime, life cycle, and effective diffusion coefficient are measured. Electron transfer efficiency of the photoanodes and light harvesting efficiency are further analyzed. The results show that the electron transfer efficiency, open-loop voltage recession, lifetime, life cycle, and effective diffusion coefficient of the DSSCs assembled using double-layer photoanodes (AOTnt-TiO2) are superior to those of single-layer photoanodes (TiO2 or AOTnt). PMID:22849158

  11. Annealing effect on Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructures for solar cell applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructures composited of vertical rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays and Sb2S3 nanoparticles were prepared on an F:SnO2 conductive glass by hydrothermal method and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method at low temperature. Sb2S3-sensitized TiO2 nanorod solar cells were assembled using the Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure as the photoanode and a polysulfide solution as an electrolyte. Annealing effects on the optical and photovoltaic properties of Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure were studied systematically. As the annealing temperatures increased, a regular red shift of the bandgap of Sb2S3 nanoparticles was observed, where the bandgap decreased from 2.25 to 1.73 eV. At the same time, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency for the nanostructured solar cells increased from 0.46% up to 1.47% as a consequence of the annealing effect. This improvement can be explained by considering the changes in the morphology, the crystalline quality, and the optical properties caused by the annealing treatment. PMID:23421351

  12. 19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact

    E-print Network

    Javey, Ali

    is applied widely as an electron contact in dye-sensitized solar cells,9,10 polymer solar cells,1119.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact Xingtian Yin *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an InP heterojunction solar cell employing

  13. Anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed (001) facets: improved photoelectric conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Fan, Jiajie; Lv, Kangle

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated based on anatase TiO2 nanosheets (TiO2-NSs) with exposed {001} facets, which were obtained by a simple one-pot hydrothermal route using HF as a morphology controlling agent and Ti(OC4H9)4 as precursor. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photoelectric conversion performances of TiO2-NSs solar cells are also compared with TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and commercial-grade Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticle (P25) solar cells at the same film thickness, and their photoelectric conversion efficiencies (?) are 4.56, 4.24 and 3.64%, respectively. The enhanced performance of the TiO2-NS solar cell is due to their good crystallization, high pore volume, large particle size and enhanced light scattering. The prepared TiO2 nanosheet film electrode should also find wide-ranging potential applications in various fields including photocatalysis, catalysis, electrochemistry, separation, purification and so on.

  14. Preparation and properties of dye-sensitized solar cell using chlorophyll derivative immobilized TiO 2 film electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Amao; Yuriko Yamada; Keiko Aoki

    2004-01-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell using the visible light sensitization of chlorophyll-a derivative, chlorine-e6 (Chl-e6) immobilized on TiO2 film was developed. From fluorescence spectrum of Chl-e6 immobilized on TiO2 film, the emission of Chl-e6 was effectively quenched by TiO2, indicating that the effective electron injection from the excited singlet state of Chl-e6 into the conduction band of TiO2 occurred. The short-circuit

  15. TiO(2) fibers enhance film integrity and photovoltaic performance for electrophoretically deposited dye solar cell photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Shooshtari, Leyla; Rahman, Masoud; Tajabadi, Fariba; Taghavinia, Nima

    2011-03-01

    Nanoparticulated TiO(2) fibers as one-dimensional long structures were introduced into TiO(2) P25 nanoparticle films using coelectrophoretic deposition. This prevented the usual crack formation occurring in wet coatings, and resulted in less porosity and higher roughness factor of the films that provided more favorable conditions for electron transport. The films used as the photoanode of a dye solar cell (DSC) produced 65% higher photovoltaic efficiency. TiO(2) fibers can be excellent binders in single-step, organic-free electrophoretic deposition of TiO(2) for DSC photoanode. PMID:21341775

  16. Nanocrystalline TiO2/ZnO thin films: fabrication and application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Won Joo; Pathan, Habib M; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-12-29

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films composed of densely packed grains were deposited onto indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates at room temperature using a chemical bath deposition technique. A layer-by-layer (LbL) process was utilized to obtain a 1.418-microm-thick TiO2/ZnO structure. The TiO2 surface was super-hydrophilic, but its hydrophilicity decreased considerably after ZnO deposition. Other TiO2/ZnO films were studied to assess their suitability as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:16375421

  17. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Späth; Jan Kroon; Ronald Kinderman; John van Roosmalen

    The Dye-sensitized nanocrystaline TiO2 solar cell (nc-DSC) developed by Grätzel (1) has the potential to reach low costs in future outdoor power applications. In addition, due to its expected ease of production and possibilities to adjust its appearance, the potential for application is very broad. When plastic foil is used as a substrate for the nc-DSC the production and application

  18. Non-linear Electron Transport Kinetics in Nanocrystalline TiO(2) Based Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    An analytical model describing electron transport in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO(2) solar cells is shown to account for the non-linear dependence of the electron transport rate on the electron concentration. Equations relating the influenece of an exponential distribtuion of surface states to electron transport are derived and verified by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy measurements. A slope of 69 meV is inferred for the surface-state distribution curve.

  19. Oxide thickness and roughness factor as parameters for TiO 2 -dye sensitized solar cells performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Joshi; D. P. Korfiatis; S. F. Potamianou; K.-A. Th. Thoma

    2011-01-01

    Oxide surface roughness in connection to oxide thickness has proved to be a key parameter for the performance of a dye sensitised\\u000a solar cell. In this work, the numerical simulation of the system TiO2-photo sensitive dye of a dye sensitized TiO2 solar cell focuses on these two parameters. The steady-state numerical model used is based on the continuity and transport

  20. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijarbooneh, Fargol Hasani; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Ziqi; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Malgras, Victor; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2013-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 ?m in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ˜35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  1. Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has attracted wide- spread-sensitized solar cells offer the possibility of high-power conversion efficiencies due to theoretically lower

  2. Oriented Hierarchical Porous TiO2 Nanowires on Ti Substrate: Evolution of Nanostructures for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    of highly-oriented anatase TiO2 nanocrystals, are adopted as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. [1­4]. In particular, lightweight and flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received much-Sensitized Solar Cells Byungho Lee 1 , Jae Ik Kim 1 , Sangheon Lee, Taehyun Hwang, Seunghoon Nam, Hongsik Choi

  3. Aqueous coating of efficient flexible TiO 2 dye solar cell photoanodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelien Du Pasquier; Mattew Stewart; Timothy Spitler; Mike Coleman

    2009-01-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization of flexible TiO2 photoanodes coated on indium tin oxide–polyethylene naphthalate (ITO–PEN) substrates from aqueous solutions. We find that the use of hexafluorosalisilic acid promotes low-temperature connection of the TiO2 nanoparticles, considerably increasing the solar conversion efficiency. In addition, we report that highly dispersed TiO2 nanocrystals improve adhesion to the substrate, while micron-size aggregates improve

  4. Self-assembled chromophores within mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2: towards biomimetic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Marek, Peter L; Sieger, Hermann; Scherer, Torsten; Hahn, Horst; Balaban, Teodor Silviu

    2009-06-01

    Artificial light-harvesting antennas consisting of self-assembled chromophores that mimic the natural pigments of photosynthetic bacteria have been inserted into voids induced in porous titania (TiO2, anatase) in order to investigate their suitability for hybrid solar cells. Mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 with additional uniform macropores was treated with precursor solutions of the pigment which was then induced to self-assemble within the voids. The chromophores were tailored to combine the self-assembly characteristics of the natural bacteriochlorophylls with the robustness of artificial Zn-porphyrins being stable for prolonged periods even upon heating to over 200 degrees C. They assemble on the TiO2 surface to form nano- to micro-crystalline structures with lengths from tens of nm up to several microm and show a photosensitization effect which is supposed to be dependent on the assembly size. The natural examples of these antennas are found in green sulfur bacteria which are able to use photosynthesis in deep water regions with minute light intensities. The implementation of biomimetic antennas for light harvesting and a better photon management may lead to a rise in efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells also under low light illumination conditions. PMID:19504907

  5. Performance and stability of TiO 2\\/dye solar cells assembled with flexible electrodes and a polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Longo; Jilian Freitas; Marco-A. De Paoli

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state, flexible TiO2\\/dye solar cells were assembled using flexible electrodes, a polymer electrolyte with I?\\/I3? and a Pt coated counter-electrode. The efficiency of the cells was enhanced when the plastic electrodes coated with TiO2 were exposed to UV radiation, followed by heating at 140°C in dry conditions. For comparison, a similar cell was prepared by the same procedure but using

  6. Charge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    the large improvement in performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) achieved in 1991, mesoporousCharge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar sensitized solar cells, nanoparticle size, impedance, charge transport properties INTRODUCTION Since

  7. Modeling of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Electrode Structure Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Onodera; Kei Ogiya; Ai Suzuki; Hideyuki Tsuboi; Nozomu Hatakeyama; Akira Endou; Hiromitsu Takaba; Momoji Kubo; Akira Miyamoto

    2010-01-01

    Our newly developed our original multi-scale simulator was applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) to investigate the effect of the complex porous structure of a TiO2 electrode on cell performance. We simulated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for various models of porous structures of DSSCs including cis-di(thiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-ruthenium(II) (N3 dye). The short-circuit current density increased with decreasing porosity, overlap ratio, and

  8. A Study on Radiative Transfer in a TiO2 Photoelectrode for Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manon Sangklinhom; Jun Yamada

    2009-01-01

    Nanoporous TiO2 photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated from various sized TiO2 particles and the electrical performance was investigated. We found that the cell that made from double-layered photoelectrode, the first layer composed of 21 nm TiO2 particles, and the second layer composed of 7 nm TiO2 particles, can give high performance nearly equal to well-establish cells that

  9. Photochemical solar cells based on dye-sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Ellingson, R.; Ferrere, S.; Frank, A. J.; Gregg, B. A.; Nozik, A. J.; Park, N.; Schlichthörl, G.; Zaban, A.

    1999-03-01

    A photoelectrochemical solar cell that is based on the dye-sensitization of thin nanocrystalline films of TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles in contact with a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is described. The cell, fabricated at NREL, shows a conversion efficiency of ˜9.2% at AM1.5, which approaches the best reported value of 10%-11% by Grätzel at EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy has been used to time resolve the injection of electrons into the conduction band of nanocrystalline TiO2 films under ambient conditions following photoexcitation of the adsorbed Ru(II)-complex dye. The measurement indicates an instrument-limited -50 fs upper limit on the electron injection time. We also report the sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 by a novel iron-based dye. cis-[FeII(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)2(CN)2], a chromophore with an extremely short-lived, nonemissive excited state. The dye also exhibits a unique "band selective" sensitization through one of its two absorption bands. The operational principle of the device has been studied through the measurement of electric field distribution within the device structure and studies on the pH dependence of dye-redox potential. The incorporation of a WO3-based electrochromic layer into this device has led to a novel photoelectrochromic device structure for "smart window" applications.

  10. A 4.2% efficient flexible dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cells using stainless steel substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Gu Kang; Nam-Gyu Park; Kwang Sun Ryu; Soon Ho Chang; Kang-Jin Kim

    2006-01-01

    An efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using stainless steel supporting substrate for fabricating nanocrystalline TiO2 film electrodes were developed, intending to improve the photoelectrochemical properties of plastic substrate-based DSSCs. The most important advantage of a stainless steel-based TiO2 film electrode over a plastic-based electrode lies in its high-temperature sinterability. Optimal photovoltaic properties were obtained with a cell where the

  11. Application of TiO2 nanoparticles coated multi-wall carbon nanotube to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Hsieh, Tung-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the sol-gel method to prepare TiO2 nanoparticle, and further applies TiO2 nanoparticle coating on the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). As a result, TiO2-CNT composite nanoparticles are prepared to serve as photoelectrode material in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). First, after acid treatment of MWCNT is used to remove impurities. Then, the sol-gel method is employed to prepare TiO2-CNT composite nanopowder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that after the TiO2 in TiO2-CNT composite nanopowder has been thermally treated at 450 degrees C, it can be completely changed to anatase phase. Furthermore, as shown from the SEM image, TiO2 has been successfully coated on CNT. The photoelectrode of DSSC is prepared using the electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) to mix the Degassa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles with TiO2-CNT powder for deposition on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass. After secondary EPD, a thin film of TiO2/CNTs with thickness 17 microm can be acquired. For the prepared TiO2-CNT composite nanoparticles, since MWCNT can increase the short-circuit current density of DSSC, the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of DSSC can be effectively increased. Experimental results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC using CNT/TiO2 photoelectrode and N719 dye is increased by 41% from the original 3.45% to 4.87%. PMID:21138007

  12. First principles study of the size effect of TiO2 anatase nanoparticles in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinkai Lei; Huijun Liu; Wei Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Density of states of eight TiO2 anatase nanoparticles have been studied. The size effect of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been investigated. For the small size nanoparticles (R < 2 nm), the smaller the particle is, the more the acceptable states locate at the bottom of the conduction band. As a result,

  13. ZnO-Coated TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for a Photoelectrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin-Su; Choe, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Won-Youl

    2014-02-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays as a photoelectrode have higher charge collection efficiencies than a nanoparticle-based structure due to their faster charge percolation and slower recombination of electrons. Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown by anodic oxidation of 0.5-mm-thick titanium foil. To increase the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO2 nanotube arrays, the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays was modified by zinc oxide thin films. The ZnO thin film was formed by atomic layer deposition. The thin film was conformal on the inner and outer walls of TiO2 nanotube arrays. ZnO thin film improved the short circuit current ( J sc) and open circuit voltage ( V oc) due to increasing specific surface area from particulates of ZnO thin film and increasing the surface charge induced from the isoelectric point. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO thin film on 4.5- ?m-thick TiO2 nanotube arrays was 1.43%. Microstructure and phase were observed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy.

  14. A Highly Efficient Solar Cell Made from a Dye-Modified ZnO-Covered TiO2 Nanoporous Electrode

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    A Highly Efficient Solar Cell Made from a Dye-Modified ZnO-Covered TiO2 Nanoporous Electrode Zhong-circuit photovoltage. Introduction Overall power conversion efficiency1,2 reaching 10% for dye sensitized solar cell A photoelectrochemical solar cell based on porous ZnO-covered TiO2 film has been fabricated with ruthenium bipyridyl

  15. Influence of 1-methylbenzimidazole interactions with Li + and TiO 2 on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changneng Zhang; Jun Dai; Zhipeng Huo; Xu Pan; Linhua Hu; Fantai Kong; Yang Huang; Yifeng Sui; Xiaqin Fang; Kongjia Wang; Songyuan Dai

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the effect and the mechanism of the interaction between 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI) with Li+ and TiO2 on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells were explored. A negative shift of the TiO2 Fermi level of the nanostructured TiO2 electrode could attribute to the interaction of MBI with Li+ and TiO2, which shown that MBI affects the surface state

  16. In situ synthesis of graphene molecules on TiO2: application in sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Wu, Ruilian; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Doorn, Stephen K; Sykora, Milan

    2014-11-26

    We present a method for preparation of graphene molecules (GMs), whereby a polyphenylene precursor functionalized with surface anchoring groups, preadsorbed on surface of TiO2, is oxidatively dehydrogenated in situ via a Scholl reaction. The reaction, performed at ambient conditions, yields surface adsorbed GMs structurally and electronically equivalent to those synthesized in solution. The new synthetic approach reduces the challenges associated with the tendency of GMs to aggregate and provides a convenient path for integration of GMs into optoelectronic applications. The surface synthesized GMs can be effectively reduced or oxidized via an interfacial charge transfer and can also function as sensitizers for metal oxides in light harvesting applications. Sensitized solar cells (SSCs) prepared from mesoscopic TiO2/GM films and an iodide-based liquid electrolyte show photocurrents of ?2.5 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of ?0.55 V and fill factor of ?0.65 under AM 1.5 illumination. The observed power conversion efficiency of ?=0.87% is the highest reported efficiency for the GM sensitized solar cell. The performance of the devices was reproducible and stable for a period of at least 3 weeks. We also report first external and internal quantum efficiency measurements for GM SSCs, which point to possible paths for further performance improvements. PMID:25322280

  17. CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nano-branched TiO2 arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Yitan; Wei, Lin; Wu, Cuncun; Chen, Yanxue; Mei, Liangmo; Jiao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Nano-branched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) by a facile, two-step wet chemical synthesis process at low temperature. The length of the nanobranches was tailored by controlling the growth time, after which CdS quantum dots were deposited on the nano-branched TiO2 arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The photovoltaic properties of the CdS-sensitized nano-branched TiO2 solar cells were studied systematically. A short-circuit current intensity of approximately 7 mA/cm2 and a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 0.95% were recorded for cells based on optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays, indicating an increase of 138% compared to those based on unbranched TiO2 nanorod arrays. The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged surface area provided by the nanobranches and better electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunks. PMID:24597830

  18. CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nano-branched TiO2 arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nano-branched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) by a facile, two-step wet chemical synthesis process at low temperature. The length of the nanobranches was tailored by controlling the growth time, after which CdS quantum dots were deposited on the nano-branched TiO2 arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The photovoltaic properties of the CdS-sensitized nano-branched TiO2 solar cells were studied systematically. A short-circuit current intensity of approximately 7 mA/cm2 and a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 0.95% were recorded for cells based on optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays, indicating an increase of 138% compared to those based on unbranched TiO2 nanorod arrays. The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged surface area provided by the nanobranches and better electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunks. PMID:24597830

  19. TiO 2 films prepared by micro-plasma oxidation method for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Wang; Xiaohong Wu; Wei Qin; Zhaohua Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 films are widely investigated as the electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cell(s) with different preparation methods. In this paper, thin titanium dioxide films have been prepared on titanium plates by the micro-plasma oxidation method in the sulfuric acid solution. The thin TiO2 films were sensitized with a cis-RuL2(SCN)2·2H2O (L=cis-2,2?-bipyridine-4,4?-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium complex and implemented into a dye-sensitized solar cell

  20. An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell material.11,15 Compared with other integrated solar power supplies,16,17 double-sided TiO2 NTs with large

  1. LiF-doped mesoporous TiO2 as the photoanode of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neo, Chin Yong; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the doping of nanocrystalline TiO2 with LiF by mechanical grinding and subsequent sintering and the application of LiF-doped TiO2 as the photoanode of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The fluoride ions can dope into the TiO2 matrix as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The LiF-doped TiO2 samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Doping of TiO2 with a small amount of LiF can improve the photovoltaic performance of DSCs. At the optimal LiF loading of 0.53 wt% in TiO2, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is enhanced from 7.74% to 8.24% under simulated AM1.5 illumination. The effect of the LiF doping on the photovoltaic performance of DSCs is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. The improvement in the photovoltaic efficiency is attributed to the facilitation of the electron transport through the TiO2 electrode as a result of the increase in the anatase crystallinity induced by the LiF doping. The enhanced anatase crystallinity also causes a decrease in the charge recombination.

  2. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  3. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere applied for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A mesoscopic nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere has been developed for a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell [DSSC]. Compared with the undoped TiO2 sphere, the quasi-solid-state DSSC based on the nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere shows more excellent photovoltaic performance. The photoelectrochemistry of electrodes based on nitrogen-doped and undoped TiO2 spheres was characterized with Mott-Schottky analysis, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which indicated that both the quasi-Fermi level and the charge transport of the photoelectrode were improved after being doped with nitrogen. As a result, a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.01% was obtained for the quasi-solid-state DSSC. PMID:22115421

  4. Efficient band alignment for ZnxCd1xSe QD-sensitized TiO2 solar cells

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    Efficient band alignment for ZnxCd1ÀxSe QD-sensitized TiO2 solar cells Lin Yang,ab Ru Zhou,a Jolin alignment of the QDs is favorable to enhance the photovoltaic performance for solar cells, by producingO2/ZnxCd1ÀxSe films were further assembled to solar cells and demonstrated to be promising

  5. Tri-layer antireflection coatings (SiO 2\\/SiO 2–TiO 2\\/TiO 2) for silicon solar cells using a sol–gel technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shui-Yang Lien; Dong-Sing Wuu; Wen-Chang Yeh; Jun-Chin Liu

    2006-01-01

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) have become one of the key issues for mass production of Si solar cells. They are generally performed by vacuum processes such as thermal evaporation, reactive sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In this work, a sol–gel method has been demonstrated to prepare the ARCs for the non-textured monocrystalline Si solar cells. The spin-coated TiO2 single-layer, SiO2\\/TiO2

  6. Tunable TiO2 Nanotubes as Nanotemplate for Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia; Li, Dongdong; NAMI Team

    2011-03-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is an n-type semiconductor with a bandgap energy of 3.0-3.2 eV. It has broad applications, because of the versatile functionalities. Synthesis of anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube templates has gained significant progress in fluoride-ion-contained electrolytes. The one-dimensional (1D) structure provides a large specific surface area as well as a direct pathway for charge transport, thus rendering superior capabilities in lightharvesting, electrochromic switching, environmental sensing, energy storage, etc. In this work, highly ordered ATO nanotubes film has been synthesized by two-step anodization method. After using a reductive doping approach, the metal materials (Cu and Ni) can be electrodeposited into the nanotubes. The versatile process yields reproducible tubular structures in ATO nanotubes due to the conductive nature of crystallized TiO2, indicating great potential for nanotemplate application. A dye-sensitized solar cell is also demonstrated by employing the ATO films. It is observed that bottom treatment greatly enhances short current density and filling factor resulting in improved energy conversion efficiency. DOE EFRC.

  7. Improvement in performances of dye-sensitized solar cell with SiO2-coated TiO2 photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Varishetty Madhu; Shimomura, Masaru; Murakami, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    The pure TiO2 and the nano-porous SiO2-coated TiO2 (STO) films were deposited on the FTO substrates by spray technique for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). XRD pattern shows the pure TiO2 and STO films exhibits the same structure. We found that there is no much difference in dye absorption between the STO and the pure TiO2 films. The electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that insulating nature of the porous SiO2 increases surface resistance of the TiO2 film and supresses back transfer of the photogenerated electrons to the electrolyte. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveal that the surface morphology and the existence of SiO2 layer on the surface of the TiO2 films, respectively. The photoelectrochemical results show that the short-circuit photocurrent (J(SC)) increased from 16.73 mA cm(-2) to 18.31 mA cm(-2) and the open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) value changed from 0.71 V to 0.74 V for the STO films. The efficiency of cell has been greatly improved from 8.25 to 9.3%. PMID:22523998

  8. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  9. TiO2-based solar cells sensitized by chemical-bath-deposited few-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tian; Wang, Ning; Chen, Haijun; He, Hongcai; Lin, Hong; Liu, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we reported a novel MoS2/TiO2 heterostructure inorganic solar cell based on chemical-bath deposition of MoS2 in the mesoporous TiO2 three-dimensional network. Raman spectrum indicated the existence of MoS2 and suggested a few-layer structure with peaks at 384 cm-1 and 405.5 cm-1. HRTEM images further confirmed the few-layer structure of MoS2 (3-7 layers). With deposited MoS2, UV absorption spectra of TiO2 photoanode film indicated a considerably enhanced absorption in the visible region. Both annealing and careful control of the thickness of MoS2 sensitized layer could optimize the photovoltaic performance. The reason for the enhanced photovoltaic performance of the novel inorganic solar cell was also explained in detail.

  10. Designed architecture of multiscale porous TiO2 nanofibers for dye-sensitized solar cells photoanode.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun Hye; Kim, Chanhoi; Song, Hee; Son, Suim; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-10-24

    Multiscale porous (MSP) TiO(2) nanofibers (NFs) were fabricated using a simple electrospinning and etching process with TiO(2)/SiO(2) composite NFs for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO(2) NFs with different pore sizes (small, large, and multiscale) were prepared using SiO(2) nanoparticles of various sizes. The surface area of the MSP TiO(2) NFs was nine times higher than that of pristine TiO(2) NFs, providing sufficient dye adsorption for light harvesting as well as efficient paths for electrolyte contact. Moreover, the one-dimensional structure provides efficient light scattering and fast electron transport. As a result, DSSCs exhibited an enhanced current density (J(sc)) of 16.3 mA cm(-2) and a high photoconversion efficiency (?) of 8.5%, greater than those of conventional photoelectrodes made of TiO(2) nanoparticles (J(sc) of 12.0 mA cm(-2) and ? of 6.0 %). PMID:22985179

  11. Incorporation of nanocrystals with different dimensionalities in hybrid TiO2/P3HT solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Flavio Santos; de Souza e Silva, Juliana Martins; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles-nanospheres and nanorods-inserted in the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix of TiO2/P3HT inverted hybrid solar cells. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, photoluminescence, and photoelectrochemical experiments were employed to investigate the structure, morphology, and photoactivity of TiO2 nanoparticles modified with 2-thiopheneacetic acid, mixed or not with P3HT. Both TiO2 nanospheres and TiO2 nanorods presented a good dispersion in the polymer matrix. The incorporation of TiO2 nanospheres and nanorods has improved the photocurrent generation, and devices with efficiency values up to 1.35% were obtained. Our results reveal that the nanoscale morphology enables an enhanced interfacial area for exciton dissociation. In particular, the nanospheres contribute with their high specific area, and the nanorods contribute with their high aspect ratio.

  12. The effect of dye-sensitized solar cell based on the composite layer by anodic TiO2 nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a three-step anodization process. Although the use of a one-dimensional structure provides an enhanced photoelectrical performance, the smaller surface area reduces the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of DSSCs constructed with a multilayer photoelectrode made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanotube arrays. We fabricated the novel multilayer photoelectrode via a layer-by-layer assembly process and thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on the sample efficiency. The DSSC with a four-layer photoelectrode exhibited a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.22% because of effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. PMID:25593557

  13. Nanocrystalline porous TiO2 electrode with ionic liquid impregnated solid polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod K; Kim, Kang-Wook; Kim, Ki-Il; Park, Nam-Gyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2008-10-01

    This communication reports the detailed fabrication of electrodes and solid polymer electrolyte with ionic liquid (IL) as an electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Thick porous TiO2 film has been obtained by spreading and sintering TiO2 colloidal paste using "doctor blade" and characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. The polymer electrolyte was PEO:KI/I2 incorporated with 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMImSCN) as IL. Dispersal of IL in the polymer electrolyte improved the ionic conductivity and cell efficiency. PMID:19198436

  14. Al 2O 3-coated nanoporous TiO 2 electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin-tong Zhang; Irwan Sutanto; Taketo Taguchi; Kenichi Tokuhiro; Qing-bo Meng; Tata N. Rao; Akira Fujishima; Hiroko Watanabe; Toshie Nakamori; Masayuki Uragami

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of a core-shell nanoporous electrode consisting of an inner TiO2 porous matrix and a thin overlayer of Al2O3, and its application for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using p-CuI as hole conductor. Al2O3 overlayer was coated onto TiO2 porous film by the surface sol–gel process. The role of Al2O3 layer thickness on the cell performance was

  15. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    2002-01-01

    photovoltaic converter has been a powerful alternative candidate for conventional silicon solar cells unmatched performance in dye staff studied as solar cell sensitizer before 1997. Only recently, a black dyeSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261­271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline Ti

  16. Spray deposition and compression of TiO 2 nanoparticle films for dye-sensitized solar cells on plastic substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janne Halme; Jaakko Saarinen; Peter Lund

    2006-01-01

    Spray deposition of powder suspensions followed by room temperature compression was studied as a method for preparing nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells. The structure of the films was analyzed with optical and scanning electron microscopy and the films were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells. Continuous and fast deposition of crack-free 7–14?m thick films was achieved by heating the

  17. Spectral response and IV-characterization of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Sommeling; H. C. Rieffe; J. A. M. van Roosmalen; A. Schönecker; J. M. Kroon; J. A. Wienke; A. Hinsch

    2000-01-01

    Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells (nc-DSCs) are based on a fundamentally different working principle than solar cells based on semiconductors. This could have implications for the characterization of nc-DSCs. In this study a comparison is made between two methods for determination of the spectral response of nc-DSCs. The standard method for determination of the spectral response according to the ASTM

  18. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Light scattering of nanocrystalline TiO2 film used in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi-Tao Xiong; Bao-Xue Zhou; Jing Bai; Qing Zheng; Yan-Biao Liu; Wei-Min Cai; Jun Cai

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the light scattering and adsorption of nanocrystalline TiO2 porous films used in dye-sensitized solar cells composed of anatase and\\/or rutile particles by using an optical four-flux radiative transfer model. These light properties are difficult to measure directly on the functioning solar cells and they can not be calculated easily from the first-principle computational or quantitative theoretical evaluations.

  19. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with nanoporous TiO 2 and TPD dyes: Analysis of penetration behavior and I–V characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sule Erten-Ela; Johannes Brendel; Mukundan Thelakkat

    2011-01-01

    We present the synthesis, electrochemical properties and device-based investigation of triphenylene diamine (TPD) sensitizer with an extended ? system consisting of donor, electron conducting and anchoring group for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using blocking TiO2 electrodes, nanoporous TiO2 electrodes and the organic hole-transporting medium, HTM (spiro-OMeTAD) in a fluorine doped tin oxide\\/blocking TiO2\\/nanoporous TiO2\\/TPDs\\/hole

  20. Low temperature (150 °C) fabrication of high-performance TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO2 paste containing organic binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Shungo; Inoue, Yuki; Ono, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO2 photoelectrodes at 450 °C to 550 °C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO2 photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 °C to 150 °C for a TiO2 paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO2 film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO2 film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150 °C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150 °C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

  1. Corona Discharge Treatment of TiO2 Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Shiono, Taku; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetuji

    A nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO2) electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is treated using pulsed corona discharge in room air condition. When the treatment time is 10 min with the discharge voltage of 30 kV, the short-circuit current and the energy conversion efficiency of the treated DSC are 10% higher than those of untreated DSC. This result indicates that the treatment of TiO2 electrode using a pulsed corona discharge in room air condition can enhance the energy conversion efficiency of DSCs.

  2. Effect of the LHCII pigment-protein complex aggregation on photovoltaic properties of sensitized TiO2 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiqun; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Lin, Chen; Pawlak, Krzysztof; Reus, Michael; Holzwarth, Alfred R; Li, Jun

    2014-10-14

    A modified dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of a thin TiO2 barrier layer sensitized with natural trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) from spinach was used as a biomimetic model to study the effects of LHCII aggregation on the photovoltaic properties. The aggregation of individual trimers induced molecular reorganization, which dramatically increased the photocurrent. The morphology of small- and large-size LHCII aggregates deposited on a surface was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Enhanced LHCII immobilization was accomplished via electrostatic interaction with amine-functionalized photoanodes. The photocurrent responses of the assembled solar cells under illumination at three characteristic wavelength bands in the UV-Vis absorption spectra of LHCII solutions confirmed that a significant photocurrent was generated by LHCII photosensitizers. The enhanced photocurrent by large aggregated LHCII is shown to correlate with the quenching in the far-red fluorescence deriving from chlorophyll-chlorophyll charge transfer states that are effectively coupled with the TiO2 surface and thus inject electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. The large aggregated LHCII with more chlorophyll-chlorophyll charge transfer states is a much better sensitizer since it injects electrons more efficiently into the conduction band of TiO2 than the small aggregated LHCII mostly consisting of unquenched chlorophyll excited state. The assembled solar cells demonstrated remarkable stability in both aqueous buffer and acetonitrile electrolytes over 30 days. PMID:25168759

  3. Electrophoretic deposited TiO(2) pigment-based back reflectors for thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bills, Braden; Morris, Nathan; Dubey, Mukul; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-02-01

    Highly reflective coatings with strong light scattering effect have many applications in optical components and optoelectronic devices. This work reports titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) pigment-based reflectors that have 2.5 times higher broadband diffuse reflection than commercially produced aluminum or silver based reflectors and result in efficiency enhancements of a single-junction amorphous Si solar cell. Electrophoretic deposition is used to produce pigment-based back reflectors with high pigment density, controllable film thickness and site-specific deposition. Electrical conductivity of the pigment-based back reflectors is improved by creating electrical vias throughout the pigment-based back reflector by making holes using an electrical discharge / dielectric breakdown approach followed by a second electrophoretic deposition of conductive nanoparticles into the holes. While previous studies have demonstrated the use of pigment-based back reflectors, for example white paint, on glass superstrate configured thin film Si solar cells, this work presents a scheme for producing pigment-based reflectors on complex shape and flexible substrates. Mechanical durability and scalability are demonstrated on a continuous electrophoretic deposition roll-to-roll system which has flexible metal substrate capability of 4 inch wide and 300 feet long. PMID:25836255

  4. Effects of a surfactant-templated nanoporous TiO2 interlayer on dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Moon-Sung; Lee, Ji-Won; Kang, Yong Soo

    2007-04-01

    A 320 nm thick surfactant-templated nanoporous (STN) TiO2 layer prepared from block copolymer P123 [poly(ethyleneoxide)20-poly(propyleneoxide)70-poly(ethyleneoxide)20] was used as an interlayer between a 21 ?m thick mesoporous TiO2 layer and a transparent conducting oxide. The thin STN TiO2 interlayer had well-dispersed nanoporous features, which made it possible to adsorb dye molecules in the interlayer. In addition, it provided an enhanced electron lifetime, resulting in a reduced recombination rate and an increased diffusion length. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the thin STN interlayer resulted in a significantly increased overall energy conversion efficiency from 7.11% to 9.22% with an improvement of all parameters (short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor).

  5. Photoelectrochemical quantification of electron transport resistance of TiO(2) photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun; Zhang, Haimin

    2010-07-01

    A simple photoelectrochemical method is developed to measure the intrinsic electron transport resistance (R(0)) of TiO(2) photoanodes. R(0) is considered as the sum of electron transport resistance at the TiO(2)/FTO interface and among TiO(2) nanoparticulates during electron transport process, which is independent of the manner of electron injection, its physical and chemical environments. Because TiO(2) photoanodes are the common electron transport pathways for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) process and the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process, R(0) can be also considered as a quantitative measure of the electron transport resistance of the photoanodes in the DSSC process. The proposed method will provide a simple and rapid alternative to quantitatively evaluate the quality of the TiO(2) photoanodes for DSSCs using R(0) values. A series of TiO(2)/FTO photoanodes with different electron transport resistance were fabricated using conventional screen-printing technique, surface modifications using titanium organic sol and TiCl(4) aqueous solution. R(0) values of the photoanodes were characterized and subsequently used to correlate with the important performance parameters of the corresponding DSSCs. The preliminary results suggest that these surface modifications do not significantly affect the surface area, film thickness, dye loading and optical properties of the TiO(2) film, but significantly decrease the R(0) values. Furthermore, the DSSCs photoanodes with lower R(0) values due to the organic sol or TiCl(4) modification bestow better photovoltaic performance than the corresponding non-modified photoanodes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the performance improvements were mainly attributed to the decrease of the R(0) values, which validates the proposed electrochemical evaluation method. PMID:20424787

  6. Dye-sensitized TiO 2 thin-film solar cell research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satyen K. Deb

    2005-01-01

    The idea of dye-sensitization of inorganic materials has been around for a long time, and a vast amount of literature exists on this subject. The first studies of photoelectrochemical effects in dye-sensitized TiO2 for solar energy conversion were carried out by Deb et al. (Unpublished Report on Project SECSC (Solar Energy Convertion and Storage cell) Optel Corporation, Princeton, NJ, 1975–76),

  7. Open-circuit voltage improvement by using TiO2 nanotubes as a working electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. D. Li; D. W. Zhang; Z. Sun; Y. W. Chen; S. M. Huang

    2008-01-01

    The titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiNTs) were directly fabricated from commercial P25 TiO2 via alkali hydrothermal transformation. The optimized synthesis, thermal and hydrothermal stability, and consequent optical properties of the titanate nanotubes were systematically studied. The TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were constructed with films made of grown TiO2 nanotubes as working electrodes. The

  8. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756?V, JSC of 14.80?mA/cm2, FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764?V, JSC of 6.86?mA/cm2, FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption. PMID:26190140

  9. Hierarchically structured microspheres for high-efficiency rutile TiO(2)-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Meidan; Zheng, Dajiang; Wang, Mengye; Chen, Chang; Liao, Wenming; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-02-26

    Peachlike rutile TiO2 microsphere films were successfully produced on transparent conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate via a facile, one-pot chemical bath route at low temperature (T = 80-85 °C) by introducing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as steric dispersant. The formation of TiO2 microspheres composed of nanoneedles was attributed to the acidic medium for the growth of 1D needle-shaped building blocks where the steric interaction of PEG reduced the aggregation of TiO2 nanoneedles and the Ostwald ripening process. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled by employing these complex rutile TiO2 microspheres as photoanodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.55%. It was further improved to a considerably high efficiency of 5.25% upon a series of post-treatments (i.e., calcination, TiCl4 treatment, and O2 plasma exposure) as a direct consequence of the well-crystallized TiO2 for fast electron transport, the enhanced capacity of dye loading, the effective light scattering, and trapping from microstructures. PMID:24467178

  10. Shell-in-Shell TiO2 hollow microspheres and optimized application in light-trapping perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongxia; Ruan, Peng; Bao, Zhongqiu; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced light scattering ability were synthesized via a facile one step hydrothermal process. The diameter of the microsphere is about 1.5 ?m, the core of the unique shell-in-shell structure is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of about 15 nm, while the shell is constructed with ?50 nm TiO2 nanocubes. The hollow space between the outer shell and the inner shell is about 230 nm. The formation mechanism of the unique shell-in-shell structure is interpreted. The design and the optimized application of shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres in the light-trapping perovskite solar cells are also investigated. Owing to the light scattering properties of the shell-in-shell structure of the hollow microsphere, the optimized photoelectrode exhibits an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.29% using perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 as the sensitizer. The shell-in-shell hollow TiO2 microsphere shows a 21.2% increase in conversion efficiency when compared with P25 nanoparticels photoanode. The conversion efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the increase of short-current density induced by the light scattering effect.

  11. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing'ao

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756?V, JSC of 14.80?mA/cm(2), FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764?V, JSC of 6.86?mA/cm(2), FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption. PMID:26190140

  12. Controllable preparation of TiO2 nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2015-08-01

    TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO2 nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO2 nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO2 nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO2 NWAs (with a length of about 14 ?m) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved.

  13. Mesoporous TiO2 beads for high efficiency CdS/ CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    ) as a derivative of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have attracted considerable attention and been regardedMesoporous TiO2 beads for high efficiency CdS/ CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells Ru Zhou for a CdS/CdSe quantum dot (QD) co-sensitized solar cell, which was constructed with the mesoporous TiO2

  14. The effect of TiO2 nanoflowers as a compact layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Srinivasa; Durga, I Kanaka; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata Tulasivarma, Chebrolu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-07-01

    Currently, TiO2 on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate is the most commonly used type of photoelectrode in high-efficiency quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of TiO2 photoelectrodes is limited because of higher charge recombination and lower QD loading on the TiO2 film. This article describes the effect of a TiO2 compact layer on a TiO2 film to enhance the performance of QDSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on an FTO substrate by the doctor-blade method and then the TiO2 compact layer was successfully fabricated on the surface of the nanoparticles by a simple hydrothermal method. QDSSCs were made using these films as photoelectrodes with NiS counter electrodes. Under one sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)), the QDSSCs showed PCEs of 2.19 and 2.93% for TCL1 and TCL2 based photoelectrodes, which are higher than the 1.33% value obtained with bare TiO2. The compact-layer-coated film electrodes provide a lower charge-transfer resistance and higher light harvesting. The compact layer on the TiO2 film is a more efficient photocatalyst than pure TiO2 film and physically separates the injected electrons in the TiO2 from the positively charged CdS QD/electrolyte. PMID:26102365

  15. One-Pot Synthesis of Mesoporous TiO2 Micropheres and Its Application for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Que, Ya-Ping; Mo, Li-E; Chen, Wang-Chao; Ding, Yong; Ma, Yan-Mei; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Lin-Hua; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-05-27

    TiO2 microspheres are of great interest for a great deal of applications, especially in the solar cell field. Because of their unique microstructure and light-scattering effect, TiO2 microsphere-based solar cells often exhibit superior photovoltaic performance. Hence, exploring new suitable TiO2 microspheres for high-efficiency solar cells is essential. In this work, we demonstrate a facile one-pot solvothermal approach for synthesis of TiO2 microspheres using acetone as solvent. The as-prepared TiO2 microspheres are composed of densely interconnected nanocrystals and possess a high specific surface area up to 138.47 m(2) g(-1). As the photoanode, the TiO2 microsphere-based DSSC gives higher dye loading and light adsorption ability as well as longer electron lifetime, resulting in higher short-circuit current value and superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared with Dyesol 18 nm TiO2 nanoparticle paste. Finally, the TiO2 microsphere-based DSSC were optimized by adding a TiO2 nanocrystal underlayer and TiCl4 post-treatment, giving a high PCE of 10.32%. PMID:25945694

  16. Slow interfacial charge recombination in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using Al 2O 3-coated nanoporous TiO 2 films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin-Tong Zhang; Hong-Wu Liu; Taketo Taguchi; Qing-Bo Meng; Osamu Sato; Akira Fujishima

    2004-01-01

    Al2O3-coated TiO2 porous films were used to fabricate solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using CuI as hole conductor. Investigation with transient photovoltage measurements showed that the Al2O3 interlayer slowed down the interfacial recombination of electrons in TiO2 with holes in CuI by forming a potential barrier at the TiO2\\/CuI interface. As a consequence, the cell made from Al2O3-coated TiO2 film showed

  17. Effect of TiO2 rutile nanorods on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the electron transport on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells, one-dimensional rutile nanorods were prepared using electrospun TiO2 nanofibers. The grain size of the nanorods increased with increasing temperature. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed reduced interface resistance of the cells with the one-dimensional rutile nanorods due to the improved electron transport and the enhanced electrolyte penetration. Intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy showed that the one-dimensional rutile nanorods provided the electrons with a moving pathway and suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electrons. However, an excessive quantity of rutile nanorods created an obstacle to the electrons moving in the TiO2 thin film. The photoelectrode with 7 wt.% rutile nanorods optimized the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:23331863

  18. Characterization of screen-printed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Tapan K.; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Shah, Kanai S.; Moy, Larry P.; Kelly, David J.; Squillante, Michael R.; Entine, Gerald; Smestad, Greg P.

    1999-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films have been deposited on SnO2 coated glass substrates by screen-printing. Film morphology and structure have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and BET analysis. Dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrochemical cells have been assembled and characterized. Cells sensitized with anthocyanin and a ruthenium complex have been investigated. A 0.77 cm2 ruthenium dye sensitized cell with 6.1% power conversion efficiency under Air Mass (AM1.5) conditions was obtained. Results obtained with a pure anthocyanin dye and dye extracted from blackberries were compared. Finally, a natural gel was found to improve the stability of anthocyanin sensitized cells.

  19. N719- and D149-sensitized 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 solar cells--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho

    2015-03-21

    Poor dye loading on rutile TiO2 is one of the chief reasons for lower solar-to-electric conversion efficiency (?) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), compared to their anatase based counterparts. Previously, we showed that similar light harvesting for both rutile and anatase was realized by using a metal-free organic indoline dye, D149 [Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, 5769]. This was in contrast to the bulk of previous studies, which employed ruthenium based N719, leading to significant differences in light harvesting. To date, there has been no report directly comparing N719 and D149 for rutile based DSCs. In this work, three-dimensional hierarchical rutile TiO2 architecture (HRTA), consisting of one-dimensional nanorods, was successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method, and subsequently optimized as effective photoelectrodes for DSCs. Two dyes, N719 and D149, were used as sensitizers of the HRTA-based DSCs, with maximum ? of 5.6% and 5.8% achieved, respectively. The higher ? of the D149-sensitized DSC is ascribed to its higher extinction co-efficient, allowing a greater amount of light to be harvested with a thinner TiO2 layer. This study suggests that some of the limitations typically observed for rutile TiO2 based DSCs can be overcome through the use of strongly absorbing metal-free organic sensitizers. Furthermore, it reemphasises the importance of viewing DSCs as whole systems, rather than individual components. PMID:25690882

  20. Niobium Doping Effects on TiO2 Mesoscopic Electron Transport Layer-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gill Sang; Seong, Won Mo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Byeong Jo; Park, Nam-Gyu; Hong, Kug Sun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-07-20

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the most promising candidates as next-generation solar energy conversion systems. To design a highly efficient PSC, understanding electronic properties of mesoporous metal oxides is essential. Herein, we explore the effect of Nb doping of TiO2 on electronic structure and photovoltaic properties of PSCs. Light Nb doping (0.5 and 1.0?at?%) increased the optical band gap slightly, but heavy doping (5.0?at?%) distinctively decreased it. The relative Fermi level position of the conduction band is similar for the lightly Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) and the undoped TiO2 whereas that of the heavy doped NTO decreased by as much as ?0.3?eV. The lightly doped NTO-based PSCs exhibit 10?% higher efficiency than PSCs based on undoped TiO2 (from 12.2?% to 13.4?%) and 52?% higher than the PSCs utilizing heavy doped NTO (from 8.8?% to 13.4?%), which is attributed to fast electron injection/transport and preserved electron lifetime, verified by transient photocurrent decay and impedance studies. PMID:25891531

  1. TiO2 films with rich bulk oxygen vacancies prepared by electrospinning for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Gao, Caitian; Wang, Jiangtao; Lu, Bingan; Chen, Wanjun; Song, Jie; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2012-09-01

    Highly transparent nanocrystalline TiO2 films have been fabricated by electrospinning (ES) technique based on a transmutation process from as-spun nanofibers with an appropriate amount of tri-ethanolamine (TEOA) added to the precursor. A possible evolution mechanism of the transparent nanocrystalline TiO2 films is proposed. It is found that the films prepared via transmutation from electrospun nanofibers possess rich bulk oxygen vacancies (BOVs, PL band at 621-640 nm) by using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Contrastively, the dominant peak in PL spectrum of the spin-coated film is the emission from surface oxygen vacancies (SOVs, PL band at 537-555 nm). The electrospun TiO2 films with rich BOVs induce large open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) improvements in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), and thus a large improvement of energy conversion efficiency (?). In addition, these performance advantages are maintained for a double-layer cell with a doctor-bladed ?7 ?m top layer (P25 nanometer TiO2, Degussa) and an electrospun ?3 ?m bottom layer. The double-layer cell yields a high ? of 6.01%, which has increased by 14% as compared with that obtained from a 10 ?m thick P25 film.

  2. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. PMID:24107414

  3. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows.

  4. Growth of Aligned Single-Crystalline Rutile TiO2 Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates and Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    and Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Akshay Kumar, Anuj R. Madaria, and Chongwu Zhou* Department array of TiO2 nanowires on FTO as the photoanode is demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cell for applications related to solar energy such as dye-sensitized solar cell (to convert light into electricity),18

  5. Flexible TiO 2 nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells using laser-drilled microhole array electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Liu; Hongmei Xu; Hai Wang; Wenxia Zhao; Chaolun Liang; Minyi Zhong; Hui Shen

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on the growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) on Ti foil with laser-drilled microhole arrays (MHAs). The MHAs promoted the adhesion of the TNA film\\u000a to Ti substrate, which is well suited for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The MHA photoanode and TNAs were characterized\\u000a by SEM, 3D optical profiling, XRD and TEM. For such a flexible

  6. Electrophoretically deposited TiO 2 photo-electrodes for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Ho Yum; Seok-Soon Kim; Dong-Yu Kim; Yung-Eun Sung

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of an electrophoretically deposited film composed of wide band gap nanocrystalline TiO2 without the use of a surfactant or any post-thermal treatments is described. The resulting film was examined with reference to applications in a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell. The packing densities of the films could be controlled through electrophoretic deposition parameters, such as the applied electric field

  7. Application of TiO 2 nano-particles on the electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Meen; W. Water; W. R. Chen; S. M. Chao; L. W. Ji; C. J. Huang

    2009-01-01

    In this study, nano-TiO2 thin film electrode and solar cell have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra, contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and current–voltage characteristics analyses. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the best sintering temperature of a nano-TiO2 film is 600°C, at which TiO2 anatase phase forms best and the particle size

  8. Corona Discharge Treatment of TiO2 Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Teramoto; Taku Shiono; Ryo Ono; Tetuji Oda

    2010-01-01

    A nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO2) electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is treated using pulsed corona discharge in room air condition. When the treatment time is 10 min with the discharge voltage of 30 kV, the short-circuit current and the energy conversion efficiency of the treated DSC are 10% higher than those of untreated DSC. This result indicates that the

  9. Performance enhancement of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells by carbon nanospheres in photoanode

    E-print Network

    Bayatloo, Elham; Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye

    2013-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is optimized by modifying the optical design and improving absorbance within the cell. These objectives are obtained by creating different sized cavities in TiO2 photoanode. For this purpose, carbon nanospheres with diameters 100-600 nm are synthesized by hydrothermal method. A paste of TiO2 is mixed with various amounts of carbon nanospheres. During TiO2 photoanode sintering processes at 500C temperature, the carbon nanospheres are removed. This leads to random creation of cavities in the DSSCs photoanode. These cavities enhance light scattering and porosity which improve light absorbance by dye N719 and provide a larger surface area for dye loading. These consequences enhance performance of DSSCs. By mixing 3% Wt. carbon nanospheres in the TiO2 pastes, we were able to increase the short circuit current density and efficiency by 40% (from 12.59 to 17.73 mA/cm2) and 33% (from 5.72% to 7.59%), respectively.

  10. Equivalent Circuit Description of Non-compensated n-p Codoped TiO2 as Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Tian-Li Feng; Guang-Wei Deng; Yi Xia; Feng-Cheng Wu; Ping Cui; Hai-Ping Lan; Zhen-Yu Zhang

    2010-12-09

    The novel concept of non-compensated n-p codoping has made it possible to create tunable intermediate bands in the intrinsic band gap of TiO2, making the codoped TiO2 a promising material for developing intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs). Here we investigate the quantum efficiency of such IBSCs within two scenarios - with and without current extracted from the extended intermediate band. Using the ideal equivalent circuit model, we find that the maximum efficiency of 57% in the first scenario and 53% in the second are both much higher than the Shockley-Queisser limit from single gap solar cells. We also obtain various key quantities of the circuits, a useful step in realistic development of TiO2 based solar cells invoking device integration. These equivalent circuit results are also compared with the efficiencies obtained directly from consideration of electron transition between the energy bands, and both approaches reveal the intriguing existence of double peaks in the maximum quantum efficiency as a function of the relative location of IBs.

  11. A facile low temperature synthesis of TiO2 nanorods for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalan, A. E.; Rashad, M. M.; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantú, Mónica; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Titania (TiO2) nanorods have been synthesized with controlled size for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via hydrothermal route at low hydrothermal temperature of 100 °C for 24 h. The titania nanorods were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM/HRTEM, UV-vis Spectroscopy, FTIR and BET specific surface area ( S BET), as well as pore-size distribution by BJH. The results indicated that the bulk traps and the surface states within the TiO2 nanorods films have enhanced the efficiency of DSSCs. The size of the titania nanorods was 6.7 nm in width and 22 nm in length. The high surface area can provide more sites for dye adsorption, while the fast photoelectron-transfer channel can enhance the photogenerated electron transfer to complete the circuit. The specific surface area S BET was 77.14 m2 g-1 at the synthesis conditions. However, the band gap energy of the obtained titania nanorods was 3.2 eV. The oriented nanorods with appropriate lengths are beneficial in improving the electron transport property and thus leading to the increase of photocurrent, together enhancing the power conversion efficiency. A nearly quantitative absorbed photon-to-electrical current conversion achieved upon excitation at wave length of 550 nm and the power efficiency was enhanced from 5.6 % for commercial TiO2 nanoparticles Degussa (P25) cells to 7.2 % for TiO2 nanorods cells under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm-2). The TiO2 cells performance was improved due to their high surface area, hierarchically mesoporous structures and fast electron-transfer rate compared with the Degussa (P25).

  12. An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin Films into TiO2 Nanoparticle

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin into the conventional dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in a remarkably improved cell efficiency due to its followed by direct carbonization. For dye-sensitized TiO2 based solar cells containing carbon/TiO2 thin

  13. Bilayer hollow/spindle-like anatase TiO2 photoanode for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanxi; Zhu, Xunjin; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-03-01

    Derived from a hollow TiO2 nanoparticle (HNP) as underlayer and a TiO2 spindle (SP) as light scattering overlayer, a new bilayer single-crystalline photoanode (HNP/SP) is fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The prepared bilayer TiO2 photoanode and two comparative HNP/HNP and SP/SP ones are fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. An overall photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.65% has been achieved for HNP/SP DSSC, which is 25% higher than that of HNP/HNP DSSC, and also far superior to that of SP/SP or conventional P25 DSSC. The improved photovoltaic performance of HNP/SP DSSC is attributed to the synergic effects, i.e. the single-crystalline bilayer structure favoring for rapid interfacial electron transport, the relatively large specific surface area of HNP for effective dye adsorption, and the 1D geometry of single-crystalline TiO2 spindles for direct electron transport pathway and strong light scattering effect.

  14. Effect of hydroxyl group attachment on TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2012-08-01

    The effect of hydroxyl group attachment on the nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes for the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. The photoelectrodes were prepared using commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25). Hydroxyl groups were attached to the TiO2 film using hydrogen peroxide by thermal treatment method and the OH-attached sample was compared with the untreated one. The FTIR spectra evidenced the presence of hydroxyl groups attached to the TiO2 nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the sample treated with hydrogen peroxide was attached with higher weight percentage of hydroxyl groups. The photovoltaic characteristics of the as-prepared DSSCs were measured by an electrochemical analyzer under the standard AM 1.5 illumination of 100 mW/cm2 light source. The hydroxyl groups attached sample showed an enhanced performance of DSSC than that of the blank P25 film. It shows that higher amount of dye was adsorbed due to the surface hydroxyl groups on the H2O2-treated samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement indicated that the electron lifetime for the H2O2-treated sample was longer than that of the untreated sample. The higher dye loading due to the attached hydroxyl groups on the sample was confirmed using UV-vis measurement.

  15. Investigation of the effect of sol processing parameters on the photoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Srikanth; H Tanaka; K. M Krishna; T Soga; M. K Mishra; T Jimbo; M Umeno

    2001-01-01

    Sol-gel spin-coating method has been explored to prepare nano-crystalline TiO2 films for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell application. Effects of evaporation temperature at which the sol is concentrated and addition of polyethelene glycol (PEG) to the sol at different concentrations on film thickness, surface morphology and solar cell performance are studied. Conversion efficiency is found to increase with PEG addition up

  16. Oligothiophene interlayer effect on photocurrent generation for hybrid TiO(2)/P3HT solar cells.

    PubMed

    Planells, Miquel; Abate, Antonio; Snaith, Henry J; Robertson, Neil

    2014-10-01

    A series of conjugated 3-hexylthiophene derivatives with a cyanoacrylic acid group has been prepared with conjugation length from one up to five thiophene units (1T-5T). The UV-vis spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical data and DFT calculations show lowering of LUMO energies and red-shift of absorption into the visible as the thiophene chain length increases. TiO2/P3HT solar cells were prepared with prior functionalization of the TiO2 surface by 1T-5T and studies include cells using undoped P3HT and using P3HT doped with H-TFSI. Without H-TFSI doping, photocurrent generation occurs from both the oligothiophene and P3HT. Doping the P3HT with H-TFSI quenches photocurrent generation from excitation of P3HT, but enables very effective charge extraction upon excitation of the oligothiophene. In this case, photocurrent generation increases with the light harvesting ability of 1T-5T leading to a highest efficiency of 2.32% using 5T. Overall, we have shown that P3HT can act in either charge generation or in charge collection, but does not effectively perform both functions simultaneously, and this illustrates a central challenge in the further development of TiO2/P3HT solar cells. PMID:25233009

  17. Electrophoretically deposited TiO2 compact layers using aqueous suspension for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemin; Qiu, Yin; Wang, Shasha; Lu, Shan; Gruar, Robert I; Zhang, Xuehua; Darr, Jawwad A; He, Tao

    2013-09-21

    TiO2 compact layers (CLs) prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from an aqueous nanoparticle suspension were used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to prevent charge recombination at the interface between the transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and the electrolyte. The TiO2 nanopowder (ca. 4.5 nm diameter) suspension used in the EPD process was prepared via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis pilot plant (at a production rate of ca. 0.38 kg h(-1)). The optimal thickness of the TiO2 CL for DSSCs is about 115 nm. Compared to the DSSCs without a CL, the optimal cell has shown improved short-circuit current density (JSC) and solar energy conversion efficiency by 13.1% and 15.0%, respectively. The mechanism for improved performance has been studied by the measurements of dark current and electrochemical impedance spectra. The interfacial charge transfer resistance at the FTO/electrolyte interface is increased after fabricating a CL in the cell, indicating inhibited electron recombination at the interface. PMID:23903769

  18. Effect of the Presence of Iodide on the Electron Injection Dynamics of Dye-Sensitized TiO2-Based Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McCusker, James K.

    dynamics of dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cells have been investigated to determine the effects Solar Cells Amanda L. Smeigh, Jordan E. Katz, Bruce S. Brunschwig,*,,§ Nathan S. Lewis,*, and James K -/I- were fully functional solar cells whose steady-state photocurrents were directly measured. In (n

  19. Mesoporous TiO2 Bragg Stack Templated by Graft Copolymer for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Daeyeon; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-01-01

    Organized mesoporous TiO2 Bragg stacks (om-TiO2 BS) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index organized mesoporous TiO2 (om-TiO2) films were prepared to enhance dye loading, light harvesting, electron transport, and electrolyte pore-infiltration in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The om-TiO2 films were synthesized via a sol-gel reaction using amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM as templates. To generate high and low index films, the refractive index of om-TiO2 film was tuned by controlling the grafting ratio of PVC-g-POEM via atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A polymerized ionic liquid (PIL)-based DSSC fabricated with a 1.2-?m-thick om-TiO2 BS-based photoanode exhibited an efficiency of 4.3%, which is much higher than that of conventional DSSCs with a nanocrystalline TiO2 layer (nc-TiO2 layer) (1.7%). A PIL-based DSSC with a heterostructured photoanode consisting of 400-nm-thick organized mesoporous TiO2 interfacial (om-TiO2 IF) layer, 7-?m-thick nc-TiO2, and 1.2-?m-thick om-TiO2 BS as the bottom, middle and top layers, respectively, exhibited an excellent efficiency of 7.5%, which is much higher than that of nanocrystaline TiO2 photoanode (3.5%). PMID:24980936

  20. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günes, Serap; Marjanovic, Nenad; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2008-10-01

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2 as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO2 nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  1. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO(2) nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene.

    PubMed

    Günes, Serap; Marjanovic, Nenad; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2008-10-22

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO(2) as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO(2) nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:21832669

  2. Photodeposition of Ag2S on TiO2 nanorod arrays for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ag2S quantum dots were deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays by a two-step photodeposition. The prepared TiO2 nanorod arrays as well as the Ag2S deposited electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, suggesting a large coverage of Ag2S quantum dots on the ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays. UV–vis absorption spectra of Ag2S deposited electrodes show a broad absorption range of the visible light. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on these electrodes were fabricated, and the photoelectrochemical properties were examined. A high photocurrent density of 10.25 mA/cm2 with a conversion efficiency of 0.98% at AM 1.5 solar light of 100 mW/cm2 was obtained with an optimal photodeposition time. The performance of the QDSSC at different incident light intensities was also investigated. The results display a better performance at a lower incident light level with a conversion efficiency of 1.25% at 47 mW/cm2. PMID:23286551

  3. Improved performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell using a TiO 2\\/ZnO\\/Eosin Y electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seok-Soon Kim; Jun-Ho Yum; Yung-Eun Sung

    2003-01-01

    TiO2\\/ZnO\\/Eosin Y structure films were prepared by a one-step cathodic electrodeposition method and used as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Using this TiO2\\/ZnO\\/Eosin Y electrode in DSSC, the degradation of the cell with time was reduced and ISC, VOC and fill factor values were increased. The use of a thin ZnO layer, permitted the formation of an

  4. Fast one-step method to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticle clusters for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Kee; Fisher, Ellen R; Elliott, C Michael; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2012-08-01

    We have successfully designed a rapid method for producing dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using TiO2 films prepared by a modified dielectric barrier discharge jet (m-DBD jet) method which uses a DBD jet with elevated substrate temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 500 degrees C for approximately 10 min. This facile process has several advantages over other methods such as (1) eliminating additional coating and annealing steps, (2) creating films with high speed electron mobility via hierarchical pore clusters, and (3) allowing controlled TiO2 bandgap by N doping using atmospheric nitrogen instead of supplying N2 gas. Depending on reaction conditions, the resulting nanostructured materials have various sizes and shapes, with those deposited at the highest substrate temperatures displaying hierarchical walnut-shaped morphology as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A possible growth mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticle clusters (TNC) is presented and discussed. Finally, this m-DBD jet method produces TNC films that exhibit approximately 4 times higher photo-conversion efficiency than the nanoparticle films by the unmodified DBD jet method. PMID:22962736

  5. Sponge-like porous TiO2/ZnO nanodonuts for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengrong; Jiao, Yu; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-04-01

    Porous photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can lead to superior photovoltaic properties due to their high dye absorption, large pore volume and superior light scattering. In this work, sponge-like TiO2/ZnO nanodonuts were synthesized by one step electrospray method, and the effects of different morphologies and ZnO concentrations on the performances of DSSCs were studied. The results indicated that porous TiO2/ZnO nanodonuts possess larger pore volume, higher dye absorption, better light scattering ability, and more efficient electron transport and electrolyte penetration properties due to their superior porous structure. Combined with the optimized ZnO concentration to suppress electrons recombination, energy conversion efficiency of 9.00% can be obtained with Jsc of 16.70 mA cm-2, Voc of 0.78 V and FF of 0.69, which is 44.4% higher than those of DSSCs based on P25 particles, and substantially higher than other TiO2/ZnO morphologies as well.

  6. Improved performance in dye-sensitized solar cells employing TiO2 photoelectrodes coated with metal hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Nakade, Shogo; Kim, Dong-Yu; Yanagida, Shozo

    2006-02-23

    The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was compared before and after processing the TiO(2) electrodes by minute-order electrochemical reactions with metal nitrates, where the metals were Mg, Zn, Al, and La, in 2-propanol. An overcoating of metal hydroxide was formed without the need for a sintering process, and magnesium hydroxide was found to give the largest improvement in photovoltage, fill factor, and eventually overall conversion efficiency of the DSCs. To analyze the nature of the improvement, the diffusion coefficient (D) and electron lifetime (tau) were determined. While little influence of overcoating on D was seen, a correlation between the increase in tau and V(oc) was observed for the metals examined here. The remarkable improvement in the electron lifetime of the DSCs suggests that an overcoating with magnesium hydroxide species function as the blocking layers at the fluorine-doped tin oxide and TiO(2) interfaces, thus contributing to the suppression of electron leakage, i.e., recombination processes between unidirectional transporting electrons and poly-iodides such as tri-iodide in the processed TiO(2) photoelectrode systems. The increase in V(oc) can be explained by the increased electron density caused by the increase in electron lifetime. PMID:16494331

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2-B nanobelt/TiO2 nanoparticle sandwich-type photoelectrodes with controllable nanobelt length.

    PubMed

    Dong, Youzhen; Pan, Kai; Tian, Guohui; Zhou, Wei; Pan, Qingjiang; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun; Fu, Honggang

    2011-04-21

    The TiO(2)-B nanobelt (NB)/TiO(2) nanoparticle (NP) sandwich-type structure photoelectrode, with controllable nanobelt length, has been used to fabricate high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which combine the advantages of the rapid electron transport in TiO(2)-B NBs and the high surface area of TiO(2) NPs. The results indicate that the sandwich-type photoelectrode achieves higher photoelectrical conversion efficiency when compared with the TiO(2) nanoparticulate electrode. Increasing the length of TiO(2)-B NBs has been demonstrated to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency (?). DSSCs with the longest (10 ?m) TiO(2)-B NBs yield the highest ? of 7.94%. The interfacial electron transport of DSSCs with different lengths of TiO(2)-B NBs has been quantitatively investigated using the photovoltage transient and the electrochemical impedance spectra, which demonstrates that the DSSCs with longest TiO(2)-B NBs display the highest electron collection efficiency and the fastest interfacial electron transfer. PMID:21369612

  8. Determination of electron and hole energy levels in mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO 2 solid-state dye solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge García-Cañadas; Francisco Fabregat-Santiago; Henk J. Bolink; Emilio Palomares; Germà Garcia-Belmonte; Juan Bisquert

    2006-01-01

    A study of a hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO2 and the hole conductor spiro-OMeTAD (2,2?7,7?-tetrakis(N,N?-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9?-spiro-bifluorene) has been realized. Impedance and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used to measure the interfacial properties of the hybrid heterojunction and establish the energy levels of the solid-state electrolyte. It was observed that the energy levels of the organic hole transport material

  9. Preferred Molecular Orientation of Coumarin 343 on TiO2 Surfaces: Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McCree-Grey, Jonathan; Cole, Jacqueline Manina; Evans, Peter

    2015-07-10

    Holt from ANSTO for induction on X-ray reflectometry instrumentation at OPAL, also Andrew Nelson and Gerry Triani for their guidance on data analysis and TiO2 deposition, respectively. J. M-G. acknowledges ANSTO for a part-funded PhD studentship. J... Implications for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Chem. Mater. 2013, 25 (21), 4354-4363. 5. Deacon, G. B.; Phillips, R. J., Relationships Between the Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies of Carboxylato Complexes and the Type of Carboxylate Coordination. Coord...

  10. First Demonstration of Surface Passivation in Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells by an Additive in the Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Kopidakis, N.; Neale, N. R.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the electrolyte is known to greatly influence the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. It has been speculated that some components of the electrolyte passivate the TiO2 surface against recombination; however, this has never been confirmed experimentally. We hereby present the first case of passivation of the TiO2 surface against recombination by an additive in the electrolyte. Even though the additive also causes a downward movement of the TiO2 bands, suppression of recombination prevails and an overall improvement in open-circuit photovoltage is observed. This work was conducted in collaboration with the DOE Office of Science program.

  11. Achievement of 6.03% conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorod photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiguang; Wan, Farong; Wang, Yali; Jiang, Chunhua

    2009-09-01

    The rutile TiO2 nanorods (RTNs) with the length of 40-130 nm and diameters approximately 8-15 nm, containing some 300-500 nm sized RTN aggregates and 6% of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals, were prepared by surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the RTNs exhibited power conversion efficiency of 6.03%. As compared to P25 TiO2 based DSC, RTNs based DSC shows improved light-harvesting and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, leading to an increase in short-circuit current (Jsc) by 40.6%.

  12. Comparison of Dye-Sensitized Rutile- and Anatase-Based TiO2 Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N. G.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and optimize the new dye-sensitized solar cell technology. In view of the infancy of rutile material development for solar cells, the PV response of the dye-sensitized rutile-based solar cell is remarkably close to that of the anatase-based cell.

  13. TiO 2- and ZnO-based solar cells using a chlorophyll a derivative sensitizer for light-harvesting and energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Feng Wang; Osamu Kitao; Eiji Hosono; Haoshen Zhou; Shin-ichi Sasaki; Hitoshi Tamiaki

    2010-01-01

    TiO2- and ZnO-based solar cells sensitized by a chlorophyll a derivative (methyl trans-32-carboxy-pyropheophorbide a) were fabricated and compared. The TiO2-based solar cell produces higher values for the short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc), open-circuit photovoltage (Voc), and energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) than the ZnO-based solar cell. The observed ATR-FTIR data on the dye-sensitized semiconductor electrodes and the spectra estimated from the density functional

  14. A cylindrical core-shell-like TiO2 nanotube array anode for flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiefeng Yu; Dan Wang; Yining Huang; Xing Fan; Xin Tang; Cong Gao; Jianlong Li; Dechun Zou; Kai Wu

    2011-01-01

    A versatile anodization method was reported to anodize Ti wires into cylindrical core-shell-like and thermally crystallized TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays that can be directly used as the photoanodes for semi- and all-solid fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells (F-DSSC). Both F-DSSCs showed higher power conversion efficiencies than or competitive to those of previously reported counterparts fabricated by depositing TiO2 particles onto flexible

  15. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous TiO 2 nanostructured films prepared by a modified sol–gel method for application in dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Muniz; M. S. Góes; J. J. Silva; J. A. Varela; E. Joanni; R. Parra; P. R. Bueno

    2011-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 colloidal dispersions were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 200°C from titanium isopropoxide gels modified with acetic acid in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant. Absolute ethanol, anhydrous terpineol and ethyl cellulose were added to this anatase dispersion resulting in a 23wt% TiO2 paste. Mesoporous films for application as working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared by the

  16. Applications of vertically oriented TiO 2 micro-pillars array on the electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Meen; C. J. Huang; S. M. Chao; J. K. Tsai; W. Water; W. R. Chen; Y. S. Liu; L. W. Ji

    2011-01-01

    In this research, dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 micro-pillars fabricated by inductive couple plasma etcher were investigated by analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra (UV–vis), and current–voltage characteristics. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the TiO2 anatase phase forms while sintering at 450°C for 30min. The SEM images reveal that the diameter

  17. Preparation of sol–gel TiO 2\\/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni-on Saelim; Rathanawan Magaraphan; Thammanoon Sreethawong

    2011-01-01

    The sol–gel TiO2\\/purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol–gel TiO2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of

  18. Fabrication of CdSe Nano-Tetrapod Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Pang; Limin Leng; Chunjie Liang; Jun He; Liya Zhou; Yuwei Lan; Lijuan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Nano-tetrapods Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared and exploited as inorganic dyes to sensitize a large-band-gap TiO2 nanotube array layer for QD-sensitized solar cells. Covering the TiO2 films with QDs has been achieved using two strategies: (i) direct adsorption from chloroform dispersions and (ii) anchoring the QDs through a molecular linker 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). In contrast with

  19. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack. PMID:25919200

  20. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO2 film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO2 flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO2 nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO2 flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  1. Combinatorial solar cell libraries for the investigation of different metal back contacts for TiO2-Cu2O hetero-junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rühle, S; Barad, H N; Bouhadana, Y; Keller, D A; Ginsburg, A; Shimanovich, K; Majhi, K; Lovrincic, R; Anderson, A Y; Zaban, A

    2014-04-21

    Here we present a comprehensive investigation of TiO2-Cu2O hetero-junction solar cells with different back contacts (Au, ITO, Cu or Ag). Combinatorial hetero-junction libraries consisting of a linear TiO2 thickness gradient produced by spray pyrolysis and a bell shaped Cu2O profile synthesized by pulsed laser deposition were chosen to investigate the impact of the two metal oxide layer thicknesses. The back contacts were deposited as round patches onto a grid of 13 × 13 points, 169 contacts for each contact material, forming a library containing 4 × 13 × 13 = 676 back contacts. Each back contact represented a solar cell with an individual TiO2 and Cu2O thickness. I-V measurements show that all four materials provide an ohmic contact and that the open circuit voltage of ?300 mV is rather independent of both layer thicknesses and contact material. The size of the Cu2O crystals drastically decreases with distance from the center of deposition, which leads to a drastic increase of series resistance when the crystal size is <50 nm. PMID:24615619

  2. Efficient hybrid plasmonic polymer solar cells with Ag nanoparticle decorated TiO2 nanorods embedded in the active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kong; Bi, Yu; Qu, Shengchun; Tan, Furui; Chi, Dan; Lu, Shudi; Li, Yanpei; Kou, Yanlei; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-05-01

    A hybrid plasmonic polymer solar cell, in which plasmonic metallic nanostructures (such as Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles) are embedded in the active layer, has been under intense scrutiny recently because it provides a promising new approach to enhance the efficiency of the device. We propose a brand new hybrid plasmonic nanostructure, which combines a plasmonic metallic nanostructure and one-dimensional semiconductor nanocrystals, to enhance the photocurrent of the device through a strong localized electric field and an enhanced charge transport channel. We demonstrate that when Ag nanoparticle decorated TiO2 nanorods were introduced into the active layer of polymer-fullerene based bulk heterojunction solar cells, the photocurrent significantly increased to 14.15 mA cm-2 from 6.51 mA cm-2 without a decrease in the open voltage; thus, the energy conversion efficiency was dramatically enhanced to 4.87% from 2.57%.

  3. The effect of TiCl4-treated TiO2 compact layer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    The effect of TiCl4-treated TiO2 compact layer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell-sensitized solar cells Compact layer Blocking layer TiCl4 treatment Solar cells a b s t r a c t In order to prevent by a factor of five compared with the bare cell. Ó 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Dye

  4. Laser welding of nanoparticulate TiO2 and transparent conducting oxide electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2010-08-01

    Poor interfacial contact is often encountered in nanoparticulate film-based devices. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a representative case in which a nanoporous TiO2 electrode needs to be prepared on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate. In this study, we demonstrate that the inter-electrode contact resistance accounts for a considerable portion of the total resistance of a DSSC and its efficiency can be greatly enhanced by welding the interface with a laser. TiO2 films formed on the TCO-coated glass substrate were irradiated with a pulsed ultraviolet laser beam at 355 nm this transmits through the TCO and glass but is strongly absorbed by TiO2. Electron microscopy analysis and impedance measurements showed that a thin continuous TiO2 layer is formed at the interface as a result of the local melting of TiO2 nanoparticles and this layer completely bridges the gap between the two electrodes, improving the current flow with a reduced contact resistance. We were able to improve the efficiency by 35-65% with this process. DSSCs fabricated using a homemade TiO2 paste revealed an efficiency improvement from ? = 3.3% to 5.4%, and an increase from 8.2% to 11.2% was achieved with the TiO2 electrodes made from a commercial paste.

  5. Sol-gel-Derived nano-sized double layer anti-reflection coatings (SiO2/TiO2) for low-cost solar cell fabrication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Hur, Man Gyu; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2013-11-01

    We investigate nano-sized double layer anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) using a TiO2 and SiO2 sol-gel solution process for mono-crystalline silicon solar cells. The process can be easily adapted for spraying sol-gel coatings to reduce manufacturing cost. The spray-coated SiO2/TiO2 nano-sized double layer ARCs were deposited on mono-crystalline silicon solar cells, and they showed good optical properties. The spray coating process is a lower-cost fabrication process for large-scale coating than vacuum deposition processes such as PECVD. The measured average optical reflectance (300-1200 nm) was about approximately 8% for SiO2/TiO2 nano-sized double layer ARCs. The electrical parameters of a mono-crystalline silicon solar cell and reflection losses show that the SiO2/TiO2 stacks can improve cell efficiency by 0.2% compared to a non-coated mono-crystalline silicon solar cell. In the results, good correlation between theoretical and experimental data was obtained. We expect that the sol-gel spray-coated mono-crystalline silicon solar cells have high potential for low-cost solar cell fabrication. PMID:24245311

  6. Efficient dye-sensitised solar cell based on uniform In-doped TiO2 spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshayesh, A. M.; Farajisafiloo, N.

    2015-04-01

    A facile deposition of uniform photoanode electrodes by a novel anatase-stabilised gel for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) applications is reported. Highly crystalline anatase-TiO2 phase is stabilised by indium nitrate at 500 °C. The electrodes are composed of uniform spherical particles with diameter around 3 µm, containing small nanoparticles with the average grain size of 40 nm, deposited by dip-coating method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that 6 at.% In3+ was incorporated into titania crystal lattice and stabilised anatase phase by limiting the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. UV-Visible spectra show that the stabilised film has lower band gap energy than that of undoped TiO2, extending the absorption of TiO2 into visible region. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrates that the anatase-stabilised DSC enjoys less recombination and internal resistances, improving the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The anatase-stabilised DSC has higher power conversion efficiency of 7.48 % than that of unstabilised cell (6.37 %).

  7. Efficient dye-sensitised solar cell based on uniform In-doped TiO2 spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshayesh, A. M.; Farajisafiloo, N.

    2015-07-01

    A facile deposition of uniform photoanode electrodes by a novel anatase-stabilised gel for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) applications is reported. Highly crystalline anatase-TiO2 phase is stabilised by indium nitrate at 500 °C. The electrodes are composed of uniform spherical particles with diameter around 3 µm, containing small nanoparticles with the average grain size of 40 nm, deposited by dip-coating method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that 6 at.% In3+ was incorporated into titania crystal lattice and stabilised anatase phase by limiting the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. UV-Visible spectra show that the stabilised film has lower band gap energy than that of undoped TiO2, extending the absorption of TiO2 into visible region. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrates that the anatase-stabilised DSC enjoys less recombination and internal resistances, improving the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The anatase-stabilised DSC has higher power conversion efficiency of 7.48 % than that of unstabilised cell (6.37 %).

  8. TiO2 nanowire sensitized by natural dyes for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Sheng; Ren, Jun; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the electronic coupling between a semiconductor TiO2 nanowire and a natural dye sensitizer based on time-dependent first-principles calculations. The model dye molecule, cyanidin is found to dissociate into the quinonoidal form upon adsorption, rendering its highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) located in the middle of TiO2 bandgap and its lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) at the bottom of TiO2 conduction band. The visible light absorption is greatly enhanced with two prominent peaks at 460 nm and 650 nm. The excited electrons are injected into the TiO2 conduction within a ultrafast timescale of <50 fs, with negligible non-radiative energy dissipation and recombination.

  9. Efficient PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Narrow bandgap PbS nanoparticles, which may expand the light absorption range to the near-infrared region, were deposited on TiO2 nanorod arrays by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The thicknesses of PbS nanoparticles were optimized to enhance the photovoltaic performance of PbS QDSCs. A uniform CdS layer was directly coated on previously grown PbS-TiO2 photoanode to protect the PbS from the chemical attack of polysulfide electrolytes. A remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density (approximately 10.4 mA/cm2) for PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cell was recorded while the photocurrent density of only PbS-sensitized solar cells was lower than 3 mA/cm2. The power conversion efficiency of the PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cell reached 1.3%, which was beyond the arithmetic addition of the efficiencies of single constituents (PbS and CdS). These results indicate that the synergistic combination of PbS with CdS may provide a stable and effective sensitizer for practical solar cell applications. PMID:23394609

  10. Electrostatic assembly of CdTe quantum dots with different charged ligands into TiO2 porous film for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Liman; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated an approach for the electrostatic assembly of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different charged ligands as sensitizers, achieving high coverage and good dispersion in TiO2 porous films. The CdTe QD-sensitized TiO2 porous films were subjected to thermal annealing in a high vacuum chamber to remove the ligand linker, resulting in the formation of direct heterojunctions between the bare CdTe QDs and TiO2 for a favorable charge transfer. The as-received CdTe QD-sensitized TiO2 porous films were employed as photoanodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QSSCs), and the photocurrent density reached as high as 4.69 mA/cm2 under a standard illumination condition of simulated AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2).

  11. Improving the performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by using TiO2 nanosheets with exposed highly reactive facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Ting; Jiang, Lei; Han, Ke-Li; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrated CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} and {100} facets. Under the illumination of one Sun (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm-2), the photovoltaic conversion efficiencies were 2.29% for a QDSSC based on {001}-TiO2 nanosheets, 2.18% for a QDSSC based on {100}-TiO2 nanosheets, and 1.46% for a QDSSC based on commercial Degussa P25. It was found that the exposed highly reactive facets of TiO2 nanosheets had a remarkable influence on the QDSSCs due to their better adsorption abilities for QDs, leading to the high short current density and the enhanced photovoltaic performance.

  12. Improving the performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by using TiO2 nanosheets with exposed highly reactive facets.

    PubMed

    You, Ting; Jiang, Lei; Han, Ke-Li; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-06-21

    We demonstrated CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} and {100} facets. Under the illumination of one Sun (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)), the photovoltaic conversion efficiencies were 2.29% for a QDSSC based on {001}-TiO2 nanosheets, 2.18% for a QDSSC based on {100}-TiO2 nanosheets, and 1.46% for a QDSSC based on commercial Degussa P25. It was found that the exposed highly reactive facets of TiO2 nanosheets had a remarkable influence on the QDSSCs due to their better adsorption abilities for QDs, leading to the high short current density and the enhanced photovoltaic performance. PMID:23680858

  13. The tailored inner space of TiO2 electrodes via a 30 second wet etching process: high efficiency solid-state perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Park, Jong Hyoek

    2015-06-28

    We fabricated a perovskite solar cell with enhanced device efficiency based on the tailored inner space of the TiO2 electrode by utilizing a very short chemical etching process. It was found that the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode treated with a HF solution exhibited remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiencies under simulated AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The controlled inner space and morphology of the etched TiO2 electrode provide an optimized space for perovskite sensitizers and infiltration of a hole transport layer without sacrificing its original electron transport ability, which resulted in higher JSC, FF and VOC values. This simple platform provides new opportunities for tailoring the microstructure of the TiO2 electrode and has great potential in various optoelectronic devices utilizing metal oxide nanostructures. PMID:26034972

  14. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  15. The tailored inner space of TiO2 electrodes via a 30 second wet etching process: high efficiency solid-state perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Park, Jong Hyoek

    2015-06-01

    We fabricated a perovskite solar cell with enhanced device efficiency based on the tailored inner space of the TiO2 electrode by utilizing a very short chemical etching process. It was found that the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode treated with a HF solution exhibited remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiencies under simulated AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The controlled inner space and morphology of the etched TiO2 electrode provide an optimized space for perovskite sensitizers and infiltration of a hole transport layer without sacrificing its original electron transport ability, which resulted in higher JSC, FF and VOC values. This simple platform provides new opportunities for tailoring the microstructure of the TiO2 electrode and has great potential in various optoelectronic devices utilizing metal oxide nanostructures.We fabricated a perovskite solar cell with enhanced device efficiency based on the tailored inner space of the TiO2 electrode by utilizing a very short chemical etching process. It was found that the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode treated with a HF solution exhibited remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiencies under simulated AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The controlled inner space and morphology of the etched TiO2 electrode provide an optimized space for perovskite sensitizers and infiltration of a hole transport layer without sacrificing its original electron transport ability, which resulted in higher JSC, FF and VOC values. This simple platform provides new opportunities for tailoring the microstructure of the TiO2 electrode and has great potential in various optoelectronic devices utilizing metal oxide nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01714a

  16. Frontside illuminated TiO2 nanotube dye-sensitized solar cells using multifunctional microchannel array electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Hai; Li, Ming; Hong, Ruijiang; Ye, Qihong; Zheng, Jiemin; Shen, Hui

    2009-12-01

    Here we report a frontside illuminated TiO2 nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The photoanode with inclined microchannels (IMCs) formed by laser drilling acted as a multifunctional role for enhancing the cell's efficiency; light trapping, pathway for transporting electrolyte, and extra surface area for dye loading. The amount of N719 dye absorbed on IMCs photoanode was measured to be 3.83×10-7 mol/cm2, which was almost 1.82 times as high as that of the flat photoanode. The frontside illuminated DSSC showed an energy conversion efficiency of 4.1% under AM1.5 condition, which was much higher compared to that (3.1%) of the backside illuminated DSSC.

  17. Home-made experiment of Dye-sensitized TiO2 Nanocrystalline Solar Cells and its education evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, M. F.; Shieh, M. C.; Chen, T. W.

    2010-03-01

    Dyes extracted from some natural fruits including anthocyanins absorb sunlight and effectively activate electrons of anthocyanins. Thus these activated electrons are conducted between TiO2 nanocrystals and form electric potential and current between two electrodes. The dyes can be gotten from the natural fruits, such as blackberries, raspberry, pomegranate seeds and bing cherries. This principle permits making a dye sensitized TiO2 nanocrystallines solar cell (DSSC). All required materials and tools for fabricating a home- made DSSC are easy to obtain around home. The procedures are perfect hands-on experiment as well as demonstration in K-12 schools or home settings. We have designed several protocols for fabricating DSSC and have successfully demonstrated in more than 100 activities with different level students. K-12 Students were able to build their own working DSSC's within 2-3 hours sessions and learned about alternative energy sources. These experiments can inspire students and general public about the modern technology in daily life. Low cost (low than US 3 in Taiwan)and safety are also ensured in our DSSC experiments.

  18. Effect of compressed TiO2 nanoparticle thin film thickness on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jenn Kai; Hsu, Wen Dung; Wu, Tian Chiuan; Meen, Teen Hang; Chong, Wen Jie

    2013-11-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as photoanode. Photoanode thin films were prepared by doctor blading method with 420 kg/cm2 of mechanical compression process and heat treatment in the air at 500°C for 30 min. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 NP photoanode is 26.6 ?m with an efficiency of 9.01% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. The efficiency is around two times higher than that of conventional DSSCs with an uncompressed photoanode. The open-circuit voltage of DSSCs decreases as the thickness increases. One DSSC (sample D) has the highest conversion efficiency while it has the maximum short-circuit current density. The results indicate that the short-circuit current density is a compromise between two conflict factors: enlargement of the surface area by increasing photoanode thickness and extension of the electron diffusion length to the electrode as the thickness increases.

  19. Spray pyrolysed microporous TiO2 thin films by optimisation of substrate temperature for ‘all sprayed’ solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, M. V.; Deepu, D. R.; Geethu, R.; Rajeev Kumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 500 °C by a simple, cost effective spray pyrolysis method using commercially available TiO2 powder (Degussa P25). Analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal the microporous nature of the films at 350 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman studies reveal that these films are amorphous in nature. The films were subsequently annealed at 500 °C for 2 h, resulting in crystallisation (the tetragonal anatase phase). XPS analysis was effectively used to study the chemical composition of the samples. Finally, optimized microporous TiO2 thin films were used for the fabrication of an ‘all-sprayed’ solar cell utilizing well-established CuInS2 as the absorber layer. The best device under this study has an open-circuit voltage of 409 mV and a short-circuit current density of 3.90 mA cm?2. The efficiency and fill factor were 0.61% and 38%, respectively.

  20. Effect of compressed TiO2 nanoparticle thin film thickness on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as photoanode. Photoanode thin films were prepared by doctor blading method with 420 kg/cm2 of mechanical compression process and heat treatment in the air at 500°C for 30 min. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 NP photoanode is 26.6 ?m with an efficiency of 9.01% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. The efficiency is around two times higher than that of conventional DSSCs with an uncompressed photoanode. The open-circuit voltage of DSSCs decreases as the thickness increases. One DSSC (sample D) has the highest conversion efficiency while it has the maximum short-circuit current density. The results indicate that the short-circuit current density is a compromise between two conflict factors: enlargement of the surface area by increasing photoanode thickness and extension of the electron diffusion length to the electrode as the thickness increases. PMID:24192482

  1. Three-dimensional TiO2/ZnO hybrid array as a heterostructured anode for efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao-Lin; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Wan, Quan; Li, Long-Bin; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-03-11

    The development of a novel nanoarray photoanode with a heterostructure on a transparent conducting oxide substrate provides a promising scheme to fabricate efficient energy conversion devices. Herein, we successfully synthesize the vertically aligned hierarchical TiO2 nanowire/ZnO nanorod or TiO2 nanowire/ZnO nanosheet hybrid arrays, which are proven to be excellent anode candidates for superior light utilization. Consequently, the quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells based on such hybrid arrays exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM 1.5G one sun illumination with improved short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor compared to pristine TiO2 nanowire arrays. Combined with the chemical-bath-deposited Cu2S counter electrode, the eventual PCE can be further optimized to as high as 4.57% for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized quantum dot solar cells. PMID:25679232

  2. Efficient Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Spin-Coated TiO2 Anode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Zhao-Zong; Lian, Jie; Li, Yi-Tan; Chen, Yan-Xue; Gao, Shang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ying-Shun; Zhao, Ming-Lin

    2013-11-01

    TiO2 anode materials are prepared on ITO glass by spin-coated method. Dye-sensitized solar cells are assembled with these anodes and natural dyes extracted from radix ophiopogonis by different solvents. The formation and characterization of anode materials are confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Photovoltaic testing results show that energy conversion efficiency could reach 1.67% with fill factor of 0.51, open-circuit voltage of 457 mV, and short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.2 mA/cm2. The short-circuit photocurrent density can reach 7.6 mA/cm2 with efficiency of 1.33.

  3. The influence of anatase-rutile mixed phase and ZnO blocking layer on dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2nanofiberphotoanodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    High performance is expected in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that utilize one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructures owing to the effective electron transport. However, due to the low dye adsorption, mainly because of their smooth surfaces, 1-D TiO2 DSSCs show relatively lower efficiencies than nanoparticle-based ones. Herein, we demonstrate a very simple approach using thick TiO2 electrospun nanofiber films as photoanodes to obtain high conversion efficiency. To improve the performance of the DSCCs, anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nanofibers are achieved by increasing sintering temperature above 500°C, and very thin ZnO films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method as blocking layers. With approximately 40-?m-thick mixed-phase (approximately 15.6?wt.% rutile) TiO2 nanofiber as photoanode and 15-nm-thick compact ZnO film as a blocking layer in DSSC, the photoelectric conversion efficiency and short-circuit current are measured as 8.01% and 17.3?mA?cm?2, respectively. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements reveal that extremely large electron diffusion length is the key point to support the usage of thick TiO2 nanofibers as photoanodes with very thin ZnO blocking layers to obtain high photocurrents and high conversion efficiencies. PMID:23286741

  4. Bi-layer of nanorods and three-dimensional hierarchical structure of TiO2 for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixin; Yang, Junyou; Jiang, Qinghui; Luo, Yubo; Hou, Yaru; Zhou, Shuqin; Zhou, Zhiwei

    2015-06-01

    A novel bi-layer structure assembled by nanorods and three-dimensional hierarchical TiO2 is synthesized by a facile two step hydrothermal method. By adjusting the acid concentration, the morphology of three-dimensional hierarchical TiO2 can be well controlled. This bi-layer structure combines the merits of one-dimensional nanorods which can serve as direct electrons transport pathways and three-dimensional hierarchical structure supplying light scattering ability and large specific surface area for dye loading. Hence, the photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on the bi-layer TiO2 is greatly enhanced compared to that of single nanorods film. The maximum short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs based on bi-layer TiO2 structure reach 12.55 mA/cm2 and 5.61% respectively, which are remarkably larger than those of 5.00 mA/cm2 and 2.38% for the DSSC based on a single layer TiO2 nanorods film. The superior performance of bi-layer TiO2 structure is attributed to the large dye loading amount and light scattering properties due to the unique hierarchical structure.

  5. Fabrication of Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow structure for efficient light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Juyoung; Hwang, Sun Hye; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-28

    Improving the light-harvesting properties of photoanodes is promising way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We synthesized Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs) via sol-gel reaction and chemical deposition. The Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs exhibited multifunctions from Au@Ag core/shell NPs (Au@Ag CSNPs) and TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (TiO2 HNPs). These Au@Ag CSNPs exhibited strong and broadened localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), together with a large specific surface area of 129 m(2) g(-1), light scattering effect, and facile oxidation-reduction reaction of electrolyte from TiO2 HNPs, which resulted in enhancement of the light harvesting. The optimum PCE of ? = 9.7% was achieved for the DSSCs using photoanode materials based on TiO2 HNPs containing Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs (0.2 wt % Au@Ag CSNPs with respect to TiO2 HNPs), which outperformed by 24% enhancement that of conventional photoanodes formed using P25 (? = 7.8%). PMID:25562329

  6. A strategy to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the highly efficient TiO2/ZnS photoanode.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, S; Punnoose, Dinah; Venkata Tulasivarma, Ch; Pavan Kumar, C H S S; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-02-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the TiO2 photoanode film plays an important role in increasing the power conversion efficiency. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were first coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide by the doctor-blade method, and then a thin film of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully fabricated on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The performance of the DSSCs was examined in detail using a cobalt sulfide counter electrode and I(-)/I3(-) electrolyte. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements were used to find the composition of the films. Characterization with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the recombination rate decreased drastically during the electron transportation. The DSSCs based on ZnS coated TiO2 photoanode achieved a power conversion efficiency of 5.90% under 1 sunlight illumination, which is higher than that of the bare TiO2 photoanode (4.43%). This suggests that the promising ZnS-coated TiO2 nanoparticles accumulate a large number of photo-injected electrons in the conduction band of the photoanode and the N719 dye lowers the recombination of photo-injected electrons with the redox electrolyte. PMID:25556975

  7. Fabrication and characterization of photoelectrode thin films with different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Chen, Yu-Ling

    2011-08-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of three different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles to fabricate two-layer photoelectrode thin film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The four different TiO2 morphologies are titania nanotubes (Tnt), TiO2 nanoparticles (H220), TiO2 nanoparticle (SP) and commercial DP-25 nanoparticles (P-25). To prepare the thin films of the photoelectrodes, the first layer is coated by H220 TiO2 nanoparticles, and the second is coated by 3 kinds of materials optimally proportionally mixed - P25, SP and Tnt. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs with photoelectrodes fabricated using H220 reached 6.31%. Finally, the TiO2 nanaomaterials with four different morphologies were used to prepare a two layer photoelectrode with the structure of H220/P25-Tnt-SP which was combined with a Pt counter electrode to assemble DSSCs. These DSSCs had photoelectric conversion efficiencies of as high as 7.47%. PMID:22103219

  8. Manipulation of inter-particle interactions between TiO2 and CdTe: an effective method to enhance the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    We have reported a pH-controlled deposition method to directly assemble aqueous 1-thioglycerol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on mesoporous TiO2 thin films. The inter-particle interactions between CdTe QDs and mesoporous TiO2 could be modulated with the adjustment of solution pH values. Low amount of QD loading on the mesoporous TiO2 film was observed in the case of electrostatic attraction or strong electrostatic repulsion between CdTe QDs and TiO2. Only at weak electrostatic repulsion between CdTe QDs and TiO2 were high loading and uniform distribution of CdTe QDs obtained on the TiO2 film. Under an optimal condition, a power conversion efficiency of 0.76% was achieved for the CdTe QD sensitized solar cells under the standard illumination condition of simulated AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2).

  9. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by Using One-Diode Model: Effect of Carboxylic Acid Treatment of TiO2 Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Murayama; Tatsuo Mori

    2006-01-01

    For the improvement of dye-sensitized solar cell performance, it is important to analyze the electric mechanism of cells and to employ an effective treatment. Equivalent circuit analysis using a one-diode model was carried out for a dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of a TiO2 electrode treated with carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acid treatment, especially using acetic acid, was effective in increasing the

  10. An effect of TiO2 morphology on performance of ITO\\/TiO2\\/MEH-PPV\\/Au solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chanchana Thanachayanont; Kroekchai Inpor; Somjai Reabanko; Pratya Boonchan; Nuntiya Mahingsupan; Vissanu Meeyoo; Somboon Sahasitiwat; Chaiyuth Sae-Kung; Porponth Sichanugrist

    2008-01-01

    Polymer-based solar cells offer many advantages for cell fabrication such as low-cost roll-to-roll production, large area and flexibility. In this study, efficiencies of polymer-based solar cells were improved by inserting an n-type semiconductor TiO2 layer between polymer layer and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrode. A further improved efficiency was obtained when bulk heterojunction CdS and MEH-PPV layer was used as

  11. New development of nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Song; Xiangting Dong; Jinxian Wang; Guixia Liu; Wensheng Yu

    2009-01-01

    Techniques of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells(DSSCs) having a conversion efficiency of AM 1.5G solar light to electric power over 11% are reported. In this paper,the fundamental structure and the principle of DSSCs are introduced and the development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, electrolyte and counter electrode in DSSCs are reviewed in detail. It is also an

  12. Performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cell with a TiCl4-treated TiO2 compact layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jisuk; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2015-03-01

    We here show that an effective blocking layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can be formed by spin coating a commercial TiO2 paste onto a conducting glass substrate. The spin-coated TiO2 layer was made more compact than the main absorption layer by TiCl4 treatment. DSSCs employing a compact layer exhibited an average current density and an efficiency of 19.09 mA/cm2 and 9.10%, respectively, while 16.91 mA/cm2 and 8.33% were obtained from unblocked reference cells. The enhanced DSSC performance is attributed to the increased electron lifetime. Intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay analysis showed that a TiCl4-treated compact layer substantially suppresses the charge recombination at the TiO2/substrate interface, thereby increasing the electron lifetime. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Effect of a fullerene derivative on the performance of TiO2-nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun; Kim, Woong-Rae; Yang, Changduk; Kim, Ho-Gi; Choi, Won-Youl

    2012-02-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation of Ti foil in an application to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A fullerene derivative called PC61BM was used as a material for the surface modification of TiO2 nanotube arrays to improve the power conversion efficiency of DSCs Although open circuit voltages (Voc) were slightly decreased by PC61BM interlayer, short circuit current densities (Jsc) were increased and thus the power conversion efficiencies were improved. EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) results showed superior properties for PC61BM-coated samples. PMID:22629995

  14. Hyperbranched anatase TiO2 nanocrystals: nonaqueous synthesis, growth mechanism, and exploitation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Carlino, Elvio; Giannini, Cinzia; Altamura, Davide; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Gigli, Giuseppe; Cozzoli, P Davide

    2011-11-30

    A colloidal crystal-splitting growth regime has been accessed, in which TiO(2) nanocrystals, selectively trapped in the metastable anatase phase, can evolve to anisotropic shapes with tunable hyperbranched topologies over a broad size interval. The synthetic strategy relies on a nonaqueous sol-gel route involving programmed activation of aminolysis and pyrolysis of titanium carboxylate complexes in hot surfactant media via a simple multi-injection reactant delivery technique. Detailed investigations indicate that the branched objects initially formed upon the aminolysis reaction possess a strained monocrystalline skeleton, while their corresponding larger derivatives grown in the subsequent pyrolysis stage accommodate additional arms crystallographically decoupled from the lattice underneath. The complex evolution of the nanoarchitectures is rationalized within the frame of complementary mechanistic arguments. Thermodynamic pathways, determined by the shape-directing effect of the anatase structure and free-energy changes accompanying branching and anisotropic development, are considered to interplay with kinetic processes, related to diffusion-limited, spatially inhomogeneous monomer fluxes, lattice symmetry breaking at transient Ti(5)O(5) domains, and surfactant-induced stabilization. Finally, as a proof of functionality, the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells based on thin-film photoelectrodes that incorporate networked branched nanocrystals with intact crystal structure and geometric features is demonstrated. An energy conversion efficiency of 6.2% has been achieved with standard device configuration, which significantly overcomes the best performance ever approached with previously documented prototypes of split TiO(2) nanostructures. Analysis of the relevant photovoltaic parameters reveals that the utilized branched building blocks indeed offer light-harvesting and charge-collecting properties that can overwhelm detrimental electron losses due to recombination and trapping events. PMID:22004553

  15. Unique TiO 2 paste for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Opara Krašovec; M. Berginc; M. Ho?evar; M. Topi?

    2009-01-01

    A novel titanium oxide paste based on Pechini sol–gel method and nanocrystalline titanium oxide powder have been successfully developed. Titanium oxide layers possess high inner surface area assuring high dye loading and well-connected nanocrystalline grains assuring good electron transport within the layer. The dye-sensitized layers have been used to assemble dye-sensitized solar cells with acetonitrile- and ionic liquid-based electrolyte. Overall

  16. Nitrogen doped TiO2-Cu(x)O core-shell mesoporous spherical hybrids for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Enyan; Yin, Longwei

    2015-01-01

    We report on high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nitrogen doped anatase TiO2-CuxO core-shell mesoporous hybrids synthesized through a facile and controlled combined sol-gel and hydrothermal process in the presence of hexadecylamine as the structure-directing agent. The matching of band edges between CuxO and TiO2 to form a semiconductor heterojunction plays an important role in effective separation of light induced electrons and holes, providing a promising photoanode for DSSCs because of its wide absorption spectrum, high electron injection efficiency, and fast electron transference. DSSCs based on the mesoporous TiO2-CuxO core-shell hybrids show a high short-circuit current density of 9.60 mA cm(-2) and a conversion efficiency of 3.86% under one sun illumination. While DSSCs based on the N-doped mesoporous TiO2-CuxO hybrids exhibit the higher short-circuit current density of 13.24 mA cm(-2) and a conversion efficiency of 4.57% under one sun illumination. In comparison with un-doped TiO2-CuxO hybrids, the doping of nitrogen into the lattice of TiO2 can extend the light absorption in the ultraviolet range to the visible light region and effectively decrease the recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes. The presented N-doped mesoporous TiO2-CuxO hybrids as photoanodes could find potential applications for high performance DSSCs. PMID:25407021

  17. Solid-state dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 solar cells with high photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Bach; D. Lupo; P. Comte; J. E. Moser; F. Weissörtel; J. Salbeck; H. Spreitzer; M. Grätzel

    1998-01-01

    Solar cells based on dye-sensitized mesoporous films of TiO2 arelow-cost alternatives to conventional solid-state devices. Impressive solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies have been achieved with such films when used in conjunction with liquid electrolytes. Practical advantages may be gained by the replacement of the liquid electrolyte with a solid charge-transport material. Inorganic p-type semiconductors, and organic materials have been tested in

  18. Designing nanostructured one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube and TiO2 nanoparticle multilayer composite film as photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells to increase the charge collection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilavasan, Jeganathan; Al-Jassim, Maufick; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2015-01-01

    A photoanode consisting of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) was designed for efficient charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells. TNT and TNP films were fabricated on a conductive glass substrate by using electrophoretic deposition and doctor-blade methods, respectively. The TNP, TNT, and TNT/TNP bi-layer electrodes exhibit solar cell efficiencies of 5.3, 7.4, and 9.2%, respectively. Solar cell performance results indicate a higher short-circuit current density (Jsc) for the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode when compared to a TNT or TNP electrode alone. The open-circuit voltages (Voc) of TNT/TNP and TNT electrodes are comparable while the Voc of TNP electrode is inferior to that of the TNT/TNP electrode. Fill factors of TNT/TNP, TNT, and TNP electrodes also exhibit similar behaviors. The enhanced efficiency of the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode is found to be mainly due to the enhancement of charge collection efficiency, which is confirmed by the charge transport parameters measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS analyses also revealed that the TNT/TNP incurs smaller charge transport resistances and longer electron life times when compared to those of TNT or TNP electrodes alone. It was demonstrated that the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode can possess the advantages of both rapid electron transport rate and a high light scattering effect.

  19. Highly ordered and vertically oriented TiO2/Al2O3 nanotube electrodes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Lee, Kyeong-Hwan; Shin, Junyoung; Park, Sun Ha; Kang, Jin Soo; Han, Kyu Seok; Sung, Myung Mo; Pinna, Nicola; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2014-12-01

    The surface of long TiO2 nanotube (NT) electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was modified without post-annealing by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the enhancement of photovoltage. Vertically oriented TiO2 NT electrodes with highly ordered and crack-free surface structures over large areas were prepared by a two-step anodization method. The prepared TiO2 NTs had a pore size of 80 nm, and a length of 23 ?m. Onto these TiO2 NTs, an Al2O3 shell of a precisely controlled thickness was deposited by ALD. The conformally coated shell layer was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSSCs was gradually enhanced as the thickness of the Al2O3 shell of the TiO2/Al2O3 NT electrodes was increased, which resulted from the enhanced electron lifetime. The enhanced electron lifetime caused by the energy barrier effect of the shell layer was measured quantitatively by the open-circuit voltage decay technique. As a result, 1- and 2-cycle-coated samples showed enhanced conversion efficiencies compared to the bare sample.

  20. Interfacial charge recombination via the triplet state? Mimicry of photoprotection in the photosynthetic process with a dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cell reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yu-Xiang; Li, Long; Liu, Yin; Wang, Li; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Sheng, Jian-Qun

    2002-04-01

    Evidence for the photoinduced charge recombination to the excited-triplet state has been observed in chemical solar cell reaction consisting of dye-sensitized TiO 2 colloidal ethanol solution, which mimicks the photoprotection function in the photosynthetic units. The dye is all -trans-retinoic acid, a structural analog of ?-carotenoid. Two channels of charge recombination, i.e., through triplet and ground states were observed by nano-second flash photolysis. The possibility of applying the function of photoprotection to the synthetic solar cell is discussed, which provides a potential entry of molecular engineering of the dye to improve the long term stability of the synthetic solar cell.

  1. Transfer and assembly of large area TiO2 nanotube arrays onto conductive glass for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Siqian; Ding, Hao; Li, Quantong; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Highly ordered titanium oxide nanotube arrays are synthesized by a two-step anodic oxidation of pure titanium foil at constant voltage. It is found that the length of nanotube arrays firstly increased rapidly with the anodization time, and then the growth rate gradually slowed down with further increasing the anodization time. The mechanism of anodization time-dependent tube length growth is discussed. Large area free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays are detached from the underlying Ti foil and transferred onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates to serve as the photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoelectric performance of the DSSCs assembled by TNT/FTO films is strongly related to the tube length of titania and the surface treatment. For the photoanodes without any surface modification, the highest overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) that can be achieved is 4.12% in the DSSC assembled with 33-?m-thick TNT arrays, while the overall PCE of DSSC based on the 33-?m-thick TNT arrays increases to 9.02% in response to the treatment with TiCl4.

  2. Optical modeling-assisted characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotube arrays as photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Ku; Wang, Lianzhou; Amal, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Summary Photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays as photoanodes were investigated. The TNT arrays were 3.3, 11.5, and 20.6 ?m long with the pore diameters of 50, 78.6, and 98.7 nm, respectively. The longest TNT array of 20.6 ?m in length showed enhanced photovoltaic performances of 3.87% with significantly increased photocurrent density of 8.26 mA·cm?2. This improvement is attributed to the increased amount of the adsorbed dyes and the improved electron transport property with an increase in TNT length. The initial charge generation rate was improved from 4 × 1021 s?1·cm?3 to 7 × 1021 s?1·cm?3 in DSSCs based on optical modelling analysis. The modelling analysis of optical processes inside TNT-based DSSCs using generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) revealed that the amount of dye and TNT lengths were critical factors influencing the performance of DSSCs, which is consistent with the experimental results. PMID:24991527

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals in different basic pHs and their applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anajafi, Z.; Marandi, M.; Taghavinia, N.

    2015-06-01

    In this research TiO2 nanocrystals with sizes about 11-70 nm were grown by hydrothermal method. The process was performed in basic autoclaving pH in the range of 8.0-12.0. The synthesized anatase phase TiO2 nanocrystals were then applied in the phtoanode of the dye sensitized solar cells. It was shown that the final average size of the nanocrystals was larger when the growth was carried out in higher autoclaving pHs. The photoanodes made of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared in the pHs of 8.0 and 9.0 represented low amounts of dye adsorption and light scattering. The performance of the corresponding dye sensitized solar cells was also not acceptable. Nevertheless, the energy conversion efficiency was better for the state of pH of 9.0. For the photoanodes made of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared at autoclaving pH of 10.0, the dye adsorption and light scattering were quite higher. The photovoltaic characteristics of the best cell in this state were 15.25 mA/cm2, 740 mV, 0.6 and 6.8% for the short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency, respectively. The photoanodes composed of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared in autoclaving pHs of 11.0 and 12.0 demonstrated lower amount of dye adsorption and higher light scattering. This was quite considerable for the state of pH of 12.0. The energy conversion efficiencies were consequently decreased compared to that of the pH of 10.0. The optimum situation was finally discussed based on the nanocrystals size and its influence on the sensitization and light harvesting efficiency.

  4. Significant influence of TiO 2 photoelectrode morphology on the energy conversion efficiency of N719 dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-Sheng Wang; Hiroshi Kawauchi; Takeo Kashima; Hironori Arakawa

    2004-01-01

    Since Grätzel’s group reported an overall efficiency of 10% for dye-sensitized solar cell using cis-di(thiocyanato)bis(2,2?-bipyridyl-4,4?-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II), many other institutions have tried to reproduce it. However, no other institutions have, so far, reported such a high efficiency. In order to develop high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells, the tuning of TiO2 photoelectrode morphology towards optimization of solar energy conversion efficiency has been investigated.

  5. Dry-spray deposition of TiO2 for a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Saeng; Chun, Doo-Man; Choi, Jung-Oh; Lee, Jong-Cheon; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Kwang-Su; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    TiO2 powders were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates for application to the photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In the conventional DSSC manufacturing process, a semiconductor oxide such as TiO2 powder requires a sintering process at higher temperature than the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of polymers, and thus utilization of flexible polymer substrates in DSSC research has been constrained. To overcome this restriction related to sintering, we used a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) that could produce a thin coating layer through a dry-spray method under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The powder was sprayed through a slit-type nozzle having a 0.4 x 10 mm2 rectangular outlet. In order to determine the deposited TiO2 thickness, five kinds of TiO2 layered specimens were prepared, where the specimens have single and double layer structures. Deposited powders on the ITO coated PET substrates were observed using FE-SEM and a scan profiler The thicker TiO2 photoelectrode with a DSSC having a double layer structure showed higher energy efficiency than the single layer case. The highest fabricated flexible DSSC displayed a short circuit current density J(sc) = 1.99 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage V(oc) = 0.71 V, and energy efficiency eta = 0.94%. These results demonstrate the possibility of utilizing the dry-spray method to fabricate a TiO2 layer on flexible polymer substrates at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. PMID:22849129

  6. Ag2S quantum dots and N3 dye co-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays for a solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Gangqiang; Liu, Zhongqing; Guan, Debin; Yang, Yuntao

    2013-10-01

    Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) and N3 dye co-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays (Ag2S-N3-TNAs) were prepared by the processes of anodization method followed by sequential chemical bath deposition (S-CBD) approach and dye sensitization, using FTO-based titanium film formed by vacuum ion coating method as a precursor. XRD, EDS, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and photo electrochemical measurements were used to characterize the samples. Fabricated co-sensitized solar cell prototype exhibited a photocurrent density of 10.2 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency of 4.40% based solar cells, which is higher than that of N3-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays (N3-TNAs) (8.5 mA cm-2 and 3.64%) under AM 1.5 light irradiation.

  7. Influence of the organic electrolyte and anodization conditions on the preparation of well-aligned TiO 2 nanotube arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Yeon Hwang; Arun Anand Prabu; Dong Young Kim; Kap Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising randomly networked titanium nanoparticles usually exhibit lower energy conversion efficiency and limited electron mobility due to the scattering and trapping of free electrons. In this study, attempts were made to improve the electron mobility in DSSCs using vertically aligned and well ordered TiO2 nanotubes. These nanotubes were prepared by the electrochemical etching of Ti foil

  8. DNA-like dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO 2 nanowire-covered nanotube bilayer film electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanhao Wang; Hongxing Yang; Hongmei Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a two-step formation of a TiO2 nanowire-covered nanotube bilayer film technique and its application in DNA-like dye-sensitized solar cells. The bilayer film was prepared by the electrochemical anodization first and then the hydrothermal method. From the reflectivity spectrum and scanning electron microscopy it is observed that the nanowire layer on the top cannot only decrease the reflectivity

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nitrogen-doped TiO2-B nanowire/TiO2 nanoparticle composite photoelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lihong; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yujin

    2012-06-01

    TiO2-B nanowire/TiO2 nanoparticle composite is an ideal nanomaterial for dye-sensitized solar cell photoelectrode because it combines the advantages of rapid electron transport in nanowires and high surface area of nanoparticles. Meanwhile, nitrogen doping is also an effective method for enhancing the photo-electrical conversion efficiency. In this work, nitrogen-doped TiO2-B nanowires are obtained using NH3 as a gaseous precursor under middle pressures. And the nitrogen-doped naowire/nanoparticle composite electrodes are fabricated. The conversion efficiency of nitrogen-doped nanowire/nanoparticle cells (7.21%) is higher than that of undoped nanowire/nanoparticle cells (6.10%) and nitrogen-doped nanoparticle cells (5.37%).

  10. Increasing the Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical Cells by Coupling to Photonic Crystals

    E-print Network

    The mechanism of enhancing the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells by coupling TiO2Increasing the Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical Cells by Coupling to conventional single-crystal solar cells. In this cell, an optically excited dye injects electrons

  11. Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-28

    The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm(-1) caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 ?m are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability. PMID:25631573

  12. The importance of the TiO2/quantum dots interface in the recombination processes of quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tachan, Zion; Hod, Idan; Shalom, Menny; Grinis, Larissa; Zaban, Arie

    2013-03-21

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) present a promising technology for next generation photovoltaic cells, having exhibited a considerable leap in performance over the last few years. However, recombination processes occurring in parallel at the TiO(2)-QDs-electrolyte triple junction constitute one of the major limitations for further improvement of QDSSCs. Reaching higher conversion efficiencies necessitates gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of charge recombination in these kinds of cells; this will essentially lead to the development of new solutions for inhibiting the described losses. In this study we have systematically examined the contribution of each interface formed at the triple junction to the recombination of the solar cell. We show that the recombination of electrons at the TiO(2)/QDs interface is as important as the recombination from TiO(2) and QDs to the electrolyte. By applying conformal MgO coating both above and below the QD surface, recombination rates were significantly reduced, and an improvement of more than 20% in cell efficiency was recorded. PMID:23400262

  13. g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Wang, Guanxi; Fan, Jiajie; Liu, Baoshun; Cao, Shaowen; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated by using g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanosheets (CTS) as photoanode materials in this research. A thin layer of g-C3N4 was coated on the surface of TiO2 nanosheets by simply heating the mixture of TiO2 nanosheets and urea, which led to the formation of TiO2@g-C3N4 nanosheet heterostructure. The experimental results showed that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs was obviously improved after modified by g-C3N4. The measurements of I-V characteristic indicated that the introduction of g-C3N4 could increase both the open circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent density. Along with the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, it is considered that the thin layer of g-C3N4 can act as the blocking layer for electron backward recombination with electrolyte, which can be used as the functional material to increase the DSSC performance.

  14. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle-accumulated bilayer photoelectrode and condenser lens-assisted solar concentrator on light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kook Joo; Lee, Sun Woo; Lee, Yong Hun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Deug Woo; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2013-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of 240 nm (T240), used as a light-scattering layer, were applied on 25-nm-sized TiO2 NPs (T25) that were used as a dye-absorbing layer in the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, the incident light was concentrated via a condenser lens, and the effect of light concentration on the capacity of the light-scattering layer was systematically investigated. At the optimized focal length of the condenser lens, T25/T240 double layer (DL)-based DSSCs with the photoactive area of 0.36 cm2 were found to have the short circuit current ( I sc) of 11.92 mA, the open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.74 V, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 4.11%, which is significantly improved when they were compared to the T25 single layer (SL)-based DSSCs without using a solar concentrator (the corresponding values were the I sc of 2.53 mA, the V oc of 0.69, and the PCE of 3.57%). Thus, the use of the optimized light harvesting structure in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs in conjunction with light concentration was found to significantly enhance the power output of DSSCs.

  15. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle-accumulated bilayer photoelectrode and condenser lens-assisted solar concentrator on light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of 240 nm (T240), used as a light-scattering layer, were applied on 25-nm-sized TiO2 NPs (T25) that were used as a dye-absorbing layer in the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, the incident light was concentrated via a condenser lens, and the effect of light concentration on the capacity of the light-scattering layer was systematically investigated. At the optimized focal length of the condenser lens, T25/T240 double layer (DL)-based DSSCs with the photoactive area of 0.36 cm2 were found to have the short circuit current (Isc) of 11.92 mA, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 4.11%, which is significantly improved when they were compared to the T25 single layer (SL)-based DSSCs without using a solar concentrator (the corresponding values were the Isc of 2.53 mA, the Voc of 0.69, and the PCE of 3.57%). Thus, the use of the optimized light harvesting structure in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs in conjunction with light concentration was found to significantly enhance the power output of DSSCs. PMID:23758633

  16. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle-accumulated bilayer photoelectrode and condenser lens-assisted solar concentrator on light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kook Joo; Lee, Sun Woo; Lee, Yong Hun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Deug Woo; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of 240 nm (T240), used as a light-scattering layer, were applied on 25-nm-sized TiO2 NPs (T25) that were used as a dye-absorbing layer in the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, the incident light was concentrated via a condenser lens, and the effect of light concentration on the capacity of the light-scattering layer was systematically investigated. At the optimized focal length of the condenser lens, T25/T240 double layer (DL)-based DSSCs with the photoactive area of 0.36 cm2 were found to have the short circuit current (Isc) of 11.92 mA, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.74 V, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 4.11%, which is significantly improved when they were compared to the T25 single layer (SL)-based DSSCs without using a solar concentrator (the corresponding values were the Isc of 2.53 mA, the Voc of 0.69, and the PCE of 3.57%). Thus, the use of the optimized light harvesting structure in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs in conjunction with light concentration was found to significantly enhance the power output of DSSCs. PMID:23758633

  17. Characterization of the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells by means of a titania-binding nitroxide.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Alberto; Cangiotti, Michela; Fiorani, Luigi; Lucchi, Susanna; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2014-11-18

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been characterized in several literature examples by using relatively complex methods and/or modified DSSC conditions with respect to the usual working ones. In this study, we propose a method for the investigation of the interfaces TiO2/dye/electrolyte in a DSSC at its usual working conditions. This method implies the use of a computer-aided analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the spin probe 4-carboxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (4-carboxy-TEMPO, indicated as 4-cT). This probe well-mimics the dyes in their interactions with TiO2 surface, but does not perturb dye adsorption onto TiO2 surface, as verified by UV-vis measurements. First, we investigated the interacting ability toward 4-cT of commercially available TiO2 used for assembling the DSSC. It was found that interactions are modulated by the different distribution of interacting sites at the solid surface and powder aggregation. Further, experiments on 4-cT were carried out in the presence of a series of other molecules coded as N3, N719, and D149, which are commonly used as dyes in DSSCs. Then, the effect of solutions added to the electrodes was investigated. On the basis of the interactions occurring at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfaces, we selected the ingredients of the DSSCs. Electrical and EPR characterizations of these DSSCs miniaturized to enter the EPR cavity, together with time-dependent laser-light on-off experiments, were carried out, which demonstrated the ability of the EPR analysis to monitor the types and strengths of the interactions occurring at the cell's different interfaces. This method using the standard continuous wave EPR technique at room temperature may be profitably used to characterize the quality and performances of a DSSC. PMID:25348929

  18. Effect of a Coadsorbent on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells: Shielding versus Band-Edge Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A. J.; Neale, N. R.; Kopidakis, N.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Gratzel, M.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the operational characteristics key to efficient, low-cost, stable solar cells based on dye-sensitized mesoporous films (in collaboration with DOE's Office of Science Program). Toward this end, we have investigated the mechanism by which the adsorbent chenodeoxycholate, cografted with a sensitizer onto TiO2 nanocrystals, improves the open-circuit photovoltage (VOC) and short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC). We find that adding chenodeoxycholate not only shifts the TiO2 conduction-band edge to negative potentials but also accelerates the rate of recombination. The net effect of these opposing phenomena is to produce a higher photovoltage. It is also found that chenodeoxycholate reduces the dye loading significantly but has only a modest effect on JSC. Implications of these results to developing more efficient cells are discussed.

  19. Coating effect of electrospun nanofibers of Nb-doped TiO2 mixed in photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, Yuji; Deguchi, Makoto; Guo, Shirong; Aoki, Keisuke; Nomiyama, Teruaki

    2014-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers (NFs) of Nb doped TiO2 (TNO) were added as a conductive agent to TiO2 mesoporous layer in dye sensitized solar cells. In order to improve the mobility of carriers in NFs by reducing the barrier at grain boundaries among constituent nanoparticles in NFs, the surface of TNO-NFs was coated with a thin TNO layer by pulsed laser deposition with changing the deposition time td. It was found that the inter-grain space was filled first at td ? 5 min, and the diffusion velocity vD of carriers was increased by more than 10 times. Since Jsc showed an increase of ˜15% while vD and the electron lifetime ?e decreased at td > 10 min, the carrier injection from dye/TiO2 nanoparticles to TNO-NFs was considered to be promoted.

  20. Ga-doped ZnO transparent electrodes with TiO2 blocking layer/nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO [GZO] thin films were employed for the transparent electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs]. The electrical property of the deposited GZO films was as good as that of commercially used fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO]. In order to protect the GZO and enhance the photovoltaic properties, a TiO2 blocking layer was deposited on the GZO surface. Then, TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on the blocking layer, and dye was attached for the fabrication of DSSCs. The fabricated DSSCs with the GZO/TiO2 glasses showed an enhanced conversion efficiency of 4.02% compared to the devices with the normal GZO glasses (3.36%). Furthermore, they showed better characteristics even than those using the FTO glasses, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance. PMID:22222148

  1. Electrochemical study on the TiO2 porous electrodes for metal-free dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zhang; S. Chen; X. D. Li; Z. A. Wang; J. H. Shi; Z. Sun; X. J. Yin; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 porous electrodes were prepared by screen-printing method in order to efficiently control the fabrication process. TiO2 viscous pastes were prepared from commercial TiO2 nano powder using ethyl cellulose as a porosity controlling agent. A metal-free organic dye (indoline dye D102) was used as a sensitizer. TiO2 porous electrodes with different thicknesses were investigated. The optical and physical properties

  2. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Tang, Minghua; Song, Linlin; Tang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Bingjie; Zhang, Lisha; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

    2013-08-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2 (CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3 · 4H2O, CuSO4 · 5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as `petals' with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PACS: 81.15.-z; 84.60.Jt; 73.40.Lq

  3. In situ growth of CuInS2 nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film for constructing inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) have attracted increasing attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. This work presents an HSC by in situ growth of CuInS2(CIS) layer as the photoabsorption material on nanoporous TiO2 film with the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transport material. The in situ growth of CIS nanocrystals has been realized by solvothermally treating nanoporous TiO2 film in ethanol solution containing InCl3?·?4H2O, CuSO4?·?5H2O, and thioacetamide with a constant concentration ratio of 1:1:2. InCl3 concentration plays a significant role in controlling the surface morphology of CIS layer. When InCl3 concentration is 0.1 M, there is a layer of CIS flower-shaped superstructures on TiO2 film, and CIS superstructures are in fact composed of ultrathin nanoplates as ‘petals’ with plenty of nanopores. In addition, the nanopores of TiO2 film are filled by CIS nanocrystals, as confirmed using scanning electron microscopy image and by energy dispersive spectroscopy line scan analysis. Subsequently, HSC with a structure of FTO/TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au has been fabricated, and it yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.4%. Further improvement of the efficiency can be expected by the optimization of the morphology and thickness of CIS layer and the device structure. PMID:23947562

  4. Electrodeposited AgInSe2 onto TiO2 films for semiconductor-sensitized solar cell application: The influence of electrodeposited time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lung-Chuan; Ho, Yi-Ching; Yang, Ru-Yuan; Chen, Jean-Hong; Huang, Chao-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The influence of electrodeposited time (EDT) on Ag-In-Se species growth onto TiO2 films for possible semiconductor-sensitized solar cells (SSSCs) application was investigated. XRD analysis illustrated that the Ag-In-Se film was predominantly comprised by AgInSe2 species with tetragonal body structure and crystal size of 6.05-7.50 nm when EDT was in the region of 15-60 min at a bias of -1.25 V (verse Hg/Hg2SO4 (MSE)). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a high porosity of AgInSe2/ITO morphology, permitting electrolytes freely percolated through these films. The prepared AgInSe2 films exhibited n-type semiconductor behavior with two band gap energies at 1.27 and 1.80 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurement reflected that open circuit potential varied little with EDT, however, significant change was associated with short circuit current and fill factor (FF), causing the AgInSe2/TiO2 films with EDT of 45 min exhibited the best solar to electricity conversion efficiency of 0.26%. The AgInSe2/TiO2 films with EDT of 45 min demonstrated the longest electron lifetime according to the open circuit voltage decay analysis.

  5. Hole-transport materials with greatly-differing redox potentials give efficient TiO2-[CH3NH3][PbX3] perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Abate, Antonio; Planells, Miquel; Hollman, Derek J; Barthi, Vishal; Chand, Suresh; Snaith, Henry J; Robertson, Neil

    2015-01-28

    Two diacetylide-triphenylamine hole-transport materials (HTM) with varying redox potential have been applied in planar junction TiO2-[CH3NH3]PbI3-xClx solar cells leading to high power-conversion efficiencies up to 8.8%. More positive oxidation potential of the HTM gives higher VOC and lower JSC illustrating the role of matching energy levels, however both HTMs gave efficient cells despite a difference of 0.44 V in their redox potentials. PMID:25504144

  6. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  7. Effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of all-solid-state TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingwei; Liu, Benjamin; Dong, Zhenhua; Dong, Zhenyu; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    In order to analyse the effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), different electrodes were used as the counter electrodes for all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs. An inorganic solid-state electrolyte, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was selected to couple with N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays to fabricate the DSSCs. Fluorine doped tin oxide transparent conducting glass (FTO), platinum coated FTO (Pt/FTO), graphite coated FTO (graphite/FTO), and graphite coated common glass (graphite/glass) were investigated as the counter electrodes, and the cells composed of the corresponding electrodes above have power-conversion efficiencies of 2.17%, 9.84%, 7.62%, and 3.45%, respectively. Our findings indicate that due to its unique catalytic and conducting properties, graphite can replace both Pt and FTO as a counter electrode to reduce the fabrication cost of all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs.

  8. Boron and sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanofilm as effective photoanode for high efficiency CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Xichuan; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Huayan; Li, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    A modified polysulfide redox couple, (CH3)4N)2S/((CH3)4N)2Sn, was employed in CdS quantum dots (QDs) sensitized B/S co-doped TiO2 solar cell with NiS as counter electrode, followed by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an organic solution to prepare the QDs-cell to ensure high wettability and superior penetration ability of the B/S co-doped TiO2 films, with the co-doping of B/S in TiO2, its band-gap was narrowed and significantly extended the light capture range, and an enhanced energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.6% was observed under AM 1.5 G illuminations, with a significantly high Voc of 1.217 V, a high ff of 88.2% and a short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 3.35 mA cm-2.

  9. High-performance inverted solar cells based on blend films of ZnO Naoparticles and TiO(2) nanorods as a cathode buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pandeng; Sun, Chunming; Jiu, Tonggang; Wang, Guojie; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofang; Fang, Junfeng

    2014-03-26

    We reported the favorable cathode buffer layer based on a blend of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and TiO2 nanorods (NRs) applied to inverted solar cells. In addition to the high optical transmittance, the resultant blend film gave a relatively dense film with lower roughness than that of the respective single-component film. This improved the interface contact between the buffer layer and photoactive layer and therefore reduced the contact resistance and leakage current. Moreover, the combination of NRs and NPs increased the efficiency of electron transport and collection by providing both a direct path for electron transport from TiO2 NRs and a large contact area between ZnO NPs and the active layer. Consequently, both the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) in the device were improved, leading to an improvement of the device performance. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the blend film as the buffer layer reached 8.82%, which was preferable to those of a single ZnO NP film (7.76%) and a TiO2 NR-based device (7.66%). PMID:24606632

  10. Mesoporous TiO2 aggregate photoanode with high specific surface area and strong light scattering for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Luo, Yanhong; Guo, Xiaozhi; Li, Dongmei; Mi, Jianli; Sø, Lasse; Hald, Peter; Meng, Qingbo; Iversen, Bo B.

    2012-12-01

    Phase-pure anatase TiO2 nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized by a continuous supercritical fluid process have been first used for fabricating mesoporous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Due to the small size (11 nm) of the TiO2 nanocrystallites in the aggregates, the mesoporous photoanode provides a high specific surface area, 80 m2/g, which ensures high dye loading. At the same time, the submicrometer-sized aggregates endow the mesoporous photoanode with strong light scattering effect. Therefore, the light harvesting efficiency of the photoanode is increased. With an improved short-circuit current density, a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.65% (100 mW/cm2, AM 1.5) is achieved without additional scattering layers, 12% enhanced compared with the DSCs fabricated from commercial Degussa P25 with exactly the same procedures. In addition, this supercritical fluid process is scalable and rapid (less than one minute) for TiO2 aggregates synthesis, which will push the commercialization of DSCs in the future.

  11. Enhanced conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on bilayered nano-composite photoanode film consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Du, P F; Song, L X; Xiong, J

    2014-06-01

    Novel TiO2 nanoparticles/nanofibers (NPs/NFs) bilayered nano-composite photoanode film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was fabricated through the combination of spin-coating and electrospinning. The NPs and NFs layers have complementary roles. The underlaid spin-coated NPs layer provides the photoanode film with higher specific surface area for dye adsorption and improved adhesion to conductive glass substrate. The overlaid electrospun NFs layer endows the photoanode film with better dye-loading and light-harvesting capabilities due to its porous meshwork structure. And the NFs layer also offers larger pore volume, which can facilitate the electrolyte diffusion and the activity regeneration of dye sensitizers. As a result, the electron transport is accelerated while the charge recombination is suppressed. Ascribing to the synergic effect of the NPs and NFs layers, the TiO2 NPs/NFs-based DSSCs achieve a conversion efficiency of 4.46%, which is nearly 14% higher than that of the pure TiO2 NPs-based ones. PMID:24738365

  12. Correlation between Energy and Spatial Distribution of Intragap Trap States in the TiO2 Photoanode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Li-Min; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Xu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2015-07-20

    The energy and spatial distribution of intragap trap states of the TiO2 photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells and their impact on charge recombination were investigated by means of time-resolved charge extraction (TRCE) and transient photovoltage (TPV). The photoanodes were built from TiO2 nanospheroids with different aspect ratios, and the TRCE results allowed differentiation of two different types of trap states, that is, deep and shallow ones at the surface and in the bulk of the TiO2 particles, respectively. These trap states exhibit distinctly different characteristic energy with only a slight variation in the particle size, as derived from the results of the density of states. Analyses of the size-dependent TPV kinetics revealed that in a moderate photovoltage regime of about 375-625 mV, the dynamics of electron recombination are dominated by shallow trap states in the bulk, which can be well accounted for by the mechanism of multiple-trap-limited charge transport. PMID:25916413

  13. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of TiO2 hierarchical nanosheets with exposed {001} facets as an effective bifunctional layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Peng, Tao; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Wenjing; Zhang, Kun; Mehnane, Hadja Fatima; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-25

    Layer-by-layer self-assembled TiO2 hierarchical nanosheets with exposed {001} facets have been successfully fabricated via a simple one-step solvothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 layer-by-layer hierarchical nanosheets (TiO2 LHNs) exhibit favorable light scattering effect and large surface area, owing to their layer-by-layer hierarchical structure. When applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the layer-by-layer hierarchical structure with exposed {001} facet could effectively enhance light harvesting and dye adsorption, followed by increasing the photocurrent of DSSCs. As a result, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (?) of 7.70% has been achieved for the DSSCs using TiO2 LHNs as the bifunctional layer, indicating 21% improvement compared to the pure Degussa P25 (6.37%) as photoanode. Such enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the better light scattering capability of TiO2 LHNs, higher dye adsorption on TiO2 LHN {001} facets, and longer lifetime of the injected electrons in TiO2 LHNs compared to P25, which are examined by UV-vis spectrophotometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under the same conditions. These remarkable properties of TiO2 LHNs make it a promising candidate as a bifunctional scattering material for DSSCs. PMID:24881671

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells based on coaxial TiO2@TiO heterostructures with a cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiandong; Fàbrega, Cristian; Zamani, Reza R; Hao, Yan; Parra, Andres; Andreu, Teresa; Arbiol, Jordi; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Morante, Joan Ramon; Cabot, Andreu

    2013-10-23

    The growth of a TiO shell at the surface of TiO2 nanowires (NWs) allowed us to improve the power conversion efficiency of NW-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) by a factor 2.5. TiO2@TiO core-shell NWs were obtained by a two-step process: First, rutile-phase TiO2 NWs were hydrothermally grown. Second, a hongquiite-phase TiO shell was electrochemically deposited at the surface of the TiO2 NWs. Bare TiO2 and heterojunction TiO2@TiO NW-based DSCs were obtained using a cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte and LEG4 as the dye. With this electrolyte/dye combination, DSCs with outstanding Voc values above 900 mV were systematically obtained. While TiO2@TiO NW-based DSCs had slightly lower Voc values than bare TiO2 NW-based DSCs, they provided 3-fold higher photocurrents, overall reaching 2.5-fold higher power conversion efficiencies. The higher photocurrents were associated with the larger surface roughness and an enhanced charge-carrier separation/transfer at the NW/dye interface. PMID:24025444

  15. Fabrication and performance of nanoporous TiO 2 \\/SnO 2 electrodes with a half hollow sphere structure for dye sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Rim Bak; Gyeong-Ok Kim; Moon-Jin Hwang; Kwon-Koo Cho; Ki-Won Kim; Kwang-Sun Ryu

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of nano-crystalline semiconductors with novel kinds of ordered microstructure is a very important area of\\u000a research in the field of dye sensitized solar cells. A sol–gel method involving hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide was used\\u000a to form TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of SiO2 spheres. In this process, 1, 5, or 10 wt% of SnCl2.2H2O was added to the sol–gel

  16. Hydrothermal growth of high surface area anatase TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthi, G.; Navaneethan, M.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Hayakawa, Y.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2012-06-01

    High surface area of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by hydrothermal method. The enhanced surface area was achieved by controlling optimized experimental procedure. The properties of as synthesized TiO2 nano particle was compared with Degussa P25. The structures of TiO2 nano particles have been characterized in detail by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Specific surface area analysis(BET), Scanning electron microscope, UV-vis spectroscopy.

  17. TiO2 nanotube membranes on transparent conducting glass for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukul Dubey; Maheshwar Shrestha; Yihan Zhong; David Galipeau; Hongshan He

    2011-01-01

    Crack-free TiO2 nanotube (NT) membranes were obtained by short time re-anodization of a sintered TiO2 NT array on Ti foil, followed by dilute HF etching at room temperature. The resulting freestanding TiO2 membranes were opaque with a slight yellow color having one end open and another end closed. The membranes were then fixed on transparent fluorine-tin-oxide glass using a thin

  18. Hierarchically Structured Microspheres for High-Efficiency Rutile TiO2Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    and the Ostwald ripening process. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled by employing these complex rutile method, dye-sensitized solar cells, post-treatments, light-to-electricity conversion efficiency candidate for use in water splitting, photo- catalysis, sensors, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over

  19. Modified two-step deposition method for high-efficiency TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangjian; Luo, Yanhong; Wei, Huiyun; Luo, Jianheng; Dong, Juan; Lv, Songtao; Xiao, Junyan; Xu, Yuzhuan; Zhu, Lifeng; Xu, Xin; Wu, Huijue; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2014-06-25

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (e.g., CH3NH3PbI3) are promising light absorbers for the third-generation photovoltaics. Herein we demonstrate a modified two-step deposition method to fabricate a uniform CH3NH3PbI3 capping layer with high-coverage and thickness of 300 nm on top of the mesoporous TiO2. The CH3NH3PbI3 layer shows high light-harvesting efficiency and long carrier lifetime over 50 ns. On the basis of the as-prepared film, TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells achieve a power conversion efficiency of 10.47% with a high open-circuit voltage of 948 mV, the highest recorded to date for hole-transport-material-free (HTM-free) perovskite-based heterojunction cells. The efficiency exceeding 10% shows promising prospects for the HTM-free solar cells based on organic lead halides. PMID:24830329

  20. One-pot synthesis of Cd1-x In x Te semiconductor as a sensitizer on TiO2 mesoporous for potential solar cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singsa-ngah, Mutika; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis of a new ternary semiconductor nanoparticle Cd1-x In x Te, as a sensitizer for solar cell devices via a one-pot mixed precursor solution. The Cd1-x In x Te nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition process and coated onto a TiO2 photoelectrode. A tetragonal structure of Cd1-x In x Te NPs was constituted on the TiO2 photoelectrode with a diameter range ˜25-30 nm, and the atomic percentages of the chemical elements showed that the structure could be Cd0.1In0.9Te incorporated with the CdIn2Te4 structure. When the dipping cycle increased, the energy gaps became narrower from 1.2 to 0.6 eV due to the increasing amount and the larger size of nanoparticles. The photovoltaic properties of various cycles were investigated, and the best power conversion efficiency (?) of 0.49 % under full 1 sun illumination (100 mW/cm2, AM 1.5G) was obtained for the seven-cycle-Cd1-x In x Te NPs with a current density (J sc) of 2.64 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 638 mV, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.29. The efficiency of this material can be further improved for higher potential solar cell devices.

  1. Tunable synthesis of single-crystalline-like TiO2 mesocrystals and their application as effective scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Cao, Kun; Wang, Hongju; Wang, Fujuan; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Guo, Yuming; Jiang, Kai

    2015-10-15

    Single-crystalline-like TiO2 mesocrystals (TMCs) with spherical and spindle-like shapes were selectively prepared in acetic acid system using benzoic acid as structural directing regent. It was found that the intermediate butyl-benzoic acid could interval the oriented assembly of the primary nanoparticles as porogen and shape regulator, which results in spherical TMCs with greater pore size distribution compared with the spindle-like TMCs. When used as scattering layer in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the spherical TMCs with long-range ordered stacking pattern results in characteristic photonic reflection, which enhances the scattering effect of the photoanode and leads to a high short circuit current density of 16.6mAcm(-2). Therefore, Cell-spherical TMCs demonstrated a high power conversion efficiencies of 8.10%, indicating substantial improvements compared with Cell-spindle-like TMCs (7.58%) and Cell-nanoparticle (6.59%). PMID:26117293

  2. Analysis of changes in efficiency by simulating dye-sensitized solar cells varying the characteristics of TiO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessio Gagliardi; Desiree Gentilini; Fabrizio Giordano; Matthias Auf der Maur; Aldo di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Dye Sensitized solar cells (DSC) are an interesting alternative to conventional silicon based solar cells. Although DSCs are very close to be commercialized, still many issues need to be addressed. Part of the problem is related to the lack of a reliable and consistent simulator able to catch the physics and the chemistry underlining the functioning of the cell. The

  3. Synergistic effect of TiCl4–ZnO treated TiO2 nanotubes in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Chang Seob; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2015-06-01

    Oxide semiconducting TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) with TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have attracted considerable attention because of a fast electron migration process in the photoelectrode. However, TNT films of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) displayed low conversion efficiency because of lower dye loading and sunlight absorption than in the case of TNPs films. For high-performance DSSCs, an aqueous solution treatment using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was used on the TNT film. The TNT array was prepared by an anodization process. Herein, we studied that a double dip-coating TiCl4–ZnO treatment of the TNTs enhanced photocurrent density and fill factor due to an improvement in electron transfer, increase in dye adsorption, and reduction in the recombination charge rate. The results show that the DSSCs with a TiCl4–ZnO treatment show a maximum conversion efficiency of 8.29% and JSC of 21.19 mA/cm2 under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5).

  4. The action mechanism of TiO2:NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ cathode buffer layer in highly efficient inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Huan; Zhao, Dan; Shen, Liang; He, Yeyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Weiyou

    2014-08-01

    We report the fabrication and characteristics of organic solar cells with 6.86% power conversion efficiency (PCE) by doping NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ into TiO2 cathode buffer layer. The dependence of devices performance on doping concentration of NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ is investigated. Results indicate that short-circuit current density (Jsc) has an apparent improvement, leading to an enhancement of 22.7% in PCE for the optimized doping concentration of 0.05 mmol ml-1 compared to the control devices. NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ nanoparticles (NPs) can play threefold roles, one is that the incident light in visible region can be scattered by NaYF4 NPs, the second is that solar irradiation in infrared region can be better utilized by Up-conversion effect of Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions, the third is that electron transport property in TiO2 thin film can be greatly improved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 nano composites for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, D.; Merline Shyla, J.; Xavier, Francis P.

    2012-12-01

    The use of titania-silica in photocatalytic process has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional TiO2 catalysts. Mesoporous materials have been of great interest as catalysts because of their unique textural and structural properties. Mesoporous TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, tetra-ethylorthosilicate as starting materials. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauett-Emmett-Teller and field-dependent photoconductivity. The UV-Vis spectrum of as-synthesized samples shows similar absorption in the visible range. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized samples was calculated by Scherrer's formula. The BET surface area for TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite is found to be 303 m2/g and pore size distribution has average pore diameter about 10 nm. It also confirms the absence of macropores and the presence of micro and mesopores. The field-dependent photoconductivity of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite shows nearly 300 folds more than that of TiO2 nanoparticle for a field of 800 V/cm.

  6. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Tétreault, Nicolas; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Stellacci, Francesco; Grätzel, Michael; Harms, Hauke A

    2015-05-27

    Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell's performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25936429

  7. Contribution of H-aggregated dye molecules in photocurrent generation of solid-state TiO 2|pyrogallol red|CuI solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Sirimanne

    2008-01-01

    Excited H-aggregated pyrogallor red molecules are found to be injecting electrons into the conduction band of TiO2 and holes into the valance band of CuI in solid-state TiO2|pyrogallor red|CuI cell. Pore filling of titania films by CuI is one of the key parameters controlling the performance of this type of cells. Effect of ligand attached to crystal growth inhibitor on

  8. Charge transport improvement employing TiO2 nanotube arrays as front-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Andrea; Sacco, Adriano; Bianco, Stefano; Manfredi, Diego; Cappelluti, Federica; Hernandez, Simelys; Quaglio, Marzia; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2013-02-21

    TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays with different lengths were fabricated by anodic oxidation of Ti foil and free-standing NT membranes were detached by the metal substrate and bonded on the fluorine-doped tin oxide surface implementing an easy procedure. Morphology of the as-grown material and of the prepared photoanode was investigated by means of electron microscopy, deepening the investigation on the thermal treatment effect. Crystalline orientation and exposed surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements, showing suitable characteristics for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). DSCs were assembled employing a microfluidic housing system. The cell performances and the electron transport properties as a function of the tube length, before and after a TiCl(4) treatment, were characterized by I-V electrical measurements, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay. Fitting the impedance spectra with an equivalent circuit, it was possible to obtain information on the electron diffusion properties into the TiO(2) nanotubes. A comparison with the charge transport properties evaluated in nanoparticle-based photoanodes witnesses a noteworthy increase of electron lifetime and diffusion length, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency up to 7.56%. PMID:22918400

  9. High-Performance and Stable Gel-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Polymer-Based Gel Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Seidalilir, Zahra; Malekfar, Rasoul; Wu, Hui-Ping; Shiu, Jia-Wei; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2015-06-17

    Highly ordered and vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were synthesized with potentiostatic anodization of Ti foil and applied to fabricate gel-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The open structure of the TiO2 NT facilitates the infiltration of the gel-state electrolyte; their one-dimensional structural feature provides effective charge transport. TiO2 NTs of length L = 15-35 ?m were produced on anodization for periods of t = 5-15 h at a constant voltage of 60 V, and sensitized with N719 for photovoltaic characterization. A commercially available copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) (PMMA-EA), served as a gelling agent to prepare a polymer-gel electrolyte (PGE) for DSSC applications. The PGE as prepared exhibited a maximum conductivity of 4.58 mS cm(-1) with PMMA-EA (7 wt %). The phase transition temperature (Tp) of the PGE containing PMMA-EA at varied concentrations was determined on the basis of the viscosities measured at varied temperatures. Tp increased with increasing concentration of PMMA-EA. An NT-DSSC with L = 30 ?m assembled using a PGE containing PMMA-EA (7 wt %) exhibited an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.9%, which is comparable with that of a corresponding liquid-type device, PCE = 7.1%. Moreover, the gel-state NT-DSSC exhibited excellent thermal and light-soaking enduring stability: the best device retained ?90% of its initial efficiency after 1000 h under 1 sun of illumination at 50 °C, whereas its liquid-state counterpart decayed appreciably after light soaking for 500 h. PMID:25984747

  10. Simulation of Electron Diffusion in TiO2 Porous Structures in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiya, Kei; Lv, Chen; Suzuki, Ai; Sahnoun, Riadh; Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Deka, Ramesh C.; Kubo, Momoji; Miyamoto, Akira

    2009-04-01

    In order to understand the behavior of electrons in complex porous structures, we have simulated electron diffusion processes in complex porous structures that have been fabricated using a system for a three-dimensional porous structure simulator, POCO2. For a given porosity, as the overlap ratio representing a necked porous TiO2 structure increased, the coordination number of TiO2 particles increased, resulting in an increase in electron flux and a decrease in trapping time. To gain better insights, we simulated the diffusion of electrons using models with different particle size distributions. This study shows that for a narrower size distribution of TiO2 particles, a better electron diffusion process is realized. This result can be ascribed to the formation of a better TiO2 coordination network. Consequently, through this study, we have shown that a well-formed neck between TiO2 particles improves the electron diffusion properties of a complex porous material.

  11. Direct Low-Temperature Growth of Single-Crystalline Anatase TiO2 Nanorod Arrays on Transparent Conducting Oxide Substrates for Use in PbS Quantum-Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Suk; Han, Gill Sang; Park, So Yeon; Shin, Hee-Won; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Jeong, Sohee; Cho, In Sun; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-05-20

    We report on the direct growth of anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays (A-NRs) on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates that can be directly applied to various photovoltaic devices via a seed layer mediated epitaxial growth using a facile low-temperature hydrothermal method. We found that the crystallinity of the seed layer and the addition of an amine functional group play crucial roles in the A-NR growth process. The A-NRs exhibit a pure anatase phase with a high crystallinity and preferred growth orientation in the [001] direction. Importantly, for depleted heterojunction solar cells (TiO2/PbS), the A-NRs improve both electron transport and injection properties, thereby largely increasing the short-circuit current density and doubling their efficiency compared to TiO2 nanoparticle-based solar cells. PMID:25928587

  12. A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03712j

  13. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Menzies; Qing Dai; Christian Maunders; Yi-Bing Cheng; George P. Simon; Leone Spiccia

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 nanocrystals have been synthesized from Titanium(IV) butoxide without the use of an autoclave. It was found that using heat treatment temperatures below 600°C pure anatase phase was retained in the nanocrystals. In addition, with increasing heat treatment temperature the nanocrystals became larger in size and the homogeneity was dramatically reduced.

  14. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells: An TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid photoanode with post-treatment of TiCl4 aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling; Niu, Haihong; Zhang, Shouwei; Wan, Lei; Miao, Shiding; Xu, Jinzhang

    2012-11-01

    A TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid film was prepared on a conductive F-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by depositing a mixture paste of TiO2 (P25) and nano-sized SiO2 particles. The hybrid film was further treated by a titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution with different concentrations before it was assembled as a photoanode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We studied the performance of DSSCs by using the dye molecule of cis-bis(isothiocy-anato)-bis-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II) bis-tetrabutylammonium (N719) as sensitizer. Results suggested that the post-treatment using TiCl4 could enhance the dye adsorption. The thin TiO2 layer hydrolyzed from TiCl4 could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the composite film, leading to a better electron transport than non-treated films, and improve the light harvesting efficiency. The optimal concentration was found to be 75 mM for the post-treatment of TiO2-SiO2 hybrid film by TiCl4 solution. A photoelectron conversion efficiency of 6.39% was achieved in the back-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells, which is ˜105% higher than the basic efficiency of the bare TiO2 sensitized sample. TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid photoanode was prepared by incorporation of nano-sized SiO2 in the TiO2 film. The introduced SiO2 as a wide band-gap material gives a significant improvement of the performance of corresponding DSSCs in terms of photocurrent densities and energy conversion efficiency.

  15. Removing structural disorder from oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: reducing the dimensionality of transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Vinzant, Todd B; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2007-12-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO2 NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO2 NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO2 drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects. PMID:17983250

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of novel TiO2 photoelectrode on TCO substrates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jung Eun; Kwon, Soon Jin; Jo, Hyo Jeong; Yi, Kwang Bok; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we report synthesis and growth of rutile-anatase TiO2 thin film on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a two-step hydrothermal method. The effects of additional treatments (i.e., TiCl4 post-treatment and seed layer formation were also studied. Photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement of rutile-anatase TiO2 thin film was performed under 1.5 G light illumination. Photovoltaic performance was investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS/IMPS) and open-circuit photovoltage decay (OCVD). PMID:25971044

  17. Cationic surfactant promoted reductive electrodeposition of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 for application to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeon-Ju An; Song-Rim Jang; R. Vittal; Jiwon Lee; Kang-Jin Kim

    2005-01-01

    A new strategy involving the introduction of the common cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) for the cathodic deposition of titanium dioxide from hydrolyzed TiCl4 and TiCl3 solutions by cyclic voltammetry has been developed. Crack-free and non-transparent anatase TiO2 films were obtained for the first time and characterized with the aid of Raman spectra and SEM. Selection of TiCl4 as the

  18. Formation of single-crystalline rutile TiO 2 splitting microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Sheng; Linhua Hu; Wenxin Li; Li’e Mo; Huajun Tian; Songyuan Dai

    2011-01-01

    The morphological evolution of specimen taken out after the different duration in TiCl3 solution was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The rutile TiO2 splitting microspheres may be formed by the splitting crystal growth mechanism through the multistep process. The microsphere composed of the 20nm width nanorods was in the range of 1.5–2.5?m in the diameter. The dye-sensitized

  19. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Yuliarto; Fahiem Fanani; M. Kasyful Fuadi; Nugraha

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed

  20. High performance PbS quantum dot sensitized solar cells via electric field assisted in situ chemical deposition on modulated TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Tao, Liang; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Hong; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-21

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are attractive photovoltaic devices due to their simplicity and low material requirements. However, efforts to realize high efficiencies in QDSSCs have often been offset by complicated processes and expensive or toxic materials, significantly limiting their useful application. In this work, we have realized for the first time, high performance PbS QDSSCs based on TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) via an in situ chemical deposition method controlled by a low electric field. An efficiency, ?, of ~3.41% under full sun illumination has been achieved, which is 133.6% higher than the best result previously reported for a simple system without doping or co-sensitizing, and comparable to systems with additional chemicals. Furthermore, a high open-circuit voltage (0.64 V), short-circuit current (8.48 mA cm(-2)) and fill factor (0.63) have been achieved. A great increase in the quantity of the loaded quantum dots (QDs) in the NTAs was obtained from the in situ electric field assisted chemical bath deposition (EACBD) process, which was the most significant contributing factor with respect to the high JSC. The high VOC and FF have been attributed to a much shorter electron path, less structural and electronic defects, and lower recombination in the ordered TiO2 NTAs produced by oscillating anodic voltage. Besides, the optimal film thickness (~4 ?m) based on the NTAs was much thinner than that of the control cell based on nanoporous film (~30.0 ?m). This investigation can hopefully offer an effective way of realizing high performance QDSSCs and QD growth/installation in other nanostructures as well. PMID:24281658

  1. Controlling available active sites of Pt-loaded TiO2 nanotube-imprinted Ti plates for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Chieh; Ramamurthy, Vittal; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-02-25

    The counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) plays an important role for transferring electrons and catalyzing the I-/I3- reduction. Active surface area of the substrate determines the reduction sites of the deposited catalyst as well as the catalytic ability of the CE. An effective method for enhancing and controlling the active surface area of metal plates is provided in this study. The Ti plates are imprinted by TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) via the technique of anodization along with the ultrasonic vibration process. The available active area of imprinted Ti plates is controlled by varying the anodization voltage to produce TNT imprints with different diameters and depths. A solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 9.35% was obtained for the DSSC with a TNT-imprinted Ti plate as the CE substrate, while the cell with an imprint-free Ti plate shows an ? of 7.81%. The enhanced ? is due to the improved electrocatalytic ability of the CE by using the TNT-imprinted Ti plate as the substrate with higher active surface area. PMID:25642665

  2. A strategy to stabilise the local structure of Ti4+ and Zn2+ species against aging in TiO2/aluminium-doped ZnO bi-layers for applications in hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Giovanna; La Magna, Antonino; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Bongiorno, Corrado; Mocuta, Cristian; Smecca, Emanuele; Alberti, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    We explore a strategy to counteract aging issues in TiO2/aluminium-doped ZnO bi-layers used in hybrid solar cells photo-anodes, mainly related to Zn diffusion in the TiO2 matrix. Different Ti4+ and Zn2+ local structures within the anatase grains and along the film thickness were found as a function of post-deposition annealing treatments in the range between 200 °C and 500 °C by synchrotron radiation extended x-ray absorption fine structure analyses. In particular, in the 500 °C-treated sample, diffusion of zinc species along the TiO2 grain-boundaries has been observed with aging (3 years). In contrast, a mild thermal budget at 200 °C favours a proper atomic arrangement of the zinc-containing anatase lattice which reduces Zn diffusion, thus guaranteeing a good stability with aging.

  3. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C.; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ~450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ~18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells.Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ~450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ~18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of TiO2 nanorod arrays, TEM images of TiO2 nanorod and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, cross-sectional SEM images of PbS/CdS core-shell QDs spin coated on TiO2 nanorod arrays, optical transmittance of TiO2 nanorod ar

  4. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  5. A detailed study on the working mechanism of a heteropoly acid modified TiO2 photoanode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanxia; Yang, Yulin; Qiang, Liangsheng; Fan, Ruiqing; Li, Liang; Ye, Tengling; Na, Yong; Shi, Yan; Luan, Tianzhu

    2015-03-14

    A novel heteropolyacid (HPA) K6SiW11O39Ni(H2O)·xH2O (SiW11Ni) modified TiO2 has been successfully synthesized and introduced into the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The performance of the cell with the HPA-modified photoanode (SiW11Ni/TiO2), mixed with P25 powder in the ratio of 2?:?8, is better than the cell with a pristine P25 photoanode. An increase of 31% in the photocurrent and 22% improvement in the conversion efficiency are obtained. The effect of the heteropolyacid was well studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, spectro-electrochemical spectroscopy, dark current, intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy, open-circuit voltage decay and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the interfacial layer modified by SiW11Ni can enhance the injection and transport of electrons, and then retard the recombination of electrons, which results in a longer electron lifetime. What's more, the introduction of SiW11Ni can simultaneously broaden the absorption in the visible region, eventually leading to an efficient increase in energy conversion efficiency. PMID:25669421

  6. Self-assembled nanoscale architecture of TiO2 and application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Motonari; Jiu, Jinting; Isoda, Seiji; Mori, Yasushige; Uchida, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    A single-crystal-like titania nanowire network was successfully synthesized by a surfactant assisted “oriented attachment” mechanism. Highly crystallized titania nanorods have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using block-copolymer F127 with ethylenediamine. It was observed from high resolution TEM image that titanium atoms aligned perfectly in titania anatase structure with no defect. A high light-to-electricity conversion yield (9.3%) was attained by applying these titania nanoscale materials for making an electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24198457

  7. PbS quantum dot sensitized anatase TiO2 nanocorals for quantum dot-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Desai, Shital K; Kalagi, Smita S; Betty, Chirayath A; Bhosale, Popatrao N; Devan, Rupesh S; Ma, Yuan-Ron R; Patil, Pramod S

    2012-05-28

    Lead sulphide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) sensitized anatase TiO(2) nanocorals (TNC) were synthesized by SILAR and hydrothermal techniques. The TNC, PbS and PbS-TNC samples were characterized by optical absorption, XRD, FT-IR, FESEM and XPS. The results show that PbS QDs are coated on the TNCs, the optical absorption is found to be enhanced and the band edge is shifted to ~693 nm as compared with plain TNCs at 340 nm. The PbS-TNC sample exhibits an improved photoelectrochemical performance with a maximum short circuit current (J(sc)) of 3.84 mA cm(-2). The photocurrent density was found to be enhanced 2 fold, as compared with those of the bare PbS photoelectrode. The total power conversion efficiency of the PbS-TNC electrodes is 1.23%. PMID:22491525

  8. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the ?-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory/simulation and experiments appears to be the key to further DSCs progress, both concerning the design of new dye sensitizers and their interaction with the semiconductor and with the solution environment and/or an electrolyte upon adsorption onto the semiconductor. PMID:23108504

  9. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-06-14

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ?450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ?18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells. PMID:25975363

  10. Influence of spray deposited TiO2 film thickness on the performance of n-TiO2/p-Si low cost hetero-junction solar cell and its utility as a carrier blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhar, R.; Angadi, Basavaraj; Shekar, H. D. Chandra; Murthy, L. C. S.

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films with different thicknesses (55-95nm) were deposited in a multi-cycle on Si (100) substrates at a temperature of 350°C by spray pyrolysis technique under optimum conditions, for the application as a window layer for hetero-junction solar cells. The dark-light I-V characteristics of Au/TiO2/p-Si/Al hetero-junction solar cells have shown excellent rectifying behavior. The increase in film thickness can improve the short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc), respectively. The estimated lower Isc and Voc confirm that the photo generated charge carriers being blocked or trapped at pin-holes which are rich in sprayed films, as carriers pass through the multi-cycle deposited TiO2 layers. The observed variation in the photovoltaic properties of cells could be due to oxidation on the Si substrate. Power conversion efficiency (?) of 0.00021% was obtained in a cell with the TiO2 film thickness of 55 nm. Decrease in dark current as a function of thickness indicates, the hole blocking behavior of hetero-junction solar cells.

  11. Optical excitations of metallic nanoclusters buried in TiO2 for solar photochemistry

    E-print Network

    Optical excitations of metallic nanoclusters buried in TiO2 for solar photochemistry Fei Wang photochemistry, Ag nanoclusters, buried clusters 1. INTRODUCTION Water interactions with TiO2 and other oxide

  12. Nitrogen-doped submicron-size TiO2 particles as bifunctional light scatterers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shogh, Shiva; Mohammadpour, Raheleh; Iraji zad, Azam; Taghavinia, Nima

    2015-06-01

    The structural, electrical, optical, and photovoltaic properties of aggregated submicron nitrogen-doped TiO2 particles (NTiO2) and the influence of utilizing them, in comparison with undoped ones, as the light-scattering layer of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and diffuse reflectance spectra showed that both type samples have similar morphology, crystal phase, and scattering feature. Moreover, photoluminescence, Mott-Schottkey, and photovoltaic characteristics such as IMPS/IMVS and charge extraction analysis indicated that the NTiO2 layer is an efficient scatterer in two aspects: enhancement of light-harvesting efficiency by having submicron-size centers and modification of the electrical properties such as charge collection efficiency in photoanode. As a result, the overall conversion efficiency reached 7.34 % upon employing NTiO2 as the light-scattering layer, which is 13 % higher than undoped one. This improvement is a consequence of trap density reduction, electrons transfer enhancement in the interface of photoactive/scattering layer, and shunt resistance increment at photoelectrode/electrolyte interface.

  13. Anatase TiO2 pillar-nanoparticle composite fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoliang; Pan, Kai; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Yang; Pan, Qingjing; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Ying; Dong, Youzhen; Miao, Xiaohuan; Tian, Chungui

    2012-11-01

    The anatase TiO(2) pillar (PL)-TiO(2) nanoparticle (NP) composite is fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly. The composition of the nanostructures (i.e. the pillar-to-nanoparticle ratio) can be conveniently tuned by controlling the experimental conditions of the layer-by-layer assembly. It has been used to fabricate photoelectrodes for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which combine the advantages of the rapid electron transport in PLs with the high surface area of NPs. It was found that, with optimum preparation conditions, DSSCs with the composite photoelectrode show a better photoelectrical conversion efficiency (8.06%) than those with either the naked PL photoelectrode or the mechanically mixed PL-NP photoelectrode. This is explained by the photoelectron injection drive force and the interfacial electron transport of the DSSCs, which are quantitatively characterized using the surface photovoltage spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It is evident that the DSSC with the optimal PL/NP ratio displays the largest photoelectron injection drive force and the fastest interfacial electron transfer. PMID:22968370

  14. Nitrogen-doped submicron-size TiO2 particles as bifunctional light scatterers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shogh, Shiva; Mohammadpour, Raheleh; Iraji zad, Azam; Taghavinia, Nima

    2015-03-01

    The structural, electrical, optical, and photovoltaic properties of aggregated submicron nitrogen-doped TiO2 particles (NTiO2) and the influence of utilizing them, in comparison with undoped ones, as the light-scattering layer of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and diffuse reflectance spectra showed that both type samples have similar morphology, crystal phase, and scattering feature. Moreover, photoluminescence, Mott-Schottkey, and photovoltaic characteristics such as IMPS/IMVS and charge extraction analysis indicated that the NTiO2 layer is an efficient scatterer in two aspects: enhancement of light-harvesting efficiency by having submicron-size centers and modification of the electrical properties such as charge collection efficiency in photoanode. As a result, the overall conversion efficiency reached 7.34 % upon employing NTiO2 as the light-scattering layer, which is 13 % higher than undoped one. This improvement is a consequence of trap density reduction, electrons transfer enhancement in the interface of photoactive/scattering layer, and shunt resistance increment at photoelectrode/electrolyte interface.

  15. Stabilizing chromophore binding on TiO2 for long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells using multicomponent atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Han; Losego, Mark D; Hanson, Kenneth; Alibabaei, Leila; Lee, Kyoungmi; Meyer, Thomas J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2014-05-14

    Ambient humidity and high temperature are known to degrade dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via chromophore desorption. Recently, enhanced dye-attachment to TiO2 surfaces has been realized by coating molecularly functionalized surfaces with inorganic atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings. Here, we apply this ALD approach to DSSCs and demonstrate that high energy conversion efficiencies can be maintained while significantly extending device lifetimes. While single component ALD layers show improved high-temperature stability, it significantly degraded up to 45% of initial DSSC performance right after ALD. We, however, find that mixed component ALD layers provide initial efficiencies within 90% of their untreated counterparts while still extending device lifetimes. Optimized ALD protection schemes maintain 80% of their initial efficiency after 500 h of thermal aging at 80 °C whereas efficiency of DSSCs with no ALD protection drop below 60% of their initial efficiencies. IR spectroscopy conducted in situ during ALD reveals that carboxylate linker groups transition from unbound or weakly-bound states, respectively, to more strongly bound bidentate structures. This strategy to improve dye-attachment by ALD while maintaining high performance is novel and promising for extending the functional lifetime for DSSCs and other related devices. PMID:24676056

  16. Enhanced charge-collection efficiencies and light scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells using oriented TiO2 nanotubes arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Neale, Nathan R; Miedaner, Alexander; Frank, Arthur J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the microstructure and dynamics of electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) incorporating oriented TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays. The morphology of the NT arrays, which were prepared from electrochemically anodized Ti foils, were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The arrays were found to consist of closely packed NTs, several micrometers in length, with typical wall thicknesses and intertube spacings of 8-10 nm and pore diameters of about 30 nm. The calcined material was fully crystalline with individual NTs consisting of about 30 nm sized crystallites. The transport and recombination properties of the NT and nanoparticle (NP) films used in DSSCs were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. While both morphologies display comparable transport times, recombination was much slower in the NT films, indicating that the NT-based DSSCs have significantly higher charge-collection efficiencies than their NP-based counterparts. Dye molecules were shown to cover both the interior and exterior walls of the NTs. Analysis of photocurrent measurements indicates that the light-harvesting efficiencies of NT-based DSSCs were higher than those found for DSSCs incorporating NPs owing to stronger internal light-scattering effects. PMID:17212442

  17. Preparation of multilayered CdSe quantum dot sensitizers by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly and a series of post-treatments toward efficient quantum dot-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ho; Choi, Sukyung; Velu, Ranganathan; Kim, Sungjee; Lee, Hyo Joong

    2012-03-27

    A multilayer of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) was prepared on the mesoporous surface of a nanoparticulate TiO(2) film by a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly using the electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged QD surface for application as a sensitizer in QD-sensitized TiO(2) solar cells. To maximize the absorption of incident light and the generation of excitons by CdSe QDs within a fixed thickness of TiO(2) film, the experimental conditions of QD deposition were optimized by controlling the concentration of salt added into the QD-dissolved solutions and repeating the LBL deposition a few times. A proper concentration of salt was found to be critical in providing a deep penetration of QDs into the mesopore, thus leading to a dense and uniform distribution throughout the whole TiO(2) matrix while anchoring the oppositely charged QDs alternately in a controllable way. A series of post-treatments with (1) CdCl(2), (2) thermal annealing, and (3) ZnS-coating was found to be very critical in improving the overall photovoltaic properties, presumably through a better connection between QDs, effective passivation of QD's surface, and a high impedance of recombination, which were proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. With a proper post-treatment of multilayered QDs as a sensitizer, the overall power conversion efficiency in the CdSe QD-sensitized TiO(2) solar cells could reach 1.9% under standard illumination condition of simulated AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm(2)). PMID:22380945

  18. A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian O'Regan; Michael Graetzel

    1991-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell created from low- to medium-purity materials by low-cost processes is described which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency. The device is based on a 10-micron thick optically transparent film of titanium dioxide particles a few nm in size, coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye to sensitize the film for light harvesting. The device harvests a

  19. Effects of Dye Loading Conditions on the Energy Conversion Efficiency of ZnO and TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    light conversion efficiency of zinc oxide (ZnO) film electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cellsO) has been explored as an alternative material in dye-sensitized solar cells. The use of Zn as an alternative material for improving the solar cell performance in dye-sensitized solar cells due to (1) Zn

  20. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (? = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (?). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 ( Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  1. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste (Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (? = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste (Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (?). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste (Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 (Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  2. DFT investigation of the TiO 2 band shift by nitrogen-containing heterocycle adsorption and implications on dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Kusama; Hideo Orita; Hideki Sugihara

    2008-01-01

    A density functional theory (DFT) method (periodic DMol3) with full geometry optimization was used to investigate the adsorption of nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as 4-t-butylpyridine (TBP) and imidazole on a TiO2 anatase (101) surface. Negative shifts of the TiO2 Fermi level by N-containing heterocycle adsorption were observed. Imidazole adsorption shifted the Fermi level of TiO2 more negatively than TBP. This shift

  3. Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    E-print Network

    to the spiro-OMeTAD. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous titania and liquid-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications Tina C. Li, Ma´rcio S. Go´es,,§ Francisco Fabregat-Santiago,*, Juan Bisquert-sensitized solar cells based on 2,2,7,7-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro

  4. Room Temperature Synthesis of Highly Compact TiO2 Coatings by Vacuum Kinetic Spraying to Serve as a Blocking Layer in Polymer Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jeeae; Sudhagar, P.; Park, Hyungkwon; Cho, Woohyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Changhee

    2015-02-01

    Vacuum kinetic spraying (VKS) was used to form a blocking layer (BL) in order to increase the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass while varying the coating parameters including the mass flow, substrate transverse speed, and number of coating passes in order to control the thickness of the BL. Compared to the cell without a BL, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of the solar cell with a VKS-coated BL were noticeably improved. Consequently, the photoconversion efficiency increased up to 5.6%, which is significantly higher than that of a spin-coated BL.

  5. 1 Rectangular Bunched Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Grown on Carbon 2 Fiber for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    ABSTRACT: Because of their special application in photo- 10 voltaics, the growth of one-dimensional single to amorphous 58TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by sol-gel methods.23,24 However, 59the TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by sol-gel methods are not 60crystalline, and high temperature with protected gas is required 61for

  6. Effect of solvents on the extraction of natural pigments and adsorption onto TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A M; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd Amir H; Ludin, Norasikin A

    2015-03-01

    Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX. PMID:25483560

  7. Effect of solvents on the extraction of natural pigments and adsorption onto TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Ludin, Norasikin A.

    2015-03-01

    Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX.

  8. Impedance analysis for dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 electrode coated with Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhuang, Q. C.; Wang, H. T.; Xu, X. Q.; Qiang, Y. H.; Fang, L.

    2013-09-01

    TiO2 nanomaterial with typical anatase was prepared by hydrothermal method. A surface modification method was carried out by dip TiO2 electrode into Cr(NO3)3 solution. The TiO2/Cr2O3 thin film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The current-voltage (I-V) curve revealed that short circuit current and photoelectric transfer efficiency of the modified electrode enhanced by 19.3% and 21%, respectively. The main features of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were discussed in a wide range of potential applied. The parameters of electron transport resistance in TiO2 film (Rw), the overall charge transfer resistance (Rct) and capacitance (Cfilm) of film were analyzed using an equivalent circuit. It was found that Rw, Rct and Cfilm switch to exponential behavior at high bias.

  9. Improved conversion efficiency of Ag2S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanotubes with a ZnO recombination barrier layer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We improve the conversion efficiency of Ag2S quantum dot (QD)-sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array electrodes by chemically depositing ZnO recombination barrier layer on plain TiO2 nanotube-array electrodes. The optical properties, structural properties, compositional analysis, and photoelectrochemistry properties of prepared electrodes have been investigated. It is found that for the prepared electrodes, with increasing the cycles of Ag2S deposition, the photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency increase. In addition, as compared to the Ag2S QD-sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array electrode without the ZnO layers, the conversion efficiency of the electrode with the ZnO layers increases significantly due to the formation of efficient recombination layer between the TiO2 nanotube array and electrolyte. PMID:21777458

  10. Porous TiO 2 thin films synthesized by a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique and their application to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Okuya; Koji Nakade; Shoji Kaneko

    2002-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates from titanium(IV)oxy acetylacetonate 2-butanol solution by a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique. The films consisted of TiO2 leaflets and showed the oriented growth along the (200) direction. The surface area of the film was successfully increased by adding a small amount of aluminum(III) acetylacetonate (AA) in the source solution. This

  11. CuS/CdS Quantum Dot Composite Sensitizer and Its Applications to Various TiO2 Mesoporous Film-Based Solar Cell Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung; Ochirbat, Altantuya; Lee, Hyo Joong

    2015-07-14

    A nanoscale composite sensitizer composed of CuS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) was prepared by a simple but effective layer-by-layer reaction between a metal cation (Cu(2+) or Cd(2+)) and a sulfide anion (S(2-)). The as-prepared composite CuS/CdS QD sensitizer displayed an enhanced photon-to-current conversion over the sensitizing range of the visible spectrum compared to the counterpart of the pure CdS sensitizer. At the optimized ratio of the deposited amounts of CuS and CdS, the best CuS/CdS-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 cell with a polysulfide electrolyte showed an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.60% with a short circuit current (Jsc) of 11.77 mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.65 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.47. From the transmission electron microscopy images, the initially deposited CuS seemed to take a nucleation site to accumulate more CdS in the later deposition. The kinetic studies by impedance and Voc decay measurements also revealed that the CuS/CdS and CdS QD sensitizers made a similar interface between TiO2 and the electrolyte, but the former had a larger resistance of charge transfer with a longer lifetime of excitons after light absorption than the latter. To enhance the sensitizing power further, a multilayer QD sensitizer of CuS/CdS/CdSe was prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). This led to the best performance of 4.32% overall power conversion efficiency. Finally, a hybrid sensitizing system of inorganic QD (CuS/CdS) and organic dye (coded MK-2) was tested with a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox mediator. The CuS/CdS/MK-2 dye-sensitized cell showed over 3.0% efficiency under the standard illumination condition (1 sun). PMID:26086801

  12. Ruthenium sensitizers with a hexylthiophene-modified terpyridine ligand for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis, photo- and electrochemical properties, and adsorption behavior to the TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-02-11

    Two novel ruthenium sensitizers with a hexylthiophene-modified terpyridine ligand (TUS-35 and TUS-36) were synthesized to improve the molar absorptivity of the previously reported ruthenium sensitizer (TBA)[Ru{4'-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-4,4?-dicarboxyterpyridine}(NCS)3], TBA = tetrabutylammonium (TUS-21). A relatively strong absorption appeared at ?380 nm, and the molar absorption coefficient at the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band decreased in TUS-35 by introducing a 2-hexylthiophene unit to the 5-position of the terpyridine-derived ligand. For comparison, a relatively strong absorption was observed at ?350 nm without decreasing the molar absorption coefficient at the MLCT band in TUS-36 by introducing a 2-hexylthiophene unit to the 4-position of the terpyridine-derived ligand. On the other hand, the energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of these two sensitizers were found to be almost equal to those of TUS-21. The adsorption behavior of TUS-35 and TUS-36 was similar to that of (TBA)[Ru{4'-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)terpyridine}(NCS)3] (TUS-20), which binds to the TiO2 surface by using the 3,4-dicarboxyphenly unit, rather than that of TUS-21, which adsorbs to the TiO2 photoelectrode using one of the carboxyl groups at the terminal pyridines of the terpyridine-derived ligand. Therefore, TUS-35 and TUS-36 are considered to bind to the TiO2 surface by using the 3,4-dicarboxyphenly unit just like TUS-20. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with TUS-35 and TUS-36 showed a relatively lower conversion efficiency (6.4% and 5.7%, respectively) compared to the DSC with TUS-21 (10.2%). Open-circuit photovoltage decay and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that the promoted charge recombination and/or charge transfer of the injected electrons in the TiO2 photoelectrode is a main reason for the inferior performances of TUS-35 and TUS-36. PMID:25587752

  13. Enhanced Performance of CdS/CdSe Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cells via Homogeneous Distribution of Quantum Dots in TiO2

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    a successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method and a chemical bath deposition (CBD) methodSe was difficult to deposit directly on oxides, such as TiO2 and ZnO. For this reason, modification of oxide

  14. Photovoltaic properties of multilayered quantum dot/quantum rod-sensitized TiO2 solar cells fabricated by SILAR and electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cerdán-Pasarán, Andrea; López-Luke, Tzarara; Esparza, Diego; Zarazúa, Isaac; De la Rosa, Elder; Fuentes-Ramírez, Rosalba; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Sánchez-Solís, Ana; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Zhang, Jin Z

    2015-07-01

    A multilayered semiconductor sensitizer structure composed of three differently sized CdSe quantum rods (QRs), labeled as Q530, Q575, Q590, were prepared and deposited on the surface of mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for photovoltaic applications. By varying the arrangement of layers as well as the time of EPD, the photoconversion efficiency was improved from 2.0% with the single layer of CdSe QRs (TiO2/Q590/ZnS) to 2.9% for multilayers (TiO2/Q590Q575/ZnS). The optimal EPD time was shorter for the multilayered structures. The effect of CdS quantum dots (QDs) deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) was also investigated. The addition of CdS QDs resulted in the enhancement of efficiency to 4.1% for the configuration (TiO2/CdS/Q590Q575/ZnS), due to increased photocurrent and photovoltage. Based on detailed structural, optical, and photoelectrical studies, the increased photocurrent is attributed to broadened light absorption while the increased voltage is due to a shift in the relevant energy levels. PMID:26113151

  15. Nanoscale connectivity in a TiO2/CdSe quantum dots/functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets/Au nanoparticles composite for enhanced photoelectrochemical solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Remya; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2012-01-14

    Electron transfer dynamics in a photoactive coating made of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs) tethered to a framework of ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) nanosheets and mesoporous titania (TiO(2)) was studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses on TiO(2)/CdSe/FGO/Au not only revealed the linker mediated binding of CdSe QDs with TiO(2) but also, surprisingly, revealed a nanoscale connectivity between CdSe QDs, Au NPs and TiO(2) with FGO nanosheets, achieved by a simple solution processing method. Time resolved fluorescence decay experiments coupled with the systematic quenching of CdSe emission by Au NPs or FGO nanosheets or by a combination of the latter two provide concrete evidences favoring the most likely pathway of ultrafast decay of excited CdSe in the composite to be a relay mechanism. A balance between energetics and kinetics of the system is realized by alignment of conduction band edges, whereby, CdSe QDs inject photogenerated electrons into the conduction band of TiO(2), from where, electrons are promptly transferred to FGO nanosheets and then through Au NPs to the current collector. Conductive-atomic force microscopy also provided a direct correlation between the local nanostructure and the enhanced ability of composite to conduct electrons. Point contact I-V measurements and average photoconductivity results demonstrated the current distribution as well as the population of conducting domains to be uniform across the TiO(2)/CdSe/FGO/Au composite, thus validating the higher photocurrent generation. A six-fold enhancement in photocurrent and a 100 mV increment in photovoltage combined with an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of 27%, achieved in the composite, compared to the inferior performance of the TiO(2)/CdSe/Au composite imply that FGO nanosheets and Au NPs work in tandem to promote charge separation and furnish less impeded pathways for electron transfer and transport. Such a hierarchical rapid electron transfer model can be adapted to other nanostructures as well, as they can favorably impact photoelectrochemical performance. PMID:22108634

  16. Photocurrent induced by conducting channels of hole transporting layer to adjacent photoactive perovskite sensitized TiO2 thin film: solar cell paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Seo, Hyung-Kee; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2014-11-01

    A high performance perovskite solar cell was fabricated using the distinguished morphology of polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) as an efficient hole transporting layer (HTL) with methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) as sensitizer. PANI-NPs were simply synthesized by the oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline monomer at 0-5 °C. A reasonable solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of ?6.29% with a high short circuit current (JSC) of ?17.97 mA/cm(2) and open circuit voltage (VOC) of ?0.877 V were accomplished by Ag/PANI-NPs/CH3NH3PbI3/mp-anatase-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO perovskite solar cell. The transient photocurrent and photovoltage studies revealed that the fabricated solar cell showed better charge transport time, diffusion coefficient, diffusion length, and charge collection efficiency. Herein, the use of PANI-NPs as the HTL improved the charge carrier generation and the charge collection efficiency of the fabricated solar cell. PMID:25296009

  17. Single-step fabrication of phase-controllable nanocrystalline TiO 2 films for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Jung Lin; Wen-Kai Tu; Chih-Kang Kuo; Shu-Hua Chien

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a single-step procedure for growing a phase-controllable bilayer-structured TiO2 film directly onto transparent conductive oxide glass by precipitation from hydrolysis of TiCl4 in acid solution containing sulfate ions. The obtained bilayer-structured film with anatase nanoparticles in the inner layer which provide high surface area, and an outer layer of larger rutile particles for incident light scattering. In both

  18. A maskless synthesis of TiO2-nanofiber-based hierarchical structures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures with secondary growth have been successfully synthesized on electrospun nanofibers via surfactant-free hydrothermal route. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on the secondary nanostructures has been studied. The synthesized nanostructures comprise electrospun nanofibers which are polycrystalline with anatase phase and have single crystalline, rutile TiO2 nanorod-like structures growing on them. These secondary nanostructures have a preferential growth direction [110]. UV–vis spectroscopy measurements point to better dye loading capability and incident photon to current conversion efficiency spectra show enhanced light harvesting of the synthesized hierarchical structures. Concomitantly, the dye molecules act as spacers between the conduction band electrons of TiO2 and holes in the hole transporting medium, i.e., spiro-OMeTAD and thus enhance open circuit voltage. The charge transport and recombination effects are characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. As a result of improved light harvesting, dye loading, and reduced recombination losses, the hierarchical nanofibers yield 2.14% electrochemical conversion efficiency which is 50% higher than the efficiency obtained by plain nanofibers. PMID:24410851

  19. DNA mediated wire-like clusters of self-assembled TiO2 nanomaterials: supercapacitor and dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithiyanantham, U.; Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Ede, Sivasankara Rao; Kundu, Subrata

    2014-06-01

    A new route for the formation of wire-like clusters of TiO2 nanomaterials self-assembled in DNA scaffold within an hour of reaction time is reported. TiO2 nanomaterials are synthesized by the reaction of titanium-isopropoxide with ethanol and water in the presence of DNA under continuous stirring and heating at 60 °C. The individual size of the TiO2 NPs self-assembled in DNA and the diameter of the wires can be tuned by controlling the DNA to Ti-salt molar ratios and other reaction parameters. The eventual diameter of the individual particles varies between 15 +/- 5 nm ranges, whereas the length of the nanowires varies in the 2-3 ?m range. The synthesized wire-like DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials are excellent materials for electrochemical supercapacitor and DSSC applications. From the electrochemical supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the TiO2 nanomaterials showed different specific capacitance (Cs) values for the various nanowires, and the order of Cs values are as follows: wire-like clusters (small size) > wire-like clusters (large size). The highest Cs of 2.69 F g-1 was observed for TiO2 having wire-like structure with small sizes. The study of the long term cycling stability of wire-like clusters (small size) electrode were shown to be stable, retaining ca. 80% of the initial specific capacitance, even after 5000 cycles. The potentiality of the DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials was also tested in photo-voltaic applications and the observed efficiency was found higher in the case of wire-like TiO2 nanostructures with larger sizes compared to smaller sizes. In future, the described method can be extended for the synthesis of other oxide based materials on DNA scaffold and can be further used in other applications like sensors, Li-ion battery materials or treatment for environmental waste water.A new route for the formation of wire-like clusters of TiO2 nanomaterials self-assembled in DNA scaffold within an hour of reaction time is reported. TiO2 nanomaterials are synthesized by the reaction of titanium-isopropoxide with ethanol and water in the presence of DNA under continuous stirring and heating at 60 °C. The individual size of the TiO2 NPs self-assembled in DNA and the diameter of the wires can be tuned by controlling the DNA to Ti-salt molar ratios and other reaction parameters. The eventual diameter of the individual particles varies between 15 +/- 5 nm ranges, whereas the length of the nanowires varies in the 2-3 ?m range. The synthesized wire-like DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials are excellent materials for electrochemical supercapacitor and DSSC applications. From the electrochemical supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the TiO2 nanomaterials showed different specific capacitance (Cs) values for the various nanowires, and the order of Cs values are as follows: wire-like clusters (small size) > wire-like clusters (large size). The highest Cs of 2.69 F g-1 was observed for TiO2 having wire-like structure with small sizes. The study of the long term cycling stability of wire-like clusters (small size) electrode were shown to be stable, retaining ca. 80% of the initial specific capacitance, even after 5000 cycles. The potentiality of the DNA-TiO2 nanomaterials was also tested in photo-voltaic applications and the observed efficiency was found higher in the case of wire-like TiO2 nanostructures with larger sizes compared to smaller sizes. In future, the described method can be extended for the synthesis of other oxide based materials on DNA scaffold and can be further used in other applications like sensors, Li-ion battery materials or treatment for environmental waste water. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The details about the instrument used for various characterizations and figures related to FE-SEM analysis, EDS analysis, photoluminescence (PL) and LASER Raman study are provided. Table related to FT-IR analysis is also provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01836b

  20. Project Report for EI Seed Grant Project Title: Solar Cell Based on Interpenetrating Network of II-VI Semiconductor Nanowires in Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. George; Arthur J. Frank; Shaibal K. Sankar

    For the practical realization of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells, the material properties and the conformal incorporation of the sensitizer are crucial. In comparison to other techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has proven to be the most suitable candidate for depositing highly conformal and ultrathin coatings of various materials. ALD involves sequential, self-limiting reactant exposures separated by an inert gas purge. This

  1. Effect of chemical structure of interface modifier of TiO2 on photovoltaic properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/TiO2 layered solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Leeyih; Su, Wei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Two classes of phosphonic acid-bearing organic molecules, 2-oligothiophene phosphonic acid and omega-(2-thienyl)alkyl phosphonic acid were adopted as interface modifiers (IMs) of the TiO(2) surface, to increase its compatibility with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The self-assembled monolayers of these molecules on titania surface were characterized by making contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images revealed that the adsorption of IMs effectively smooths the TiO(2) surface. Both photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and PL lifetime measurements were made to investigate the photoinduced properties of the TiO(2)/IM/P3HT layered-junction. The PL quenching efficiency increased with the number of thiophene rings and as the alkyl chain-length in IMs decreased. Meanwhile, the decline in the PL lifetime followed a similar trend as the PL quenching efficiency. Additionally, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the ITO/TiO(2)/IM/P3HT/Au devices was examined by measuring their photocurrent density-applied voltage (J-V) curves. The experimental results indicated that the short-circuit current density (J(SC)) increased with the number of thiophene units and as the hydrocarbon chain-length in IMs decreased. However, the open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) of the devices slightly fell as the energy level of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of IM decreased. The PCE of the device with 2-terthiophene phosphonic acid was 2.5 times that of the device with 10-(2-thienyl)decyl phosphonic acid. PMID:18947832

  2. Removing Structural Disorder from Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Reducing the Dimensionality of Transport and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Zhu; Todd B. Vinzant; Nathan R. Neale; Arthur J. Frank

    2007-01-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average

  3. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ?O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. PMID:25497036

  4. WO3/TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the nanotubes. SEM images show that these materials have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes, and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work indicate that the unique structure and composition of these composite materials enhance the charge carrier transport and optical properties compared with the parent materials.

  5. Synthesis, photovoltaic performances and TD-DFT modeling of push-pull diacetylide platinum complexes in TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Sébastien; Caro, Bertrand; Robin-Le Guen, Françoise; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A; Wojcik, Laurianne; Le Poul, Nicolas; Planchat, Aurélien; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Jacquemin, Denis; Odobel, Fabrice

    2014-08-01

    In this joint experimental-theoretical work, we present the synthesis and optical and electrochemical characterization of five new bis-acetylide platinum complex dyes end capped with diphenylpyranylidene moieties, as well as their performances in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Theoretical calculations relying on Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and a range-separated hybrid show a very good match with experimental data and allow us to quantify the charge-transfer character of each compound. The photoconversion efficiency obtained reaches 4.7% for 8e (see TOC Graphic) with the tri-thiophene segment, which is among the highest efficiencies reported for platinum complexes in DSCs. PMID:24837848

  6. A Convenient Route to High Area, Nanoparticulate TiO2 Photoelectrodes Suitable for High-Efficiency Energy Conversion in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, N.C.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol-soluble amphiphilic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) of average diameter ?9 nm were synthesized, and an ?-terpineol-based TiO{sub 2} paste was readily prepared from them in comparatively few steps. When used for fabrication of photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the paste yielded highly transparent films and possessing greater-than-typical, thickness-normalized surface areas. These film properties enabled the corresponding DSSCs to produce high photocurrent densities (17.7 mA cm{sup ?2}) and a comparatively high overall light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (9.6%) when deployed with the well-known ruthenium-based molecular dye, N719. These efficiencies are about ?1.4 times greater than those obtained from DSSCs containing photoelectrodes derived from a standard commercial source of TiO{sub 2} paste.

  7. Pt-incorporated anatase TiO2(001) surface for solar cell applications: First-principles density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mete, E.; Uner, D.; Gülseren, O.; Ellialt?o?lu, ?.

    2009-03-01

    First-principles density functional theory calculations were carried out to determine the low energy geometries of anatase TiO2(001) with Pt implants in the sublayers as substitutional and interstitial impurities as well as on the surface in the form of adsorbates. We investigated the effect of such a systematic Pt incorporation in the electronic structure of this surface for isolated and interacting impurities with an emphasis on the reduction in the band gap to visible region. Comprehensive calculations, for 1×1 surface, showed that Pt ions at interstitial cavities result in local segregation, forming metallic wires inside, while substitution for bulk Ti and adsorption drives four strongly dispersed impurity states from valence bands up in the gap with a narrowing of ˜1.5eV . Hence, such a contiguous Pt incorporation drives anatase into infrared regime. Pt substitution for the surface Ti, on the other hand, metallizes the surface. Systematic trends for 2×2 surface revealed that Pt can be encapsulated inside to form stable structures as a result of strong Pt-O interactions as well as the adsorptional and substitutional cases. Dilute impurities considered for 2×2 surface models exhibit flatlike defect states driven from the valence bands narrowing the energy gap suitable to obtain visible-light responsive titania.

  8. Removing Structural Disorder from Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Reducing the Dimensionality of Transport and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, K.; Vinzant, T. B.; Neale, N. R.; Frank, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO{sub 2} NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO{sub 2} NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO{sub 2} drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects.

  9. Homogeneous Photosensitization of Complex TiO2 Nanostructures for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jingshan; Karuturi, Siva Krishna; Liu, Lijun; Su, Liap Tat; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 nanostructures-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells are under worldwide attentions as the method to generate clean energy. For these devices, narrow-bandgap semiconductor photosensitizers such as CdS and CdSe are commonly used to couple with TiO2 in order to harvest the visible sunlight and to enhance the conversion efficiency. Conventional methods for depositing the photosensitizers on TiO2 such as dip coating, electrochemical deposition and chemical-vapor-deposition suffer from poor control in thickness and uniformity, and correspond to low photocurrent levels. Here we demonstrate a new method based on atomic layer deposition and ion exchange reaction (ALDIER) to achieve a highly controllable and homogeneous coating of sensitizer particles on arbitrary TiO2 substrates. PEC tests made to CdSe-sensitized TiO2 inverse opal photoanodes result in a drastically improved photocurrent level, up to ~15.7 mA/cm2 at zero bias (vs Ag/AgCl), more than double that by conventional techniques such as successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. PMID:22693653

  10. Significantly accelerated osteoblast cell growth on aligned TiO2 nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seunghan Oh; Chiara Daraio; Li-Han Chen; Thomas R. Pisanic; Rita R. Fiñones; Sungho Jin

    2006-01-01

    Vertically aligned yet laterally spaced nanoscale TiO2 nanotubes have been grown on Ti by anodization, and the growth of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells on such nanotubes has been investigated. The adhesion\\/propagation of the osteoblast is substantially improved by the topography of the TiO2 nanotubes with the filopodia of growing cells ac- tually going into the nanotube pores, producing an inter- locked

  11. A facile method to prepare SnO2 nanotubes for use in efficient SnO2-TiO2 core-shell dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caitian; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Bingan; Chen, Lulu; Wang, Youqing; Teng, Feng; Wang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2012-06-01

    A high-efficiency photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should combine the advantageous features of fast electron transport, slow interfacial electron recombination and large specific surface area. However, these three requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. Here we report a simple procedure to combine the three conflicting requirements by using porous SnO(2) nanotube-TiO(2) (SnO(2) NT-TiO(2)) core-shell structured photoanodes for DSSCs. The SnO(2) nanotubes are prepared by electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/tin dichloride dihydrate (SnCl(2)·2H(2)O) solution followed by direct sintering of the as-spun nanofibers. A possible evolution mechanism is proposed. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of the SnO(2) NT-TiO(2) core-shell structured DSSCs (?5.11%) is above five times higher than that of SnO(2) nanotube (SnO(2) NT) DSSCs (?0.99%). This PCE value is also higher than that of TiO(2) nanoparticles (P25) DSSCs (?4.82%), even though the amount of dye molecules adsorbed to the SnO(2) NT-TiO(2) photoanode is less than half of that in the P25 film. This simple procedure provides a new approach to achieve the three conflicting requirements simultaneously, which has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to obtain high-efficiency DSSCs. PMID:22572999

  12. TiO2 nanorod arrays functionalized with In2S3 shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Qiu, Jijun; Zhuge, Fuwei

    2011-07-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO2-In2S3 core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In2S3 shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In2S3 nanoshells on the surface of TiO2 nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In2S3 shell and TiO2 core. Results show that the thickness of In2S3 shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO2-In2S3 core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (Isc) of 2.40 mA cm - 2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency (?) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In2S3 coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO2-In2S3 core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells.

  13. TiO2 nanorod arrays functionalized with In2S3 shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Qiu, Jijun; Zhuge, Fuwei

    2011-07-29

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO(2)-In(2)S(3) core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO(2) nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In(2)S(3) shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In(2)S(3) nanoshells on the surface of TiO(2) nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In(2)S(3) shell and TiO(2) core. Results show that the thickness of In(2)S(3) shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO(2)-In(2)S(3) core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (I(sc)) of 2.40 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency (?) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In(2)S(3) coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO(2)-In(2)S(3) core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells. PMID:21697580

  14. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Delgado, N A; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Maya-Treviño, L; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Guzman-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol-gel method with two different percentages of WO3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO2 was also prepared by sol-gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DRUV-vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSABET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO3/TiO2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO3/TiO2) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO2. The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO3/TiO2, respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO3/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO3/TiO2 and bare TiO2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO3/TiO2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability. PMID:23993423

  15. UV-switchable polyoxometalate sandwiched between TiO2 and metal nanoparticles for enhanced visible and solar light photococatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew; Bhargava, Suresh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2011-08-01

    To improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO(2)-based nanomaterials, we demonstrate a facile, generalized, highly localized reduction approach to the decoration of TiO(2)-polyoxometalate composites with a range of metal nanoparticles including Cu, Ag, Pt, and Au. The synthesis of nanocomposite photococatalysts reported in this study has been achieved by utilizing the unique ability of the TiO(2)-bound PTA (phosphotungstic acid) molecules (a polyoxometalate, POM) to act as a highly localized UV-switchable reducing agent that specifically reduces metal ions to their nanoparticulate forms directly and only onto the TiO(2) surface. This leads to the metal contaminant-free synthesis of TiO(2)-PTA-metal nanocomposites, which is a significant advantage of the proposed approach. The study further demonstrates that polyoxometalates are regenerable photoactive molecules with outstanding electron-transfer ability and the deposition of metal nanoparticles on the TiO(2)-PTA cocatalytic surface can have a dramatic effect on increasing the overall photocatalytic performance of the composite system. Moreover, it is observed that the photococatalytic performance of the TiO(2)-PTA-metal nanoparticles can be fine tuned by choosing the composition of metal nanoparticles in the nanocomposite. Interestingly, the photococatalysts reported here are found to be active under visible and simulated solar-light conditions. The underlying reaction mechanism for enhanced solar-light photococatalysis has been proposed. PMID:21711019

  16. Treatment of wastewater containing Cu(II)-EDTA using immobilized TiO2/solar light.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Lee, Nae-Hyun; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2007-02-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of Cu(II)-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), employing immobilized TiO2, under natural sunlight rather than artificial UV light conditions, was investigated at a latitude 38 degrees. The immobilized TiO2 film was prepared using a sol gel process, the crystalline structure of which was identified, by X-ray diffraction analysis, as a mixture of the rutile and anatase forms. The PCO of Cu(II)-EDTA was examined in a circulating reactor with 20 L of 10(-4) M Cu(II)-EDTA and synthetic and real wastewaters at pH 4 and 6.5, respectively. The removals of both Cu(II) and DOC were initially relatively rapid, but slowed as the reaction proceeded and generally followed first-order kinetics. The rate constants for the removal of Cu(II) and DOC were 1.1 x 10(-3) and 1.6 x 10(-3) min-1, respectively. The efficiency of the PCO in the decomplexation of Cu(II)-EDTA increased with increasing H2O2 dose using both the synthetic and real wastewaters. Therefore, we suggest the PCO process using the solar/immobilized TiO2 system, with addition of H2O2 as well as filtration for the removal of suspended solids, can be effectively applied to the treatment of Cu(II)-EDTA containing real wastewater. PMID:17182387

  17. Solar photocatalytic degradation of azo dye: comparison of photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO and TiO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sakthivel; B. Neppolian; M. V. Shankar; B. Arabindoo; M. Palanichamy; V. Murugesan

    2003-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of commercial ZnO powder has been investigated and compared with that of Degussa P25 TiO2. Laboratory experiments with acid brown 14 as the model pollutant have been carried out to evaluate the performance of both ZnO and TiO2 catalysts. Solar light was used as the energy source for the photocatalytic experiments. These catalysts were examined for surface

  18. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from a Coumarin NKX-2700 Dye-Sensitized TiO2/MgO Core-Shell Photoanode with an HfO2 Blocking Layer and a Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, D.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated from a coumarin NKX-2700 dye-sensitized core-shell photoanode and a quasi-solid-state electrolyte, sandwiched together, with a cobalt sulfide-coated counter electrode. The core-shell photoanode consisted of a composite mixture of 90% TiO2 nanoparticles and 10% TiO2 nanowires (TNPW) as core layer and MgO nanoparticles (MNP) as shell layer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was applied to the core-shell photoanode film as a blocking layer. TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanowires, and TNPW/MNP were characterized by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was apparent from the UV-visible spectrum of the sensitizing dye coumarin NKX-2700 that its absorption was maximum at 525 nm. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) was greater for DSSC-1, fabricated with a core-shell TNPW/MNP/HfO2 photoanode, than for the other DSSC; its photovoltaic properties were: short circuit photocurrent J sc = 19 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage ( V oc) = 720 mV, fill factor ( FF) = 66%, and PCE ( ?) = 9.02%. The charge-transport and charge-recombination behavior of the DSSC were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the results showed that the composite core-shell film resulted in the lowest charge-transfer resistance ( R CE) and the longest electron lifetime ( ? eff). Hence, the improved performance of DSSC-1 could be ascribed to the core-shell photoanode with blocking layer, which increased electron transport and suppressed recombination of charge carriers at the photoanode/dye/electrolyte interface.

  19. Improved attachment of mesenchymal stem cells on super-hydrophobic TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian; Park, Jung; von der Mark, Klaus; Schmuki, Patrik

    2008-09-01

    Self-organized layers of vertically orientated TiO(2) nanotubes providing defined diameters ranging from 15 up to 100nm were grown on titanium by anodic oxidation. These TiO(2) nanotube layers show super-hydrophilic behavior. After coating TiO(2) nanotube layers with a self-assembled monolayer (octadecylphosphonic acid) they showed a diameter-dependent wetting behavior ranging from hydrophobic (108+/-2 degrees ) up to super-hydrophobic (167+/-2 degrees ). Cell adhesion, spreading and growth of mesenchymal stem cells on the unmodified and modified nanotube layers were investigated and compared. We show that cell adhesion and proliferation are strongly affected in the super-hydrophobic range. Adsorption of extracellular matrix proteins as fibronectin, type I collagen and laminin, as well as bovine serum albumin, on the coated and uncoated surfaces showed a strong influence on wetting behavior and dependence on tube diameter. PMID:18485845

  20. Photodegradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange over one-dimensional TiO2 catalysts under simulated solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Changsheng; Xu, Jian; He, Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yuqiu

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, two one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanostructures, nanotube and nanowire were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using Degussa P25 TiO2 as a precursor. The synthesized anatase TiO2 nanotubes with the diameters of 10-20 nm and length of several hundred nanometers were formed from P25 and NaOH with the hydrothermal treatment temperature at 150 °C, and anatase TiO2 nanowires with the diameters of 10-40 nm and length up to several micrometers were prepared at 180 °C. The photocatalytic activity of the two nanostructures was evaluated by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions under simulated solar light irradiation. The results suggested that the TiO2 nanocatalysts displayed higher degradation activity compared to P25. For RhB, 98.9% and 91.9% of RhB were removed by nanotubes and nanowires, respectively after 60 min irradiation in comparison to the 81.8% removal by P25. Similar trend was observed for MO, with the removal percentage of 95.6%, 88.3% and 74.9%, respectively by TiO2 nanotubes, nanowires and P25. Meanwhile, RhB and MO showed different photodegradation rates in nanotubes and nanowires suspensions, probably due to the morphology and crystal structure of the TiO2 nanocatalysts which play important roles in the degradation activity of the catalysts.

  1. Understanding the solar photo-catalytic activity of TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite deposited on low cost substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorfi, H.; Zayani, G.; Saadoun, M.; Bousselmi, L.; Bessaïs, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on the photo-catalytic properties of TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite deposited on low cost conventional clay ceramic substrates. The nanocomposite was formed by spraying a solution prepared from the P25 TiO 2 powder (Degussa) mixed with an organometallic paste of a dissolved combination of indium and tin. A TiO 2-ITO powder-like nanocomposite was prepared for X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The mean particle size of the TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite was found to be larger than that of pure TiO 2. The optical features of TiO 2-ITO-based layers (deposited on glass substrates) were investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite deposited layers were found to have higher light absorption than the P25 TiO 2 powder. The photo-catalytic properties of the TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite (deposited on low cost clay ceramic substrates) were tested under solar irradiation using a well-known polluting dye. It was shown that the TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite exhibits higher degradation rates towards the pollutant dye than the P25 TiO 2 powder. The optical band gap of the TiO 2-ITO nanocomposite (2.79 eV) was found to be lower than that of pure TiO 2 (3.1 eV), while ITO (indium tin oxide) has a band gap of about 4.2 eV. ITO was found to be entirely transparent to sun light, while it exhibits a slight photo-catalytic activity, signifying the possible existence of an indirect photo-catalysis phenomenon (sensitized semiconductor photocalysis) and potential degradation (oxidation) of the pollutant through electron transfer from the dye to conduction band of the semiconductor. All photo-catalytic activity results were discussed in light of the optical band gap of the various compounds.

  2. Pt deposited TiO2 catalyst fabricated by thermal decomposition of titanium complex for solar hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Le, Thanh Son; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2014-12-01

    C, N codoped TiO2 catalyst has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of a novel water-soluble titanium complex. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of the synthesized TiO2 catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the Pt deposited TiO2 catalysts synthesized at different temperatures was evaluated by means of hydrogen evolution reaction under both UV-vis and visible light irradiation. The investigation results reveal that the photocatalytic H2 evolution rate strongly depended on the crystalline grain size as well as specific surface area of the synthesized catalyst. Our studies successfully demonstrate a simple method for the synthesis of visible-light responsive Pt deposited TiO2 catalyst for solar hydrogen production.

  3. WO3-enhanced TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gil, Karla R; Robinson, David B

    2013-12-11

    Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures with optimal properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized, and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil and used as substrates for WO3 electrodeposition. The WO3 electrodeposition parameters were controlled to develop unique WO3 nanostructures with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nanomaterials with optimal photocurrent density have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external tubular nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for tubular WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work showed that the unique structure and composition of these composite WO3/TiO2 materials enhance the IPCE efficiencies, optical properties, and photodegradation performance compared with the parent materials. PMID:24195676

  4. Nanometer-thin TiO2 enhances skeletal muscle cell phenotype and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Ken; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Iwasa, Fuminori; Minamikawa, Hajime; Ueno, Takeshi; Yamada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The independent role of the surface chemistry of titanium in determining its biological properties is yet to be determined. Although titanium implants are often in contact with muscle tissue, the interaction of muscle cells with titanium is largely unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that the surface chemistry of clinically established microroughened titanium surfaces could be controllably varied by coating with a minimally thin layer of TiO2 (ideally pico-to-nanometer in thickness) without altering the existing topographical and roughness features, and that the change in superficial chemistry of titanium is effective in improving the biological properties of titanium. Methods and results Acid-etched microroughened titanium surfaces were coated with TiO2 using slow-rate sputter deposition of molten TiO2 nanoparticles. A TiO2 coating of 300 pm to 6.3 nm increased the surface oxygen on the titanium substrates in a controllable manner, but did not alter the existing microscale architecture and roughness of the substrates. Cells derived from rat skeletal muscles showed increased attachment, spread, adhesion strength, proliferation, gene expression, and collagen production at the initial and early stage of culture on 6.3 nm thick TiO2-coated microroughened titanium surfaces compared with uncoated titanium surfaces. Conclusion Using an exemplary slow-rate sputter deposition technique of molten TiO2 nanoparticles, this study demonstrated that titanium substrates, even with microscale roughness, can be sufficiently chemically modified to enhance their biological properties without altering the existing microscale morphology. The controllable and exclusive chemical modification technique presented in this study may open a new avenue for surface modifications of titanium-based biomaterials for better cell and tissue affinity and reaction. PMID:22114483

  5. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Sharmy Saimon; Kanehira, Koki; Sonezaki, Shuji; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are tiny materials used in a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a type of nanoparticle that is widely used in paints, pigments, and cosmetics; however, little is known about the impact of TiO2 on human health and the environment. Therefore, considerable research has focused on characterizing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles such as TiO2 and on understanding the mechanism of TiO2 NP-induced nanotoxicity through the evaluation of biomarkers. Uncoated TiO2 NPs tend to aggregate in aqueous media, and these aggregates decrease cell viability and induce expression of stress-related genes, such as those encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heat shock protein 70B’ (HSP70B’), indicating that TiO2 NPs induce inflammatory and heat shock responses. In order to reduce their toxicity, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to eliminate aggregation. Our findings indicate that modifying TiO2 NPs with PEG reduces their cytotoxicity and reduces the induction of stress-related genes. Our results also suggest that TiO2 NP-induced effects on cytotoxicity and gene expression vary depending upon the cell type and surface modification. PMID:22489177

  6. TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk material stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kathrin; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Geisler, Simon; Carriere, Marie; Gostner, Johanna M.; Schennach, Harald; Herlin, Nathalie; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly produced and used throughout recent years. Consequently the probability of exposure to nanoparticles has risen. Because of their small 1–100 nm size, the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials may differ from standard bulk materials and may pose a threat to human health. Only little is known about the effects of nanoparticles on the human immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk material in the in vitro model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cytokine-induced neopterin formation and tryptophan breakdown was monitored. Both biochemical processes are closely related to the course of diseases like infections, atherogenesis and neurodegeneration. OCTi60 (25 nm diameter) TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk material increased neopterin production in unstimulated PBMC and stimulated cells significantly, the effects were stronger for OCTi60 compared to bulk material, while P25 TiO2 (25 nm diameter) nanoparticles had only little influence. No effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on tryptophan breakdown was detected in unstimulated cells, whereas in stimulated cells, IDO activity and IFN-? production were suppressed but only at the highest concentrations tested. Because neopterin was stimulated and tryptophan breakdown was suppressed in parallel, data suggests that the total effect of particles would be strongly pro-inflammatory. PMID:24361406

  7. Solar-Energy-Driven Photoelectrochemical Biosensing Using TiO2 Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Li, Jun; Da, Peimei; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-08-01

    Photoelectrochemical sensing represents a unique means for chemical and biological detection, with foci of optimizing semiconductor composition and electronic structures, surface functionalization layers, and chemical detection methods. Here, we have briefly discussed our recent developments of TiO2 nanowire-based photoelectrochemical sensing, with particular emphasis on three main detection mechanisms and corresponding examples. We have also demonstrated the use of the photoelectrochemical sensing of real-time molecular reaction kinetic measurements, as well as direct interfacing of living cells and probing of cellular functions. PMID:25962650

  8. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells on silicon-doped TiO(2) film deposited by cathodic arc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Sun, Junying; Qian, Shi; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Shailin; Liu, Fei; Dong, Shengjie; Zha, Guochun

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed at the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells on silicon-doped TiO(2) and pure TiO(2) films prepared by cathodic arc deposition. The films were examined by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, which showed that silicon was successfully doped into the Si-TiO(2) film. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found between the surface morphology of silicon-doped TiO(2) and pure TiO(2) films. When osteoblastic cells were cultured on silicon-doped TiO(2) film, accelerated cell proliferation was observed. Furthermore, cell differentiation was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL I) and osteocalcin (OC) as differentiation markers. It was found that ALP activity, the expression levels of OC gene, COL I gene and protein were up-regulated on silicon-doped TiO(2) film at 3 and 5 days of culture. Moreover, no significant difference was found in apoptosis between the cells cultured on silicon-doped TiO(2) and pure TiO(2) films. Therefore, findings from this study indicate that silicon-doped film favors osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation, and has the potential for surface modification of implants in the future. PMID:23089479

  9. Nanoscale TiO2 and Fe2O3 Architectures for Solar Energy Conversion Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedach, Pavel Anatolyvich

    The direct conversion of sunlight into more useable forms of energy has the potential of alleviating the environmental and social problems associated with a dependence on fossil fuels. If solar energy is to be utilized en-masse, however, it must be inexpensive and widely available. In this vein, the focus of this thesis is on nanostructured materials relevant to solar energy conversion and storage. Specifically, this thesis describes the ambient sol-gel synthesis of titanium dioxide (Ti02) nanowires designed for enhanced charge-transfer in solar collection devices, and the synthesis of novel disordered metal-oxide (MOx) catalysts for water oxidation. The introductory chapter of this thesis gives an overview of the various approaches to solar energy conversion. Sol---gel reaction conditions that enable the growth of one-dimensional (1-D) anatase TiO2 nanostructures from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) for photovoltaics (PVs) are described in the second chapter. The generation of these linear nanostructures in the absence of an external bias or template is achieved by using facile experimental conditions (e.g., acetic acid (HOAc) and titanium isopropoxide (Ti(OiPr)4) in anhydrous heptane). The procedure was developed by functionalizing base-treated substrates with Ti-oxide nucleation sites that serve as a foundation for the growth of linear Ti-oxide macromolecules, which upon calcination, render uniform films of randomly oriented anatase TiO2 nanowires. A systematic evaluation of how reaction conditions (e.g., solvent volume, stoichiometry of reagents, substrate base treatment) affect the generation of these TiO 2 films is presented. A photo-organic MO. deposition route (i.e., photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD)) used to deposit thin-films of amorphous iron oxide (a-Fe2O3) for water oxidation catalysis is detailed in third chapter. It is shown that the irradiation of a spin-coated metal-organic film produces a film of non-crystalline a-Fe203. It is shown that annealing at various temperatures produces a-Fe 2O3 films with variable electronic properties and catalytic activities in the context of water oxidation. The study revealed that a-Fe2O3 are superior water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) relative to crystalline forms produced by high temperature annealing of the thin-films. This research has important implications in the conversion of sunlight into electricity, and then into hydrogen fuels.

  10. Improving the efficiency of ITO/nc-TiO2/CdS/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag inverted solar cells by sensitizing TiO2 nanocrystalline film with chemical bath-deposited CdS quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted organic solar cell (ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) is realized by depositing CdS quantum dots (QDs) on a nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) film as a light absorption material and an electron-selective material. The CdS QDs were deposited via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Our results show that the best PCE of 3.37% for the ITO/nc-TiO2/CdS/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag cell is about 1.13 times that (2.98%) of the cell without CdS QDs (i.e., ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag). The improved PCE can be mainly attributed to the increased light absorption and the reduced recombination of charge carriers from the TiO2 to the P3HT:PCBM film due to the introduced CdS QDs. PMID:24172258

  11. Improving the efficiency of ITO/nc-TiO2/CdS/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag inverted solar cells by sensitizing TiO2 nanocrystalline film with chemical bath-deposited CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chong; Li, Fumin

    2013-10-01

    An improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted organic solar cell (ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) is realized by depositing CdS quantum dots (QDs) on a nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) film as a light absorption material and an electron-selective material. The CdS QDs were deposited via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Our results show that the best PCE of 3.37% for the ITO/nc-TiO2/CdS/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag cell is about 1.13 times that (2.98%) of the cell without CdS QDs (i.e., ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag). The improved PCE can be mainly attributed to the increased light absorption and the reduced recombination of charge carriers from the TiO2 to the P3HT:PCBM film due to the introduced CdS QDs.

  12. Effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles on Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Alinovi, Rossella; Pinelli, Silvana; Passeri, Giovanni; Zavaroni, Ivana; Goldoni, Matteo; Campanini, Marco; Aliatis, Irene; Mutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Sparse evidence suggests a possible link between exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) and cardiovascular (CV) risk, perhaps through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. We assessed the effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which take part in vascular endothelium repair/replacement. Methods CACs were isolated from healthy donors’ buffy coats after culturing lymphomonocytes on fibronectin-coated dishes in endothelial medium for 7 days. CACs were pre-incubated with increasing concentration of TiO2 and Co3O4 (from 1 to 100 ?g/ml) to test the effects of NP – characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy – on CAC viability, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), function (fibronectin adhesion assay), oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Neither oxidative stress nor cell death were associated with exposure to TiO2 NP (except at the highest concentration tested), which, however, induced a higher pro-inflammatory effect compared to Co3O4 NPs (p<0.01). Exposure to Co3O4 NPs significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.01) and increased caspase activity (p<0.01), lipid peroxidation end-products (p<0.05) and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 or lower). Notably, CAC functional activity was impaired after exposure to both TiO2 (p<0.05 or lower) and Co3O4 (p<0.01) NPs. Conclusions In vitro exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs exerts detrimental effects on CAC viability and function, possibly mediated by accelerated apoptosis, increased oxidant stress (Co3O4 NPs only) and enhancement of inflammatory pathways (both TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs). Such adverse effects may be relevant for a potential role of exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in enhancing CV risk in humans. PMID:25803285

  13. Remediation of 17-?-ethinylestradiol aqueous solution by photocatalysis and electrochemically-assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 electrodes irradiated by a solar simulator.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Haroldo G; Ferreira, Leticia H; Bertazzoli, Rodnei; Longo, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 electrodes, irradiated by a solar simulator in configurations for heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) and electrochemically-assisted HP (EHP), were used to remediate aqueous solutions containing 10 mg L(-1) (34 ?mol L(-1)) of 17-?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), active component of most oral contraceptives. The photocatalysts consisted of 4.5 ?m thick porous films of TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 (molar ratio W/Ti of 12%) deposited on transparent electrodes from aqueous suspensions of TiO2 particles and WO3 precursors, followed by thermal treatment at 450 (°)C. First, an energy diagram was organized with photoelectrochemical and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy data and revealed that EE2 could be directly oxidized by the photogenerated holes at the semiconductor surfaces, considering the relative HOMO level for EE2 and the semiconductor valence band edges. Also, for the irradiated hybrid photocatalyst, electrons in TiO2 should be transferred to WO3 conduction band, while holes move toward TiO2 valence band, improving charge separation. The remediated EE2 solutions were analyzed by fluorescence, HPLC and total organic carbon measurements. As expected from the energy diagram, both photocatalysts promoted the EE2 oxidation in HP configuration; after 4 h, the EE2 concentration decayed to 6.2 mg L(-1) (35% of EE2 removal) with irradiated TiO2 while TiO2/WO3 electrode resulted in 45% EE2 removal. A higher performance was achieved in EHP systems, when a Pt wire was introduced as a counter-electrode and the photoelectrodes were biased at +0.7 V; then, the EE2 removal corresponded to 48 and 54% for the TiO2 and TiO2/WO3, respectively. The hybrid TiO2/WO3, when compared to TiO2 electrode, exhibited enhanced sunlight harvesting and improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in higher performance for removing this contaminant of emerging concern from aqueous solution. PMID:25238917

  14. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles Induce JB6 Cell Apoptosis Through Activation of the Caspase8\\/Bid and Mitochondrial Pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinshun Zhao; Linda Bowman; Xingdong Zhang; Val Vallyathan; Shih-Houng Young; Vincent Castranova; Min Ding

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a commercially important material, is used in a wide variety of products. Although TiO2 is generally regarded as nontoxic, the cytotoxicity, pathogenicity, and carcinogenicity of TiO2 nanoparticles have been recently recognized. The present study investigated TiO2 nanoparticle-induced cell apoptosis and molecular mechanisms involved in this process in a mouse epidermal (JB6) cell line. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium

  15. Enhanced Energy Conversion Efficiency of the Sr2+-Modified Nanoporous TiO2 Electrode Sensitized

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    efficiency achieved with dye-sensitized solar cells may be attributed to the nanoporous TiO2 electrode.3 photon to current efficiency of a solar cell based on the dye Ru[LL(NCS)2] (L ) 2,2-bipyridine-4 cell based on dye-sensitized nanoporous TiO2 thin film electrode, and power conversion efficiency

  16. Modulating the interaction between gold and TiO2 nanowires for enhanced solar driven photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Sudhagar, P; Song, Taeseup; Devadoss, Anitha; Lee, Jung Woo; Haro, Marta; Terashima, Chiaki; Lysak, Volodymyr V; Bisquert, Juan; Fujishima, Akira; Gimenez, Sixto; Paik, Ungyu

    2015-07-15

    The interaction strength of Au nanoparticles with pristine and nitrogen doped TiO2 nanowire surfaces was analysed using density functional theory and their significance in enhancing the solar driven photoelectrocatalytic properties was elucidated. In this article, we prepared 4-dimethylaminopyridine capped Au nanoparticle decorated TiO2 nanowire systems. The density functional theory calculations show {101} facets of TiO2 as the preferred phase for dimethylaminopyridine-Au nanoparticles anchoring with a binding energy of -8.282 kcal mol(-1). Besides, the interaction strength of Au nanoparticles was enhanced nearly four-fold (-35.559 kcal mol(-1)) at {101} facets via nitrogen doping, which indeed amplified the Au nanoparticle density on nitrided TiO2. The Au coated nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2-Au) hybrid electrodes show higher absorbance owing to the light scattering effect of Au nanoparticles. In addition, N-TiO2-Au hybrid electrodes block the charge leakage from the electrode to the electrolyte and thus reduce the charge recombination at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Despite the beneficial band narrowing effect of nitrogen in TiO2 on the electrochemical and visible light activity in N-TiO2-Au hybrid electrodes, it results in low photocurrent generation at higher Au NP loading (3.4 × 10(-7) M) due to light blocking the N-TiO2 surface. Strikingly, even with a ten-fold lower Au NP loading (0.34 × 10(-7) M), the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping and Au NPs on the N-TiO2-Au hybrid system yield high photocurrent compared to TiO2 and TiO2-Au electrodes. As a result, the N-TiO2-Au electrode produces nearly 270 ?mol h(-1) cm(-2) hydrogen, which is nearly two-fold higher than the pristine TiO2 counterpart. The implications of these findings for the design of efficient hybrid photoelectrocatalytic electrodes are discussed. PMID:26143888

  17. Correlation between dispersion properties of TiO2 colloidal sols and photoelectric characteristics of TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jin Young; Hong, Kug Sun; Lee, Young Cheol; Ko, Kyung Hyun

    2004-11-15

    TiO2 film for use as dye-sensitized solar cell was prepared using the TiO2 colloidal sols (unpeptized sol and peptized sol). The optical properties and photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the resultant films were investigated. The optical transmittance of TiO2 thin film prepared from the peptized colloidal sol was over 90%, while that of TiO2 film from the unpeptized sol was under 80%. The TiO2 photoelectrode prepared from the peptized colloidal sol showed low photoelectric conversion efficiency (eta), 1.30%, whereas the efficiency of photoelectrode from the unpeptized sol was 2.21%. The high optical transmittance and low conversion efficiency of TiO2 film from the peptized sol are discussed in terms of dense microstructure due to the drying nature of well-dispersed colloidal sol. PMID:15464814

  18. Modeling the reactive sputter deposition of N-doped TiO2 for application in dye-sensitized solar cells: Effect of the O2 flow rate on the substitutional N concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, D. A.; Sagás, J. C.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Massi, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper an original numerical model, based on the standard Berg model, was used to simulate the growth mechanism of N-doped TiO2 deposited at different O2 concentrations in the reactive gas mixture. For evaluation of the numerical model, films were deposited in the same conditions as those used in the numerical approach. Films were analyzed by profilometry, optical spectrophotometry, Rutherford back-scattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that oxidation of TiN plays a fundamental role for incorporation of substitutional N in the TiO2 lattice and the overall structure of the films, as well as, the chemical composition obtained from numerical model is in agreement to experimental data.

  19. Bifunctional TiO2 Catalysts for Efficient Cr(VI) Photoreduction Under Solar Light Irradiation Without Addition of Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fu-cheng; Wang, Wen-dong; Huang, Wei-xin

    2012-04-01

    Bifunctional TiO2 photocatalysts co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur were prepared by the controlled thermal decomposition of ammonium titanyl sulfate precursor. They have both photocatalytic activity and Brønsted acidity, and thus are active in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) under solar light irradiation without the addition of acids. The activity is superior to that of Degussa P25 in the acidified suspension at the same pH adjusted by H2SO4.

  20. Aperiodic TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal: Full-Visible-Spectrum Solar Light Harvesting in Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25245854

  1. Aperiodic TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal: full-visible-spectrum solar light harvesting in photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25245854

  2. Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Rodriguez, L; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Oller, I; Agüera, A; Li Puma, G; Malato, S

    2012-04-15

    The optimal photocatalyst concentration for industrial wastewater treatment in current photoreactor designs is several hundreds of milligrams per liter. However, the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs), which are present at extremely low concentrations in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents might be accomplished at much lower catalyst (TiO(2)) concentrations. One of the main drawbacks of reducing catalyst loading below the optimum is the loss of useful photons which instead are transmitted through the TiO(2) suspension without being absorbed by the catalyst. Accordingly, in this work, laboratory and solar pilot-scale experiments were performed with real WWTP effluents to evaluate the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of 52 emerging contaminants under realistic (ppb) concentrations. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In view of the results, low concentrations of TiO(2) of the order of tens of milligrams per liter were found to be insufficient for the degradation of the ECs in photoreactors with a short light-path length (29 cm). However, it was established that solar reactors of diameters of several hundreds of millimetres could be used for the efficient removal of ECs from WWTP effluents. The results presented show a general methodology for selecting the most efficient reactor diameter on the basis of the desired catalyst concentration. PMID:21943922

  3. TiO2 nanoparticles induce DNA double strand breaks and cell cycle arrest in human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Krupa; Patel, Pal; Shah, Darshini; Shukla, Ritesh K; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have the second highest global annual production (?3000 tons) among the metal-containing NPs. These NPs are used as photocatalysts for bacterial disinfection, and in various other consumer products including sunscreen, food packaging, therapeutics, biosensors, surface cleaning agents, and others. Humans are exposed to these NPs during synthesis (laboratory), manufacture (industry), and use (consumer products, devices, medicines, etc.), as well as through environmental exposures (disposal). Hence, there is great concern regarding the health effects caused by exposure to NPs and, in particular, to TiO2 NPs. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs in A549 cells was examined, focusing on their potential to induce ROS, different types of DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest. We show that TiO2 NPs can induce DNA damage and a corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency, as evident from the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays. We demonstrate that DNA damage may be attributed to increased oxidative stress and ROS generation. Furthermore, genomic and proteomic analyses showed increased expression of ATM, P53, and CdC-2 and decreased expression of ATR, H2AX, and Cyclin B1 in A549 cells, suggesting induction of DNA double strand breaks. The occurrence of double strand breaks was correlated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Overall, the results indicate the potential for genotoxicity following exposure to these TiO2 NPs, suggesting that use should be carefully monitored. PMID:25524809

  4. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  5. Europium Doped TiO2 Hollow Nanoshells: Two-Photon Imaging of Cell Binding

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Sergio; Yang, Jian; Alfaro, Jesus G.; Liberman, Alexander; Makale, Milan; Chiang, Casey E.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2012-01-01

    A simple scalable method to fabricate luminescent monodisperse 200 nm europium doped hollow TiO2 nanoshell particles is reported. Fluorophore reporter, Eu3+ ions, are incorporated directly in the NS matrix, leaving the surface free for functionalization and the core free for payload encapsulation. Amine functionalized polystyrene beads were used as templates, and the porous walls of europium doped titania nanoshells were synthesized using titanium(IV) t-butoxide and europium(III) nitrate as reactants. X-ray diffraction analysis identified anatase as the predominant titania phase of the rigid nanoshell wall structure, and photoluminescence spectra showed that the Eu(III) doped TiO2 nanoshells exhibited a red emission at 617 nm due to an atomic f-f transition. Nanoshell interactions with HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro were visualized using two-photon microscopy of the Eu(III) emission, and studied using a luminescence ratio analysis to assess nanoshell adhesion and endocytosis. PMID:23185106

  6. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  7. A mixture of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles induces histamine secretion in mast cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Histamine released from mast cells, through complex interactions involving the binding of IgE to Fc?RI receptors and the subsequent intracellular Ca2+ signaling, can mediate many allergic/inflammatory responses. The possibility of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a nanomaterial pervasively used in nanotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, to directly induce histamine secretion without prior allergen sensitization has remained uncertain. Results TiO2 NP exposure increased both histamine secretion and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]C) in a dose dependent manner in rat RBL-2H3 mast cells. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels resulted primarily from an extracellular Ca2+ influx via membrane L-type Ca2+ channels. Unspecific Ca2+ entry via TiO2 NP-instigated membrane disruption was demonstrated with the intracellular leakage of a fluorescent calcein dye. Oxidative stress induced by TiO2 NPs also contributed to cytosolic Ca2+ signaling. The PLC-IP3-IP3 receptor pathways and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were responsible for the sustained elevation of [Ca2+]C and histamine secretion. Conclusion Our data suggests that systemic circulation of NPs may prompt histamine release at different locales causing abnormal inflammatory diseases. This study provides a novel mechanistic link between environmental TiO2 NP exposure and allergen-independent histamine release that can exacerbate manifestations of multiple allergic responses. PMID:22260553

  8. Structure, Synthesis, and Applications of TiO2 Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Cabot, Andreu; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 semiconductor nanobelts have unique structural and functional properties, which lead to great potential in many fields, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, energy storage, gas sensors, biosensors, and even biomaterials. A review of synthetic methods, properties, surface modification, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts is presented here. The structural features and basic properties of TiO2 nanobelts are systematically discussed, with the many applications of TiO2 nanobelts in the fields of photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, biosensors, and lithium-ion batteries then introduced. Research efforts that aim to overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of TiO2 nanobelts are also highlighted. These efforts are focused on the rational design and modification of TiO2 nanobelts by doping with heteroatoms and/or forming surface heterostructures, to improve their desirable properties. Subsequently, the various types of surface heterostructures obtained by coupling TiO2 nanobelts with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, chalcogenides, and conducting polymers are described. Further, the charge separation and electron transfer at the interfaces of these heterostructures are also discussed. These properties are related to improved sensitivity and selectivity for specific gases and biomolecules, as well as enhanced UV and visible light photocatalytic properties. The progress in developments of near-infrared-active photocatalysts based on TiO2 nanobelts is also highlighted. Finally, an outline of important directions of future research into the synthesis, modification, and applications of this unique material is given. PMID:25800706

  9. Improved attachment of mesenchymal stem cells on super-hydrophobic TiO2 nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Bauer; Jung Park; Klaus von der Mark; Patrik Schmuki

    2008-01-01

    Self-organized layers of vertically orientated TiO2 nanotubes providing defined diameters ranging from 15 up to 100 nm were grown on titanium by anodic oxidation. These TiO2 nanotube layers show super-hydrophilic behavior. After coating TiO2 nanotube layers with a self-assembled monolayer (octadecylphosphonic acid) they showed a diameter-dependent wetting behavior ranging from hydrophobic (108 ± 2°) up to super-hydrophobic (167 ± 2°).

  10. Hunting for the elusive shallow traps in TiO2 anatase.

    PubMed

    Antila, Liisa J; Santomauro, Fabio G; Hammarström, Leif; Fernandes, Daniel L A; Sá, Jacinto

    2015-06-23

    Understanding electron mobility on TiO2 is crucial because of its applications in photocatalysis and solar cells. This work shows that shallow traps believed to be involved in electron migration in TiO2 conduction band are formed upon band gap excitation, i.e., are not pre-existing states. The shallow traps in TiO2 results from large polarons and are not restricted to surface. PMID:26060844

  11. Preparation of Thin Films of TiO2 Nanoparticles using Electrophoresis Deposition Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuatsu Ito; Yuuki Sato; Motonari Adachi; Shinzo Yoshikado

    2009-01-01

    TiO2-thin-films have remarkable properties as a photocatalyst to resolve organic pollutants and an electron transporter with high energy transformation efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells. For these applications, it is required that thin film has no apparent cracks or has high optical transparency. In this study, TiO2-nanoparticles are synthesized and are deposited using the electrophoresis deposition method. TiO2-nanoparticles can transport electrons

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of TiO2 Nanoparticle Thin Films using Electrophoresis Deposition Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Kawakami; Kazuatsu Ito; Yuuki Sato; Yasushige Mori; Motonari Adachi; Shinzo Yoshikado

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited by constant-current electrophoresis deposition in ethanol using colloid of various concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Thin films deposited in colloid of high concentration had the high density, no apparent cracks and the higher optical transparency. The eficiency of the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells was improved using thin film of TiO2 nanoparticle deposited in

  13. Improved photoelectrical performance of graphene supported highly crystallized anatase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Qiong; Zhao, Mei; Li, Yang; Liu, Qiuhong; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-05-01

    In this study, titanium oxysulfate (TiOSO4) and graphene were used as titanium source and supporter, respectively, to synthesize anatase TiO2-graphene (TiO2-G) composite. Crystal structure, morphology, and composition of TiO2-G were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and thermogravimetric analysis. Both TiO2-G and blank TiO2 powders exhibit spindle-shaped structure with the long axis along [001]. Compared to unsupported TiO2, TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly formed on graphene surface. When fabricated into dye-sensitized solar cells, photoelectrical conversion efficiency of TiO2-G (2.3 %) was much higher than that of blank TiO2 (0.89 %) prepared at the same conditions. Moreover, high sintering temperature enhanced photoelectrical performance of the composite. When the temperature was increased from 450 to 600 °C, the efficiency was improved from 1.5 to 2.6 %. The findings above demonstrate that TiO2-G has great potential for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Paronyan, Tereza M; Kechiantz, A M; Lin, M C

    2008-03-19

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO(2) electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO(2):F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO(2) nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO(2) film follows the dense packed thin TiO(2) film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO(2) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pH<1 and hydrothermal growth at a temperature of 200?°C. The acidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO(2) gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO(2) films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO(2) gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100  mWcm(-2) simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO(2) gel. PMID:21730548

  15. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Kechiantz, A. M.; Lin, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO2 electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO2:F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO2 nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO2 film follows the dense packed thin TiO2 film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pH<1 and hydrothermal growth at a temperature of 200 °C. The acidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO2 gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO2 films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO2 gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100 mWcm-2 simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO2 gel.

  16. Novel photoelectrochromic cells containing a polyaniline layer and a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 photovoltaic cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxiang Li; Jürgen Hagen; Dietrich Haarer

    1998-01-01

    We present a novel photoelectrochromic (PEC) cell containing a polyaniline layer and a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 layer. Electrochromic thin films of polyaniline layers have been prepared by electrochemical deposition and by spin-coating a dispersion of a polyaniline lacquer. The influences of the preparing parameters on the micromorphologies of the polyaniline layers were investigated. Under illumination of about one sunlight intensity,

  17. Artificial photochemical nitrogen cycle to produce nitrogen and hydrogen from ammonia by platinized TiO2 and its application to a photofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Gokan, N; Katakura, N; Takei, Y; Hoshino, M

    2005-03-28

    Photochemical artificial nitrogen cycle was reported to produce dinitrogen and dihydrogen by photodecomposing ammonia with platinized TiO2, and its application to a photofuel cell with a nanoporous TiO2 film electrode, a new concept of a fuel cell to photochemically produce electricity and H2 from ammonia, was proposed. PMID:15770281

  18. Nanoscale TiO2 nanotubes govern the biological behavior of human glioma and osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ang; Qin, Xiaofei; Wu, Anhua; Zhang, Hangzhou; Xu, Quan; Xing, Deguang; Yang, He; Qiu, Bo; Xue, Xiangxin; Zhang, Dongyong; Dong, Chenbo

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to their surroundings through an interactive adhesion process that has direct effects on cell proliferation and migration. This research was designed to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanotubes with different topographies and structures on the biological behavior of cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the nanotube diameter, rather than the crystalline structure of the coatings, was a major factor for the biological behavior of the cultured cells. The optimal diameter of the nanotubes was 20 nm for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation in both glioma and osteosarcoma cells. The expression levels of vitronectin and phosphor-focal adhesion kinase were affected by the nanotube diameter; therefore, it is proposed that the responses of vitronectin and phosphor-focal adhesion kinase to the nanotube could modulate cell fate. In addition, the geometry and size of the nanotube coating could regulate the degree of expression of acetylated ?-tubulin, thus indirectly modulating cell migration behavior. Moreover, the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were influenced by the topography. In conclusion, a nanotube diameter of 20 nm was the critical threshold that upregulated the expression level of Bcl-2 and obviously decreased the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3. This information will be useful for future biomedical and clinical applications. PMID:25848261

  19. A Facile Method for Synthesizing TiO2 Sea-Urchin-Like Structures and Their Applications in Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xing

    2011-07-01

    We present a new method to prepare TiO2 sea-urchin-like structures, which involves the initial formation of tubular nanostructures and subsequent self-assembly of the nanotubes into micrometer-scale sea-urchin-like structures. We also investigate the important role of alkali aqueous conditions in the preparation of TiO2 sea-urchin-like structures. This facile and cost-effective approach provides a new route for the preparation of self-assembled TiO2 structures. In addition, the performance of the as-synthesized TiO2 sea-urchin-like structures as the active layer of an efficient solar energy harvester is also studied and discussed.

  20. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and the hemolytic effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles on human erythrocyte and lymphocyte cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Manosij; Chakraborty, Anirban; Mukherjee, Anita

    2013-10-01

    With the increasing clinical use of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, a better understanding of their safety in the blood stream is required. The present study evaluates the toxic effect of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (~100 nm) using a battery of cytotoxic, genotoxic, hemolytic and morphological parameters. The cytotoxic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles in human lymphocyte cells were studied with respect to membrane damage, mitochondrial function, metabolic activity and lysosomal membrane stability. Genotoxicity in lymphocyte cells was quantitated using a comet assay. The mode of cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) was evaluated using PI/Annexin V staining. TiO2 nanoparticles were also evaluated for their hemolytic properties, osmotic fragility and interaction with hemoglobin. Human erythrocyte cells were studied for morphological alterations using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results suggest that the particles could induce a significant reduction in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in human lymphocyte cells. Membrane integrity remained unaffected by nanoparticle treatment. DNA damage and apoptosis were induced by TiO2 nanoparticles in a dose-dependent manner. A study on human erythrocyte cells revealed a hemolytic property of TiO2 nanoparticles characterized by spherocytosis and echinocytosis. Spectral analysis revealed a hemoglobin TiO2 nanoparticle interaction. Our in vitro study results suggest that commercially available blood contacting nanoparticles (TiO2 nanoparticle) should be carefully evaluated for their toxic potential. PMID:23616399

  1. Determination of electron and hole lifetimes of rutile and anatase TiO2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2012-09-01

    The dynamical behavior of photoexcited states of TiO2 governs the activities of TiO2-based solar cells and photocatalysts. We determined the lifetimes of photoexcited electrons and holes in rutile and anatase TiO2 single crystals by combining advantages of time-resolved photoluminescence, photoconductance, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Electrons and holes in rutile show exponential decays with the lifetime of a few tens of nanoseconds, while non-exponential decays are observed in anatase, indicating the presence of multiple carrier trapping processes. We revealed the generic features of the carrier recombination processes in rutile and anatase TiO2.

  2. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cell using novel tandem cell structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murayama; T. Mori

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new tandem cell structure for improving the short-circuit performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell. Two dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 films were placed face-to-face as electrodes. As a counter electrode, a platinum mesh sheet with transmittance was inserted between the electrodes. Two TiO2 anodes were connected in parallel with each other and in series with the Pt-mesh sheet

  4. Enhanced Optical Absorption Due to Symmetry Breaking in TiO2(1-x)S2x Alloys

    E-print Network

    of photovoltaics or photocatalysis, it is used in dye-sensitized solar cells3 and has great potential for water of the solar spectrum for photochemical applications, the optical absorption of TiO2 has to be extended were fully relaxed in density functional theory. Our study focuses on rutile TiO2 (space-group: P42/mnm

  5. Preparation, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, and solid state characteristics of In-incorporated TiO2 thin films for solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Waheed A.; El-Giar, Emad M.

    1991-12-01

    Pure and indium incorporated titanium dioxide thin films were prepared using the spray/CVD technique. The incorporation of foreign atoms in the oxide film affects both the photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical characteristics of the heterojunction n-Si/TiO2. The presence of In in the titanium oxide matrix up to a film thickness of 100 nm had no effect on the transmittance of the oxide in the visible region. The conductivity and bandgap energy were found to increase with In-incorporation. The increased conductivity of the indium-containing oxide films is reflected in the improved photovoltaic properties of the prepared n-Si/TiO2- In solar cells. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared photoanodes revealed that the charge transfer step at the oxide/electrolyte interface leads to the deterioration of the device quality. A model for the effect of indium incorporation on the band structure of the TiO2 semiconducting film was suggested.

  6. Seoul National UniversitySeoul National University http://bp.snu.ac.kr1 The Effect of TiCl4-Treated TiO2

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    TiO2 Compact Layer on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell #12;Seoul National UniversitySeoul National University http://bp.snu.ac.kr Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell 2 Schematic Diagram of the Electron Flow by the TiO2 compact layer. Electrolyte Hydrolysis of TiCl4 Solution Dye-Coated TiO2 Back Electron Transfere

  7. ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF TIO 2 DERIVED NANOBELTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cadavid; R. F. Egerton; M. Malac; M. S. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    TiO2-based nanostructures are considered good candidates for a number of applications in numerous fields as environmental decontamination, photocatalysis, electrocatalytic storage, solar cells, antibacterial agent, etc (1-3). These applications are based on their electronic properties and high surface area which need to be characterized. Titania derived nanobelts are sensitive to electron beam irradiation requiring to assess the conditions under which the

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells, from cell to module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songyuan Dai; Jian Weng; Yifeng Sui; Chengwu Shi; Yang Huang; Shuanhong Chen; Xu Pan; Xiaqin Fang; Linhua Hu; Fantai Kong; Kongjia Wang

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the detailed results of different particle-based and nanocrystalline TiO2 films prepared by sol–gel technology using precursors with different pH and autoclaving at different temperatures to produce dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The thickness of the TiO2 film in the DSC was optimized as well. The designs of DSC modules, using series and parallel connections, will be shown in

  9. Comparison of photocatalytic and transport properties of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructures for solar-driven water splitting.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Simelys; Hidalgo, Diana; Sacco, Adriano; Chiodoni, Angelica; Lamberti, Andrea; Cauda, Valentina; Tresso, Elena; Saracco, Guido

    2015-03-28

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been widely used as photo-catalysts due to their low-cost, high surface area, robustness, abundance and non-toxicity. In this work, four TiO2 and ZnO-based nanostructures, i.e. TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs), ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs) and ZnO@TiO2 core-shell structures, specifically prepared with a fixed thickness of about 1.5 ?m, are compared for the solar-driven water splitting reaction, under AM1.5G simulated sunlight. Complete characterization of these photo-electrodes in their structural and photo-electrochemical properties was carried out. Both TiO2 NPs and NTs showed photo-current saturation reaching 0.02 and 0.12 mA cm(-2), respectively, for potential values of about 0.3 and 0.6 V vs. RHE. In contrast, the ZnO NWs and the ZnO@TiO2 core-shell samples evidence a linear increase of the photocurrent with the applied potential, reaching 0.45 and 0.63 mA cm(-2) at 1.7 V vs. RHE, respectively. However, under concentrated light conditions, the TiO2 NTs demonstrate a higher increase of the performance with respect to the ZnO@TiO2 core-shells. Such material-dependent behaviours are discussed in relation with the different charge transport mechanisms and interfacial reaction kinetics, which were investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The role of key parameters such as electronic properties, specific surface area and photo-catalytic activity in the performance of these materials is discussed. Moreover, proper optimization strategies are analysed in view of increasing the efficiency of the best performing TiO2 and ZnO-based nanostructures, toward their practical application in a solar water splitting device. PMID:25715190

  10. Adhesion of osteoblast-like cell on silicon-doped TiO2 film prepared by cathodic arc deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Sun, Jun-Ying; Qian, Shi; Liu, Xuan-Yong; Zhang, Shai-Lin; Dong, Sheng-Jie; Zha, Guo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    Silicon-doped TiO2 (Si-TiO2) and pure TiO2 films were deposited on titanium substrates by cathodic arc deposition technique. The surface characteristics of the films, such as surface topography, elemental composition and wettability, were studied. About 4.6 % Si was incorporated into the Si-TiO2 films with a water contact angle of about 83°. The adhesive behaviors of osteoblast-like MG63 cells on both films were investigated through cell counting assay, immunocytochemistry, real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Cells cultured on the Si-TiO2 films had a greater cellular viability, stronger cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, and more cellular spreading than those on the pure TiO2 films. Moreover, the expression levels of integrin ?1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) genes, FAK and the phosphorylation of FAK proteins were up-regulated in cells cultured on the Si-TiO2 films. These results indicated that the Si-TiO2 films possess significantly enhanced cytocompatibility and provide potential solutions for the surface modification of implants in the future. PMID:23436126

  11. Preparation of TiO2 Thin Films by Electrophoresis Deposition Method in Highly Dispersed Colloidal Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Yamamoto; Masahiko Watanabe; Shinzo Yoshikado

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare high-quality TiO2 thin films suitable for dye-sensitized solar cells using the electrophoresis method. A high-quality TiO2 thin film without crack could be deposited by using highly dispersed colloidal solution of TiO2 fine particles. Highly dispersed colloidal solution was prepared using mechanical milling (MM). Two electrodes of electrophoresis were set perpendicular or parallel

  12. Functionalization of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes with Pd nanoparticles for photocatalytic decomposition of dyes under solar light illumination.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-10-01

    Self-organized, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method are functionalized with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm size. A simple incipient wetness method is adopted to distribute the Pd nanoparticles uniformly throughout the TiO2 nanotubular surface. This functionalized material is found to be an excellent heterogeneous photocatalyst that can decompose nonbiodegradable azo dyes (e.g., methyl red and methyl orange) rapidly (150-270 min) and efficiently (100%) under ambient conditions using simulated solar light in the absence of any external oxidative radicals such as hydrogen peroxide. PMID:18729485

  13. Sol-Gel-derived TiO 2 –SiO 2 implant coatings for direct tissue attachment. Part II: Evaluation of cell response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Areva; Virpi Ääritalo; Sari Tuusa; Mika Jokinen; Mika Lindén; Timo Peltola

    2007-01-01

    Silica-releasing sol-gel derived TiO2–SiO2 coatings with tailored nanostructure were evaluated in fibroblast and osteoblast cell cultures. The adhesion of both fibroblasts\\u000a and osteoblasts proceeded within two hours. The highest fibroblast proliferation activities were observed on the TiO2–SiO2 (70:30) and (30:70) coatings. However, the cell layer on TiO2–SiO2 (30:70) coating was disordered. Prolonged osteoblast activity was observed on the coatings as

  14. Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to mussel hemocytes and gill cells in vitro: Influence of synthesis method, crystalline structure, size and additive.

    PubMed

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Berhanu, Deborah; Howard, Kieren T; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Oron, Miriam; Reip, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2015-08-01

    Increasing the production and applications of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has led to grow concerns about the consequences for the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of a set of TiO2 NPs on the viability of mussel hemocytes and gill cells using neutral red and thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assays. For this, we compared the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs (0.1-100?mg Ti/L) produced by different techniques: rutile NPs (60?nm) produced by milling and containing disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (DSLS), rutile NPs (10, 40 and 60?nm) produced by wet chemistry and anatase/rutile NPs (?100?nm) produced by plasma synthesis. The commercially available P25 anatase/rutile NPs (10-20?nm) were also tested. Exposures were performed in parallel with their respective bulk forms and the cytotoxicity of the additive DSLS was also tested. Z potential values in distilled water indicated different stabilities depending on the NP type and all NPs tested formed agglomerates/aggregates in cell culture media. In general, TiO2 NPs showed a relatively low and dose-dependent toxicity for both cell models with the two assays tested. NPs produced by milling showed the highest effects, probably due to the toxicity of DSLS. Size-dependent toxicity was found for NPs produced by wet chemistry (10?nm?>?40?nm and 60?nm). All TiO2 NPs tested were more toxic than bulk forms excepting for plasma produced ones, which were the least toxic TiO2 tested. The mixture bulk anatase/rutile TiO2 was more toxic than bulk rutile TiO2. In conclusion, the toxicity of TiO2 NPs varied with the mode of synthesis, crystalline structure and size of NPs and can also be influenced by the presence of additives in the suspensions. PMID:25188678

  15. Multiscale Simulation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Considering Schottky Barrier Effect at Photoelectrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Onodera; Ryo Nagumo; Ryuji Miura; Ai Suzuki; Hideyuki Tsuboi; Nozomu Hatakeyama; Akira Endou; Hiromitsu Takaba; Momoji Kubo; Akira Miyamoto

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the TiO2\\/transparent conducting oxide (TCO) interface in a photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) on its cell performance was investigated using our multiscale simulator, in which we had added a calculation of the voltage loss derived from the Schottky barrier height (SBH) at the TiO2\\/TCO interface to our previous simulator. We treated the TiO2\\/TCO interface as

  16. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells using three-dimensionally interconnected TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sehwan; Koh, Joo Hwan; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2013-04-01

    Here we describe a simple sol-gel method to fabricate inverted organic photovoltaics (OPV) using interconnected TiO2 nanotubes (inter-TiO2 NT) as an efficient electron transport layer. Three-dimensionally inter-TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by spin-coating a TiO2 precursor solution on the ZnO nanorod (NR) template grown via the liquid phase deposition method. Upon etching of ZnO NRs, inter-TiO2 NT arrays were generated, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deeply infiltrated into the pores of inter-TiO2 NT, as revealed by FE-SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inter-TiO2 NT-based inverted OPV reached 3.0% at an air mass of 1.5 (100 mW/cm2), which is a 25% performance improvement compared to flat TiO2 films derived from the sol-gel process or commercial paste. The efficiency improvement arises from facilitated charge separation and collection due to the increased TiO2 interface arera and efficient transport pathway. PMID:23763138

  17. Effect of nanostructured TiO2 crystal phase on photoinduced apoptosis of breast cancer epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lagopati, Nefeli; Tsilibary, Effie-Photini; Falaras, Polycarpos; Papazafiri, Panagiota; Pavlatou, Evangelia A; Kotsopoulou, Eleni; Kitsiou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of nanoparticles has seen exponential growth in the area of health care, due to the unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials that make them desirable for medical applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of crystal phase-nanostructured titanium dioxide particles on bioactivity/cytotoxicity in breast cancer epithelial cells. Materials and methods Cultured Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-7 and human breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-468) breast cancer epithelial cells were exposed to ultraviolet A light (wavelength 350 nm) for 20 minutes in the presence of aqueous dispersions of two different nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) crystal phases: anatase and an anatase–rutile mixture. Detailed characterization of each titanium dispersion was performed by dynamic light scattering. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was employed to estimate the percentage of viable cells after each treatment. Western blot analysis of protein expression and characterization, as well as a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-laddering assay, were used to detect cell apoptosis. Results Our results documented that 100% anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (110–130 nm) exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity in the highly malignant MDA-MB-468 cancer cells than anatase– rutile mixtures (75%/25%) with the same size. On the contrary, MCF-7 cells (characterized by low invasive properties) were not considerably affected. Exposure of MDA-MB-468 cells to pure anatase nanoparticles or anatase–rutile mixtures for 48 hours resulted in increased proapoptotic Bax expression, caspase-mediated poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and programmed cell death/apoptosis. Conclusion The obtained results indicated that pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit superior cytotoxic effects compared to anatase–rutile mixtures of the same size. The molecular mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticle cytotoxicity involved increased Bax expression and caspase-mediated PARP inactivation, thus resulting in DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. PMID:25061298

  18. A Brown Mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF Composite with an Extremely High Quantum Yield of Solar Energy Photocatalysis for H2 Evolution.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Qiu, Bocheng; Tian, Baozhu; Anpo, Masakazu; Che, Michel

    2015-04-01

    A brown mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF composite with a high fluorine dopant concentration (8.01 at%) is synthesized by a vacuum activation method. It exhibits an excellent solar absorption and a record-breaking quantum yield (? = 46%) and a high photon-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (? = 34%,) for solar photocatalytic H2 production, which are all higher than that of the black hydrogen-doped TiO2 (? = 35%, ? = 24%). The MCFs serve to improve the adsorption of F atoms onto the TiO2 /MCF composite surface, which after the formation of oxygen vacancies by vacuum activation, facilitate the abundant substitution of these vacancies with F atoms. The decrease of recombination sites induced by high-concentration F doping and the synergistic effect between lattice Ti(3+) -F and surface Ti(3+) -F are responsible for the enhanced lifetime of electrons, the observed excellent absorption of solar light, and the photocatalytic production of H2 for these catalysts. The as-prepared F-doped composite is an ideal solar light-driven photocatalyst with great potential for applications ranging from the remediation of environmental pollution to the harnessing of solar energy for H2 production. PMID:25511009

  19. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and organic synthesis. PMID:24198485

  20. Ultrafast Photooxidation of Mn(II)-Terpyridine Complexes Covalently Attached to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    -energy conversion by dye-sensitized solar cells,1,2 photocatalysis,3-6 and molecular electronics.7,8 Most previous-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on Ru-dye sensitization of colloidal TiO2 films.1 Presently, the most nanoparticles is a fundamental process relevant to many important applications, including solar

  1. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. PMID:19863989

  2. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?l?ç, Bayram; Telli, Hakan; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Ba?aran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO2 nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO2 owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO2, and TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO2 is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO2/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO2 showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO2, pure TiO2, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  3. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Conversion Efficiency of 11.1%

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Chiba; Ashraful Islam; Yuki Watanabe; Ryoichi Komiya; Naoki Koide; Liyuan Han

    2006-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrodes with different haze were investigated. It was found that the incident photon to current efficiency (\\\\mathit{IPCE}) of DSCs increases with increase in the haze of the TiO2 electrodes, especially in the near infrared wavelength region. Conversion efficiency of 11.1%, measured by a public test center, was achieved using high haze TiO2

  4. Diatom-templated TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity: biomimetics of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiao; Chen, Daomei; Li, Yongli; Shao, Junlong; Xie, Jiao; Sun, Yuejuan; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2013-11-01

    The siliceous frustules with sophisticated optical structure endow diatoms with superior solar light-harvesting abilities for effective photosynthesis. The preserved frustules of diatom ( Cocconeis placentula) cells, as biophotonic crystals, were thus employed as both hard templates and silicon resources to synthesize TiO2 photocatalyst. Characterizations by a combination of physicochemical techniques proved that the bio-inspired sample is TiO2-coated SiO2 with biogenic C self-doped in. It was found that the synthesized composites exhibited similar morphologies to the original diatom templates. In comparison with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, the C-doped TiO2/SiO2 catalyst exhibited more light absorption in the visible region and higher photocatalytic efficiency for photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light due to the biomorphic hierarchical structures, TiO2 coating and C-doping.

  5. Highly stable ternary tin-palladium-platinum catalysts supported on hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Fu, Li; Gao, Yuan; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-07-01

    Herein the Pt nanocrystals were synthesized by a high-pressure methanol reduction method onto the hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays pre-treated by Sn/Pd. Then Sn/Pd/Pt ternary catalysts were fabricated by hydrogen treatment. The composite catalysts with a diameter of about 18 nm were located uniformly at the inner nanotubes. The novel catalyst combined with hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays exhibits excellent electro-catalytic activity and high durability. The electrochemical performance of the catalysts after 18 000 potential cycles between 0 and 1.2 V vs. RHE could reach the maximum, and the electrochemical surface area of the catalyst at 18 000 cycles is about 136 m2 g-1Pt+Pd, which is 1.3 folds than the commercial JM Pt/C (104 m2 g-1Pt). Furthermore, there is little decrease in the electrochemical surface area for the catalyst after additional 7300 potential cycles (total 24 300 cycles). In a full cell testing, the fabricated novel electrode with extra-low Pt loading (0.043 mg cm-2) generated power as 1.21 kW g-1Pt when it is used as the cathode in a fuel cell.Herein the Pt nanocrystals were synthesized by a high-pressure methanol reduction method onto the hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays pre-treated by Sn/Pd. Then Sn/Pd/Pt ternary catalysts were fabricated by hydrogen treatment. The composite catalysts with a diameter of about 18 nm were located uniformly at the inner nanotubes. The novel catalyst combined with hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays exhibits excellent electro-catalytic activity and high durability. The electrochemical performance of the catalysts after 18 000 potential cycles between 0 and 1.2 V vs. RHE could reach the maximum, and the electrochemical surface area of the catalyst at 18 000 cycles is about 136 m2 g-1Pt+Pd, which is 1.3 folds than the commercial JM Pt/C (104 m2 g-1Pt). Furthermore, there is little decrease in the electrochemical surface area for the catalyst after additional 7300 potential cycles (total 24 300 cycles). In a full cell testing, the fabricated novel electrode with extra-low Pt loading (0.043 mg cm-2) generated power as 1.21 kW g-1Pt when it is used as the cathode in a fuel cell. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01086d

  6. Degradation of textile dye by solar light using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Neppolian; S. Sakthivel; Banumathi Arabindoo; M. Palanichamy; V. Murugesan

    1999-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a textile dye, reactive red 2 in presence of sunlight using TiO2 and ZnO as photocatalysts is reported. The experimental studies have indicated complete decolourisation of the dye in a short period and degradation within 8 hr of irradiation. ZnO was found to be more effective in the removal of colour than TiO2, but the degradation

  7. Floating photocatalysts based on TiO 2 grafted on expanded polystyrene beads for the solar degradation of dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Magalhães; R. M. Lago

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a highly active, low cost, simple and robust floating photocatalyst based on TiO2 P25 grafted on expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads was developed. SEM and TG analyses showed that ca. 18wt% of TiO2 can be permanently grafted on the surface of EPS particles. This floating photocatalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of three different dyes, i.e. methylene

  8. Influence of integration of TiO2 nanorods into its nanodot films on pre-osteoblast cell responses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kui; Yu, Mengfei; Liu, Yang; Ge, Fei; Lin, Jun; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming

    2015-02-01

    Design of an implant surface with appropriate nanostructures has been considered to be an effective way to promote osteoblast cell growth and osseointegration. In this work, TiO2 nanorods were integrated into TiO2 nanodot films by hydrothermal growth to engineer a nanostructured surface composed of two nano-structural elements. The surface microstructure of the films depended on the integration degree. Low integration led to a surface nanostructure with exposure of the two nano-structural elements, and high integration resulted in a similar surface to a nanorod film. The nanorod integration had an obvious influence on pre-osteoblast cell responses and accelerated the cellular osteogenesis. Two factors of the integrated nano-structural element and the changed surface topology are believed to be responsible for enhancing cellular responses. The former is considered to play a more significant role because the nanorods tended to adsorb human fibronectin preferentially so as to begin differentiation to osteogenesis earlier. We anticipate this work may assist to gain insight into understanding of the interactions between nanostructured surfaces with cells. PMID:25511438

  9. Enhancing performance of P3HT:TiO? solar cells using doped and surface modified TiO? nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yu-Chieh; Lim, Herman; Chang, Chun-Yu; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Su, Wei-Fang

    2015-06-15

    Here we demonstrated an approach to increase performance of P3HT:TiO2 solar cell either by electron deficient boron or electron rich bismuth doping into TiO2 nanorods. The B doping increases the absorption, crystallinity and electron mobility of TiO2 nanorods. The Bi-doped TiO2 has higher J(sc) as compared with B-doped TiO2, mainly due to the improvement of electron density and increased absorption of TiO2 nanorods. The devices were fabricated from TiO2 nanorods being surface modified by organic dye W-4. The dye facilitates the bandgap alignment and compatibility between TiO2 and P3HT. The power conversion efficiency of solar cell has been increased by 1.33 times and 1.30 times for Bi-doped TiO2 and B-doped TiO2, respectively, as compared with that of as-synthesized TiO2. The results suggest the optical and electronic properties of TiO2 can be tuned by various dopants to enhance the device performance. PMID:25746184

  10. Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozuka, Katsuhiro; Ding, Bin; Tsuge, Yosuke; Naka, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Sugi, Shinichiro; Ohno, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-02-01

    We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited thin TiO2 film coated FTO by electrospinning of a mixture of PVac and titanium isopropoxide in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The nanofibrous TiO2 membranes were obtained by calcining the electrospun composite nanofibres of PVac/titania as the precursor. Spectral sensitization of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes was carried out with a ruthenium (II) complex, cis-dithiocyanate-N,N'-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium (II) dihydrate. The results indicated that the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of electrodes can be increased with the addition of the pre-deposited TiO2 film and the adhesion treatment using DMF. Additionally, the dye loading, photocurrent, and efficiency of the electrodes were gradually increased by increasing the average thickness of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes. The efficiency of the fibrous TiO2 photoelectrode with the average membrane thickness of 3.9 µm has a maximum value of 4.14%.

  11. Morphology Control of TiO 2 Based Nanomaterials for Sustainable Energy Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikazu Suzuki

    \\u000a TiO2-based nanomaterials (including layered titanates, H2TinO2n+1, which transform into TiO2 at high temperatures) have attracted much attention because of their fascinating characteristics relating to renewable energy\\u000a and environmental applications. Recently, one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanomaterials, such as nanotube, nanowire, nanorod, nanofiber, have been investigated for electrode materials in dye-sensitized\\u000a solar cells (DSC) to improve light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. These 1D nanomaterials are

  12. Degradation of microcystin-LR by highly efficient AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Utsumi, Motoo; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Sugiura, Norio; Cheng, Jay Jiayang

    2015-01-01

    A novel photocatalyst AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 was developed by a simple facile in situ deposition method and used for degradation of mirocystin-LR. TiO2 (P25) as a cost effective chemical was used to improve the stability of AgBr/Ag3PO4 under simulated solar light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity tests for this heterojunction were conducted under simulated solar light irradiation using methyl orange as targeted pollutant. The results indicated that the optimal Ag to Ti molar ratio for the photocatalytic activity of the resulting heterojunction AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 was 1.5 (named as 1.5 BrPTi), which possessed higher photocatalytic capacity than AgBr/Ag3PO4. The 1.5 BrPTi heterojunction was also more stable than AgBr/Ag3PO4 in photocatalysis. This highly efficient and relatively stable photocatalyst was further tested for degradation of the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The results suggested that MC-LR was much more easily degraded by 1.5 BrPTi than by AgBr/Ag3PO4. The quenching effects of different scavengers proved that reactive h+ and •OH played important roles for MC-LR degradation.

  13. Light management in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam-Gyu Park

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is composed of a nanocrystalline TiO2 film whose surface is covered with dye molecules, an iodide\\/tri-iodide electrolyte and a platinum counter electrode. Charge\\u000a generation occurs when dye absorbs photon energy, which is separated by injection of photo-excited electrons into the conduction\\u000a band of TiO2. The photo-injected electrons are transported through TiO2 network and collected at transparent

  14. Solar module using dye-sensitized solar cells with a polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jilian Nei de Freitas; Claudia Longo; Ana Flávia Nogueira; Marco-Aurelio De Paoli

    2008-01-01

    Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with a polymer electrolyte were investigated, aiming at the construction of an 8V solar module. The individual solar cells were assembled with 4.5cm2 active area and were characterized under outdoor conditions, exhibiting an average efficiency of 0.9% per cell (at 12:00 noon). The solar module was built by connecting 13 cells in series. The integrated

  15. Oxidative Stress and Nano-Toxicity Induced by TiO2 and ZnO on WAG Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Akhilesh; Goswami, Mukunda; Yadav, Kamalendra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, food products and textile industry. These particles are known to cause respiratory toxicity and epithelial inflammation. They are eventually released to aquatic environment necessitating toxicity studies in cells from respiratory organs of aquatic organisms. Hence, we have developed and characterized a new cell line, WAG, from gill tissue of Wallago attu for toxicity assessment of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The efficacy of the cell line as an in vitro system for nanoparticles toxicity studies was established using electron microscopy, cytotoxicity assays, genotoxicity assays and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results obtained with MTT assay, neutral red uptake assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay showed acute toxicity to WAG cells with IC50 values of 25.29±0.12, 34.99±0.09 and 35.06±0.09 mg/l for TiO2 and 5.716±0.1, 3.160±0.1 and 5.57±0.12 mg/l for ZnO treatment respectively. The physicochemical properties and size distribution of nanoparticles were characterized using electron microscopy with integrated energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Zetasizer. Dose dependent increase in DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation along with a significant decrease in activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, total Glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity with increasing concentration of exposed nanoparticles indicated that the cells were under oxidative stress. The study established WAG cell line as an in vitro system to study toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:26011447

  16. Oxidative Stress and Nano-Toxicity Induced by TiO2 and ZnO on WAG Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Akhilesh; Goswami, Mukunda; Yadav, Kamalendra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, food products and textile industry. These particles are known to cause respiratory toxicity and epithelial inflammation. They are eventually released to aquatic environment necessitating toxicity studies in cells from respiratory organs of aquatic organisms. Hence, we have developed and characterized a new cell line, WAG, from gill tissue of Wallago attu for toxicity assessment of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The efficacy of the cell line as an in vitro system for nanoparticles toxicity studies was established using electron microscopy, cytotoxicity assays, genotoxicity assays and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results obtained with MTT assay, neutral red uptake assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay showed acute toxicity to WAG cells with IC50 values of 25.29±0.12, 34.99±0.09 and 35.06±0.09 mg/l for TiO2 and 5.716±0.1, 3.160±0.1 and 5.57±0.12 mg/l for ZnO treatment respectively. The physicochemical properties and size distribution of nanoparticles were characterized using electron microscopy with integrated energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Zetasizer. Dose dependent increase in DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation along with a significant decrease in activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, total Glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity with increasing concentration of exposed nanoparticles indicated that the cells were under oxidative stress. The study established WAG cell line as an in vitro system to study toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:26011447

  17. Improving cytocompatibility of Co28Cr6Mo by TiO2 coating: gene expression study in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, R; Peters, K; Unger, R E; Feldmann, M; Hoffmann, B; Heidenau, F; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2013-09-01

    Cobalt-based materials are widely used for coronary stents, as well as bone and joint implants. However, their use is associated with high corrosion incidence. Titanium alloys, by contrast, are more biocompatible owing to the formation of a relatively inactive titanium oxide (TiO2) layer on their surface. This study was aimed at improving Co28Cr6Mo alloy cytocompatibility via sol-gel TiO2 coating to reduce metal corrosion and metal ion release. Owing to their role in inflammation and tissue remodelling around an implant, endothelial cells present a suitable in vitro model for testing the biological response to metallic materials. Primary human endothelial cells seeded on Co28Cr6Mo showed a stress phenotype with numerous F-actin fibres absent on TiO2-coated material. To investigate this effect at the gene expression level, cDNA microarray analysis of in total 1301 genes was performed. Compared with control cells, 247 genes were expressed differentially in the cells grown on Co28Cr6Mo, among them genes involved in proliferation, oxidative stress response and inflammation. TiO2 coating reduced the effects of Co28Cr6Mo on gene expression in endothelial cells, with only 34 genes being differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein analysis confirmed microarray data for selected genes. The effect of TiO2 coating can be, in part, attributed to the reduced release of Co(2+), because addition of CoCl2 resulted in similar cellular responses. TiO2 coating of cobalt-based materials, therefore, could be used in the production of cobalt-based devices for cardiovascular and skeletal applications to reduce the adverse effects of metal corrosion products and to improve the response of endothelial and other cell types. PMID:23825117

  18. Improving cytocompatibility of Co28Cr6Mo by TiO2 coating: gene expression study in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsaryk, R.; Peters, K.; Unger, R. E.; Feldmann, M.; Hoffmann, B.; Heidenau, F.; Kirkpatrick, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt-based materials are widely used for coronary stents, as well as bone and joint implants. However, their use is associated with high corrosion incidence. Titanium alloys, by contrast, are more biocompatible owing to the formation of a relatively inactive titanium oxide (TiO2) layer on their surface. This study was aimed at improving Co28Cr6Mo alloy cytocompatibility via sol–gel TiO2 coating to reduce metal corrosion and metal ion release. Owing to their role in inflammation and tissue remodelling around an implant, endothelial cells present a suitable in vitro model for testing the biological response to metallic materials. Primary human endothelial cells seeded on Co28Cr6Mo showed a stress phenotype with numerous F-actin fibres absent on TiO2-coated material. To investigate this effect at the gene expression level, cDNA microarray analysis of in total 1301 genes was performed. Compared with control cells, 247 genes were expressed differentially in the cells grown on Co28Cr6Mo, among them genes involved in proliferation, oxidative stress response and inflammation. TiO2 coating reduced the effects of Co28Cr6Mo on gene expression in endothelial cells, with only 34 genes being differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein analysis confirmed microarray data for selected genes. The effect of TiO2 coating can be, in part, attributed to the reduced release of Co2+, because addition of CoCl2 resulted in similar cellular responses. TiO2 coating of cobalt-based materials, therefore, could be used in the production of cobalt-based devices for cardiovascular and skeletal applications to reduce the adverse effects of metal corrosion products and to improve the response of endothelial and other cell types. PMID:23825117

  19. Electron transport in back contact dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiro Fuke; Atsushi Fukui; Ashraful Islam; Ryoichi Komiya; Ryohsuke Yamanaka; Liyuan Han; Hiroshi Harima

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport properties of a back contact dye-sensitized solar cell (BCDSC) were investigated in comparison with a conventional DSC. It was found that the BCDSC had a lower short circuit current density (JSC) at the same thickness of TiO2 film and that JSC was not proportional to the thickness of the TiO2 film. Calculation of electron transport length in

  20. Effects of various TiO2 nanostructures and graphene oxide on photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Li, Anran; Sun, Darren Delai; Ng, Wun Jern

    2014-08-30

    The nanostructures of TiO2 significantly affect its photocatalytic activity. In this work, various TiO2 nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, including one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanotube, 1D TiO2 nanowire, three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 sphere assembled by nanoparticles (TiO2 sphere-P) and 3D TiO2 sphere assembled by nanosheets (TiO2 sphere-S). The results of photodegradation activity towards acid orange 7 (AO7) indicate that the photodegradation efficiency of TiO2 sphere-S is the highest among the investigated TiO2 nanostructures, even though the specific surface area of TiO2 sphere-S is lower than that of TiO2 nanotube. The best photodegradation activity of TiO2 sphere-S can be attributed to the highest light harvesting capacity resulted from multiple reflections of light, and hierarchical mesoporous structure. In addition, the combination of TiO2 sphere-S with graphene oxide (GO) sheets can further enhance the photodegradation efficiency of AO7 and disinfection activity of Escherichia coli (E. coli) under solar light, which is more energy efficient. The promising photocatalytic activity of GO-TiO2 composites is originated from the enhanced light absorption and efficient charge separation. Hence, this study paves a way for improving the performance of other photocatalysts. PMID:25038577

  1. Phase change memory cell using Ge2Sb2Te5 and softly broken-down TiO2 films for multilevel operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Joon; Choi, Seol; Eom, Taeyong; Rha, Sang Ho; Kim, Kyung Min; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2010-09-01

    A phase change memory cell was fabricated by stacking plasma-enhanced cyclic chemical-vapor-deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and atomic layer deposited TiO2 thin films. Different pairs of resistance states were obtained by controlling the current flow, which can be used to achieve higher memory density by multilevel operation. The multiresistance states of the stacked cell were explained by the resistance switching phenomena of TiO2 and the thermoelectric phase change properties of GST. The phase change characteristics of GST could be altered by controlling the degree of filament formation in the TiO2 layer, which eventually changed the phase change volume in the GST.

  2. TiO2-doped phosphate glass microcarriers: A stable bioactive substrate for expansion of adherent mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Joana C; Park, Jeong-Hui; Lakhkar, Nilay J; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Scalable expansion of cells for regenerative cell therapy or to produce large quantities for high-throughput screening remains a challenge for bioprocess engineers. Laboratory scale cell expansion using t-flasks requires frequent passaging that exposes cells to many poorly defined bioprocess forces that can cause damage or alter their phenotype. Microcarriers offer a potential solution to scalable production, lending themselves to cell culture processes more akin to fermentation, removing the need for frequent passaging throughout the expansion period. One main problem with microcarrier expansion, however, is the difficulty in harvesting cells at the end of the process. Therefore, therapies that rely on cell delivery using biomaterial scaffolds could benefit from a microcarrier expansion system whereby the cells and microcarriers are transplanted together. In the current study, we used bioactive glass microcarriers doped with 5% TiO2 that display a controlled rate of degradation and conducted experiments to assess biocompatibility and growth of primary fibroblast cells as a model for cell therapy products. We found that the microcarriers are highly biocompatible and facilitate cell growth in a gradual controlled manner. Therefore, even without additional biofunctionalization methods, Ti-doped bioactive glass microcarriers offer potential as a cell expansion platform. PMID:22935537

  3. Effect of vanadium redox species on photoelectrochemical behavior of TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 photo-electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Fuqiang; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-09-01

    The photoresponse of bare TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 hybrid electrodes was studied in a photoelectrochemical cell with VO2+ in 3 M sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. Linear sweep voltammetry study on both electrodes under AM1.5 illumination revealed a significant photoresponse enhancement compared to photolysis of water. This is attributed to the hole scavenging process initiated by quick redox reaction and depressed charge recombination at semiconductor/liquid interface. The photocurrent was boosted remarkably by factors of 57 and 78 on the bare TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 hybrid electrode, respectively, when the VO2+ concentration increases from 0 to 1 M. This finding might render this approach a very promising way of solar energy conversion and storage. Photocharge/discharge process was also discovered on the WO3 surface under different energy level of irradiation, leading to a deteriorated photocurrent.

  4. Synthetic fabrication strategy optimizes the illumination geometry and transport properties of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    E-print Network

    -sensitized solar cells. Using oriented titanium oxide (TiO2 ) nanotube (NT) arrays has shown promise for dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). High solar conversion efficiency requires that the incident light enters and Economics of Solar Cells NREL Highlights SCIENCE Illuminating the NT-based DSSC from the pho- toelectrode

  5. Enhancement of solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2-CeO2 composite by Er3+:Y3Al5O12 in organic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, as an upconversion luminescence agent which is able to transform the visible part of the solar light to ultraviolet light, was prepared by nitrate-citrate sol-gel method. A novel solar light photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was synthesized using ultrasonic treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite. In order to evaluate the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite, the Azo Fuchsine dye was used as a model organic pollutant. The progress of the degradation reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The key influences on the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 were studied, such as Ti/Ce molar ratio, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time. Otherwise, the effects of initial dye concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 amount, solar light irradiation time and the nature of the dye on the solar light photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. It was found that the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was superior to Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 and Er3+:Y3Al5O12/CeO2 powder in the similar conditions.

  6. Study on the visible-light-induced photokilling effect of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Mi, Lan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Ji-Yao

    2011-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by calcining the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles under ammonia atmosphere. The N-TiO2 showed higher absorbance in the visible region than the pure TiO2. The cytotoxicity and visible-light-induced phototoxicity of the pure- and N-TiO2 were examined for three types of cancer cell lines. No significant cytotoxicity was detected. However, the visible-light-induced photokilling effects on cells were observed. The survival fraction of the cells decreased with the increased incubation concentration of the nanoparticles. The cancer cells incubated with N-TiO2 were killed more effectively than that with the pure TiO2. The reactive oxygen species was found to play an important role on the photokilling effect for cells. Furthermore, the intracellular distributions of N-TiO2 nanoparticles were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The co-localization of N-TiO2 nanoparticles with nuclei or Golgi complexes was observed. The aberrant nuclear morphologies such as micronuclei were detected after the N-TiO2-treated cells were irradiated by the visible light.

  7. Fabrication and Properties of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Screen-Printed Bilayer Composite Film Photoactive Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiguang Shang; Kewei Xu; Mingqi Gao; Ling Zhao; Haifeng Chen

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a novel photoactive electrode based on the bilayer composite films consisting of titanium dioxide\\/carbon nanotubes (TiO2\\/CNTs) mixed film and pure TiO2 film are fabricated on ITO coated glass. The TiO2\\/CNTs mixed underlayer was used to reduce the internal resistance of charge transport within photoactive layer, which would enhance short circuit

  8. Interfacial properties and structure stability of Ni\\/Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 -TiO 2 cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Mantzouris; N. Zouvelou; D. Skarmoutsos; P. Nikolopoulos; F. Tietz

    2005-01-01

    Ceramics of the ternary system Y2O3-ZrO2-TiO2 (YZT) and Ni\\/YZT cermets are evaluated in terms of application as anode electrodes in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. Wetting experiments\\u000a in liquid Ni\\/YZT systems show that the increase of TiO2 content in the ceramic phase improves the bond strength at the metal ceramic interface, due to the reduction of the interfacial\\u000a energy. Ni(40

  9. Enhancement of the photoproperties of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI cells by coupling of two dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirimanne, P. M.; Senevirathna, M. K. I.; Premalal, E. V. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.

    2006-06-01

    The electronic coupling of a natural pigment extracted from pomegranate fruits (rich with cyanin and exist as flavylium at natural PH) with an organic dye mercurochrome enhanced the performance of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI-type photovoltaic cells sensitized from pomegranate pigments or mercurochrome individually.

  10. Controlling surface defects and photophysics in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Llansola-Portoles, Manuel J; Bergkamp, Jesse J; Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Sherman, Benjamin D; Kodis, Gerdenis; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2014-11-13

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used for photocatalysis and solar cell applications, and the electronic structure of bulk TiO2 is well understood. However, the surface structure of nanoparticulate TiO2, which has a key role in properties such as solubility and catalytic activity, still remains controversial. Detailed understanding of surface defect structures may help explain reactivity and overall materials performance in a wide range of applications. In this work we address the solubility problem and surface defects control on TiO2 nanoparticles. We report the synthesis and characterization of ?4 nm TiO2 anatase spherical nanoparticles that are soluble and stable in a wide range of organic solvents and water. By controlling the temperature during the synthesis, we are able to tailor the density of defect states on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting parameters such as size, shape, core crystallinity, and solubility. The morphology of both kinds of nanoparticles was determined by TEM. EPR experiments were used to characterize the surface defects, and transient absorption measurements demonstrate the influence of the TiO2 defect states on photoinduced electron transfer dynamics. PMID:25109403

  11. Fabrication of plasmonic AgBr/Ag nanoparticles-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays and their enhanced photo-conversion and photoelectrocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingyao; Qiao, Jianlei; Jin, Rencheng; Xu, Xiaohui; Gao, Shanmin

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic photosensitizer AgBr/Ag nanospheres supported on TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) are prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique followed by photoreduction methods. The structural and surface morphological properties of AgBr/Ag nanoparticles sensitized TiO2 NTs and their photoelectrochemical performance are investigated and discussed. A detailed formation mechanism of the TiO2 NTs/AgBr/Ag is proposed. The TiO2 NTs/AgBr/Ag exhibit excellent photocurrent and photoelectrocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation. Efficient utilization of solar energy to create electron-hole pairs is attributed to the significant visible light response and surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. This finding indicates that the high photosensitivity of the TiO2 NTs-based surface plasmon resonance materials could be applied toward the development of new plasmonic visible-light-sensitive photovoltaic fuel cells and photocatalysts.

  12. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. PMID:25233024

  13. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  14. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

  15. Comparative cytotoxicity of Al2O3, CeO2, TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles to human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sun; Baek, Miri; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2010-05-01

    The increased applications of nanoparticles in a wide range of industrial fields raise the concern about their potential toxicity to human. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the toxicity of four different oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3, CeO2, TiO2 and ZnO) to human lung epithelial cells, A549 carcinoma cells and L-132 normal cells, in vitro. We focused on the toxicological effects of the present nanoparticles on cell proliferation, cell viability, membrane integrity and oxidative stress. The long-term cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated by employing the clonogenic assay. Among four nanoparticles tested, ZnO exhibited the highest cytotoxicity in terms of cell proliferation, cell viability, membrane integrity and colony formation in both cell lines. Al2O3, CeO2 and TiO2 showed little adverse effects on cell proliferation and cell viability. However, TiO2 induced oxidative stress in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. CeO2 caused membrane damage and inhibited colony formation in long-term, but with different degree depending on cell lines. Al2O3 seems to be less toxic than the other nanoparticles even after long time exposure. These results highlight the need for caution during manufacturing process of nanomaterials as well as further investigation on the toxicity mechanism. PMID:20358977

  16. Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Quantum Dot Arrays and Applications of Multiple Exciton Generation to Third-Generation Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    to Third-Generation Photovoltaic Solar Cells A. J. Nozik,*,, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law,§ R. J. Applications: Quantum Dot Solar Cells 6884 6.1. Quantum Dot Solar Cell Configurations 6885 6.1.1. Photoelectrodes Composed of Quantum Dot Arrays 6885 6.1.2. Quantum Dot-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells

  17. Alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative to target osteogenic cell differentiation in TiO2 scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Pullisaar, Helen; Verket, Anders; Szoke, Krisztina; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J; Brinchmann, Jan E; Reseland, Janne E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bone tissue engineering is to employ scaffolds, cells, and growth factors to facilitate healing of bone defects. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and osteogenic differentiation of primary human osteoblasts and adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells from various donors on titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds coated with an alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative. Cells were harvested for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on days 14 and 21, and medium was collected on days 2, 14, and 21 for protein analyses. Neither coating with alginate hydrogel nor alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative induced a cytotoxic response. Enamel matrix derivative–enriched alginate hydrogel significantly increased the expression of osteoblast markers COL1A1, TNFRSF11B, and BGLAP and secretion of osteopontin in human osteoblasts, whereas osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells seemed unaffected by enamel matrix derivative. The alginate hydrogel coating procedure may have potential for local delivery of enamel matrix derivative and other stimulatory factors for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26090086

  18. Determining the locus for photocarrier recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Schiff, Eric A.

    Determining the locus for photocarrier recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells Kai Zhua) and E and infrared transmittance measurements on dye-sensitized solar cells based on a mesoporous titania (TiO2. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1436533 Dye-sensitized solar cells based

  19. Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Kadiatou photoanodes for dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs), based on nanocrystalline TiO2 with limited addition, 25133 Brescia, Italy Solar Cells Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMRE

  20. Hydroxamate Anchors for Improved Photoconversion in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Hydroxamate Anchors for Improved Photoconversion in Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells Timothy P. Brewster-polypyridyl dyes to TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The study provides fundamental insight materials such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made of sensitized nano- particulate thin-films.4 Since

  1. A novel 3D structure composed of strings of hierarchical TiO2 spheres formed on TiO2 nanobelts with high photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Meicheng; Song, Dandan; Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    A novel hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite nanostructure with strings of anatase TiO2 hierarchical micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts framework (TiO2 HSN) is successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Particularly, the strings of hierarchical spheres are assembled by very thin TiO2 nanosheets, which are composed of highly crystallized anatase nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the HSN has a large surface area of 191 m2/g, which is about 3 times larger than Degussa P25. More importantly, the photocatalytic activity of HSN and P25 were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under UV light illumination, and the TiO2 HSN shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with Degussa P25, as result of its continuous hierarchical structures, special conductive channel and large specific surface area. With these features, the hierarchical TiO2 may have more potential applications in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries.

  2. Recent progress in design, synthesis, and applications of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures: a review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Kumar, Anil; Boughton, Robert I; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures (1D TiO2NSHs) have been comprehensively studied during the past two decades because of the possible practical applications in various fields, including photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, lithium batteries, biomedicine, catalysis, and supercapacitors. Combining extensive advancements in materials science and nanotechnology, a 1D TiO2NSH material with well-controlled size, morphology, and composition has been designed and synthesized. More importantly, its superior properties, including a high aspect ratio structure, chemical stability, large specific surface area, excellent electronic or ionic charge transfer, and a specific interface effect, have attracted a great deal of interest in improving current performance and exploring new applications. In this tutorial review, we introduce the characteristics of 1D TiO2 nanostructures, the design principles for the fabrication of 1D TiO2NSHs, and we also summarize the recent progress in developing synthesis methods and applications of 1D TiO2NSHs in different fields. The relationship between the secondary phase and the 1D TiO2 nanostructure and between the performance in applications and the excellent physical properties of 1D TiO2NSHs are also discussed. PMID:25014328

  3. Degradation of Glyphosate in Soil Photocatalyzed by Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 under Solar Light

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Ji, Fangying; Fan, Zihong; He, Li

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared via a sol-gel method, and Fe3O4 particles were used as the core of the colloid. Diffraction peaks of Fe3O4 crystals are not found by XRD characterization, indicating that Fe3O4 particles are well encapsulated by SiO2. FTIR characterization shows that diffraction peaks of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds become obvious when the Fe3O4 loading is more than 0.5%. SEM characterization indicates that agglomeration occurs in the Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst, whereas photocatalysts modified by Fe3O4/SiO2 present excellent visible light absorption performance and photocatalytic activity, especially when the Fe3O4 loading is 0.5%. Photocatalytic degradation of glyphosate in soil by these photocatalysts under solar irradiation was investigated. Results show that 0.5% Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 has the best photocatalytic activity. The best moisture content of soil is 30%?50%. Degradation efficiency of glyphosate reaches 89% in 2 h when the dosage of photocatalyst is 0.4 g/100 g (soil), and it increased slowly when more photocatalyst was used. Soil thickness is a very important factor for the photocatalytic rate. The thinner the soil is, the better the glyphosate degradation is. Degradation of glyphosate is not obviously affected by sunlight intensity when the intensity is below 6 mW/cm2 or above 10 mW/cm2, but it is accelerated significantly when the sunlight intensity increases from 6 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2. PMID:21695039

  4. Development of lead iodide perovskite solar cells using three-dimensional titanium dioxide nanowire architectures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanhao; Li, Jianye; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Jialiang; Zhang, Lushuai; Andrew, Trisha L; Arnold, Michael S; Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-27

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanowire (NW) architectures are considered as superior electrode design for photovoltaic devices compared to NWs or nanoparticle systems in terms of improved large surface area and charge transport properties. In this paper, we report development of lead iodide perovskite solar cells based on a novel 3D TiO2 NW architectures. The 3D TiO2 nanostructure was synthesized via surface-reaction-limited pulsed chemical vapor deposition (SPCVD) technique that also implemented the Kirkendall effect for complete ZnO NW template conversion. It was found that the film thickness of 3D TiO2 can significantly influence the photovoltaic performance. Short-circuit current increased with the TiO2 length, while open-circuit voltage and fill factor decreased with the length. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.0% was achieved with ? 600 nm long 3D TiO2 NW structures. Compared to other 1D nanostructure arrays (TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2-coated ZnO NWs and ZnO NWs), 3D TiO2 NW architecture was able to achieve larger amounts of perovskite loading, enhanced light harvesting efficiency, and increased electron-transport property. Therefore, its PCE is 1.5, 2.3, and 2.8 times higher than those of TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2-coated ZnO NWs, and ZnO NWs, respectively. The unique morphological advantages, together with the largely suppressed hysteresis effect, make 3D hierarchical TiO2 a promising electrode selection in designing high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:25549153

  5. Multi-scale dispersion in fuel cell anode catalysts: Role of TiO 2 towards achieving nanostructured materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiun-Ming Chen; Loka Subramanyam Sarma; Ching-Hsiang Chen; Ming-Yao Cheng; Shou-Chu Shih; Guo-Rung Wang; Din-Goa Liu; Jyh-Fu Lee; Mau-Tsu Tang; Bing-Joe Hwang

    2006-01-01

    Multi-scale dispersion involving dispersion of catalyst particles on carbon support as well as intra-particle dispersion within the particles of a ternary Pt-Ru-Ti\\/C catalyst has been demonstrated. The presence of TiO2 can dramatically decreases the grain size of the obtained catalyst to about 1–2nm when compared with similarly prepared Pt-Ru\\/C (3–4nm) catalyst indicating that TiO2 can enhance the dispersion of the

  6. Comparison of silatrane, phosphonic acid, and carboxylic acid functional groups for attachment of porphyrin sensitizers to TiO2 in photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bradley J; Llansola Portolés, Manuel J; Liddell, Paul A; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

    2013-10-21

    A tetra-arylporphyrin dye was functionalized with three different anchoring groups used to attach molecules to metal oxide surfaces. The physical, photophysical and electrochemical properties of the derivatized porphyrins were studied, and the dyes were then linked to mesoporous TiO2. The anchoring groups were ?-vinyl groups bearing either a carboxylate, a phosphonate or a siloxy moiety. The siloxy linkages were made by treatment of the metal oxide with a silatrane derivative of the porphyrin. The surface binding and lability of the anchored molecules were studied, and dye performance was compared in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Transient absorption spectroscopy was used to study charge recombination processes. At comparable surface concentration, the porphyrin showed comparable performance in the DSSC, regardless of the linker. However, the total surface coverage achievable with the carboxylate was about twice that obtainable with the other two linkers, and this led to higher current densities for the carboxylate DSSC. On the other hand, the carboxylate-linked dyes were readily leached from the metal oxide surface under alkaline conditions. The phosphonates were considerably less labile, and the siloxy-linked porphyrins were most resistant to leaching from the surface. The use of silatrane proved to be a practical and convenient way to introduce the siloxy linkages, which can confer greatly increased stability on dye-sensitized electrodes with photoelectrochemical performance comparable to that of the other linkers. PMID:23959453

  7. Investigation of the stability of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XIN-TONG ZHANG; TAKETO TAGUCHI; HAI-BIN WANG; QING-BO MENG; OSAMU SATO; AKIRA FUJISHIMA

    2006-01-01

    The stability of the TiO2\\/ruthenium dye\\/CuI solid-state solar cell was investigated under continuous simulated sunlight illumination. The cells showed fast degradation under full-spectrum sunlight illumination, but showed rather good stability when the ultraviolet part of the illumination was removed. XPS measurements showed evidence that TiO2 could oxidize CuI in the presence of UV light. The photo-degradation mechanism of the cells

  8. Preparation and properties of a carbon nanotube-based nanocomposite photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-Yu Yen; Yu-Feng Lin; Shu-Hang Liao; Cheng-Chih Weng; Ching-Chun Huang; Yi-Hsiu Hsiao; Chen-Chi M. Ma; Min-Chao Chang; Hsin Shao; Ming-Chi Tsai; Chien-Kuo Hsieh; Chuen-Horng Tsai; Fang-Bor Weng

    2008-01-01

    This study fabricates dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO2\\/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite photoanodes obtained by the modified acid-catalyzed sol-gel procedure. Results show that incorporating MWCNTs into a TiO2-based electrode efficiently improves the physicochemical properties of the solar cell. The results of dye adsorption and cell performance measurements indicate that introducing MWCNTs would improve the roughness factor (from 834

  9. Evaluations of the TiO2/simulated solar UV degradations of XAD fractions of natural organic matter from a bog lake using size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2013-09-15

    This work reports on the changes in compositions of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) during photocatalytic degradation. The HAs and FAs were obtained from the XAD-resin fractionation of natural-organic matter (NOM) from a bog lake (Lake Hohloh, Black Forest, Germany). Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a suspension and a solar UV simulator (batch reactor) were used in the experiments. The photocatalytic degradation of the HAs and FAs were monitored using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) equipped with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet (UV254) detection (SEC-DOC and SEC-UV254) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The evolutions of the photocatalytic degradations of the HA and FA fractions were selective. The photocatalytic degradation started with the degradations of high molecular weight compounds with relatively high UV254 absorbances in the HA and FA fractions to yield low molecular weight compounds showing less specific UV254 absorbances. Observance of the same tendency for the original NOM from Lake Hohloh indicates that these XAD-fractions still having complex compound mixtures. However, the larger molecular weight fractions of the FAs showed higher preferential adsorptions onto TiO2, which caused their faster degradation rates. Furthermore, FAs showed a greater reduction of the total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and the organic halogen compounds adsorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP), in comparison with the HAs. PMID:23863374

  10. Titanium dioxide dye-sensitized polyaniline solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hooi-Sung

    2005-11-01

    A novel form of a dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated with in situ photopolymerization of aniline. Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)mono(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TC3APP) was successfully synthesized and used as a sensitizer. Nanoparticulate TiO2 electrodes were prepared from 25 nm size TiO 2 particles (P25); in addition, commercial TiO2 electrodes from Solaronix and INAP were used. Electrochemically polymerized polyaniline films were used as a counterelectrode. Aniline gel as an electrolyte solution was composed of (1S)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), polyethylene oxide (PEO), and aniline as solvent. Morphology study of TiO2 electrodes and electropolymerized polyaniline films proceeded with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that TiO2 electrodes have a highly porous and well connected structure and polyaniline film is composed of a waxy surface and bush-like structure. The conductive emeraldine salt form of polyaniline was confirmed with UV absorption spectroscopy. Adsorption study of TC3APP on TiO2 electrode suggested that most of the adsorption proceeded in 6 hours after the immersion of TiO 2 electrode in TC3APP solution. Greater amounts of TC 3APP were adsorbed on TiO2 electrode in the presence of deoxycholic acid as coadsorber. Photopolymerization proceeded in a sandwiched solar cell with TC 3APP-adsorbed TiO2 electrode and polyaniline counterelectrode including aniline gel. Photocurrent was observed with zero bias voltage. Photocurrent as a function of time was composed of two stages: (1) photoelectropolymerization of polyaniline and (2) conduction of photoelectrons as in a typical solar cell. The current-voltage measurement produced Voc = 0.6 V, J sc = 0.23 mA/cm2, FF = 0.78, and eta = 0.74% under 14.6 mW/cm2 of light intensity. Spectral study and action spectrum confirm that TC3APP is responsible for the photocurrent upon absorption of visible light, and some absorption by polyaniline film beyond 650 nm also participates in the generation of photocurrent. Each component of the solar cell plays an important role to complete this solar cell system.

  11. Comparison of the killing effects between nitrogen-doped and pure TiO2 on HeLa cells with visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Pan, Xiaobo; Wang, Tianlong; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Mi, Lan

    2013-02-01

    The killing effect of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells by visible light photodynamic therapy (PDT) was higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticles. To study the mechanism of the killing effect, the reactive oxygen species produced by the visible-light-activated N-TiO2 and pure-TiO2 were evaluated and compared. The changes of the cellular parameters, such as the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular Ca2+, and nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations after PDT were measured and compared for N-TiO2- and TiO2-treated HeLa cells. The N-TiO2 resulted in more loss of MMP and higher increase of Ca2+ and NO in HeLa cells than pure TiO2. The cell morphology changes with time were also examined by a confocal microscope. The cells incubated with N-TiO2 exhibited serious distortion and membrane breakage at 60 min after the PDT.

  12. Highly Efficient Hybrid Photovoltaics Based on Hyperbranched Three-Dimensional TiO2 Electron Transporting Materials.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-05-01

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%). PMID:25810115

  13. Ambipolar Diffusion of Photocarriers in Electrolyte-Filled, Nanoporous TiO2 N. Kopidakis and E. A. Schiff*

    E-print Network

    Schiff, Eric A.

    , 1999 We report transient photocurrent measurements on solar cell structures based on dye-sensitized and by O'Regan and Gra¨tzel's demonstration of a remarkably efficient photoelectrochemical solar cell based on dye-sensitized, nanoporous TiO2.5 In this paper, we present transient photocurrent measurements

  14. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781 Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells**

    E-print Network

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781 Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells** By Thomas W. Hamann, Alex B. F. Martinson, Jeffrey W. Elam, Michael J. Pellin, and Joseph T. Hupp* Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nanocrystalline TiO2 have exhibited solar energy-conversion efficiencies of over

  15. Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized solar cells by using a biomimetic

    E-print Network

    Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized solar cells by using a biomimetic studied this problem in dye-sensitized solar cells where a molecular dye and a porous TiO2 electrode act 16802; b Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Bioinspired Solar Fuel Production

  16. Facial synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticle film for efficient fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ming; Cai, Xin; Fu, Yongping; Yu, Xiao; Liu, Suqi; Deng, Bing; Hany, Kafafy; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    SnO2 nanoparticle film is directly prepared by in situ thermal calcining isopropanol solution of tin tetraisopropoxide, and is used to construct the SnO2-TiO2 junction on titanium wire substrate. The titanium wire supported SnO2-TiO2 junction is further applied to fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSCs). High efficiency of 5.8% (Normal Model) and 12.4% (Diffuse Model) are achieved. Our results indicate that Jsc enhancement derived by SnO2-TiO2 junction and the recombination shielding effect of the compact TiO2 film could synergistically contribute to high efficiencies. This study offers a novel and alternative strategy for achieving efficient SnO2-TiO2 junction based solar cells in a facile, scalable and cost-effective way.

  17. Photoelectrochemical reaction of biomass-related compounds in a biophotochemical cell comprising a nanoporous TiO 2 film photoanode and an O 2 -reducing cathode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohito Ueno; Junichi Nemoto; Keita Ohnuki; Mizuki Horikawa; Mikio Hoshino; Masao Kaneko

    2009-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical decomposition of bio-related compounds such as ammonia, formic acid, urea, alcohol, and glycine by a\\u000a biophotochemical cell (BPCC) comprising a nanoporous TiO2 film photoanode and an O2-reducing cathode generating simultaneously electrical power was investigated. The bio-related compounds studied were all\\u000a photodecomposed by the present BPCC when they were either liquid or soluble in water. It was shown that ethanol

  18. Cell growth on pore-graded biomimetic TiO2 bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Müller, Benjamin; Reseland, Janne Elin; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tiainen, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    In order to prevent soft tissue down-growth into osseous defect areas, membranes are used when placing bone graft materials. These membranes still show shortcomings in their performance and applications. In the current study, we choose an approach to integrate micro-porous surface structures into a macro-porous scaffold. Low porous surfaces were fabricated by dip-coatings. Four different material compositions (titanium dioxide, polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/water, polycaprolactone/?-tricalcium phosphate) were characterised in terms of their appearance, architecture, topographical features and cell response. Titanium dioxide surfaces exhibited rougher and more complex textures, resulting in the highest number of osteosarcoma cells and distinct morphologies in terms of cell spreading. Polycaprolactone-based surfaces showed a smoother topography and enhanced microporosity, but the effect on secretion of the bone markers sclerostin and interleukin-6 from human osteoblasts was lower compared to secretion from cells cultured on titanium dioxide. ?-Tricalcium phosphate modification of polycaprolactone did not show any significant improvement regarding cell-material interaction. Nevertheless, surfaces show potential in the mechanical blockage of epithelial and soft tissue cells and may still permit sufficient nutrient transport. PMID:25394623

  19. All screen printed dye solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Meyer; David Martineau; Asef Azam; Andreas Meyer

    2007-01-01

    All screen printed Dye Sensitized Solar cell modules were fabricated and demonstrated excellent electrical performances thanks to a monolithic interconnection based on highly conductive carbon layers. Attained efficiency at 1000 W\\/m2 is 6 % with a fill-factor of 0.7. This monolithic module is very elegant to manufacture since the layers, including nano- TiO2 spacer, catalytic active layer, conductive carbon and

  20. Semi-transparent inverted organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schmidt; T. Winkler; M. Tilgner; H. Flügge; S. Schmale; T. Bülow; J. Meyer; H.-H. Johannes; T. Riedl; W. Kowalsky

    2009-01-01

    We will present efficient semi-transparent bulk-heterojunction [regioregular of poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester] solar cells with an inverted device architecture. Highly transparent ZnO and TiO2 films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition are used as cathode interlayers on top of ITO. The topanode consists of a RF-sputtered ITO layer. To avoid damage due to the plasma deposition of this

  1. Computer simulations of light scattering and absorption in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Ferber; Joachim Luther

    1998-01-01

    The TiO2 electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) consists of 10–30nm sized particles which are sintered together. The effective surface of the TiO2 electrode is increased up to 1000 fold by the nanoporous structure. It is covered with a layer of dye, so an acceptable overall absorption can be achieved. The absorption in the cell, and therefore the current, can

  2. Optical properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the electrochemical anodization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Ngoc Tai; Chien Nguyen, Van; Hoa Dao, Thi; Hoang To, Le Hong; Pham, Duy Long; Do, Hung Manh; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Van Hong

    2014-03-01

    Perpendicularly self-aligned TiO2 nanotube samples of size of 3 × 5 cm2 were fabricated by the electrochemical anodization method using a solution containing NH4F. Influences of the technological conditions such as NH4F concentration and anodization voltage were studied. It was found that NH4F concentration in the solution and anodization voltage significantly affect the diameter and length of a TiO2 nanotube. The diameter and the length of a TiO2 nanotube were observed and estimated by using scanning electron microscopy. It has shown that the largest diameter and the longest length of about 80 nm and 20 ?m, respectively, were obtained for the sample anodized in a solution containing 0.4% of NH4F, under a voltage of 48 V. Photoluminescence spectra excited by laser lights having wavelengths of 325 and 442 nm (having energies higher and lower than the band gap energy of TiO2) was recorded at room temperature for the TiO2 nanotube arrays. An abnormal luminescence result was observed. It is experimental evidence that the manufactured TiO2 nanotube array is an expected material for hydrogen splitting from water by photochemical effect under sunlight as well as for the nano solar cells.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  4. Commenting on the effects of surface treated- and non-surface treated TiO2 in the Caco-2 cell model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a recent work published in Particle and Fibre Toxicology by Fisichella and coworkers investigating surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticle exposure in a model human intestinal epithelium (Caco-2), albeit degraded to mimic conditions in the gut and exposure to natural sunlight, purportedly resulted in no toxic effects. The authors (Fisichella et al.) claim to have confirmed the results of a 2010 report by Koeneman et al. However, the study by Koeneman and colleagues revealed significant effects of unmodified TiO2 nanoparticles. These contradicting data warrant further investigation into the possible effects of aluminum hydroxide, as these nanoparticles appear to have resulted in an abnormal apical surface in Caco-2 cells. This is a comment on http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/pdf/1743-8977-9-18.pdf. PMID:23146628

  5. On the photophysical and electrochemical studies of dye-sensitized solar cells with the new dye CYC-B1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Ging Chen; Chia-Yuan Chen; Shi-Jhang Wu; Jheng-Ying Li; Chun-Guey Wu; Kuo-Chuan Ho

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the photoelectrochemical characteristics of a ruthenium photosensitizer with an alkyl bithiophene group, designated as CYC-B1, are studied. The effect of mesoporous TiO2 film thickness on the photovoltaic performance of CYC-B1 and N3 dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated. The performance of the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using CYC-B1 dye-anchored TiO2 photoelectrode showed a convincing enhancement

  6. Thiols as interfacial modifiers to enhance the performance and stability of perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Shangfu; Zhao, Yun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-06-01

    Modifying the interfaces of CH3NH3PbI3 with TiO2 and hole transport layers using two different types of thiols leads to enhanced performance and stability of perovskite solar cells. The incorporation of HOOC-Ph-SH at the TiO2/perovskite interface facilitates electron transfer from perovskite to TiO2 and also alters the morphology of perovskite crystal growth to increase the power conversion efficiency. The modification of pentafluorobenzenethiol at the perovskite/hole transport layer interface improves the stability. PMID:25964159

  7. Mechanistic Investigation of the Biological Effects of SiO2 , TiO2 , and ZnO Nanoparticles on Intestinal Cells.

    PubMed

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Tay, Chor Yong; Leong, David T

    2015-07-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), and zinc oxide (ZnO) are currently among the most widely used nanoparticles (NPs) in the food industry. This could potentially lead to unintended exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to these NPs. This study aims to investigate the potential side-effects of these food-borne NPs on intestinal cells and to mechanistically understand the observed biological responses. Among the panel of tested NPs, ZnO NPs are the most toxic. Consistently in all three tested intestinal cell models, ZnO NPs invoke the most inflammatory responses from the cells and induce the highest intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The elevated ROS levels induce significant damage to the DNA of the cells, resulting in cell-cycle arrest and subsequently cell death. In contrast, both SiO2 and TiO2 NPs elicit minimum biological responses from the intestinal cells. Overall, the study showcases the varying capability of the food-borne NPs to induce a cellular response in the intestinal cells. In addition to physicochemical differences in the NPs, the genetic landscape of the intestinal cell models governs the toxicology profile of these food-borne NPs. PMID:25902938

  8. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports. PMID:23450835

  9. Cost effective facile synthesis of TiO2 nanograins for flexible DSSC application using rose bengal dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambure, Supriya Bapurao; Gund, Girish Sambhaji; Dubal, Deepak Prakash; Shinde, Sujata Sureshrao; Lokhande, Chandrakant Dnyandev

    2014-09-01

    Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanograins using economical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been carried out. TiO2 thin films are studied for their structural, compositional, optical and morphological properties. A layer by layer process leads to the formation of 2.4 ?m thick nanocrystalline TiO2 film. The heat treated TiO2 thin films are hydrophilic in nature with contact angle of 67°. The interconnected nanograins are employed for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using inexpensive Rose Bengal (RB) dye. RB dye sensitization resulted into shifting of absorption peak from UV to visible region. The photoresponce of the dye sensitized solar cell is evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte (0.1 M KI + 0.01 M I2) at 40 mWcm-2 illumination intensity. The TiO2 nanograins accompanied with RB sensitizer showed the conversion efficiency ( ?) of 0.89%. These results depict the strong assurance of TiO2 nanograins for DSSC application.

  10. Graphene nanosheet counter-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zhang; X. D. Li; S. Chen; H. B. Li; Z. Sun; X. J. Yin; S. M. Huang

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) have been investigated as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Mesoporous TiO2 films are prepared from the commercial TiO2 nano-powders by screen-printing technique on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) slides. GNs are applied to substitute for platinum as counter-electrode materials. GN films are screen printed on FTO glass using a paste based on GNs dispersed in

  11. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Chang; Yu-Jen Lo

    2010-01-01

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO2 nanofluid with an average particle size of 25nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO2 nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a

  12. Analysis on dye-sensitized solar cell's efficiency improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanmin Tian; Jiyuan Zhang; Yangjing; Tao Yu; Zhigang Zou

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Iph, I0, Rs, Rsh, n on the I-V curve, which are the equivalent circuit parameters of a dye-sensitized solar cell, was presented. A series of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared, and experiment results consisted with our theoretical deduction that the increase of Rs would change the FF of DSSC while none influence on short-circuit current Isc,

  13. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  14. Sprayed P25 scaffolds for high-efficiency mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Shi, Jiangjian; Lv, Songtao; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-06-11

    Uniform, thickness-controllable and large-size mesoscopic TiO2 films based on commercial P25 nanoparticles are prepared by a spray method, which have been applied in the perovskite solar cells, achieving a high efficiency of 16%. This spray method shows promising application in the large-scale production of mesoscopic solar cells. PMID:26024467

  15. Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer

    E-print Network

    -based photodetectors1­5 and photovoltaic6­12 devices to be tailored. Multi-junction solar cells made from a combi for a current-matched solar cell6 . Depleted-heterojunction CQD photovoltaics14 use TiO2 to accept compound semiconductor devices this is achieved using tunnel junctions15­18 and in organic photovoltaics

  16. Exploring the critical dependence of adsorption of various dyes on the degradation rate using Ln3+-TiO2 surface under UV/solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, L. Gomathi; Kumar, S. Girish

    2012-11-01

    The degradation of structurally different anionic dyes like Alizarin Red S (ARS) Amaranth (AR), Brilliant Yellow (BY), Congo Red (CR), Fast Red (FR), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methyl Red (MR) were carried out using Ln3+ (Ln3+ = La3+, Ce3+ and Gd3+) doped TiO2 at different pH conditions under UV/solar light. All the anionic dyes underwent rapid degradation at acidic pH, while resisted at alkaline conditions due to the adsorptive tendency of these dyes on the catalyst surface at different pH conditions. Gd3+ (0.15 mol%)-TiO2 exhibited better activity compared to other photocatalyst ascribed to half filled electronic configuration of Gd3+ ions. It is proposed that Ln3+ serves only as charge carrier traps under UV light, while it also act as visible light sensitizers under solar light. Irrespective of the catalyst and excitation source, the dye degradation followed the order: AR > FR > MO > MR > ARS > BY > CR. The results suggest that pre-adsorption of the pollutant is vital for efficient photocatalysis which is dependent on the nature of the substituent's group attached to the dye molecule.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of cylindrospermopsin under UV-A, solar and visible light using TiO2. Mineralization and intermediate products.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are considered an important water quality problem, since several genera can produce toxins, called cyanotoxins that are harmful to human health. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid-like potent cyanotoxin that has been reported in water reservoirs and lakes worldwide. In this paper the removal of CYN from water by UV-A, solar and visible light photocatalysis was investigated. Two different commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts were used, i.e., Degussa P25 and Kronos-vlp7000. Complete degradation of CYN was achieved with both photocatalysts in 15 and 40 min under UV-A and 40 and 120 min under solar light irradiation, for Degussa P25 and Kronos vlp-7000 respectively. Experiments in the absence of photocatalysts showed that direct photolysis was negligible. Under visible light irradiation only the Kronos vlp-7000 which is a visible light activated catalyst was able to degrade CYN. A number of intermediates were identified and a complete degradation pathway is proposed, leading to the conclusion that hydroxyl radical attack is the main mechanism followed. TOC and inorganic ions (NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and NH4+) determinations suggested that complete mineralization of CYN was achieved under UV-A in the presence of Degussa P25. PMID:24846598

  18. Monolithic quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadpour, M.; Ghane, Z.; Ghazyani, N.; Tajabadi, F.; Taghavinia, N.

    2013-12-01

    We report a new design of solar cells based on semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), monolithic quantum dot sensitized solar cells (MQDSCs). MQDSCs offer the prospect of having lower cost and a simpler manufacturing process in comparison to conventional double substrate QDSCs. Our proposed monolithic QDSCs have a triple-layer structure, composed of a CdS sensitized mesoporous TiO2 photoanode, a scattering layer made by a core-shell structure of TiO2/SiO2, and a carbon active/graphite counter electrode layer, which are all deposited on a single fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Mesoporous TiO2 was sensitized with CdS QDs by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. Here, non-conventional solvents were utilized, which made it possible to deposit the CdS QDs in our monolithic structure. The measured photovoltaic properties and simple preparation method show that MQDSCs can be introduced as promising structures to make low-cost QDSCs in the near future.

  19. Kinetics of ethyl paraben degradation by simulated solar radiation in the presence of N-doped TiO2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Petala, Athanasia; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Kondarides, Dimitris I; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2015-09-15

    Ethyl paraben (EP), an emerging micro-pollutant representative of the parabens family, has been subject to photocatalytic degradation under simulated solar radiation at a photon flux of 1.3·10(-4) E/(m(2) s). Six nitrogen-doped titania catalysts synthesized by annealing a sol-gel derived TiO2 powder under ammonia flow and their un-doped counterparts, calcined in air at different temperatures in the range 450-800 °C, were compared under solar and visible light and the most active one (N-doped TiO2 calcined at 600 °C) was used for further tests. Experiments were performed at EP concentrations between 150 and 900 ?g/L, catalyst loadings between 100 and 1000 mg/L, pH between 3 and 9, different matrices (ultrapure water, water spiked with humic acids or bicarbonates, drinking water and secondary treated wastewater) and hydrogen peroxide between 10 and 100 mg/L. For EP concentrations up to 300 ?g/L, the degradation rate can be approached by first order kinetics but then shifts to lower order as the concentration increases. The rate increases linearly with catalyst loading up to 750 mg/L and hydrogen peroxide up to 100 mg/L. Near-neutral (pH = 6.5-7.5) and alkaline conditions (pH = 9) do not affect degradation, which is reduced at acidic pH. The presence of humic acids at 10-20 mg/L impedes degradation due to the competition with EP for the oxidizing species and this is more pronounced in actual wastewater matrices. UPLC-ESI-HRMS and HPLC-DAD were employed to follow EP concentration changes, as well as identify and quantify transformation by-products during the early stages of the reaction. Five such products were successfully detected and, based on their concentration-time profiles, a reaction network for the degradation of EP is proposed. Hydroxyl radical reactions appear to prevail during the initial steps as evidenced by the rapid formation of hydroxylated and dealkylated intermediates. PMID:26057263

  20. Study on the fabrication and photovoltaic property of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Luo; Pan, Hao; Xie, Haixian; Yu, Ang; Xu, Meigui; Chai, Qingli; Cui, Yuming; Zhou, Xingfu

    2012-05-01

    Titanium dioxide mesoporous microspheres with high surface area was successfully prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal approach using polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 200) as the soft template. Study shows that ˜15 nm TiO2 nanoparticles was assembled into ˜1.1 ?m mesoporous microspheres. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of TiO2 microsphere is up to 137 m2/g. TiO2 mesoporous microspheres were fabricated onto the surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and used as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells, which exhibits an open circuit photovoltage of 0.80 V and an overall conversion efficiency of 6.6%. Owing to the enhanced dye loading and light-harvesting efficiency, a 26% improvement in the overall conversion efficiency was achieved when compared with the commercial Degussa P25 nanoparticles.

  1. Comparison of photovoltaic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles based thin films via different routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Well crystallized TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol-gel routes, respectively. The morphologies, structures, crystallinity and optical properties of resulted TiO2 nanoparticles-based thin films via the two methods were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and reflectance spectra. In addition, comparison of photovoltaic performance of TiO2 nanoparticles-based thin films by the two methods was performed. It is found that the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 4.06% was achieved based on the obtained electrode via hydrothermal, which is much better than that of the sol-gels route. The uniform film structure with improved dye absorption capability, increased diffused reflectance property and relatively low charge recombination rates for injected electrons are believed to be responsible to the superior photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) via hydrothermal route.

  2. Low temperature preparation of mesoporous TiO 2 films for efficient dye-sensitized photoelectrode by chemical vapor deposition combined with UV light irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takurou N. Murakami; Yujiro Kijitori; Norimichi Kawashima; Tsutomu Miyasaka

    2004-01-01

    A new method for fabricating plastic film-based mesoporous TiO2 electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells is described. TiO2 nanocrystalline layers electrophoretically deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film was post-treated with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ti alkoxide followed by UV light irradiation at temperatures below 110°C. UV-assisted CVD treatment drastically enhanced dye-sensitized photocurrent and improved photovoltage up to

  3. Semiconductor hierarchically structured flower-like clusters for dye-sensitized solar cells with nearly 100% charge collection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xukai; Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Ye, Meidan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-10-01

    By combining the ease of producing ZnO nanoflowers with the advantageous chemical stability of TiO2, hierarchically structured hollow TiO2 flower-like clusters were yielded via chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnO nanoflowers, followed by their conversion into TiO2 flower-like clusters in the presence of TiO2 precursors. The effects of ZnO precursor concentration, precursor amount, and reaction time on the formation of ZnO nanoflowers were systematically explored. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated by utilizing these hierarchically structured ZnO and TiO2 flower clusters exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.16% and 2.73%, respectively, under 100 mW cm-2 illumination. The intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) studies suggested that flower-like structures had a fast electron transit time and their charge collection efficiency was nearly 100%.

  4. Effect of molecular filtering and electrolyte composition on the spatial variation in performance of dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kati Miettunen; Imran Asghar; Simone Mastroianni; Janne Halme; Piers R. F. Barnes; Emma Rikkinen; Brian C. O’Regan; Peter Lund

    It is demonstrated that the molecular filtering effect of TiO2 has a significant influence on dye solar cell (DSC) performance. As electrolyte is injected to a DSC, some of the electrolyte components adsorb to the surface TiO2 (here 4-tert-butylpyridine and 1-methyl-benzimidazole) and accumulate near the electrolyte filling hole resulting in varying electrolyte composition and performance across the cell. The spatial

  5. Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, M; Kentgens, A P M; Mulder, F M

    2002-07-25

    Microcrystalline TiO(2) with an anatase crystal structure is used as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries, and also as a material for electrochromic and solar-cell devices. When intercalated with lithium, as required for battery applications, TiO(2) anatase undergoes spontaneous phase separation into lithium-poor (Li(0.01)TiO(2)) and lithium-rich (Li(0.6)TiO(2)) domains on a scale of several tens of nanometres. During discharge, batteries need to maintain a constant electrical potential between their electrodes over a range of lithium concentrations. The two-phase equilibrium system in the electrodes provides such a plateau in potential, as only the relative phase fractions vary on charging (or discharging) of the lithium. Just as the equilibrium between a liquid and a vapour is maintained by a continuous exchange of particles between the two phases, a similar exchange is required to maintain equilibrium in the solid state. But the time and length scales over which this exchange takes place are unclear. Here we report the direct observation by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of the continuous lithium-ion exchange between the intermixed crystallographic phases of lithium-intercalated TiO(2). We find that, at room temperature, the continuous flux of lithium ions across the phase boundaries is as high as 1.2 x 10(20) s(-1) m(-2). PMID:12140552

  6. Thiols as interfacial modifiers to enhance the performance and stability of perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jing; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Shangfu; Zhao, Yun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-05-01

    Modifying the interfaces of CH3NH3PbI3 with TiO2 and hole transport layers using two different types of thiols leads to enhanced performance and stability of perovskite solar cells. The incorporation of HOOC-Ph-SH at the TiO2/perovskite interface facilitates electron transfer from perovskite to TiO2 and also alters the morphology of perovskite crystal growth to increase the power conversion efficiency. The modification of pentafluorobenzenethiol at the perovskite/hole transport layer interface improves the stability.Modifying the interfaces of CH3NH3PbI3 with TiO2 and hole transport layers using two different types of thiols leads to enhanced performance and stability of perovskite solar cells. The incorporation of HOOC-Ph-SH at the TiO2/perovskite interface facilitates electron transfer from perovskite to TiO2 and also alters the morphology of perovskite crystal growth to increase the power conversion efficiency. The modification of pentafluorobenzenethiol at the perovskite/hole transport layer interface improves the stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the XRD, UV-vis spectra, cross-sectional SEM images and the EQE spectra of the cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01820j

  7. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Calogero; Gaetano Di Marco

    2008-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency (?=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under

  8. Hybrid micro/nano-topography of a TiO2 nanotube-coated commercial zirconia femoral knee implant promotes bone cell adhesion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Christine J.; Noh, Kunbae; Brammer, Karla S.; Johnston, Gary; Jin, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches have been studied to engineer the implant surface to enhance bone in-growth properties, particularly using micro- and nano- topography. In this study, the behavior of osteoblast (bone) cells was analyzed in response to a titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotube-coated commercial zirconia femoral knee implant consisting of a combined surface structure of a micro-roughened surface with the nanotube coating. The osteoblast cells demonstrated high degrees of adhesion and integration into the surface of the nanotube-coated implant material, indicating preferential cell behavior on this surface when compared to the bare implant. The results of this brief study provide sufficient evidence to encourage future studies. The development of such hierarchical micro and nano topographical features, as demonstrated in this work, can provide for insightful designs for advanced bone-inducing material coatings on ceramic orthopedic implant surfaces. PMID:23623092

  9. Titania Particle Size Effect on the Overall Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Tammy P. Chou, Qifeng Zhang, Bryan Russo, Glen E. Fryxell, and Guozhong Cao*,

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    Titania Particle Size Effect on the Overall Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Tammy P. Chou-6 To this point, the most efficient electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells have been 10 µm thick mesoporous TiO2, efficient light absorption, and charge formation. In 1993, it was found that dye-sensitized solar cells were

  10. Large-diameter titanium dioxide nanotube arrays as a scattering layer for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Large-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays with an outer diameter of approximately 500 nm have been successfully synthesized by potentiostatic anodization at 180 V in a used electrolyte with the addition of 1.5 M lactic acid. It is found that the synthesized large-diameter TiO2 nanotube array shows a superior light scattering ability, which can be used as a light scattering layer to significantly enhance the efficiency of TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells from 5.18% to 6.15%. The remarkable light scattering ability makes the large-diameter TiO2 nanotube array a promising candidate for light management in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:25114652

  11. Low-Cost Copper Nanostructures Impart High Efficiencies to Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Ghosal, Partha

    2015-06-24

    Quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) were fabricated using low-cost Cu nanostructures and a carbon fabric as a counter electrode for the first time. Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and nanoneedles (NNs) with a face-centered cubic structure were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and electrophoretically deposited over a CdS QD sensitized titania (TiO2) electrode. Compared to Cu NPs, which increase the light absorption of a TiO2/CdS photoanode via scattering effects only in the visible region, Cu NNs are more effective for efficient far-field light scattering; they enhance the light absorption of the TiO2/CdS assembly beyond the visible to near-infrared (NIR) regions as well. The highest fluorescence quenching, lowest excited electron lifetime, and a large surface potential (deduced from Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)) observed for the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode compared to TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Cu NP electrodes confirm that Cu NNs also facilitate charge transport. KPFM studies also revealed a larger shift of the apparent Fermi level to more negative potentials in the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode, compared to the other two electrodes (versus NHE), which results in a higher open-circuit voltage for the Cu NN based electrode. The best performing QDSC based on the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode delivers a stellar power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.36%, greater by 56.8% and 32.1% than the PCEs produced by the cells based on TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Cu NPs, respectively. A maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 58% obtained for the cell with the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode and a finite EQE in the NIR region which the other two cells do not deliver are clear indicators of the enormous promise this cheap, earth-abundant Cu nanostructure holds for amplifying the solar cell response in both the visible and near-infrared regions through scattering enhancements. PMID:26000891

  12. Mix-solvent-thermal method for the synthesis of anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide used in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunfeng Lao; Yutao Chuai; Li Su; Xiao Liu; Lan Huang; Humin Cheng; Dechun Zou

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 with almost pure anatase form has been synthesized through the Mix-solvent-thermal method (MST) by using TiCl4 as the starting material. The mean size of the synthesized TiO2 is 10nm with narrow distribution. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cell with nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode formed from MST was achieved. Its Isc and Voc values reached 21.62mA\\/cm2 and 727.9mV, respectively, and the photovoltaic

  13. Photovoltaic Properties and Preparations of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Solid-State Polymer Electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Ra Kim; Sung-Ho Jin; Sung-Hae Park; Hyun-Jeong Lee; Eun-Hee Kang; Jin-Kook Lee

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using a polymer matrix in polymer electrolyte in the purpose of the improvement of the durability in the dye-sensitized solar cells. In these dye-sensitized solar cells, the polymer electrolyte consisting of I2, LiI, ionic liquid, ethylene carbonate\\/propylene carbonate (EC\\/PC) and polymer matrix was casted onto TiO2 electrode impregnated Ruthenium dye as a photosensitizer. Photovoltaic

  14. Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Ruthenium and Osmium Polypyridyl Complexes Adsorbed onto Nanocrystalline TiO2 Photoelectrodes

    E-print Network

    McCusker, James K.

    Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Ruthenium and Osmium Polypyridyl Complexes Adsorbed onto Transient absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe the electron injection dynamics of transition metal-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. Transient absorption experi- ments in the visible and infrared spectral regions

  15. Sn-doped TiO2 modified carbon to support Pt anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yabei; Liu, Chuntao; Liu, Yanying; Feng, Bo; Li, Li; Pan, Hengyu; Kellogg, Williams; Higgins, Drew; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Catalyst supports are known to play important role in governing overall catalyst activity and durability. Here, a new type of SnO2-TiO2 solid solution (TixSn1-xO2) support was prepared via a solvothermal method with substitution of Ti4+ by Sn4+ in the TiO2 lattice. Furthermore, the TixSn1-xO2 was combined with conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72) to prepare a hybrid support (TixSn1-xO2-C) for depositing Pt nanoparticles. The ratios of Sn vs. Ti in the solid-solution and TixSn1-xO2 vs. XC-72 were systematically optimized in terms of their performance as supports for methanol oxidation. Compared to Pt/TiO2-C and commercial Pt/C catalysts, the best performing Pt/Ti0.9Sn0.1O2-C catalyst exhibited the highest activity, evidenced by methanol oxidation and CO stripping experiments. The well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles (2-3 nm) are mostly deposited on the boundaries of Ti0.9Sn0.1O2 and carbon blacks. Formation of the special triple junction structure can play an important role in improving Pt utilization with increased electrochemical active surface areas (ESA) of Pt. In addition, the enhanced activity for Pt supported on Ti0.9Sn0.1O2-C is due to high content of OH group on Ti0.9Sn0.1O2 along with the strengthened metal-supports interactions. Both promote the oxidation of poisoning CO absorbed on Pt active sites.

  16. Toxicity assessment of metoprolol and its photodegradation mixtures obtained by using different type of TiO2 catalysts in the mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    ?etojevi?-Simin, Dragana D; Armakovi?, Sanja J; Šoji?, Daniela V; Abramovi?, Biljana F

    2013-10-01

    Toxicity of metoprolol (MET) alone and in mixtures with its photocatalytic degradation intermediates obtained by using TiO2 Wackherr and Degussa P25 under UV irradiation in the presence of O2 was evaluated in vitro in a panel of three histologically different cell lines: rat hepatoma (H-4-II-E), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and human fetal lung (MRC-5). Both catalysts promoted a time-dependent increase in the toxicity of the photodegradation products, and those obtained using Degussa P25 photocatalyst were more toxic. The most pronounced and selective toxic action of MET and products of its photodegradation was observed in the hepatic cell line. The higher toxicity of the mixtures obtained using Degussa P25 catalyst could be explained by a different mechanism of MET degradation, i.e. by the presence or higher concentrations of some intermediates. Although the concentrations of intermediates obtained using TiO2 Wackherr catalyst were higher, they did not affect significantly the growth of the examined cell lines, indicating their lower toxicity. This suggests that a treatment aiming at complete mineralization should be performed bearing in mind that the type of catalyst, the concentration of target molecule, and the duration of the process are significant factors that determine the nature and toxicity of the resulting mixtures. Although the EC50 values of MET obtained in mammalian cell lines were higher compared to the bioassays for lower trophic levels, the time-dependent promotion of toxicity of degradation mixtures should be attributed to the higher sensitivity of mammalian cell bioassays. PMID:23872187

  17. Enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell using graphene-TiO2 photoanode prepared by heterogeneous coagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengrui Sun; Lian Gao; Yangqiao Liu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated using graphene-TiO2 composite photoanodes. The graphene-TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared using the heterogeneous coagulation between Nafion-coated graphene and commercial TiO2 (P25) nanoparticles, which ensured a tight interfacial binding between them. The DSSC incorporating 0.5 wt % graphene in the TiO2 photoanode demonstrates a power conversion efficiency of 4.28%, which is 59% higher

  18. Effects of paste storage on the properties of nanostructured thin films for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Syrrokostas; M. Giannouli; P. Yianoulis

    2009-01-01

    The effects of paste storage on the properties of nanostructured thin films were investigated in the present study. To this aim, dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using nanostructured TiO2 thin films and an organic dye as a sensitizer. Aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles was observed when paste was stored until deposition affecting film's porosity and surface roughness factor and as a

  19. solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Minnaert; Marc Burgelman

    Basic solar cell characteristics were examined in an organic bulk heterojunction device. The active layer is a spincoated organic blend of a p- material (MEH-PPV) and an n-material (the fullerene derivative PCBM), sandwiched between a transparent ITO-PEDOT\\/PSS electrode and an Al\\/LiF back-contact. We carried out light and dark I-V and spectral response measurements and measured the transparency of the active

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  1. Effects of Electron Trapping and Protonation on the Efficiency of Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    -Sensitized Solar Cells John R. Swierk, Nicholas S. McCool, Timothy P. Saunders, Greg D. Barber, and Thomas E energy in fuels is a key challenge for solar energy research. Water-splitting dye- sensitized light illumination. In these cells, a mesoporous anatase TiO2 anode is sensitized with a dye and a water

  2. TiO2 Nanotubes arrays sensitized with Bi2MoO6 NPs and QDs (PbS, CdS) for solar energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Shaislamov; B. Yang

    2011-01-01

    We report investigation results of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays sensitized with Bi2MoO6 metal oxides and PbS, CdS quantum dots (QDs) to address the issues of improving the efficiency of water-splitting under visible-light irradiation for hydrogen energy. XRD and TEM investigations showed well crystallized Bi2MoO6 nanoparticles on the TiO2 nanotube wall. Measurements of photo conversion efficiency and monochromatic absorption

  3. Hierarchically Structured ZnO Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Enhanced Energy Conversion Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Tammy P.; Zhang, Qifeng; Fryxell, Glen E.; Cao, Guozhong

    2007-09-17

    The interest in dye-sensitized solar cells has increased due to reduced energy sources and higher energy production costs. For the most part, titania (TiO2) has been the material of choice for dye-sensitized solar cells and so far have shown to exhibit the highest overall light conversion efficiency ~ 11%.[1] However, zinc oxide (ZnO) has recently been explored as an alternative material in dye-sensitized solar cells with great potential.[2] The main reasons for this increase in research surrounding ZnO material include: 1) ZnO having a band gap similar to that for TiO2 at 3.2 eV,[3] and 2) ZnO having a much higher electron mobility ~ 115-155 cm2/Vs[4] than that for anatase titania (TiO2), which is reported to be ~ 10-5 cm2/Vs.[5] In addition, ZnO has a few advantages as the semiconductor electrode when compared to TiO2, including 1) simpler tailoring of the nanostructure as compared to TiO2, and 2) easier modification of the surface structure. These advantages[6] are thought to provide a promising means for improving the solar cell performance of the working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pure and pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and modified sol-gel methods, respectively. The pre dye treatment has improved the properties of TiO2, such as uniform dye adsorption, reduced agglomeration, improved morphology and less dye aggregation. The brazilein pigment-rich Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract was used as natural dye sensitizer for pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Low cost and environment friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye showed solar light to electron conversion efficiencies of 1.09 and 1.65 %, respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2-based DSSC showed 51 % improvement in efficiency when compared to that of conventionally prepared DSSC.

  5. Kelvin probe force microscopy of nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Henning, Alex; Günzburger, Gino; Jöhr, Res; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Bozic-Weber, Biljana; Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C; Meyer, Ernst; Glatzel, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) provide a promising third-generation photovoltaic concept based on the spectral sensitization of a wide-bandgap metal oxide. Although the nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrode of a DSC consists of sintered nanoparticles, there are few studies on the nanoscale properties. We focus on the microscopic work function and surface photovoltage (SPV) determination of TiO2 photoelectrodes using Kelvin probe force microscopy in combination with a tunable illumination system. A comparison of the surface potentials for TiO2 photoelectrodes sensitized with two different dyes, i.e., the standard dye N719 and a copper(I) bis(imine) complex, reveals an inverse orientation of the surface dipole. A higher surface potential was determined for an N719 photoelectrode. The surface potential increase due to the surface dipole correlates with a higher DSC performance. Concluding from this, microscopic surface potential variations, attributed to the complex nanostructure of the photoelectrode, influence the DSC performance. For both bare and sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes, the measurements reveal microscopic inhomogeneities of more than 100 mV in the work function and show recombination time differences at different locations. The bandgap of 3.2 eV, determined by SPV spectroscopy, remained constant throughout the TiO2 layer. The effect of the built-in potential on the DSC performance at the TiO2/SnO2:F interface, investigated on a nanometer scale by KPFM measurements under visible light illumination, has not been resolved so far. PMID:23844348

  6. Kelvin probe force microscopy of nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Günzburger, Gino; Jöhr, Res; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Bozic-Weber, Biljana; Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C; Meyer, Ernst; Glatzel, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) provide a promising third-generation photovoltaic concept based on the spectral sensitization of a wide-bandgap metal oxide. Although the nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrode of a DSC consists of sintered nanoparticles, there are few studies on the nanoscale properties. We focus on the microscopic work function and surface photovoltage (SPV) determination of TiO2 photoelectrodes using Kelvin probe force microscopy in combination with a tunable illumination system. A comparison of the surface potentials for TiO2 photoelectrodes sensitized with two different dyes, i.e., the standard dye N719 and a copper(I) bis(imine) complex, reveals an inverse orientation of the surface dipole. A higher surface potential was determined for an N719 photoelectrode. The surface potential increase due to the surface dipole correlates with a higher DSC performance. Concluding from this, microscopic surface potential variations, attributed to the complex nanostructure of the photoelectrode, influence the DSC performance. For both bare and sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes, the measurements reveal microscopic inhomogeneities of more than 100 mV in the work function and show recombination time differences at different locations. The bandgap of 3.2 eV, determined by SPV spectroscopy, remained constant throughout the TiO2 layer. The effect of the built-in potential on the DSC performance at the TiO2/SnO2:F interface, investigated on a nanometer scale by KPFM measurements under visible light illumination, has not been resolved so far. PMID:23844348

  7. Fine designing 3-dimensional ZnO nanowalls with TiO2 nanoparticles for DSSC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Bayatloo, Elham

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we report a low-cost low-temperature hydrothermal technique for covering 3-dimensional (3-D) electrodeposited ZnO nanowall with thin layer of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles on FTO substrate for dye-sensitized solar cell application, in a way that morphology and crystal structure of ZnO nanowalls were preserved. Comparing photovoltaic characteristics of devices with and without TiO2-coating layer, it was revealed that the 3-D ZnO/TiO2-nanostructured photoanode resulted in a 35 % cell performance improved mostly because of enhancement of short-circuit current density ( J sc) and open-circuit voltage ( V oc). The XRD pattern showed that 3-D ZnO nanowalls and TiO2 compose of wurtzite and anatase phases, respectively.

  8. Efficiency enhancements in Ag nanoparticles-SiO2-TiO2 sandwiched structure via plasmonic effect-enhanced light capturing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    TiO2-SiO2-Ag composites are fabricated by depositing TiO2 films on silica substrates embedded with Ag nanoparticles. Enhancement of light absorption of the nanostructural composites is observed. The light absorption enhancement of the synthesized structure in comparison to TiO2 originated from the near-field enhancement caused by the plasmonic effect of Ag nanoparticles, which can be demonstrated by the optical absorption spectra, Raman scattering investigation, and the increase of the photocatalytic activity. The embedded Ag nanoparticles are formed by ion implantation, which effectively prevents Ag to be oxidized through direct contact with TiO2. The suggested incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures shows a great potential application in a highly efficient photocatalyst and ultra-thin solar cell. PMID:23402586

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Zhang; Zhijun Ning; Hongcui Pei; Wenjun Wu

    2009-01-01

    Three organic dyes based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives (I1, I2 and I3) were synthesized and investigated as sensitizers\\u000a for the application in nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The indole group, maleimide group and carboxylic group functioned as electron donor, acceptor and anchoring\\u000a group, respectively. Solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies under simulated amplitude-modulated 1.5 irradiation\\u000a (100 mW·cm?2) of 2.07% were obtained for solar cells

  10. Chronic TiO2 nanoparticle exposure to a benthic organism, Hyalella azteca: Impact of solar UV radiation and material surface coatings on toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study examined the chronic toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a representative benthic species, Hyalella azteca, using an industry standard, P25, and a coated nano-TiO2 used in commercial products. There is limited information on the chronic effects of nano...

  11. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature. PMID:26008203

  12. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Roberto; Colonna, Daniele; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2013-02-11

    In this paper we analyze the interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells by varying fabrication parameters such as the thickness of the nano-crystalline TiO(2) layer, the dye loading and the dye type. Both transparency and efficiency show a saturation trend when plotted versus dye loading. By introducing the transparency-efficiency plot, we show that the relation between transparency and efficiency is linear and is almost independent on the TiO(2) thickness for a certain thickness range. On the contrary, the relation between transparency and efficiency depends strongly on the type of the dye. Moreover, we show that co-sensitization techniques can be effectively used to access regions of the transparency-efficiency space that are forbidden for single dye sensitization. The relation found between transparency and efficiency (T&E) can be the general guide for optimization of Dye Solar Cells in building integration applications. PMID:23481782

  13. Aluminum plasmonic nanoparticles enhanced dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuxiang; Meng, Weisi; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2014-03-10

    We present an investigation on utilizing plasmonic aluminium (Al) nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the optical absorption of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Al NPs exhibit not only the light absorption enhancement in solar cells with localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect but also the chemical stability to iodide/triiodide electrolyte. Besides, the lower work function (~4.06 eV), compared with that of TiO(2) (~4.6 eV), may suppress the quenching processes, such as charge transfer to metal NPs, to reduce the loss. Thus, high concentration of Al NPs could be incorporated into the TiO(2) anodes, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is improved by nearly 13%. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterization also indicates that the plasmonic DSCs with Al NPs present better electrochemical performance than regular ones, which contributes to the improvement of PCE of the device. PMID:24800286

  14. TiO2 nanofibers resembling 'yellow bristle grass' in morphology by a soft chemical transformation.

    PubMed

    Nandan, Sandeep; Deepak, T G; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2015-05-12

    We synthesized a uniquely shaped one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructure having the morphology of yellow bristle grass with high surface area by the titanate route under mild reaction conditions. The electrospun TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers upon treatment with concentrated NaOH at 80 °C under ambient pressure for 24 h resulted in sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanostructures. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures have an overall 1-D fibrous morphology but the highly porous fiber surfaces were decorated with layered thorn-like features (a morphology resembling that of yellow bristle grass) resulting in high surface area (113 m(2) g(-1)) and porosity. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures were converted into TiO2 nanostructures of the same morphology by acidification (0.1 N HCl) followed by low temperature sintering (110 °C) processes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constructed out of the material (cells of area 0.20 cm(2) and thickness 12 ?m) showed a power conversion efficiency (?) of 8.02% in comparison with commercial P-25 TiO2 (? = 6.1%). PMID:25923133

  15. Dust in brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets. IV. Assessing TiO2 and SiO nucleation for cloud formation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Helling, Ch.; Giles, H.; Bromley, S. T.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Clouds form in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and planets. The cloud particle formation processes, seed formation and growth/evaporation are very similar to the dust formation process studied in circumstellar shells of AGB stars and in supernovae. Cloud formation modelling in substellar objects requires gravitational settling and element replenishment in addition to element depletion. All processes depend on the local conditions, and a simultaneous treatment is required. Aims: We apply new material data in order to assess our cloud formation model results regarding the treatment of the formation of condensation seeds. We look again at the question of the primary nucleation species in view of new (TiO2)N-cluster data and new SiO vapour pressure data. Methods: We applied the density functional theory (B3LYP, 6-311G(d)) using the computational chemistry package Gaussian 09 to derive updated thermodynamical data for (TiO2)N clusters as input for our TiO2 seed formation model. We tested different nucleation treatments and their effect on the overall cloud structure by solving a system of dust moment equations and element conservation for a prescribed Drift-Phoenixatmosphere structure. Results: Updated Gibbs free energies for the (TiO2)N clusters are presented, as well as a slightly temperature dependent surface tension for T = 500 ... 2000 K with an average value of ?? = 480.6 erg cm-2. The TiO2 seed formation rate changes only slightly with the updated cluster data. A considerably larger effect on the rate of seed formation, and hence on grain size and dust number density, results from a switch to SiO nucleation. The question about the most efficient nucleation species can only be answered if all dust/cloud formation processes and their feedback are taken into account. Despite the higher abundance of SiO over TiO2 in the gas phase, TiO2 remains considerably more efficient at forming condensation seeds by homogeneous nucleation. The paper discusses the effect on the cloud structure in more detail. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC. PMID:24682058

  17. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 ?m thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, ? = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  19. Investigation of the stability of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin-Tong Zhang; Taketo Taguchi; Hai-Bin Wang; Qing-Bo Meng; Osamu Sato; Akira Fujishima

    2007-01-01

    The stability of the TiO2\\/ruthenium dye\\/CuI solid-state solar cell was investigated under continuous simulated sunlight illumination. The cells showed\\u000a fast degradation under full-spectrum sunlight illumination, but showed rather good stability when the ultraviolet part of\\u000a the illumination was removed. XPS measurements showed evidence that TiO2 could oxidize CuI in the presence of UV light. The photo-degradation mechanism of the cells

  20. Mordant dyes as sensitisers in dye-sensitised solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith R. Millington; Keith W. Fincher; A. Lee King

    2007-01-01

    Many mordant dyes commonly used in the textile industry form coordination complexes at the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2. Dyes having a salicylate chelating group are particularly effective. Forty-nine commercial mordant dyes were studied as sensitisers in a non-optimised dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and their performance compared to the N3 ruthenium complex. Although N3 produced the highest output, six mordant dyes

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heungsoo Kim; Alberto Pique; Gary P. Kushto; Raymond C. Y. Auyeung; S. H. Lee; Craig B. Arnold; Zakia H. Kafafi

    2004-01-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous,

  2. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 film for DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Bin; Park, Dong-Won; Jeun, Joon-Pyo; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Nho, Young-Chang; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    iO2 has been widely utilized for various industrial applications such as photochemical cells, photocatalysts, and electrochromic devices. The crystallinity and morphology of TiO2 films play a significant role in determining the overall efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this study, the preparation of nanostructured TiO2 films by electron beam irradiation and their characterization were investigated for the application of DSSCs. TiO2 films were exposed to 20-100 kGy of electron beam irradiation using 1.14 MeV energy acceleration with a 7.46 mA beam current and 10 kGy/pass dose rates. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. After irradiation, each TiO2 film was tested as a DSSC. At low doses of electron beam irradiation (20 kGy), the energy conversion efficiency of the film was approximately 4.0% under illumination of simulated sunlight with AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2). We found that electron beam irradiation resulted in surface modification of the TiO2 films, which could explain the observed increase in the conversion efficiency in irradiated versus non-irradiated films.

  3. Optimizing stem cell functions and antibacterial properties of TiO2 nanotubes incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles: experiments and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Gonzales, Arthur; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Hongyi; Zhang, Zhenting; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    To optimize mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and antibacterial properties of titanium (Ti), nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles with tunable concentrations were incorporated into TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) using a facile hydrothermal strategy. It is revealed here for the first time that the TNTs incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles exhibited better biocompatibility compared with pure Ti samples (controls) and that the amount of ZnO (tailored by the concentration of Zn(NO3)2 in the precursor) introduced into TNTs played a crucial role on their osteogenic properties. Not only was the alkaline phosphatase activity improved to about 13.8 U/g protein, but the osterix, collagen-I, and osteocalcin gene expressions was improved from mesenchymal stem cells compared to controls. To further explore the mechanism of TNTs decorated with ZnO on cell functions, a response surface mathematical model was used to optimize the concentration of ZnO incorporation into the Ti nanotubes for stem cell differentiation and antibacterial properties for the first time. Both experimental and modeling results confirmed (R2 values of 0.8873–0.9138 and 0.9596–0.9941, respectively) that Ti incorporated with appropriate concentrations (with an initial concentration of Zn(NO3)2 at 0.015 M) of ZnO can provide exceptional osteogenic properties for stem cell differentiation in bone cells with strong antibacterial effects, properties important for improving dental and orthopedic implant efficacy. PMID:25792833

  4. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Takahashi; M. Konagai

    1986-01-01

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems;

  5. Solution processable titanium dioxide precursor and nanoparticulated ink: application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Jimenez, Pau; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantu, Mónica; Domingo, Concepción; Ayllón, José A

    2014-02-15

    Colloidal TiO2 anatase nanoparticles of 4-8 nm diameter capped with 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid (TODA) were synthesized at low temperature using water and ethanol as the solvents. ATR-FTIR and (1)H NMR characterization showed the capping acid capability of stabilizing the TiO2 nanoparticles through labile hydrogen bonds. The presence of the capping ligand permitted the further preparation of homogeneous and stable colloidal dispersions of the TiO2 powder in aqueous media. Moreover, after solvent evaporation, the ligand could be easily eliminated by soft treatments, such as UV irradiation or low-temperature thermal annealing. These properties have been used in this work to fabricate mesoporous TiO2 electrodes, which can be applied as photoanodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). For the preparation of the electrodes, the as-synthesized mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) and deposited on FTO substrates by using the doctor blade technique. A mixture of water and ethanol was used as the solvent. A soft thermal treatment at 140 °C for 2h eliminated the organic compound and produced a sintered mesoporous layer of 6 ?m thickness. The photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs applying these electrodes sensitized with the N3 dye resulted in 5.6% power conversion efficiency. PMID:24326146

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-ZnO-graphene nanocomposite towards photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) - Zinc oxide (ZnO) - Graphene (G) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized through facile hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique revealed the formation of TiO2-ZnO-Graphene (TZG) nanocomposite. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets were clearly noticeable in the Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FE-SEM). The UV-Visible absorption spectra clearly indicated that the formation of TZG nanocomposite enriched the absorption in the visible region. Hence, the prepared nanocomposite can be used as photocatalyst to remove organic dyes from water and as photoanode in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  7. Understanding the effect of flower extracts on the photoconducting properties of nanostructured TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S G; Bhayana, Laitka; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Hajry, A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ansari, Z A

    2012-10-01

    Here we report an easy method to improve the optoelectronic properties of commercially available TiO2 nanopowder using extracts of various flowers viz. Calendula Orange (CO), Calendula Yellow (CY), Dahlia Violet (DV), Dahlia Yellow (DY), Rabbit flower (RF), Sweet Poppy (SP), Sweet Williams (SW) and their Mixed Extracts (ME). Various analysis techniques such as UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize for elemental, structural and morphological properties of the unmixed/mixed TiO2 nanopowder. TiO2 nanopowder was also calcined at 550 degrees C. Thick films of the these unmixed/mixed powder were printed, using conventional screen printing method, on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with organic binders and dried at 45 degrees C. The photoconducting properties are investigated as a function of wavelength from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) region at a constant illumination intensity. Photocurrent gradually decreases when irradiated from UV to IR region. In case of unmixed and uncalcined TiO2, conductance decreased continuously whereas when extracts are added, a flat region of conductance is observed. The overall effect of extracts (colour pigments) is seen as an increase in the photoconductance. Highest photoconductance is observed in case of DY flower extract. Anthocyanins, present in flowers are known to have antioxidative properties and hence can contribute in photoconduction by reducing the surface adsorbed oxygen. This investigation indicates the potential use of flower extracts for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). PMID:23421149

  8. Localized control of light-matter interactions by using nanoscale asymmetric TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shifeng; Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Nishi, Masayuki; Hong, Zhanglian; Qiu, Jianrong; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2012-11-23

    This paper reports an asymmetry structure-mediated route for highly localized control of light-matter interactions by using tapered TiO(2). We demonstrate for the first time that the growth habit of Ag nanostructures on tapered TiO(2) can be tuned by controllable photolysis. Site-selective anchoring of Ag nanoparticles or nanowires on tapered TiO(2) can be achieved by simply changing the external light. We further show that the obtained tapered TiO(2)-Ag hetero-nanostructures present excellent light-trapping ability over a wide range of wavelengths which is considered to originate from the unique synergistic effects of graded waveguiding and plasmonic light trapping. This improved photon-management capability renders the prepared substrate a very promising candidate for optical sensing application. For this purpose, an enhanced sensitivity for trace detection is confirmed. These findings open up promising avenues for tailoring of light-matter interactions which are of special interest for studying controllable photolysis activation processes and diverse applications such as nanostructure growth, trace detection, photocatalysis and solar cells. PMID:23093286

  9. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h-1 g-1 has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature.We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h-1 g-1 has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02097b

  10. Photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced polymer antimicrobial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) containing coatings can provide sustainable protection against microbial contamination. However, metallic Cu coatings have not been widely used due to the relatively high cost, poor corrosion resistance, and low compatibility with non-metal substrates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) possesses antibacterial functions by its photocatalytic properties which can destroy bacteria or suppress their reproduction. TiO2 also has the function of improving the mechanical properties through particle dispersion strengthening. We have recently developed an innovative polymer based coating system containing fine particles of Cu and TiO2 nanoparticles. These polymer based coatings simultaneously display excellent antimicrobial and good mechanical properties. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 has improved the antimicrobial property under sunlight, which provides extended applications in outdoor environment. The elimination of 106 bacterial by contacting the coatings without TiO2 needs 5 h, while contacting with the Cu/TiO2- 1 wt.% TiO2 took only 2 h to kill the same amount of bacteria. The coatings also presented enhanced hardness and wear resistance after adding TiO2. The width of wear track decreased from 270 ?m of the Cu-polymer coating to 206 ?m of Cu/TiO2-polymer coatings with 10 wt.% TiO2. Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy was used to in-situ and in-vivo study the bacteria killing process at the molecular level. The real-time chemical images of bacterial activities showed that the bacterial cell membranes were damaged by the Cu and TiO2 containing coatings

  11. Adherence of human mesenchymal stem cells on Ti and TiO2 nano-columnar surfaces fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motemani, Yahya; Greulich, Christina; Khare, Chinmay; Lopian, Michael; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with Ti and TiO2 nano-columnar surfaces fabricated using glancing angle sputter deposition was investigated. The adherence and proliferation of hMSCs on different nano-columnar surfaces, including vertical columns, slanted columns and chevrons, were examined with calcein-acetoxymethyl ester fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy. For comparison, adherence of hMSCs on compact, dense films was also studied. After 24 h and 7 days, adherent and viable cells were observed on both, Ti nano-columns as well as dense Ti films, which confirms the biocompatibility of these nanostructures. Very small pseudopodia with width of approximately 20-35 nm and length varying from 20 to 200 nm were observed between the nano-columns, independent of the type of the nano-columnar morphology. Large inter-column spacing and effectively increased surface area make these nanostructures promising candidates for bio-functionalization or drug loading on the surface of Ti-based implants.

  12. Laser-Sintered $\\\\hbox{TiO}_{2}$ Films for Dye Solar Cell Fabrication: An Electrical, Morphological, and Electron Lifetime Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girolamo Mincuzzi; Luigi Vesce; Massimiliano Liberatore; Andrea Reale; Aldo Di Carlo; Thomas M. Brown

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a systematic and combined I-V , electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scan- ning emission microscopy (SEM) investigation of dye solar cells (DSCs) fabricated with laser-sintered TiO2 photoanodes as a function of laser-integrated fluence ?. We show that the electron lifetime ?oc in the TiO2 film extracted from EIS spectra monoton- ically increases with laser sintering fluence

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Gómez-Ortíz; I. A. Vázquez-Maldonado; A. R. Pérez-Espadas; G. J. Mena-Rejón; J. A. Azamar-Barrios; G. Oskam

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using 1H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO2

  14. Recent progress in interface modification for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BeiBei Ma; Rui Gao; LiDuo Wang; YiFeng Zhu; YanTao Shi; Yi Geng; HaoPeng Dong; Yong Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Interface modification on the TiO2\\/dye\\/electrolyte interface of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is one of the most effective approaches to suppress the charge\\u000a recombination, improve electron injection and transportation, and thus ameliorate the conversion efficiency and stability\\u000a of DSCs. Conventional research focusing on the photoanodes interface modification before sensitization in dye-sensitized solar\\u000a cells has been carried out and reviewed. However, recent

  15. Investigation of the Temperature Behavior of Dye?Sensitised Solar Cells Prepared Using Different Binders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schabauer; C. P. Morley; J. Baker; N. Dartnell; P. Douglas; C. Winscom

    2007-01-01

    Dye?sensitised solar cells were made using variations of a standard procedure, including the introduction of new binder materials into the TiO2 semiconductor films. It was found that the degree of cracking of the films can be influenced by both their thickness and the nature of the binder. Photoelectric measurements of working solar cells were carried out. The changes of influential

  16. Carbon-deposited TiO2 3D inverse opal photocatalysts: visible-light photocatalytic activity and enhanced activity in a viscous solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunbok; Lee, Youngshin; Kim, Dong Ha; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-12-11

    We for the first time demonstrated carbon-deposited TiO2 inverse opal (C-TiO2 IO) structures as highly efficient visible photocatalysts. The carbon deposition proceeded via high-temperature pyrolysis of phloroglucinol/formaldehyde resol, which had been coated onto the TiO2 IO structures. Carbon deposition formed a carbon layer and doped the TiO2 interface, which synergistically enhanced visible-light absorption. We directly measured the visible-light photocatalytic activity by constructing solar cells comprising the C-TiO2 IO electrode. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in a solution was also evaluated. Photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light was only observed in the presence of the C-TiO2 IO sample and was increased with the content of carbon deposition. The IO structures could be readily decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles to increase the surface area and enhance the photocatalytic activity. Notably, the photocatalytic reaction was found to proceed in a viscous polymeric solution. A comparison of the mesoporous TiO2 structure and the IO TiO2 structure revealed that the latter performed better as the solution viscosity increased. This result was attributed to facile diffusion into the fully connected and low-tortuosity macropore network of the IO structure. PMID:24266769

  17. Improving Performance via Blocking Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanowire Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Luping; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Shikai; Ziegler, Kirk J

    2015-06-17

    Electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) results in significant electron loss and performance degradation. However, the reduction of electron recombination via blocking layers in nanowire-based DSSCs has rarely been investigated. In this study, HfO2 or TiO2 blocking layers are deposited on nanowire surfaces via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to reduce electron recombination in nanowire-based DSSCs. The control cell consisting of ITO nanowires coated with a porous shell of TiO2 by TiCl4 treatment yields an efficiency of 2.82%. The efficiency increases dramatically to 5.38% upon the insertion of a 1.3 nm TiO2 compact layer between the nanowire surface and porous TiO2 shell. This efficiency enhancement implies that porous sol-gel coatings on nanowires (e.g., via TiCl4 treatment) result in significant electron recombination in nanowire-based DSSCs, while compact coatings formed by ALD are more advantageous because of their ability to act as a blocking layer. By comparing nanowire-based DSSCs with their nanoparticle-based counterparts, we find that the nanowire-based DSSCs suffer more severe electron recombination from ITO due to the much higher surface area exposed to the electrolyte. While the insertion of a high band gap compact layer of HfO2 between the interface of the conductive nanowire and TiO2 shell improves performance, a comparison of the cell performance between TiO2 and HfO2 compact layers indicates that charge collection is suppressed by the difference in energy states. Consequently, the use of high band gap materials at the interface of conductive nanowires and TiO2 is not recommended. PMID:26010178

  18. All-metal-electrode-type dye sensitized solar cells (transparent conductive oxide-less dye sensitized solar cell) consisting of thick and porous Ti electrode with straight pores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohei Kashiwa; Yorikazu Yoshida; Shuzi Hayase

    2008-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer-less dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are reported. The cell is composed of a glass substrate, TiO2 porous layer stained with dye molecules, porous Ti electrode, electrolyte, and a Pt sputtered Ti sheet. The cell exhibits an efficiency of 7.43% which was a little less than that of 8.44% for a DSC consisting of a TCO

  19. Optimization of tandem-structured dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Yanagida; Nobuko Onozawa-Komatsuzaki; Mitsuhiko Kurashige; Kazuhiro Sayama; Hideki Sugihara

    2010-01-01

    We optimized tandem-structured dye-sensitized solar cells (T-DSSCs) that consist of a N719-sensitized UV–visible-responsive top cell and a black dye-sensitized near-infrared-responsive bottom cell. The relationship between the thickness (dT) of TiO2 film in the top cell and the performance of T-DSSC was examined both for parallel and series T-DSSCs. The optimized parallel T-DSSC gave the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (?) of 10.6%

  20. Efficient Cosensitization Strategy for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, Daniele; Capogna, Vincenzo; Lembo, Angelo; Brown, Thomas M.; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2012-02-01

    The challenge of increasing the photocurrent of a dye solar cell device by acting on the spectral response is approached herein. Cosensitization of nanocrystalline titania photoanodes by using two complementary dyes is investigated considering the dyeing time as an additional parameter for the optimization of the cosensitization process. We find that the characteristics of the cosensitized cell can outperform those of the cells made with each single dye. This effect is related to the reduction of the molecular stacking of one of the dyes, which quenches electron transfer to TiO2. Cosensitization results are also related to the cell transparency.